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Referencing Sources

SBI 3UW

You must give credit to any published sources of information that support the writing of lab reports. Scientific writing
does not use quotation marks, instead paraphrase (ie. put in your own words) the ideas, then refer to the source using an accepted
format, such as the (Name, year) system (see examples below), or a numbered superscript 1. These references in the body of the
report are abbreviations that point to a full citation given as a footnote or an endnote. If the (Name, year) system is used, the
References section at the end of the report lists the sources in alphabetical order. If a numbered system is used, the sources are
listed in chronological order. Only sources that have been referenced in the text may be included in the References section.
Examples of references in the body of the report, including both the Hypothesis and Conclusion sections
If the paper has one or two authors, cite the last name(s) only:
cells in the medulla send out nerve impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to speed up their action (Berry and
Lynn, 1990).
or
Berry and Lynn (1990) state that cells in the medulla send out nerve impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to speed
up their action.
If the paper has three or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author and follow with et al. This abbreviation
originates from Latin meaning and others.
hearing apparatus within the cochlea is known as the organ of Corti (Di Giuseppe, et al, 2003).
or
Di Giuseppe et al., 2003 state that the hearing apparatus within the cochlea is known as the organ of Corti.
If you have had a discussion with a teacher, and you obtained information from him or her that you could not find in a published
source, recognize this persons contribution as follows:
may be explained by turning the culture tube over too fast (Busch, personal communication).
It is not necessary to include personal communication in the References section. Do not use personal communication as the only
source in a lab report, and be sure to include a reputable source in every Hypothesis and Conclusion written!
Examples of full citations:
Journal article
All authors names separated by commas. Year of publication. Article title volume
number(issue number): inclusive pages.
Busch CP, Ramdath DD, Ramsewak S, Hegele RA.1999. Association of PON2 variation with birth weight in Trinidadian neonates
of South Asian ancestry. Pharmacogenetics. 1999; 9(3):351-6.
Article in a book
All authors names separated by commas. Year of publication. Article title. In: Editors
names, editors. Book title. Edition. Publishers location: Publishers name. pp inclusive
pages.
Dennison DS. 1979. Phototropism. In: Haupt W, Feinleib ME, editors. Encyclopedia of
Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol 7, Physiology of Movements. Berlin: Springer
Verlag. pp 506-566.
Book
All authors names [or editor(s)]. Year of publication. Title of Book. Publishers location:
Name of publisher. Page numbers (or number of pages).
Campbell N, Reece J. 2002. Biology. San Francisco: Pearson / Benjamin Cummings. p112-113
Di Giuseppe M, Vavitsas A, Ritter B, Fraser D, Arora A, Lisser B. 2003. Biology 12.
Toronto: Nelson, Thomson Canada Limited. 832 p.
Internet
Jacobson JW, Mulick JA, Schwartz AA. 1995. A history of facilitated communication: Science,
pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American
Psychologist 1995; 50:750-765. Retrieved January 25, 1996 from http://www.apa.org/journals/jacobson.html
An online reference formatting tool, such as www.easybib.com is useful. The type of reference format used does not matter, as
long as you are consistent and use a recognized format, and use references where they are needed.