You are on page 1of 12

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to

microbiologically induced corrosion


S. S. Al-Jaroudi*1, A. Ul-Hamid2 and M. M. Al-Gahtani1

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

A 25?5 km long and 28 in. diameter underground pipeline used for transporting wet sour Arab Light
grade crude oil failed after 3 years of service. The pipeline was operated at 40% of permissible flow
velocity and capacity and protected under a corrosion inhibitor programme. The failure occurred
due to corrosion of the lower surface of the pipeline resulting in pinholes within a period of one month.
Eight corrosion damaged areas were detected over the entire length of the pipeline. Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection and close potential surveys were conducted on the failed pipeline. Various
sections of the corrosion products were metallurgically evaluated using scanning electron
microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion product was
identified using photometric and potentiometric analysis combined with X-ray diffraction. Crude oil
and water samples obtained from the pipeline were also analysed. The material of the pipeline was
identified as AISI grade C1018. Ultrasound testing revealed localised pitting at failed locations, while
close potential surveys ruled out external corrosion. Experimental results indicated that the failure
was caused by extensive microbiologically induced corrosion at the internal surface of the pipeline.
Sulphate reducing bacteria present in the crude oil, along with below standard flow velocity of the
latter, is thought to be responsible for the observed microbiologically induced corrosion.
Replacement with a 20 in. diameter pipeline was suggested as a permanent solution to the
corrosion problem, whereas a number of short-term measures were also recommended.
Keywords: MIC, SRB, Corrosion, Pipeline, Sour, Crude

Introduction
Crude oil pipelines form a wide transportation network
that transfers the crude oil from one facility to another for
treatment. Damage induced by pipeline corrosion disrupts
the transport process, adds to direct cost and can also
result in unfavourable events, such as fires and explosions
that disturb the environments ecology. For these reasons,
it is essential to prevent, identify and remedy corrosion
related failures of transmission crude oil pipelines.
Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) refers
to corrosion caused by biological organisms. Micro
biologically induced corrosion can occur in any aqueous
environment and is a common problem in oil and gas
industry facilities due to the omnipresent nature of
microbes and corrosive by-products in the pipelines. The
sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) present in the crude oil
form a specialised group of microbes that use sulphate as
the electron acceptor for their respiration and generate H2S
as a terminal product.1 The ubiquity of these bacteria leads
to a variety of imposing industrial, economic and
ecological effects due to their ability to generate large

quantities of H2S. Corrosion of industrial equipment has


been ascribed to MIC in several studies.2,3 Sulphate
reducing bacteria are the main cause of MIC, which
results in increased corrosion rate, pitting and stress
corrosion cracking.48 Furthermore, SRB promote corrosion by hydrogen utilisation and catholic depolarisation on
metal surfaces. In addition, they produce H2S, which
directly attacks the surface.914 More than 77% of the
corrosion in the oil producing wells in the USA is induced
by SRB.15 The mechanism of corrosion induced by SRB
has been heavily investigated.5,1626
The mechanisms of metal corrosion in the presence of
SRB are complex. In an anaerobic environment, SRB
uses sulphate as the electron acceptor and reduces it to a
sulphide. The following reactions may occur during this
process18
Anodic reaction
Water dissociation
Cathodic reaction

4Fe?4Fe2z z8e{
8H2 O?8Hz z8OH{
8Hz z8e{ ?8Hads

Bacterial consumption
Corrosion products

2{
z4H2 O
SO2{
4 z8H?S
2
2z
Fe zS {?FeS

Saudi Aramco, Tanajib Lab, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia


Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King
Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Overall reaction

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

3Fe(OH)2 zFeSz2OH{

This overall process is described as cathodic depolarisation.

*Corresponding author, email said.jaroudi@aramco.com

568

4FezSO2{
4 z4H2 O?

2011

VOL

46

NO

2011 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining


Published by Maney on behalf of the Institute
Received 8 September 2009; accepted 20 January 2010
DOI 10.1179/147842210X12695149033819

Al-Jaroudi et al.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Based on this theory, SRB consume the atomic hydrogen


accumulated at the cathode by a hydrogenase enzyme. It
has been suggested that the corrosion rates increase due
to the cathodic reduction of H2S
H2 Sz2e{ ?H2 zS2{
and the anodic reaction is accelerated by the formation of
iron sulphide27,28

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

FezS2{ ?FeSz2e{
The presence of micro-organisms on a metal surface
often leads to highly localised changes in the concentration of the electrolyte constituents, pH and oxygen
concentration and can result in localised corrosion,
depending on the passive film formation and repairing
capabilities of the underlying alloy.2935 Sulphate
reducing bacteria are very important micro-organisms
from environmental and industrial standpoints. The
anaerobic corrosion of metals is enhanced by the
activities of SRB and is a universal industrial problem
where aqueous process fluids contact equipment.
Corrosion of steel by SRB has been known for many
years, and various mechanisms have been postulated.
The ratio of corroded Fe/iron sulphide is found to vary
from 0?1 : 1 to almost 50 : 1.36 The anaerobic corrosion
of Fe due to SRB is characterised by a coating on the
metal surface consisting of black compounds containing corrosion products. The nature of this black
corrosion product appears to be most important in
determining the corrosion mechanism.37
In the present study, the crude oil pipeline was
designed for 322 thousand barrels per day (Tbpd)
with a flow velocity of 1?58 m s1. In practice, the
pipeline was operated at a low flow velocity of 0?54
0?69 m s1, which is below the minimum velocity
required as per its design specifications for production
rate ranges between 110 to 140 Tbpd, which is
approximately 3545% of the expected production
rate. The pipeline had been monitored under corrosion inhibitor programme using Cortron AR505. The
chemical composition of the corrosion inhibitor is
listed in Table 1. The injection rate of corrosion
inhibitor used for crude oil at the leading end of the
pipeline was set during the start-up of the facility at
5% water cut and 21 ppm by volume treatment rate.
The required injection rate since the plant start-up
varied between 19?7 and 29?6 L/day, based on a crude
production rate of 100150 Tbpd. Actual consumption rate during service varied from 7?2 to 30. This
paper states the pipeline history and inspection
outlines, identifies the cause of failure and provides

1 Optical picture showing contamination of typical sample with crude oil

recommendations to prevent future failure along with


a mitigation strategy.

Experimental
Close interval potential survey, instrument scraping and
manual ultrasonic scan were applied to the failed
pipeline to investigate the possible causes of the
pipelines corrosion damaged area. Various chemical
analyses were undertaken for the sour crude and its
formation water. Corrosion products were washed with
toluene at ambient temperature and then petroleum
ether to remove the adhered crude oil. The samples were
dried at room temperature under nitrogen gas at
atmospheric pressure. For cross-section analysis, a
sample was polished with Cooper Nicholson round
handle needle file 5 K9. A scanning electron microscope
(model JEOL JSM-6490LA) attached with an energy
dispersive X-ray spectrometer (model JEOL EX-54165
JMU) was used to metallurgically evaluate various
sections of failed pipeline for corrosion products.
Imaging was performed in secondary electron imaging
mode at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV.
A portion of the dried sample was ground to a powder
and analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine
its chemical composition. The identification of the
crystalline phases was achieved using X-Pert
HighScore Plus programme. The semiquantification of
XRD data was done using the Rietveld method. A
further dried portion was digested in HCl. On the acid
digest portion, a photometric technique was used to
determine the sulphate content. Further portions of the

Table 1 Chemical composition of water base corrosion inhibitor


Ingredient

Amount, wt-%

Fatty acid, tall oil, polymers, ethoxylated


Alkyl pyridine benzyl chloride quaternary
Nonylphenol, branched, ethoxylated
2-Ethylhexanol, ethoxylated, phosphated potassium salt
Phosphate ester
Amines, tallow alkyl, ethoxylated
Methanol
Cocobenzyldimethylammonium chloride
Ethanediol

110
110
110
110
110
110
110
,1
,1

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

NO

569

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

2 (a, b) Backscattered electron SEM image showing the morphology of the outer surface of the corrosion deposit formed
at the inner surface of the pipeline. (c) Corresponding EDX spectrum showing predominance of iron and sulfur within
the corrosion product

deposits were analysed for carbonate by a coulometric


method and for sulphide by a potentiometric method.

Results and discussion


Visual inspection
The optical macrograph in Fig. 1 shows a corrosion
deposit sample covered with crude oil.

Microstructural characterisation
Typical morphology of the outer surface of the corrosion
deposit scraped from the internal surface of the failed
pipeline is shown at low magnifications in Fig. 2a and b.
The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum
(Fig. 2c) obtained from this corrosion product showed
a predominant presence of Fe and S. The same location is
shown at a slightly higher magnification in Fig. 3a and b

570

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

where a crystal of iron sulphide is visible. The EDS


spectrum acquired from the crystal showing high Fe and
S contents is also shown in Fig. 3c. Microbiologically
induced corrosion activity often causes the formation of
biofilms, iron sulphide precipitation and cavity generation at the Fe and steel surfaces.38,39 Furthermore, the
SEM image in Fig. 4a shows a relatively fine spherical
structure of iron sulphide formed due to bacterial
metabolism and associated with severe corrosion.40 The
EDS spectrum in Fig. 4b indicates predominant presence
of Fe and S. In addition, Fig. 5a and b shows flaky
deposits that formed part of the corrosion deposit. Their
EDS in Fig. 5c indicates high counts of oxygen along
with Fe and S. This confirms the presence of iron oxide in
the corrosion product.41
Elemental distribution of C, O, S and Fe was obtained
in a typical cross-section of corrosion deposit using X-ray

NO

Al-Jaroudi et al.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

3 (a, b) Backscatter electron SEM image of the outer surface layer of the corrosion deposit showing iron sulde crystal
inside a cavity. (c) Corresponding EDX spectrum obtained from the crystal showing high Fe and S concentration

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

NO

571

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

4 (a) Backscattered SEM image of the outer surface of the deposit showing spherical morphology of iron sulde. (b)
Corresponding EDS spectrum obtained from the region shown in (a)

mapping. This allowed a better understanding of the


distinctive features of the corrosion product formed with
time. Figure 6 shows cross-section micrograph along with
its X-ray mapping of the deposits. The internal part of the
layer seems to be denser and more compact, and mapping
data show enrichment in Fe and S. The EDS analysis
obtained from this region also depicted high counts of S
and Fe suggesting that inner layer is primarily composed
of iron sulphide. Extensive EDS analysis of the corrosion

572

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

product has shown iron sulphide as the major constituent


of the corrosion deposit, with iron oxide and other scale
products as minor phases.
The inner layer of the corroded surfaces had pyrite
aggregates, as depicted in Fig. 7a. The EDS spectrum in
Fig 7b, taken from one of these aggregates, showed
high counts of sulphur with relatively low counts of Fe.
This confirms the presence of pyrite within the
corrosion product formed closer to the pipelines inner

NO

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

5 (a, b) Backscattered SEM image of the outer surface of the deposit showing aky structure. (c) EDS spectrum
obtained from the akes show relatively high O peak along with predominant Fe and S

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

NO

573

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

6 Backscattered and X-ray mapping images for C, O, Fe and S taken from cross-section of corrosion deposit: inner surface shows enrichment in Fe and S

surface. In addition, Fig. 8 shows the presence of a


network of pyrite as has been reported in other
studies.42 Presence of the pyrite aggregates in the inner
layer might resemble pyritic pseudomorphs of microorganisms.43 Pyrite, in the presence of SRB, is
considered the end product where iron monosulphides,
such as mackinawite and greigite, are transformed into
disulphides.42

Close interval potential survey


The close potential survey for failed pipeline was
conducted, and the potential on the line was found to
be between 1242 and 2000 mV, which exceeds the
minimum 1100 mV potential required. The Close

574

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

Interval Potential Survey results indicated that the


external surfaces of the pipeline were well protected.
Thus, external corrosion was ruled out as a possible
cause of the corrosion damaged areas.

Manual ultrasound inspections


Initially, ultrasound scan inspection was conducted at
the first three damaged locations and revealed localised
corrosion pitting at the 6 oclock position. Furthermore,
10 locations from the base run were selected to be
excavated to measure the influence of corrosion. The
analysis results indicated pitting and corrosion at
localised regions where the damage had occurred.

NO

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

7 (a) Backscattered SEM image of the inner surface of corrosion deposit illustrating the morphology of pyrite aggregate.
(b) EDS spectrum obtained from pyrite aggregate in Fig. 7a

Instrument scraping findings


Instrument scraping run was undertaken to deliver a
comprehensive and detailed assessment. The results
of test runs undertaken after 1 and 3 years of pipeline
service are shown in Table 2. All metal loss is due to
internal corrosion. The reported internal corrosion
magnitude after 1 year is negligible compared to that
of 3 years into service. Thus, the severe internal
corrosion detected within the pipeline occurred

Table 2 Instrument scraping test results


Metal loss, %

1 year into service

3 years into service

.60
4160
Total

0
0
0

16
53
69

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

NO

575

Al-Jaroudi et al.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

Photometric and potentiometric analysis of


corrosion products
A weighed portion of the deposits was digested in mixed
acids using a microwave digestion technique. The resulting
solution was then filtered to remove any acid insoluble
material, which was determined gravimetrically. The results
indicated that 0?41% was insoluble in normal mineral
acids. The material insoluble in acid is believed to be silica
(sand). The acid soluble portion of the sample was
analysed for sulphate using a photometric technique and
for both carbonate and sulphide by coulometric and
potentiometric techniques respectively. The results indicate
that the sample contained 30?2% sulphide but no sulphate
or carbonate. The results indicate the presence of iron
sulphide compounds as major phases.
8 Backscattered SEM image of inner surface of corrosion
deposit showing pyrite network structure

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

within the last 2 years of service. Immediate repairs


of these damaged regions were undertaken.

Crude samples analysis


The analysis results of crude oil samples collected from
both ends of the failed pipeline are shown in Table 3.

Water samples analysis


Water samples collected from the failed pipeline during
scraping were analysed. The analysis results are shown
in Table 4. Low pH of water sample with high level of
chloride and sulphide renders the media highly corrosive
causing pitting in carbon steel, especially if the internal
surface of the line is not protected with the corrosion
inhibitor due to its insufficient injection rate. This
generates the possibility of having direct chemical
conversion of the H2S, originally present in the crude
oil, to corrosion products besides the microbial corrosion. On the other hand, the counts per millilitre of
general aerobic bacteria of the sample were determined
to be 100, which is considered a low value, and its
presence is insignificant.
Table 3 Crude analysis results of failed pipeline
Sample location

Parameter
Hydrogen sulphide
(H2S), ppm
BS&W*, %
Sulphate reducing
bacteria, colonies cc21

Start of
pipeline

End of
pipeline

2982

1606

16.1
100

2.2
2.56103

*Basic Sediment and Water.

Table 4 Analysis results of water


during pipeline scraping

576

sample

Parameter

Result

Total dissolved solids


General aerobic bacteria
Residual corrosion inhibitor
H2S
pH

188 600 mg L21


100 counts mL21
156 mg L21
659 mg L21
5.56

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

collected

VOL

46

X-ray diffraction analysis of corrosion products


X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases present
in the corrosion products, as shown in Fig. 9. The
relative approximate values, normalised to 100%, are
listed in Table 5. The results show that the sample
consists of corrosion products of iron sulphides [greigite
(Fe3S4), mackinawite (FeS), pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) and
pyrite (FeS2)] and iron oxides {magnetite (Fe3O4) and
lepidocrocite [FeO(OH)]}.
X-ray diffraction analysis of the carbon steel corrosion
products showed the presence of significant amounts of
greigite (Fe3S4) and mackinawite (FeS). These compounds are characteristic of MIC, and they are
considered as fingerprints for corrosion induced by
SRB.4447 Furthermore, research has suggested that
greigite and mackinawite are indicator products of
MIC activity.48 Furthermore, greigite and mackinawite
are very common metastable iron sulphide produced by
biologically induced mineralisation. They are considered
as precursors in the formation of pyrite in highly
reducing environments through a series of solid state
transformations.49,50 Greigite causes the bacteria to be
oriented in magnetic fields. In the presence of these
magnetotactic bacteria, it forms from non-magnetic
mackinawite (tetragonal FeS) and possibly from cubic
FeS. These precursors apparently transform into greigite
by rearrangement of Fe atoms over time.51 The high
content of iron sulphide compounds in the corrosion
products was verified by the determination of the total
sulphide in the corrosion products, which was 30?2 wt-%.
From literature, it is well known that the initial
corrosion product formed is mackinawite film FeS, an
Fe-rich iron sulphide that forms a poorly protective
layer on the metal surface.52 The latter then gets
converted to Fe3S4 when Fe II concentration is low,
which supports the presence of the formation of the
biofilm, and finally to FeS2. The magnetite Fe3O4 forms

Table 5 Crystalline phase constitution


products using XRD

of

Compound

Amount, wt-%

Greigite (Fe3S4)
Mackinawite (FeS)
Pyrrhotite (Fe7S8)
Pyrite (FeS2)
Magnetite (Fe3O4)
Lepidocrocite [FeO(OH)]

44
15
7
2
28
4

NO

corrosion

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

(a)

(b)
9 a X-ray diffraction pattern obtained from corrosion product of pipeline and b standard XRD patterns of identied compounds in corrosion product

as a result of oxidation of the FeS2 in the presence of


moisture. It has been reported that the corrosion rate of
mild steel in the presence of iron sulphide increases with
iron sulphide concentration.53
Mackinawite FeS formed by reaction of HS ions with
either Fe metal of Fe2z (Ref. 54)
HS{ zFe?FeSz1 =2 H2
The reaction describing greigite formation from mackinawite via Fe loss can be written as55
FeSzHS{ z1 =2 O2 zHz ?Fe3 S4 zH2 O
Transformation from greigite to pyrite can be expressed
in terms of Fe loss56
Fe3 S4 z2Hz ?2FeS2 zFe2z zH2

Pyrite can be oxidised to form magnetite57


2FeS2 z2O2 ?Fe3 O4 z3S2

Mode of failure
The morphology and phase constitution of corrosion
products as determined by XRD and SEM respectively
clearly showed the evidence for MIC within the failed
pipeline. The MIC was responsible for severe corrosion
inside the pipeline resulting in pinhole damage. The
cause of MIC is the presence of the SRB microorganisms. The presence of iron oxide in the form of
high oxidation state of Fe [Fe3O4 and FeO(OH)] and
high corrosivity of the water associated with crude oil
indicates chemical corrosion, where the source may be

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

NO

577

Al-Jaroudi et al.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

the producing wells. Analysis of the corrosion product


supported MIC as being the predominant corrosion
mechanism.

Cause of failure

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

The main contributing factor to the high internal


corrosion rate is the low flow velocity within failed
pipeline. Excessive amount of water drops out due to the
prevailing low flow velocity, which is below the specified
engineering design. Under the low flow and high water
cut conditions, the wet/sour service and bacteria
corrosion activities become severe. For instance, the
corrosion rate of steel in brine aqueous solution
saturated with H2S had been reported as an average
from 2?5 to 4?5 mm/year.58 Furthermore, it was found
that the corrosion rate of steel in the sea mud with SRB
could be as high as 10 times of that in the sea mud
without SRB.59 No practical amount of on-stream
scraping frequency will remove the water fast enough
in the pipeline (i.e. water will immediately drop out right
behind the on-stream scraper to fill the line again). The
main internal corrosion mitigation approach to the
pipeline internal corrosion problem is to increase its
prevailing low flow velocity.

Conclusion

Acknowledgements
The authors wish to acknowledge the support of Saudi
Aramco, Saudi Arabia. The second author appreciates
the support extended by the Center of Research
Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King
Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

References

Based upon the results obtained, it could be concluded


that the crude oil pipeline failed due to a combination of
MIC and chemical corrosion, the former corrosion type
being the predominant contributor. Sulphate reducing
bacteria is responsible for MIC, which becomes severe in
the presence of low flow and high water cut conditions
that prevailed in the pipeline.

578

efficiency of cleaning may be realised by sending


a second scraper through the line several hours
after the first scraper has left the line. In this
manner, the second scraper may benefit from any
potential surfactant qualities of the biocide
enhanced corrosion inhibitor.
10. Increase the current injection dosage of the corrosion inhibiter to maintain a high degree of pipeline
protection in the presence of high corrosive media.
11. Avoid, eliminate or chemically treat areas that hold
water and microbes such as dead legs, tow flow
areas and storage to mitigate the effects of MIC
and other forms of corrosion.
12. Monitor the level of the corrosive species such as
sulphide, chloride and acidity in the water associated with the crude to prevent any potential for
corrosion.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Recommendations

7.

As a permanent solution to the low flow velocity and


high water cut, replacement with a new 20 in. diameter
pipeline was recommended. In the meantime, various
short term measures were suggested to mitigate the
internal corrosion progress within the existing pipeline,
as listed below.
1. Maintain maximum sustainable flow rate in the
pipeline.
2. Ensure continuous operation of corrosion monitoring system.
3. Utilise brush scrapers during the on-stream weekly
scraping.
4. Increase the corrosion inhibitor concentration with
a biocide enhanced inhibitor.
5. Install corrosion coupon to measure sessile SRB
activities.
6. Install corrosion monitoring system to monitor the
corrosion rate.
7. Conduct an instrument scraping run after six
months to measure the effectiveness of the
addressed recommendations which are being proposed.
8. Inspect the pipeline lateral lines and other nonscrapable piping by ultrasound scanning to evaluate their integrity.
9. Perform the pipeline batch treatment in conjunction with routine scraping operations. Chemical
injection can be set to the pump maximum as the
scraper is being readied for launch. Increased

8.

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

NO

J. R. Postgate: Am. Soc. Microbiol., 1965, 29, 425.


W. A. Hamilton: Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 1985, 39, 195.
W. A. Hamilton: Biodegradation, 1998, 9, 201.
M. Magot, G. Ravot, X. Campaignolle, B. Ollivier, B. K. C. Patel,
M.-L. Fardeau, P. Thomas, J.-L. Crolet and J.-L. Garcia: Int. J.
Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 818.
J.-L. Crolet and M. Magot: Mater. Perform., 1996, 3, 60.
J. J. Santana Rodr`guez, F. J. Santana Hernandez and J. E.
Gonzalez Gonzalez: Corros. Sci., 2006, 48, 1265.
S. S. Abedi, A. Abdolmaleki and N. Adibi: Eng. Fail. Anal., 2007,
14, 250.
R. Javaherdashti, R. K. Singh Raman, C. Panter and E. V.
Pereloma: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 2006, 58, 27.
M. J. McInerney and K. L. Sublette: Manual of environmental
microbiology, 600607; 1997, Washington, DC, American Society
of Microbiology.
A. Hardy: Br. Corros. J., 1983, 18, 190.
G. H. Booth and A. K. Tiller: Corros. Sci., 1968, 8, 583.
F. van Ommen Kloeke, R. D. Bryant and E. J. Laishley: Anaerobe,
1995, 1, 351.
S. da Silva, R. Basseguy and A. Bergel: J. Electroanal. Chem., 2004,
561, 93.
H. T. Dinh, J. Kuever, M. Mussmann, A. W. Hassel, M.
Stratmann and F. Widdel: Nature, 2004, 427, 829.
W. P. Iverson: Adv. Corros. Sci. Technol., 1972, 2, 1.
F. G. Ferris, T. R. Jack and B. J. Bramhill: Can. J. Microbiol.,
1992, 38, 1320.
W. Lee and W. G. Characklis: Corrosion, 1993, 49, 186.
C. A. H. von Wolzogen Kuhr and L. S. van der Vlugt: Water, 1934,
18, 147.
R. D. Brvant, W. Jansen, J. Boivin, E. J. Laishley and J. W.
Costerton: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1991, 57, 2804.
R. Cord-Ruwisch and F. Widdel: Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.,
1986, 25, 169.
I. P. Pankhania: Biofouling, 1988, 1, 27.
S. Daumas, Y. Massiani and J. Crousier: Corros. Sci., 1988, 28,
1041.
V. W. Kuehr and V. Vlugt: Water, 1934, 18, 147.
R. A. King, J. D. Miller and D. S. Wakerley: Br. Corros. J., 1973,
8, 89.
J. S. Benedetto, S. K. de Almeida, H. A. Gomes, R. F. Vazoller and
A. C. Q. Ladeira: Miner. Eng., 2005, 18, 1341.
C. Garcia, D. A. Moreno, A. Ballester, M. L. Blazquez and F.
Gonzalez: Miner. Eng., 2001, 14, 997.
C. A. H. von Wolzogen Kuhr and L. S. van der Vlugt: Water, 1934,
18, 147.

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Al-Jaroudi et al.

28. B. Little, P. Wagner and F. Mansfeld: Electrochim. Acta, 1992, 37,


2185.
29. S. G. Gomez de Saravia, M. F. L. de Mele and H. A. Videla:
Interaction of biofilms and inorganic passive layers in the
corrosion of Cu/Ni alloys in chloride environments, Corrosion,
1990, 46, 302306.
30. J. D. Gu, R. Monsi, E. Thomas and R. Mitchell: The role of
microbial biofilms in deterioration of space station candidate
materials, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 1998, 41, 2533.
31. Z. Lewandowski, W. Dickinson and W. Lee: Electrochemical
interactions of biofilms with metal surfaces, Water Sci. Technol.,
1997, 36, 295302.
32. J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber
and H. M. Lappin-Scott: Microbial biofilms, Ann. Rev.
Microbiol., 1995, 49, 711.
33. S. M. Gerchakov, B. J. Little and P. Wagner: Probing
microbiologically induced corrosion, Corrosion, 1986, 42, 689692.
34. V. Scotto, R. di Cintio and G. Marcenaro: Influence of marine
aerobic microbial film on stainless steel corrosion behaviour,
Corros. Sci., 1985, 25, 185194.
35. S. C. Dexter, D. J. Duquette, O. W. Siebert and H. A. Videla: Use
and limitations of electrochemical techniques for investigating
microbiological corrosion, Corrosion, 1991, 47, 308318.
36. A. K. Tiller: Aspects of microbial corrosion, in Corrosion
process, (ed. R. N. Pariuns), 115; 1982, New York, NY, Applied
Science Publication.
37. A. A. Olowe, P. Bauer and J. Oufzennec: Corrosion, 1989, 45, (3),
229.
38. A. M. Olszewski: J. Fail. Anal. Prev., 2007, 7, 239246.
39. A. M. El-Shamy T. Y. Soror, H. A. El-Dahan, E. A. Ghazy and
A. F. Eweas: Mater. Chem. Phys., 2009, 114, 156159.
40. L. G. Steve, J. R. Timothy and L. B. Larry: Microsc. Res. Tech.,
1993, 25, 429433.
41. A. Ul-Hamid and H. M. Tawancy: Eng. Fail. Anal., 2009, 16, 825832.

Failure of crude oil pipeline due to MIC

42. L. Ya. Kizilshtein: Lithol. Min. Res., 2006, 41, (6), 570575.
43. L. Ya. Kizilshtein: Aleksandrov: Vseross. Nauchn. Inst. Iskustv.
Soedin. Miner. Syrya, 1999, 241251.
44. R. A. King, C. K. Dfithier and T. D. A. Miller: Br. Corros. J., 1976, 11, 105.
45. D. T. Richard: Stockholm Contr. Geol., 1969, 20, 49.
46. R. A. Berner: J. Geol., 1964, 72, 293.
47. D. D. Mara, D. J. A. Williams: Biodeterioration materials, 103;
1972, Berkeley, CA, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
48. D. H. Pope: State-of-art report on monitoring, prevention and
mitigation of microbiology influenced corrosion in the natural gas
industry, Topical Report, Report GRI-92/0382, Gas Research
Institute, Chicago, IL, USA, 1992.
49. S. D. Machemer, J. S. Reynolds, S. L. Laudon and T. R.
Wildeman: Appl. Geochem., 1993, 8, 587603,
50. M. Posfai, K. Cziner, E. Marton, P. Marton, P. R. Buseck, R. B.
Frankel and D. A. ABazylinski: Eur. J. Mineral., 2001, 13, 691703.
51. M. Posfai, P. R. Buseck, D. A. Bazylinski and R. B. Frankel:
Science, 1998, 280, (5365), 880883.
52. W. A. Hamilton: Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 1985, 39, 195.
53. W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen and W. A. Hamilton:
Biofouling, 1995, 8, 165.
54. A. R. Lennie, S. A. T. Redfern, P. E. Champness, C. P. Stoddart,
P. F. Schofield and D. I. Vaughan: Am. Mineral., 1997, 82, 302
309.
55. R. A. Berner: Am. J. Sci., 1970, 268, 123.
56. Furukawa Y. and Barnes H. L.: Geochemical transformations of
sedimentary sulfur, 194205; 1995, Washington, DC, American
Chemical Society.
57. D. Suk, D. R. Peacor and R. van der Voo: Nature, 1990, 345, 611613.
58. C. Avendano-Castro, R. Galvan-Martinez, A. Contreras, M.
Salazar, R. Orozco-Cruz, E. Martinez and R. Torres-Sanchez:
Corros. Eng. Sci. Technol., 2009, 44, (2), 149156.
59. Y. Zhu, Y. Huang, C. Zheng and Q. Yu: Mater. Corros., 2007, 58,
(6), 447451.

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology

2011

VOL

46

NO

579