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MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF DC ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTORS USING


A NOVEL SWITCHING TECHNIQUE

S.M.FERDOUS

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING


ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (IUT)
GAZIPUR-1704, BANGLADESH
OCTOBER, 2012

CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL
The thesis titled Performance Improvement of DC Electric Traction Motors using
a Novel Switching Technique submitted by S.M.Ferdous, student no. 092606 of
Academic Year 2009-2010 has been found as satisfactory and accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Masters of Science in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering on 01 October, 2012.
Board of Examiners

1.

2.

3.

4.

..
Dr. Md. Ashraful Hoque
Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh.

................
Dr. Md. Shahid Ullah
Professor and Head
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh

................
Dr. Md. Ruhul Amin
Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh

................
Dr. Muhammad Fayyaz Khan
Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
United International University (UIU),
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

II

Chairman
(Supervisor)

Member
(Ex-Officio)

Member

Member
(External)

DECLARATION OF CANDIDATE

It is hereby declared that this thesis or any part of it has not been submitted elsewhere for
the award of any Degree.

..................
Dr. Md. Ashraful Hoque
Supervisor and Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh.

.
S.M.Ferdous
Student No. 092606
Academic Year 2009-2010

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................................VII
LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................X
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................XI
ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................XII

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 ELECTRIC TRACTION
1.1.1 ELECTRIC TRACTION DRIVE
1.1.2 ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE
1.1.3 DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE
1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR TRACTION
APPLICATION
1.3 GENERAL FEATURES OF TRACTION MOTORS
1.3.1 MECHANICAL FEATURES
1.3.2 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1.4 MOTORS USED FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR EV
AND HEV DESIGN
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE WORK
1.6 OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGY
1.7 THESIS ORGANIZATION

1
1
3
3

5
7
8
9
12
15
20

CHAPTER 2. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND MOTOR


2.1 DC COMPOUND MOTOR
2.2 ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A COMPOUND
MOTOR FOR TRACTION
2.3 SPECIFCATION AND DESIGN OF THE MOTOR
2.4 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF THE MOTOR
2.5 LINEARIZED TRANSFER FUNCTION AND ITS BLOCK
DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION
2.6 CALCULATION OF OUTPUT PARAMETERS

IV

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22
24
27
29
32

CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS OF TRACTION LOAD AND MODELLING OF


ELECTRIC VEHICLE
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 TRACTIVE EFFORT
3.2.1 ROLLING RESISTANCE FORCE
3.2.2 AERODYNAMIC DRAG
3.2.3 HILL CLIMBING FORCE
3.2.4 ACCELERATION FORCE
3.2.5 TOTAL TRACTIVE EFFORT
3.3 MODELLING VEHICLE ACCELERATION
3.3.1 ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE PARAMETER
3.3.2 MOTOR TORQUE MODELLING
3.3.3 TRACTION LOAD MODELLING
3.4 MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS
3.5 MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS USING WINDING CHANGE OVER
TECHNIQUE
3.6 SUMMERY

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33
34
35
36
37
40
41
43
44
47
50

51
54

CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF CONVERTER AND CONTROLLER FOR ELECTRIC


VEHICLE PROPULSION
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

INTRODUCTION
CONVERTER DESIGN
OPERATION OF CLASS C DC-DC CONVERTER
SIMULATION OF THE CONVERTER
SUMMERY

55
55
56
57
65

CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION OF THE OVERALL SYSTEM


5.1
5.2
5.3

INTRODUCTION
SYSTEM SIMULATION IN SIMULINK
SUMMERY

66
66
71

CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION
6.1 SUMMERY
6.2 SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE WORK
6.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS

72
73
73

REFERENCES

75

APPENDIX -A

78

APPENDIX -B

79

VI

LIST OF FIGURES
FIG.1.1
FIG.1.2
FIG 1.3

FIG.1.4
FIG.1.5
FIG.1.6
FIG.1.7
FIG.1.8
FIG.1.9

FIG.1.10

Traction Characteristic of an Electrical Motor


A Typical Characteristic of a Vehicle (Traction Load)
Acceleration and Final Speed (Balancing Speed) of electric
vehicle. The point of balancing speed is the operating speed of the
motor which determines the final speed of the vehicle
Tractive effort and power versus vehicle speed with different
speed
Tractive power versus speed ratio, X
Tractive effort along with Motor Power, base speed and final
speed
Different Torque-Speed Characteristics of a DC Machine of same
power rating (175W) with three separate configuration.
Power and Torque profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations
Torque and speed profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations to show the possibility of achieving a higher
starting torque and higher final vehicle speed if change over in
configuration takes place.

4
5
8
12
15
20
22
24

25

Torque and Power profile of the motor as a function of speed due


to change in its configurations by the feature of winding change
over

28

FIG.2.1

Compound Motor Connected in Long Shunt Configuration

30

FIG.2.2

Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor

33

FIG.2.3

Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor,


assuming field current is constant

34

FIG.2.4

Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor

35

FIG.2.5

Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor assuming field


current is constant

40

FIG.3.1

The forces acting on a vehicle moving along a slope

41

FIG.3.2

Arrangement for connecting a motor to a drive wheel using a belt


system with step up gear mechanism to increase the amount of
torque

45

VII

FIG.3.3

The simplified diagram of the designed system of connecting the


motor with the driving axle of the vehicle with a geared
mechanism.

48

FIG.3.4

The initial acceleration and final velocity of the vehicle

49

FIG.3.5

The torque-velocity curve of the motor and vehicle respectively

50

FIG.3.6

The torque profile of the load as seen from the motor shaft

51

FIG.3.7

Axle Torque of the vehicle with respect to its speed. It is exactly in


the same nature of the motor-vehicle speed curve of Fig. (3.5).

52

FIG.3.8
FIG.3.9

Axle torque profile though out the entire time of run of the vehicle
Armature Current vs Vehicle Speed

53

FIG.3.10

Armature current of the motor with respect to time. The current


taken by the motor is very small during steady-state operation.
Simulated Speed and acceleration characteristic of the vehicle with
the feature of winding change over facility.

55

FIG.3.11
FIG.3.12

Comparative analysis showing the differences in terms of final


speed between the two types of motor

54

56
57

FIG.3.14

Torque speed characteristic of the motor with winding change


over facility. The sharp rise in torque is due to sudden change in
current consumed by the armature due to disconnecting the series
field.
Current profile of the motor during its entire period of operation

FIG.4.1

Block Diagram Representation of the Motor Controller

60

FIG.4.2

Class C DC-DC converter

62

FIG.4.3

Simulation of Class C DC-DC converter in forward motoring


mode in LTSpice

64

FIG.4.4

Output current, voltage and PWM signal of the converter

66

FIG.4.5

Motor current without hysteresis current controller

67

FIG.4.6

Limitation on starting current by the control action of hysteresis


controller

68

FIG.4.7

Output voltage of the converter at a Duty cycle of 90%.

69

FIG.4.8

Simulated Boost Converter during Regenerative braking

70

FIG.3.13

VIII

58
59

FIG.4.9

Output Voltage and Current of the Boost converter during Braking

FIG.4.10

Generation of Reference signal to vary the duty cycle of the


71

converter
FIG.4.11
FIG.4.12

FIG.5.1

70

Boost Converter Input Power due to the kinetic energy stored in


the vehicle
Boost Converter Output Power. The amount of energy which is
equal to the area under the curve, is feed back to the source

72
72

Simulation of the entire electromechanical system using


SIMULINK

73

FIG.5.2

Speed of the vehicle with winding change over technique

74

FIG.5.3
FIG.5.4

Motor Current vs Time


Motor Torque Vs Time

74

FIG.5.5

Motor Power Vs Time

75

FIG.5.6

Speed of the vehicle operated with Series Motor

76

FIG.5.7

Current vs Time for the series motor

76

FIG.5.8

Power Vs Time for the Series Motor

76

75

IX

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: ENERGY STORAGE CAPABILITY OF DIFFERENT TYPES
OF FUELS
Table 1.2: TYPICAL TORQUE DENSITY VALUE OF DIFFERENT
MOTOR TYPES.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to first acknowledge my supervisor, Dr. Md. Ashraful Hoque, for his
support and advice throughout my graduate program. His power electronics courses and
his dedication to his students gave me the best experience during the program. I would also
like to express my sincere appreciation to my other thesis committees, Dr. Md. Shahid
Ullah and Prof. Dr. Md. Ruhul Amin for review of this thesis in detail and their important
feedback.
I would like to thank my colleagues and friends, Mr. Ahmed Mortuza Saleque and
Mr. Ahmed Al Mansur for their effective ideas and feedbacks are incorporated in this
thesis. Also, thanks to lab assistants, technicians for their support and willingness to help
me out during various stages of my thesis.
Finally, I take the opportunity to express my greatest admiration for my parents
who constantly motivated and encouraged me to keep working towards this goal. I also
thank all my other family members for all the support given during difficult times.

S.M.Ferdous

XI

ABSTRACT
A motor capable of operating in a wide constant power range would suit most for any kind
of traction application. At the same time it must be capable of producing sufficient amount
of torque to meet up the initial starting load demand and acceleration characteristics. In
this thesis a novel concept of controlling a DC motor is proposed where a DC compound
motor is being used for a traction purpose with a provision of winding switch over
technique which will enable the motor to operate in three common forms- Compound,
Series and Shunt configurations respectively. These three separate and independent
configurations will enable the motor to operate in such a way that, it would suit most to
match the Torque-Speed characteristics or the load profile of any conventional traction
load. A detail investigation of the motor as well as the load characterization with the
proposed method has been presented in the paper in terms of torque, speed and power
consumption. A 2 Quadrant Class C DC-DC converter is designed as the main component
of the motor controller which will help the motor to operate at variable speed during motor
mode operation where as using the same converter regeneration is also possible during
braking. Several controller circuits are developed for the purpose such as winding change
over controller, speed sensor, PWM signal generator with variable duty cycle, Hysteresis
current controller for current limiting purpose and magnetic contactors for forward and
reverse motion of the motor. Mathematical model of the DC Compound motor is
developed which is highly non-linear in nature and its characteristics. Hence the system is
linearized and transfer function with associated block diagram is obtained. Both
MATLAB codes and SIMULINK were used to analyze and represent the system. The
response curve for Speed, Torque, Current and Power were obtained. The converter is
simulated using LTSpice for various duty cycles to observe the adaptability and
compliance of it when integrated with the system for variable speed operation. Significant
improvements in vehicle performance were observed such as higher staring torque, rapid
acceleration with smaller acceleration time and the most important achievement is to attain
a higher final vehicle speed which is not possible to obtain using any other types of motor
with such power ratings. This point simply implies the fact that, this novel switching
technique maximizes and utilizes the full capacity of the motor which is capable of
operating at high torque and low speed during starting where as at low torque and high
speed at rated condition. But obviously, for a higher speed operation the load torque
demand and the power consumption will be more. That means a higher speed operation
along with improved vehicle performance will be achieved at the expense of larger energy
consumption. The results suggest that, though conventional DC motors are no more being
used for modern traction purpose, but yet it may be proven as an eligible candidate for
automotive traction once again using this new technique as the results showed
considerable performance improvement.

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