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series motor when load is removed.It also developed a high starting torque when load is

increased. This makes it suitable for such applications like rolling mills, shears and punching

presses. It is also a preferred motor for application of such as cranes and elevators that requires

(a) high starting torque, (2) are prone to sudden load change and (c) present a possibility of going

from no load to full load.

2.2 CHARACTERIZATION AND CONFIGURATION OF THE COMPOUND MOTOR

General characterization of the motor :

=

Field Current, =

+

R Total

(2.1)

(2.2)

EB = Back EMF

RTotal = Total Resistance of the armature circuit = Ra+Rse

Ra = Resistance of the armature

Rse = Resistance of the series winding

RF = Resistance of the field winding.

= =

(2.3)

22

N = R.P.M of the motor

2

60

From Eq. (2.3)

=

V Ia R T

V Ia R T

V Ia R T

=

=

KB

K B se + sh K B K sh IF + K B K se Ia

(2.4)

Again, Torque developed by the motor is given by,

T = K T Ia

(2.5)

Now,

T = K T Ia = K T se + sh Ia = K T (K sh IF + K se Ia )Ia = K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

(2.6)

where, C1 = K T K sh IF and C2 = K T K se

T = C1 Ia + C2 Ia 2

(2.7)

Now, from Eq. (2.7), expression for the current can found in terms of developed torque as,

Ia =

C1 C1 2 + 4C2 T

2C2

(2.8)

23

=

C 1 C 1 2 +4C 2 T

2C 2

K B K sh IF + K B K se

=

C 1 C 1 2 +4C 2 T

2C 2

C 1 +C 1 2 +4C 2 T

K1 + K 2

RT

2C 2

RT

C 1 +C 1 2 +4C 2 T

2C 2

negative during motor mode operation.

2C2 V + C1 R T R T C1 2 + 4C2 T

2

2C2 K1 K 2 C1 + K 2 C1 + 4C2 T

(2.9)

2.3 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGNING OF THE MOTOR :

The motor considered for traction purpose is shown in Figure 2.1.

24

Voltage, V = 60V, Ia(rated) = 40A , IF = 5A, Total Current, ITotal = 40+5=45A

Total armature Resistance, Rtotal = Rse+Ra = 0.15; Field Resistance, RF = 12

Rated power, P = 2500W

No load angular velocity, NL = 188.4 rad/sec

To overcome the maximum torque offered by the load (i.e. the vehicle itself) the motor must be

capable of developing a torque of 65Nm at rated condition. This particular value of torque will

be obtained when the traction load characteristic was analyzed (discussed in detail in chapter 3).

So, the rated torque of the motor should be 65N.m and must be developed at rated power. So, we

know,

P= Torque x Angular velocity = T

P

rated

2500

65

= 38.46 rad/sec

This primarily calculated value will be used to design and calculate different parameters of the

motor.Now, from Eq. (2.3)

= 38.46 =

KB =

EB

KB

EB V Ia R T 60 (40 0.15)

=

=

= 1.42

38.1

T = 65 = (K T )40

KT =

65

= 1.625

40

(2.10)

(2.11)

25

K T 1.625

=

= 1.1444

1.42

KB

Rewriting Eq. (2.10) and (2.11),

K T = 1.144K B

K B se + K B sh = 1.42

K T se + K T sh = 1.625

Let us assume 70% of the total flux is provided by the series field and 30% of the flux are

(2.12)

(2.13)

(2.14)

(2.15)

1.144K B K sh IF = 1.625 0.3 = 0.4875

K B K sh =

Similarly,

0.4875

= 0.0852

1.1444 5

K B K se =

1.1375

= 0.02485

1.1444 40

(2.16)

(2.17)

K B K sh

0.0852

=

= 3.4286

K B K se 0.02485

K sh = 3.4286K se

sh

= 3.4286 se

IF

Ia

26

sh = 3.4286

5

se = 0.4286se

40

sh = 0.4286se

(2.18)

Now from Eq. (2.13),

KB =

K B se + sh = 1.42

1.42

= 99.4 V/rad. Wb

0.01 + 0.004286

K sh =

sh

IF

K se =

2.3

0.004286

= 0.0008572 Wb/A

5

se 0.01

=

= 0.00025 Wb/A

Ia

40

V = LT

V = LF

dia

+ Ia R T + EB

dt

diF

+ IF R F

dt

EB = K B se + sh

(2.19)

(2.20)

(2.21)

27

T = K T Ia = K T se + sh Ia

= K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

(2.22)

(2.23)

TL is the torque required to drive the load then, then the developed torque balance equation can

be written as;

T=J

d

+ B + TL

dt

(2.24)

Using Eq. (2.19) to Eq. (2.24) the electromechanical model of the motor can be obtained. But

due to the product of variable type non-linearities present in Eq. (2.23), it is not possible to

obtain a transfer function of this model. However, these equations can be linearized by

considering a small perturbation at the operating point. Before deriving the linearized transfer

fuction, let us develop a complete block diagram of the motor considering the non-linearities

which is shown in Figure 2.2.

28

Assuming the field current is constant, this block diagram can be further simplified into the

following based on Eq. (2.4) and Eq. (2.6).

Figure 2.3. Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor, assuming field

current is constant

2.4

REPRESENTATION :

All the system parameters can be defined around their operating point as follows;

V = V0 + V;

T = T0 + T;

EB = EB0 + EB ;

Ia = Ia0 + Ia ;

TL = TL0 + TL ; = 0 +

IF = IF0 + IF ;

The following basic equations will be needed to describe and represent the electromechanical

system of compound motor along with its load.

V = LT

dia

+ Ia R T + EB

dt

EB = K B K sh IF + K B K se Ia

V = LF

diF

+ IF R F

dt

29

T = K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

T=J

d

+ B + TL

dt

Recognizing that, Ia0 and (Ia )2 are very small and hence tending to zero, all the above

Equations can be linearized to;

V = R T Ia + LT

d(Ia )

+ EB

dt

(2.25)

d(IF )

dt

(2.27)

EB = K B K se (Ia0 + Ia 0 ) + K B K sh (IF0 + IF 0 )

V = R F IF + LF

T = J

d()

+ B() + TL

dt

(2.26)

(2.28)

(2.29)

These five equations are sufficient to establish the block diagram of a DC Compound motor

drive as shown in Figure. 2.4.

30

A further simplification in the block diagram can be possible by rearraging the blocks as shown

in the following Figure. 2.5.

Figure 2.5. Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor assuming field current is constant

After using the block diagram simplification technique, the final linearized transfer function of

the motor is obtained as,

T(s) =

where;

C1 (SLF + R F C2 ) + C3 (SLT + R T + C4 )

(Js + B)(SLF + R F )(SLT + R T + C4 ) + C1 C5

(2.30)

C2 = K B K sh 0

C3 = K T K sh Ia0

C4 = K B K se 0

C5 = (K B K se Ia0 + K B K sh IF0 )

31

T(s) =

where,

b0 =

s + b0

+ a 2 s 2 + a1 s + a 0

R F C1 + R T C3 + C3 C4 C1 C2

LF C1 + LT C3

a0 =

a1 =

s3

BR F R T + BR F C4 + C1 C5

JLF LT

JLF LT

a2 =

JLF LT

(2.31)

(2.32)

(2.33)

(2.34)

(2.35)

Maximum Allowable Armature current is twice than its rated value i.e. (40x2=80A). For current

control/limiting purpose, hysteresis controller is used and as the current will switch between two

certain limits of upper and lower level of current defined by the hysteresis controller, it is a good

approximation to consider the starting current as 1.6 times the rated current. As a result the

starting torque of the motor will be around 1.5 times to its rated value. Using Eq. (2.5) the

starting torque of the machine can be calculted asTstarting = K T Ia(starting ) = 113.75 14.286 103 1.5 40 = 97.5 N. m

where, Ia(starting ) = 1.5 Ia(rated )

Pmax (starting ) = 60 (1.5 40 + 5) = 3900W

P

rated = T rated = K

rated

P rated

T I a (rated )

2500

65

32

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