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A cumulative compound motor has a definite no load speed and so it does not "run away"like

series motor when load is removed.It also developed a high starting torque when load is
increased. This makes it suitable for such applications like rolling mills, shears and punching
presses. It is also a preferred motor for application of such as cranes and elevators that requires
(a) high starting torque, (2) are prone to sudden load change and (c) present a possibility of going
from no load to full load.
Analysis and Design of the compound motor for EV :
General characterization of the motor :
Ia =

Field Current IF =

..........(2.2)

where, V = Supply Voltage


EB = Back EMF
RTotal = Total Resistance of the armature circuit = Ra+Rse
Ra = Resistance of the armature
Rse = Resistance of the series winding
RF = Resistance of the field winding.
EB = KB = V -IaRT........(2.3)
where = Total Flux = se+sh
se = Flux produced from Series field (Wb)=
sh = Flux produced from Shunt field (Wb)=
= Angular velocity (rad/sec) =

; N = R.P.M of the motor

KB = Back EMF Constant


From Eq. (2.3)
(

This Eq. (2.4) is known as Speed-Current characteristic of the motor.

Again, Torque developed by the motor is given by,


(

where, KT = Torque Constant


Now,
(

This Eq. (2.6) is known as Torque-Current Characteristic of the motor.


Eq. (2.6) can re-written in the form,
(
where,

and

Now, from Eq. (2.7), expression for the current can found in terms of developed torque as,

(
Putting the value of

in Eq. (2.4),

where,
and
. Here Negative sign is discarded as current cannot be
negative during motor mode operation.

By simple manipulation and rearranging, this equation can be written as,

This Eq. (2.9) is known as Torque-Speed characteristic of the motor.


Specification and Designing of the motor :
The specification of motor is as follows :
Voltage, V = 60V, Ia(rated) = 40A , IF = 5A, Total Current, ITotal = 40+5=45A
Total armature Resistance, Rtotal = Rse+Ra = 0.15; Field Resistance, RF = 12
Rated power, P
No load Speed of the motor, NNL = 1800 RPM
No load angular velocity, NL = 188.4 rad/sec
To overcome the maximum torque offered by the load (i.e. the vehicle itself) the motor must be
capable of developing a torque of 65Nm at rated condition. This particular value of torque will
be obtained when the traction load characteristic was analyzed (discussed in detail in chapter 3).
So, the rated torque of the motor should be 65N.m and must be developed at rated power. So, we
know,
P= Torque x Angular velocity = T
so, rated =

= 38.1 rad/sec

This primarily calculated value will be used to design and calculate different parameters of the
motor.Now, from Eq. (2.3)

From Eq. (2.5)


(

Dividing Eq. (2.11) by (2.10),

Rewriting Eq. (2.10) and (2.11),


(

)
(

Putting the the value of

from Eq.(2.12)into Eq.(2.14),


(

Let us assume 70% of the total flux is provided by the series field and 30% of the flux are
provided by the shunt field. So, we can write,

Similarly,

Dividing Eq. (2.16) by Eq. (2.17),

Let,
So,
Now from Eq. (2.13),
(

And from Eq. (2.12),

Other constants can now be calculated as,

Mathematical Model and Transfer Function of Compound Motor :


From Fig. () the following set of Equations can be written;
(

(
(

where,

)
(

)
(

Inductance of Armature+Inductance of Series field=Total Inductance

Inductance of Field winding

Resistance of Field Winding.

is the torque required to drive the load then, then the developed torque balance equation can
be written as;


where,

Moment of Inertia of the Load (N.m-S2/rad)


= Viscous friction constant (N.m/rad/s)

Using Eq. (2.19) to Eq. (2.24) the electromechanical model of the motor can be obtained. But
due to the product of variable type non-linearities present in Eq. (2.23), it is not possible to
obtain a transfer function of this model. However, these equations can be linearized by
considering a small perturbation at the operating point. Before deriving the linearized transfer
fuction, let us develop a complete block diagram of the motor considering the non-linearities
which is shown in Fig. ().

Assuming the field current is constant, this block diagram can be further simplified into the
following based on Eq. (2.4) and Eq. (2.6).

Linearized transfer function and its block diagram representation :


All the system parameters can be defined around their operating point as follows;

The

following

basic

equations

will

be

needed

to

describe

and

represent

the

electromechanical system of compound motor along with its load.

and (

Recognizing that,

)2 are very small and hence tending to zero, all

the above Equations can be linearized to;


(
(

( )

)
)

)
(

(
)

(
(

These five equations are sufficient to establish the block diagram of a DC Compound
motor drive as shown in Figure. ().

A further simplification in the block diagram can be possible by rearraging the blocks
as shown in the following Figure. ().

After using the block diagram simplification technique, the final linearized transfer
function of the motor is obtained as,

( )

(
(

)(

)
)(

where;
(

which can be re-written in the generalized form as;


( )
where,
(

)
(
(

The step by step block diagram reduction technique to obtain the transfer function is
given in Appendix ().

Calculation of Output Parameters :


Maximum Allowable Armature current is twice than its rated value i.e. (40x2=80A). For current
control/limiting purpose, hysteresis controller is used and as the current will switch between two
certain limits of upper and lower level of current defined by the hysteresis controller, it is a good
approximation to consider the starting current as 1.6 times the rated current. As a result the

starting torque of the motor will be around 1.5 times to its rated value. Using Eq. (2.5) the
starting torque of the machine can be calculted as(

where,

Maximum power consumed during starting,


(

During No load condition, NNL= 1800 rpm, NL= 188.4 rad/sec

rated =

38.46 rad/sec; Nrated = 9.55X38.46= 367.3 rpm