You are on page 1of 11

A cumulative compound motor has a definite no load speed and so it does not "run away"like

series motor when load is removed.It also developed a high starting torque when load is
increased. This makes it suitable for such applications like rolling mills, shears and punching
presses. It is also a preferred motor for application of such as cranes and elevators that requires
(a) high starting torque, (2) are prone to sudden load change and (c) present a possibility of going
from no load to full load.
2.2 CHARACTERIZATION AND CONFIGURATION OF THE COMPOUND MOTOR
General characterization of the motor :
=

Field Current, =


+

R Total

where, V = Supply Voltage

(2.1)
(2.2)

EB = Back EMF
RTotal = Total Resistance of the armature circuit = Ra+Rse
Ra = Resistance of the armature
Rse = Resistance of the series winding
RF = Resistance of the field winding.

where = Total Flux = se+sh

= =

(2.3)

se = Flux produced from Series field (Wb)= K se Ia

sh = Flux produced from Shunt field (Wb)= K sh IF


22

= Angular velocity (rad/sec) =


N = R.P.M of the motor

2
60

KB = Back EMF Constant


From Eq. (2.3)
=

V Ia R T
V Ia R T
V Ia R T
=
=
KB
K B se + sh K B K sh IF + K B K se Ia

(2.4)

This Eq. (2.4) is known as Speed-Current characteristic of the motor.


Again, Torque developed by the motor is given by,
T = K T Ia

where, KT = Torque Constant

(2.5)

Now,
T = K T Ia = K T se + sh Ia = K T (K sh IF + K se Ia )Ia = K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

This Eq. (2.6) is known as Torque-Current Characteristic of the motor.

(2.6)

Eq. (2.6) can re-written in the form,

where, C1 = K T K sh IF and C2 = K T K se

T = C1 Ia + C2 Ia 2

(2.7)

Now, from Eq. (2.7), expression for the current can found in terms of developed torque as,

Ia =

C1 C1 2 + 4C2 T
2C2

(2.8)

23

Putting the value of Ia in Eq. (2.4),


=

C 1 C 1 2 +4C 2 T
2C 2

K B K sh IF + K B K se
=

C 1 C 1 2 +4C 2 T
2C 2

C 1 +C 1 2 +4C 2 T

K1 + K 2

RT

2C 2

RT

C 1 +C 1 2 +4C 2 T
2C 2

where, K1 = K B K sh IF and K 2 = K B K se . Here Negative sign is discarded as current cannot be


negative during motor mode operation.

By simple manipulation and rearranging, this equation can be written as,

2C2 V + C1 R T R T C1 2 + 4C2 T
2

2C2 K1 K 2 C1 + K 2 C1 + 4C2 T

(2.9)

This Eq. (2.9) is known as Torque-Speed characteristic of the motor.


2.3 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGNING OF THE MOTOR :
The motor considered for traction purpose is shown in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1. Compound Motor Connected in Long Shunt Configuration

24

The specification of motor is as follows :


Voltage, V = 60V, Ia(rated) = 40A , IF = 5A, Total Current, ITotal = 40+5=45A
Total armature Resistance, Rtotal = Rse+Ra = 0.15; Field Resistance, RF = 12
Rated power, P = 2500W

No load Speed of the motor, NNL = 1800 RPM


No load angular velocity, NL = 188.4 rad/sec
To overcome the maximum torque offered by the load (i.e. the vehicle itself) the motor must be
capable of developing a torque of 65Nm at rated condition. This particular value of torque will
be obtained when the traction load characteristic was analyzed (discussed in detail in chapter 3).
So, the rated torque of the motor should be 65N.m and must be developed at rated power. So, we
know,
P= Torque x Angular velocity = T
P

so, rated = T rated =


rated

2500
65

= 38.46 rad/sec

This primarily calculated value will be used to design and calculate different parameters of the
motor.Now, from Eq. (2.3)
= 38.46 =

From Eq. (2.5)

KB =

EB
KB

EB V Ia R T 60 (40 0.15)
=
=
= 1.42

38.1
T = 65 = (K T )40
KT =

65
= 1.625
40

(2.10)

(2.11)

25

Dividing Eq. (2.11) by (2.10),


K T 1.625
=
= 1.1444
1.42
KB
Rewriting Eq. (2.10) and (2.11),

K T = 1.144K B

K B se + K B sh = 1.42

K T se + K T sh = 1.625

Putting the the value of K T from Eq.(2.12)into Eq.(2.14),

1.144K B K se Ia + 1.144K B K sh IF = 1.625

Let us assume 70% of the total flux is provided by the series field and 30% of the flux are

(2.12)
(2.13)

(2.14)

(2.15)

provided by the shunt field. So, we can write,


1.144K B K sh IF = 1.625 0.3 = 0.4875
K B K sh =

Similarly,

0.4875
= 0.0852
1.1444 5

1.144K B K se Ia = 1.625 0.7 = 1.1375

Dividing Eq. (2.16) by Eq. (2.17),

K B K se =

1.1375
= 0.02485
1.1444 40

(2.16)

(2.17)

K B K sh
0.0852
=
= 3.4286
K B K se 0.02485
K sh = 3.4286K se

sh
= 3.4286 se
IF
Ia

26

sh = 3.4286

5
se = 0.4286se
40

sh = 0.4286se

Let, se = 0.01Wb = 10 mWb

(2.18)

So, sh = 0.01 0.4286 = 0.004286Wb = 4.286 mWb


Now from Eq. (2.13),

And from Eq. (2.12),

KB =

K B se + sh = 1.42

1.42
= 99.4 V/rad. Wb
0.01 + 0.004286

K T = 1.144K B = 1.144 99.4 = 113.75 N. m/A. Wb

Other constants can now be calculated as,


K sh =

sh
IF

K se =
2.3

0.004286
= 0.0008572 Wb/A
5

se 0.01
=
= 0.00025 Wb/A
Ia
40

MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND TRANSFER FUNCTION OF COMPOUND MOTOR :

From Figure 2.1 the following set of Equations can be written;


V = LT
V = LF

dia
+ Ia R T + EB
dt

diF
+ IF R F
dt

EB = K B se + sh

(2.19)
(2.20)

(2.21)
27

T = K T Ia = K T se + sh Ia
= K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

(2.22)

(2.23)

where, LT = La + Lse =Inductance of Armature+Inductance of Series field=Total Inductance

LF =Inductance of Field winding; R F =Resistance of Field Winding.

TL is the torque required to drive the load then, then the developed torque balance equation can
be written as;

T=J

d
+ B + TL
dt

where, J = Moment of Inertia of the Load (N.m-S 2/rad)

(2.24)

B = Viscous friction constant (N.m/rad/s)

Using Eq. (2.19) to Eq. (2.24) the electromechanical model of the motor can be obtained. But
due to the product of variable type non-linearities present in Eq. (2.23), it is not possible to
obtain a transfer function of this model. However, these equations can be linearized by
considering a small perturbation at the operating point. Before deriving the linearized transfer
fuction, let us develop a complete block diagram of the motor considering the non-linearities
which is shown in Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2. Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor

28

Assuming the field current is constant, this block diagram can be further simplified into the
following based on Eq. (2.4) and Eq. (2.6).

Figure 2.3. Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor, assuming field
current is constant

2.4

LINEARIZED TRANSFER FUNCTION AND ITS BLOCK DIAGRAM

REPRESENTATION :
All the system parameters can be defined around their operating point as follows;
V = V0 + V;

T = T0 + T;

EB = EB0 + EB ;

Ia = Ia0 + Ia ;

TL = TL0 + TL ; = 0 +

IF = IF0 + IF ;

The following basic equations will be needed to describe and represent the electromechanical
system of compound motor along with its load.
V = LT

dia
+ Ia R T + EB
dt

EB = K B K sh IF + K B K se Ia
V = LF

diF
+ IF R F
dt

29

T = K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2
T=J

d
+ B + TL
dt

Recognizing that, Ia0 and (Ia )2 are very small and hence tending to zero, all the above
Equations can be linearized to;

V = R T Ia + LT

d(Ia )
+ EB
dt

(2.25)

d(IF )
dt

(2.27)

EB = K B K se (Ia0 + Ia 0 ) + K B K sh (IF0 + IF 0 )
V = R F IF + LF

T = 2K T K se Ia0 Ia + K T K sh (IF0 Ia + Ia0 IF )


T = J

d()
+ B() + TL
dt

(2.26)

(2.28)

(2.29)

These five equations are sufficient to establish the block diagram of a DC Compound motor
drive as shown in Figure. 2.4.

Figure 2.4. Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor


30

A further simplification in the block diagram can be possible by rearraging the blocks as shown
in the following Figure. 2.5.

Figure 2.5. Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor assuming field current is constant

After using the block diagram simplification technique, the final linearized transfer function of
the motor is obtained as,
T(s) =
where;

C1 (SLF + R F C2 ) + C3 (SLT + R T + C4 )
(Js + B)(SLF + R F )(SLT + R T + C4 ) + C1 C5

(2.30)

C1 = (2K T K se Ia0 + K T K sh IF0 )


C2 = K B K sh 0

C3 = K T K sh Ia0
C4 = K B K se 0

C5 = (K B K se Ia0 + K B K sh IF0 )
31

which can be re-written in the generalized form as;


T(s) =
where,
b0 =

s + b0
+ a 2 s 2 + a1 s + a 0

R F C1 + R T C3 + C3 C4 C1 C2
LF C1 + LT C3

a0 =

a1 =

s3

BR F R T + BR F C4 + C1 C5
JLF LT

JR F R T + JR F C4 + BLF R T + BLF C4 + BLT R F


JLF LT
a2 =

JLF R T + JLF C4 + JR F LT + BLF LT


JLF LT

(2.31)

(2.32)
(2.33)
(2.34)
(2.35)

2.5 CALCULATION OF OUTPUT PARAMETERS :


Maximum Allowable Armature current is twice than its rated value i.e. (40x2=80A). For current
control/limiting purpose, hysteresis controller is used and as the current will switch between two
certain limits of upper and lower level of current defined by the hysteresis controller, it is a good
approximation to consider the starting current as 1.6 times the rated current. As a result the
starting torque of the motor will be around 1.5 times to its rated value. Using Eq. (2.5) the
starting torque of the machine can be calculted asTstarting = K T Ia(starting ) = 113.75 14.286 103 1.5 40 = 97.5 N. m
where, Ia(starting ) = 1.5 Ia(rated )

Maximum power consumed during starting,


Pmax (starting ) = 60 (1.5 40 + 5) = 3900W

During No load condition, NNL= 1800 rpm, NL= 188.4 rad/sec


P

rated = T rated = K
rated

P rated

T I a (rated )

2500
65

= 38.46 rad/sec; Nrated = 9.55X38.46= 367.3 rpm

32