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Medically Important Helminths

Worm

Type

Transmission

Disease

Treatment

Enterobius
vermicularis

Nematode
(roundworm)
Pinworm

Food
contaminated
with eggs

Intestinal infection &


anal pruritus (scotch
tape test)

Mebendazole /
Pyrantel Pamoate

Ascaris
lumbricoides

Nematode
(roundworm)
Giant roundworm

Food
contamination
(?)
Eggs visible in
feces

Intestinal infection

Mebendazole /
Pyrantel Pamoate

Trichinella
spiralis

Nematode
(roundworm)

Undercooked
meat (pork)

Strongyloides
stercoralis

Nematode
(roundworm)

Larvae in soil
penetrate feet

Ancylostoma
duodenale &
Necator
americanus

Nematode
(roundworm)
Hookworm

Larvae in soil
penetrate feet

Dracunculus
medinensis

Nematode
(roundworm)

Drinking water

Muscle inflammation
(larvae encyst in
muscle); periorbital
edema

Intestinal infection;
vomiting, diarrhea,
anemia

Intestinal infection;
can cause anemia
(sucks blood from
intestinal walls)

Skin inflammation &


ulceration, guinea
worm

Thiabendazole

Ivermectin /
Thiabendazole

Mebendazole /
Pyrantel Pamoate

Niridazole

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Medically Important Helminths


Onchocera
volvulus

Nematode
(roundworm)

Loa Loa

Nematode
(roundworm)

Deer fly, horse


fly, mango fly

Wuchereria
bancrofti

Nematode
(roundworm)

Female
mosquito

Toxocara
canis

Nematode
(roundworm)

Food
contaminated
with eggs

Taenia solium

Cestode
(tapeworm)

Female
blackflies

Ingestion of
larvae or eggs
from
undercooked
pork

River blindness,
skin nodules and
lizard skin; allergic
rxn to microfilaria
can occur

Swelling in skin,
worm visual in
conjunctiva

Blockage of
lymphatics =
elephantitis (9
month - 1 year
before symptoms)

Granulomas (if in
retina = blindness);
visceral larva
migrans (~ in liver,
etc ...)

Larvae: Intestinal
tapeworms
Eggs: Cysticercosis
&
neurocysticercosis;
mass lesions in brain

Ivermectin

Diethylcarbamazin
e

Diethylcarbamazin
e

Diethylcarbamazin
e

Praziquantel:
intestinal
worms/cysticercos
is
Albendazole:
neurocysticercosis

Medically Important Helminths

Diphyllobothri
um latum

Cestode
(tapeworm)

Ingestion of
larvae from raw,
freshwater fish

Vitamin B12
defiency &
subsequent anemia

Praziquantel

Echinococcus
granulosus

Cestode
(tapeworm)

Ingestion of
eggs from dog
feces

Cysts in liver;
anaphylaxis if cyst
ruptures

Albendazole

Host: snails;
cercariae
penetrate skin
or via water
contamination

Granulomas, fibrosis
& inflammation of
liver & spleen
Chronic infection can
lead to bladder
squamous cell
carcinoma
Inflammation of the
biiary tract;
associated with
cholangiocarcinoma

Schistosoma

Trematode (fluke)

Clonorchis
sinensis

Trematode (fluke)

Undercooked
fish

Paragonimus
westermani

Trematode (fluke)

Undercooked
crab meat

Inflammation and
secondary bacterial
infection of the lung

Praziquantel

Praziquantel

Praziquantel