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CHAPTER 3

DYNAMICS OF TRACTION LOAD AND MODELING


OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
3.1 INTRODUCTION

Modeling of electric vehicles will make it more convenient to predict its performance
and characteristics. The primary parameter to be modeled is vehicle performance. By
performance we mean acceleration and top speed, an area where electric vehicles
have a reputation of being very poor. It is necessary that any electric vehicle has a
performance that allows it, at the very least, to blend safely with ordinary city traffic.
Another vitally important feature of electric vehicles that we must be able to predict
is their range. This can also be mathematically modeled, and computer programs
make this quite straightforward. The mathematics we will develop will allow us to
see the effects of changing things like battery type and capacity, as well as all other
aspects of vehicle design, on range. This is an essential tool for the vehicle designer.
We will go on to show how the data produced by the simulations can also have other
uses in addition to predicting performance and range. For example we will see how
data about the motor torque and speed can be used to optimize the compromises
involved in the design of the motor and other subsystems.

3.2 TRACTIVE EFFORT

The first step in vehicle performance modeling is to produce an equation for the
tractive effort. This is the force propelling the vehicle forward, transmitted to the
ground through the drive wheels.
Let us consider a vehicle of mass m, proceeding at a velocity v, up a slope of angle
, as in Figure 3.1. The force propelling the vehicle forward, the tractive effort, has
to accomplish the following:

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Figure 3.1: The forces acting on a vehicle moving along a slope. [6]

To overcome the rolling resistance;


To overcome the aerodynamic drag;
To provide the force needed to overcome the component of the vehicles
weight acting down the slope.
accelerate the vehicle, if the velocity is not constant.

3.2.1

ROLLING RESISTANCE FORCE

The rolling resistance is primarily due to the friction of the vehicle tyre on the road.
Friction in bearings and the gearing system also play their part. The rolling resistance
is approximately constant, and hardly depends on vehicle speed. It is proportional to
vehicle weight. The equation is:
Frr= rrmg

(3.1)

Where rr is the coefficient of rolling resistance. The main factors controlling rr are
the type of tyre and the tyre pressure. The free-wheeling performance of a vehicle
becomes much better if the tyres are pumped up to a high pressure, though the ride
may be less comfortable.
The value of rr can reasonably readily be found by pulling a vehicle at a steady very
low speed, and measuring the force required. Typical values of rr are 0.015 for a
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radial ply tyre, down to about 0.005 for tyres developed especially for electric
vehicles.

3.2.2

AERODYNAMIC DRAG

This part of the force is due to the friction of the vehicle body moving through the
air. It is a function of the frontal area, shape, protrusions such as side mirrors, ducts
and air passages, spoilers, and many other factors. The formula for this component is:
Fad = 0.5CdAv2

(3.2)

Where is the density of the air, A is the frontal area, and v is the velocity. Cd is a
constant called the drag coefficient.
The drag coefficient Cd can be reduced by good vehicle design. A typical value for a
saloon car is 0.3, but some electric vehicle designs have achieved values as low as
0.19. There is greater opportunity for reducing Cd in electric vehicle design because
there is more flexibility in the location of the major components, and there is less
need for cooling air ducting and under-vehicle pipe work. However, some vehicles,
such as motorcycles and buses will inevitably have much larger values, and Cd varies
around 0.7 are more typical in such cases.
The density of air does of course vary with temperature, altitude and humidity.
However a value of 1.25 kg.m3 is a reasonable value to use in most cases. Provided
that SI units are used (m for A, m.s1for v) then the value of Fad will be given in
2

Newton.

3.2.3

HILL CLIMBING FORCE

The force needed to drive the vehicle up a slope is the most straight forward to find.
It is simply the component of the vehicle weight that acts along the slope. By simple
resolution of forces we see that:
Fhc= mg sin ()

(3.3)

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3.2.4

ACCELERATION FORCE

If the velocity of the vehicle is changing, then clearly a force will need to be applied
in addition to the forces shown in Figure 3.1. This force will provide the linear
acceleration of the vehicle, and is given by the well-known equation derived from
Newtons second law,
Fla= ma

(3.4)

However, for a more accurate picture of the force needed to accelerate the vehicle we
should also

consider the force needed to make the rotating parts turn faster. In other

words, we need to consider rotational acceleration as well as linear acceleration. The


main issue here is the electric motor, not necessarily because of its particularly high
moment of inertia, but because of its higher angular speeds.

Figure 3.2: Arrangement for connecting a motor to a drive wheel using a belt system
with step up gear mechanism to increase the amount of torque. [6]
Referring to Figure 7.2, clearly the axle torque = Fter , where r is the radius of the
tyre, and Fte is the tractive effort delivered by the power train. If G is the gear ratio of
the system connecting the motor to the axle, and Tm is the motor torque, then we can
say that:
Tvech = Tm G
Tm =

Fte r

(3.5)
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Again, angular velocity of the motor,


v

m = G vech = G r (rad/sec)

(3.6)

Where, v = velocity of the vehicle in m/s

Torque required for this angular acceleration is,


a

Tm = JG r

(3.7)

Where, J is the moment of inertia of the motor. The force at the wheels needed to
provide the angular acceleration (Fa) is found by combining this equation with Eq.
(3.7);
G2

Fa = J r 2 a

(3.8)

We must note that in these simple equations we have assumed that the gear system is
100% efficient, it causes no losses. Since the system will usually be very simple, the
efficiency is often very high. However, it will never be 100%, and so we should
rewrite the equation by incorporating the gear system efficiency g. The force
required will be slightly larger, so equation (7.8) can be rewritten to:
G2

Fa = J r 2 a g

(3.9)
2

Typical values for the constants here are 40 for G/r and 0.025 kg.m for the moment
of inertia. These are for a 30 kW motor, driving a car which reaches 60 kph at a
motor speed of 7000 rpm. Such a car would probably weigh about 800 kg. The right
hand side in equation (7.8) will have a value of about 40 kg in this case. In other
words the angular acceleration force given by equation (7.8) will typically be much
smaller than the linear acceleration force given by equation (7.4). In this specic (but
reasonably typical) case, it will be smaller by the ratio:
40
= .05 = 5%
800

It will quite often turn out that the moment of inertia of the motor J will not be
known. In such cases a reasonable approximation is to simply increase the mass by
5% in equation (7.4), and to ignore the Fa term.

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3.2.5

TOTAL TRACTIVE EFFORT

The total tractive effort is the sum of all these forces:


Fte= Frr+ Fad+ Fhc+ Fla+ Fa

(3.10)

Where,
Frris the rolling resistance force, given by equation (3.1);
Fadis the aerodynamic drag, given by equation (3.2);
Fhcis the hill climbing force, given by equation (3.3);
Flais the force required to give linear acceleration given by equation (3.4);
Fa is the force required to give angular acceleration to the rotating motor,
given by equation (3.9).
We should note that Fla and Fa will be negative if the vehicle is slowing down, and
that Fhc will be negative if it is going downhill.
3.3 MODELLING VEHICLE ACCELERATION
3.3.1

ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE PARAMETER

The acceleration of a vehicle is a key performance indicator, though there is no


standard measure used. Typically the time to accelerate from standstill to 60 mph, or
30 or 50 kph will be given. The nearest to such a standard for electric vehicles are the
030 kph and 050 kph times, though these times are not given for all vehicles. Such
acceleration figures are found from simulation or testing of real vehicles. For IC
engine vehicles this is done at maximum power, or wide open throttle (WOT).
Similarly, for electric vehicles performance simulations are carried out at maximum
torque.
As discussed in Chapter 2 that the maximum torque of an electric motor is a fairly
simple function of angular speed. In most cases, at low speeds, the maximum torque
is a constant, until the motor speed reaches a critical value c after which the torque
falls. This critical value of speed is mostly known as the base speed of the motor i.e.
the speed up to which the motor is capable of maintaining the maximum or constant
torque that it produces. In the case of a brushed shunt or permanent magnet DC
motor the torque falls linearly with increasing speed. In the case of most other types

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of motor, the torque falls in such a way that the power remains constant. The angular
velocity of the motor depends on the gear ratio G and the radius of the drive wheel r
as in equation (3.5) derived above. So we can say that:
For, m< base ; Tm = Tmax = 97.5 N.m

And for m> base ; Tm = T0 - Km = T0 KGvech

(3.11)

= T0 KG

(3.12)

Where,
vech = angular velocity of the velocity (i.e. angular velocity of the axle) (rad/sec)
m = angular velocity of the motor (rad/sec)

= velocity of the vehicle. (m/s)

Eq. (3.11) represents motor torque in terms of angular velocity of the vehicle where
as Eq. (3.12) represents it in terms of linear velocity of the vehicle.
3.3.2

MOTOR TORQUE MODELLING

The generalized torque equation of the motor can be written as-

Motor angular speed,

Tm = KTIa =

K T V
RT

m = 2vech = 2

so, in terms of vehicle speed,

Tm = KTIa =

K T V
RT

KT KB 2
v

RT

2K T K B 2
RT r

Putting all the values of the constants and other parameters,

= 65015.384
At base speed, m = base;

= = 97.5 = 65015.384

551.33
15.984

= 35.84 rad/sec

= 0.15 = 0.15 x 35.84 = 5.376 m/s

(3.13)
(3.14)

(3.15)

(3.16)

(3.17)
(3.18)

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3.3.3

TRACTION LOAD MODELLING

Total tractive force required for the vehicle movement when it is moving in a road in
a smooth flat plane,
Fte= Frr+ Fad+ Fla+ Fa
as per Eq. (3.10). Hill climbing force can be considered zero because of assuming
zero inclination.
dv

Fte = 1.05m dt + mg + Cd 0.5Av 2

(3.19)

Here the moment of inertia of the motor is not known, so we will adopt the expedient
suggested at the end of Section 7.2.5, and increase m by 5% in the linear acceleration
term only.
Torque required for the traction,
Tte = Fte x r

(3.20)

The motor is coupled with the axle through a gear. If G is the gear ratio, then the total
load torque for traction referred to motor shaft can be written asTm = Motor Torque =

T te

F te r
G

= [ + + 0.5 2 ]

where, = =

= [

+ + 0.0625 2 2 ]

(3.21)
(3.22)

= vehicle velocity

Let us put all the values in Eq. (3.22) to obtain a equation that will describe the
dynamics of traction load;
The electric vehicle has a mass of 380 kg, with a typical passenger of mass 180
kg (for 3 passengers with average mass of 60kg) so total mass m = (180+200)
= 380 kg.
To incorporate the angular acceleration of different rotating parts of the vehicle
along with motor, m is increased by 5% in the linear acceleration term only.
A value of 400 kg will thus be used from m in the final term of equation
(3.19).
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The drag coefficient Cd is estimated as 0.3, a reasonable value for a small


electric vehicle whose shape of the body is aerodynamically designed and
optimized.
The frontal area of vehicle and rider = 1.2 m .
2

The tires and wheel bearings give a coefficient of rolling resistance,


rr= 0.005 which is a typical value for specially designed tires for electric
vehicle.
The motor is connected to the rear wheel using a 2:1 ratio belt system, and the
wheel diameter is 60 cm. Thus G = 2 and r = 0.3 m.
A typical figure of the motor coupled with the axle of the vehicle through a step up
gear mechanism is shown in Figure. (3.3).

Figure 3.3: The simplified diagram of the designed system of connecting the motor
with the driving axle of the vehicle with a geared mechanism.

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Putting all the values in Eq. (3.22) the final equation can be obtained as = 9

+ 2.95 + 0.00075 2

(3.23)

Again, Eq. (3.23) can be written in terms of vehicle velocity as

= 60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2

(3.24)

3.4 MODELLING PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


When m < base; the motor will produce maximum amount of torque and this
torque will be utilize to accelerate the vehicle. From Eq. (3.24);

= = 97.5 = 60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2


1.576 =

+ 0.0005535 2

= 1.576 0.0005535 2

(3.25)

When m base; i.e. v 5.376, motor torque is given by Eq. (3.16). Based
on that, Eq. (3.24) can be written as-

Tm = 65015.384m
= 65015.384

0.3

= 650102.56v =60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2

This can be arranged into-

= 10.271 1.628 0.000527 2

(3.26)

The total vehicle traction acceleration and final speed can be modeled using Eq.
(3.25) and Eq. (3.26). There are many practical and simple ways of solving these
differential equations using a simple initial condition that v = 0 when t = 0.
However, the most versatile next step is to derive a simple numerical solution, which
can then easily be used in MATLAB.
The derivative of v is simply the difference between consecutive values of v divided
by the time step. Applying this to equation (3.25) gives us:
+1
=
= 1.576 0.0005535 2

+1 = + t (1.576 0.0005535 2 )

(3.27)
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Similarly, Eq. (3.26) can be arranged as +1 = + t (10.271 1.628 0.0005535 2 )

(3.28)

Eq. (3.27) holds valid for velocities up to the critical velocity of 5.376 ms1, after
which we have to use equation (3.28), approximated in exactly the same way as we
have done for equation (3.27).
The MATLAB script le (discussed in Appendix-A) shows how to solve these
equations using this program. Figure 3.4 is a plot of the solution using a time step t
of 0.1s.

The simulated results are discussed in the following-

Figure 3.4: The initial acceleration and final velocity of the vehicle.
From the figure it is clearly evident that the vehicle takes just over 5 seconds to reach
its maximum speed of 22.5kmph. At this point the motor will rotate at a speed of
41.667 rad/sec which is very close to its rated speed (38.46 rad/sec).

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Figure 3.5: The torque-velocity curve of the motor and vehicle respectively.
The maximum amount of torque obtained from the motor is around 95 N.m. This
torque is responsible to accelerate the vehicle. This maximum torque of 95 N.m is
maintained up to the base speed of the motor which corresponds to the vehicle speed
of (5.376 x 3.6) = 19.3536kmph. After that, the torque begins to fall and eventually
settles down to the balancing speed of the motor. At final or balancing speed, the
torque falls very sharply as the acceleration phase is over and it requires only to
overcome the rolling resistance and aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle when
speed becomes constant (as Fla becomes zero at constant speed due to zero
acceleration).
The total torque profile of the vehicle from zero to final speed can be visualized as
shown in Figure 3.6-

Figure 3.6: The torque profile of the load as seen from the motor shaft.

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The constant torque region provides the maximum torque which in turn provides a
linear constant acceleration up to base speed that is 19.35kmph speed of the vehicle.
After that, the torque falls naturally as it enters to the natural characteristic region of
its operation. Finally the motor torque matches with the load torque which falls
significantly and continues to operate at this value.

The axle torque i.e. the vehicle torque with respect to vehicle speed and time are
shown in Figure (3.7) and Figure (3.8) respectively. It may be noted here that, the
axle torque will be around 2 times greater than motor torque due to the presence of a
step up gear. At the same time, considering an efficiency of 98% for the gear
arrangement, the actual torque will be .98 times of it.

Figure 3.7: Axle Torque of the vehicle with respect to its speed. It is exactly in the
same nature of the motor-vehicle speed curve of Fig. (3.5).

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Figure 3.8: Axle torque profile though out the entire time of run of the vehicle
Axle Torque of the vehicle with respect time to show the maximum starting torque
along with final steady state torque value of the vehicle. As the acceleration phase is
over around 7.5 seconds, the torque falls significantly and settles to a new lower
value where it remains constant for the rest of the period of it operation.
The final parameter of the motor to be discussed and analyzed is motor current. As
the current is proportional to motor torque, it will vary itself according to the
variation of torque during different periods of its operation.
The current-vehicle speed and current-time curves are shown in Figure (3.9) and
Figure (3.10) respectively.

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Figure 3.9: Armature Current vs Vehicle Speed


Armature current of the motor varies with speed. Initially current is constant up to the
base speed and then starts to reduce as speed tends to become constant. Here the
average current value during starting is shown. In practice the starting current will be
very high which will be limited by using a current controller (will be discussed in the
next chapter). With the presence of controller, the current wave shape will not be like
this. But this result helps to final value of the current during Steady State operation

Figure 3.9: Armature current of the motor with respect to time. The current taken by
the motor is very small during steady-state operation.
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3.5 MODELLING PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS USING WINDING


CHANGE OVER TECHNIQUE

The analysis presented so far is presented for a conventional compound motor


employed to drive a vehicle. The analysis and simulation show that, the maximum
achievable speed of the vehicle is 22.5kmph. Now, the feature of winding change
over should be employed and the vehicle parameters like speed, torque and motor
parameters like motor current and torque should be simulated and observed. It was
claimed at the very beginning of the thesis that, using this technique, the final speed
of the vehicle will be much higher than the speed obtained by running the vehicle
using conventional motors (like series or separately excited DC Motors).
When the vehicle settles down to its final speed of 22.5kmph, the controller of the
motor will disconnect the series field of the compound motor from the circuit. As
result there will be a sudden rise in the armature current (which will eventually
limited by the current controller) as well as motor torque to accelerate the vehicle to a
higher value of speed. This phenomenon can be observed by using the same model
that has been developed in immediate earlier to simulate conventional compound
motor.
When the series field winding is disconnected the motor will be converted to a
simple DC shunt motor whose torque-speed characteristic is pretty straight forward
and very simple to analyze. Due to winding change over the motor is left with only
one i.e. the shunt winding and the total flux of the machine will now be produced
with the help of shunt winding only. So, the torque equation can be written as-

Tm = KTshIa =

K T sh V
RT

= 195.0139.2333v

K T K B sh 2
RT

= 195.0131.385

(3.29)

Now, in the similar way of Eq.(3.25), we can develop another equation using Eq.
(3.29). It must be noted that, this Eq. (3.29) will be coming into the consideration
when the vehicle speed is equal to its final speed that is 22.5kmph i.e. 6.25m/s.
When, 41.667 rad/sec (i.e. vehicle speed, v6.25m/s);

195.0139.2333v = 60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2


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which can now be rearranged to write

= 3.0486 0.1465 0.000527 2

(3.30)

For numerical simulation the Eq. (3.30) can be re-written as-

+1 = + t (3.0486 0.1465 0.0005535 2 )

(3.31)

Motor torque is simulated using the following equation


+1

( + 1) = 2.95 + 60

+ 0.03321 2

(3.31)

Axle or the vehicle torque for traction can be calculated as ( + 1) = 5.9 + 120

+1

+ 0.06642 2

(3.32)

Armature current will be calculated based on two different conditions.


when, < 6.25 m/s; the armature current Ia is calculated as ( + 1) =

0.24+0.1138 (+1)0.4875
0.057

when, 6.25 m/s; the armature current Ia is calculated as ( + 1) =

(+1)
0.4875

(3.33)

(3.34)

So, the modified MATLAB script file (shown in Appendix-B) according to the
modification done in the system due to winding changeover would yield the
following set of output curves for speed, torque and current. This set of results will
be used to compare the performance between the vehicle fitted with winding change
over facility and the vehicles operated with series and compound motor only without
winding change over facility. The different output and input parameters of the motor
as well as the vehicle obtained by simulation in MATLAB are shown as follows one
by one along with description and significance of the figures for interpretation.

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Figure 3.10: Simulated Speed and acceleration characteristic of the vehicle with the
feature of winding change over facility.
A comparative diagram showing the speed without and with the winding change over
facility would be more helpful to justify the improvement in the performances of
vehicle. A diagram of such kind is shown in Figure 3.11 in the following-

Figure 3.11: Comparative analysis showing the differences in terms of final speed
between the two types of motor.
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Fig. (3.11) clearly indicates that, the motor with winding change over facility would
provide the highest final speed. The difference in their final is around 47.5kmph.
This is certainly being a great advantage for the latter one compare to the former one.

Figure 3.11: Torque speed characteristic of the motor with winding change over
facility. The sharp rise in torque is due to sudden change in current consumed by the
armature due to disconnecting the series field.
The total torque profile of the motor is shown in Figure 3.12.

Figure 3.12: Torque profile of the motor during entire period of its operation.

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Figure 3.13: Torque speed characteristic of the vehicle when operated by a


compound motor with winding change over facility.

Figure 3.14: Torque profile of the vehicle from starting to winding change over to
steady state condition, when operated by a compound motor with winding change
over facility.

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Figure 3.15: Speed-current characteristic of the motor. After winding change over,
the value of the current remains very during the entire period of its acceleration.

Figure 3.16: Current profile of the motor during its entire period of operation.
A very high current is being consumed by the current at the moment of winding
change over. This is due to the sudden reduction in the flux of the motor as the series
winding is disconnected from the armature at this instant. To sustain the same
amount of torque, the current of the motor rises to a very high value due to
compensate the reduction of flux. As the motor speed approaches towards its final
speed, the current starts to decrease and eventually settles down to a steady value. It
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must be noted with great importance that, such amount of high current must not be
allowed to flow in the circuit as it may damage the winding as well as the motor. In
practice this current will be limited by using a hysteresis current controller which will
restrict the current within twice the maximum of its rated value (i.e. 40x2=80A). In
other words, the controller will allow a current to flow through the armature which
may be at best twice than its rated value. Such a limitation will obviously affect the
performance of the motor. Due to such restriction in current the torque produced by
the motor will be less and as result the acceleration of the vehicle beyond the instant
of winding change over will be reduced. But this will not affect the final speed of the
motor. Due to limited amount of torque available, the vehicle will take a relatively
long time to reach its final speed.

3.6 SUMMERY

This chapter deals with the modeling and simulation of electric vehicle. It is obvious
that, a vehicles mathematical model is crucially important in the design of electric
vehicles as it allows the designer very quickly to try out different design options,
virtually at no cost at all. Even a quite simple mathematical model used in this
chapter is sufficient to predict the performance parameters of a real vehicle.

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CHAPTER 4
DESIGN OF CONVERTER AND CONTROLLER FOR
ELECTRIC VEHICLE
4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the design of the controller of the motor. Choppers, also
commonly known as dc-to-dc converters which are used to get a variable dc voltage
from a dc source of fixed voltage. Because of the use DC voltage widely in electric
transportation and traction system, chopper controlled DC drives find a ready
application in that field.
DC-DC Converters are widely used for traction motor controls in electric
automobiles, trolley cars, marine hoists, forklift trucks and mine haulers. They
provide smooth acceleration control, high efficiency and fast dynamic response. DCDC converters can be effectively used in regenerative braking of DC motors to return
energy back into the supply and this feature results in energy savings for the
transportation systems with frequent stops.
Self commutated devices, such as MOSFETS. power transistors, IGBT (insulated
gate bipolar transistor), GTO ( gate turn-off thyristor) and IGCT (insulated gate
commutated thyristor). are preferred over thyristors for building choppers because
they can be commutated by a low power control signal and do not need commutation
circuit. Further, they can be operated at a higher frequency for the same rating. The
operation at a high frequency improves motor performance by reducing current ripple
and eliminating discontinuous conduction.

4.2 CONVERTER DESIGN

For any traction application a two quadrant converter with a pair of reversing switch
is necessary. Otherwise it is not possible for the motor to operate at all four quadrants
as it is mandatory for any motor to be capable of operating in all the four quadrants
employed for traction application.
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In this design a Two Quadrant Class C DC-DC converter along with a pair of
reversing switch are used. The converter has a novel integrated feature of both PWM
and Hysteresis controller, where the PWM controller is used for variable voltage
operation of the motor (to run the vehicle at different speed) and hysteresis controller
is used for the purpose of current control. The designed system is shown in brief in
the following block diagram-

Figure 4.1: Block Diagram Representation of the Motor Controller


4.3 OPERATION OF THE CLASS C DC-DC CONVERTER

A typical class C converter is made of one pair of diode and one pair of switch.
Generally, it is made from one buck and one boost converter. For normal motoring
mode the circuit operates as buck controller. During braking of the motor which is
also known as regenerative braking, the converter operates as a boost converter to
feed back the stored kinetic energy of the motor to the source and thus reducing its
speed. A typical circuit is shown in Fig. 4.2.

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Figure 4.2: Class C DC-DC converter


The circuit shown in Figure 4.2 is a combination of one Buck and one Boost
converter. It is clear that, both transistors must not be turned on simultaneously as
that would short circuit the source V. They are turned on alternately and a short
interval (typically about 100s) is allowed to elapse between the removals of one
signal and the application of the other.
For first quadrant operation, Tr1 and D1 perform the functions of Forward motoring
and provide variable speed operation of the motor up to the base speed. Gate drive
signal with variable duty cycle enables the converter to provide with a variable
voltage appearing across its terminals. This mode of operation is called Class A
operation where the converter is operating as buck converter. Both armature current
and field current are positive. The motor develops torque to meet the load demand.
For second quadrant operation, Tr2 and D2 perform the functions of Regenerative
braking and the converter must operate as Boost converter to feed the stored kinetic
energy of the motor back to the supply system or the battery. This mode of operation
is also known as Class B operation of chopper. The motor acts as a generator and
develops an induced voltage equal to the back EMF of the motor, EB. The armature
current is negative but the field current is positive. The kinetic energy of the motor is
returned to the supply. The motor speed would decrease with time. To maintain the
armature current at the same level the effective load resistance of the motor acting as
generator during this period, must be adjusted by varying the duty cycle of the DCDC converter.

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4.4 SIMULATION OF THE CONVERTER

The converter circuit is simulated in LTSpice in motoring mode. The output wave
shape of the converter are shown in the following-

Figure 4.3: Simulation of Class C DC-DC converter in forward motoring mode in


LTSpice.

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Figure 4.4: Output current, voltage and PWM signal of the converter

Figure 4.5: Motor current without hysteresis current controller.


The starting Current of the motor is around 345A which dangerously high enough to
damage the motor.

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Figure 4.6: Limitation on starting current by the control action of hysteresis


controller
Hysteresis current controller limits the starting motor current within its maximum
limit. If the motor current exceeds twice the value of the rated current the controller
turns off the power supply and when the current falls to value sufficiently low
enough the controller again turns on the power supply.

Figure 4.7: Output voltage of the converter at a Duty cycle of 90%.

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The variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the duty cycle of the
converter. Variation of duty cycle is possible by varying the reference voltage of the
PWM comparator. Gate driving pulses with variable duty cycle are generated to
operate the motor in different speed. This signal along with the output of the
hysteresis controller are fed to an AND gate where the output of hysteresis controller
dominates over the PWM signal. If the Current of the motor at any point due to
application of the voltage exceeds the certain limit the output of the hysteresis
controller goes zero setting an output zero for and gate too and eventually turns of the
power supply to the motor.

4.4 REGENERATIVE BRAKING

Regenerative braking will be obtained as the converter operates in the 2nd quadrant.
Gate signal with appropriate duty cycle must be generated to provide the switching.
The circuit must contain a duty cycle varying feature where the duty cycle of the
gating pulses will be varied by sensing the terminal voltage of the motor during
regenerative braking. The duty cycle must be varied to keep the output voltage of the
converter fixed as the voltage of the motor will be gradually decreasing during the
period of regeneration and as a result the speed of the motor will be decreasing. If the
voltage at the output of the converter is not kept fixed and higher than the source
voltage, it will not be possible to feed the energy back to the source as current will
stop continuing to flow.
Simulation of regenerative braking is done assuming the stored kinetic energy will
eventually be given up and the motor will to come to a stop with no voltage across its
terminal. So, source voltage must be gradually decreasing during braking and to keep
the output voltage constant, the reference voltage of the comparator should be
increased accordingly to increase the duty cycle of gate driving signal. The simulated
circuit is shown in Figure 4.8.

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Figure 4.8: Simulated Boost Converter during Regenerative braking

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Figure 4.9: Output Voltage and Current of the Boost converter during Braking

Figure 4.10: Generation of Reference signal to vary the duty cycle of the converter

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Figure 4.11: Boost Converter Input Power due to the kinetic energy stored in the
vehicle

Figure 4.12: Boost Converter Output Power. The amount of energy which is equal to
the area under the curve, is feed back to the source

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4.5 SUMMARY

This chapter has suggested such a design of the converter that is capable of varying
its output voltage and at the same time limits the excess current. The two quadrant
operation of the motor enables the motor to operate at both Forward motoring and
Forward regenerative braking. For reverse motoring reverse contacts are employed to
operate the motor in opposite direction.

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CHAPTER 5
SIMULATION OF THE OVERALL SYSTEM
5.1

INTRODUCTION

The overall system is electromechanical which is simulated using SIMULINK.


Simulated figures in this chapter are divided into two parts. Here at first the
simulation of the total system would be presented for a compound motor with
winding change over technique. The simulated figures will contain the Speed of the
vehicle, Torque of the system, Current and output power. Next the same simulation
will be done for the overall vehicle and traction system when operated by a series
motor of same power. This portion is simulated to deduce a comparison between the
proposed method and the conventional method. According to simulated result it can
very be easily found out that, the proposed method offers a better performance
because the vehicle will be operating at a higher speed compare to the case when it is
operated by series motor. To simulate the entire system three subsystems have to be
integrated with the overall system. The entire system comprises of

5.2

Electronic DC-DC converter


Compound Motor
Mechanical System (Traction Load)

SIMULATION RESULTS

All three sub systems are integrated and co-ordinated together to perform the
simulation work. The entire simulation is done for a 60 seconds run of the vehicle.
The simulated block in SIMULINK is shown in Figure.5.1.

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Figure 5.1: Simulation of the entire electromechanical system using SIMULINK

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The system response is obtained as-

Figure 5.2: Speed of the vehicle with winding change over technique.

Figure 5.3: Motor Current vs Time


The motor current is being regulated by the Hysteresis controller, always remains in
the permissible limit of operation. Hysteresis controller will be in effect whenever the
current tries to exceed the limits.
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Figure 5.4: Motor Torque Vs Time

Figure 5.5: Motor Power Vs Time

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Now for the purpose of comparison the simulated results for a series motor driven
electric vehicle with same characteristics as before will be presented in the following.

Figure 5.6: Speed of the vehicle operated with Series Motor.

Figure 5.7: Current vs Time for the series motor

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Figure 5.8: Power Vs Time for the Series Motor

5.3

SUMMERY

Simulation of the overall system clearly signifies the fact that, the proposed method
of winding change over feature can improve the performance of an electric vehicle
when operated with a DC motor. The conventional traction loads are operated with
DC series motor. Final Speed obtained for the vehicle with the proposed system is
around 72kmph whereas, with conventional DC series motor, the obtained maximum
speed is 54kmph. But one thing that also should be focused here that, as the proposed
method is operating at a speed 18kmph higher than the conventional method energy
consumed by the motor will be more as the resistance force due to aerodynamic drag
offered by vehicle increases with the square of the velocity and hence power required
increases with the cube of the velocity.

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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
7.1

SUMMARY

A Novel Switching technique along with a new concept is proposed for the purpose
of traction. The ideal characteristics

of an electric motor

drive for

traction

application in an electric and hybrid electric vehicle are high torque at low speed
region for fast acceleration, hill climbing and obstacle negotiation, and low
torque at high speed for normal driving. A single DC motor cannot fulfill all these
ideal requirements. But according to the proposed method of using a compound
motor with winding change over, the characteristics will be very close to the ideal
one. To minimize the power rating of the motor drive, therefore, the energy
storage requirement, at a given vehicle performance, the electric motor drive is
required to have a long constant power range to meet the torque and speed
demand.

Once again this proposed method enables the motor to maximize its

capability by prolonging its constant power. The effect of the motor characteristics
on the vehicle performance is analyzed, and the characteristics of three major
electric motors- induction motor, permanent magnet brushless DC motor and
switched reluctance motor are studied for literature review, where it has been
concluded that, though DC machines are now almost become obsolete, still it has the
maximum torque density and the most suitable characteristics for traction
application. This technique can further enhance that capability of the DC motor for
traction application as the result suggests an improvement in its performance
compare to the traditional one. Results show a better acceleration performance and
significant improvement in final speed of the vehicle. This technique minimizes the
power rating of the motor as it is operating at a longer constant power range due to
change over in its configurations. The high torque operation of the compound and
series configuration is utilized as well as the field long constant power range
operation of shunt configuration by field weakening is also being made use of. The
simulation results show that, the extended speed operation of the motor can reach up

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to 3.5 times of the base speed which can never be obtained without the feature of
winding change over. At the same time it is also evident that, this method will
consume more power to run the vehicle and it is obvious that, the power consumption
will be more for higher speed of operation.

7.2 FUTURE WORKS

As stated earlier, the proposed method demands a relatively larger amount of power,
the most important task still left is to calculate the energy consumption of the vehicle
for per Kilometer of operation. This would provide the final concluding remark of
this study.
From this the Mileage of the vehicle for a given battery capacity can be very easily
determined which has not been done yet. At the same time for nominal operation of
the vehicle, the battery size and its capacity has to be determined.
Comparative study with other types motor can be done and then the motor with
optimum performance for traction application can be chosen.
Microcontroller can be used as the prime controller of the entire system which should
perform all the necessary control action and this would make the system more
optimum, flexible and adaptable to any operating condition.
Advanced algorithms like Fuzzy logic or Neuro-Fuzzy controller may be introduced
for system operation. These adaptive advanced algorithms may also be used to
replace the brushed DC motor by a Brushless DC motor which would be more
advanced and efficient compare to the conventional one.

7.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS

Long constant power range of vehicle traction motor can effectively reduce
the required motor power rating for the given vehicle acceleration performance
and

at

the

same time,

the gradeability

of the vehicle

can he

enhanced

significantly, thereby, reduce the required power capacity of the on-board


energy storage, such as the batteries. It can also simplify the transmission system

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by allowing use of a single-gear transmission. Consequently, the whole drive


train can he designed with compactness, high efficiency and good reliability.
Of the three major candidates of traction motors, permanent magnet brushless
DC motor has the highest torque density. However, the constant power range is
very limited due to the difficulty of the field weakening. The constant speed
range of variable speed induction motor drives is also limited to maximum of 4
times of its base speed, even using special winding changeover technique. On the
other hand, switched reluctance motor drives inherently have favorable speedtorque characteristic for traction application. This design and simulation shows
that the extended speed constant power range can reach about 3 (3.5 times the
based speed), much higher than other kinds of electric motors, with high
operating efficiency.

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