Case: Bailey v.

West Parties: Plaintiff Bailey, keeper of a horse farm Defendant - West, assumed owner of the racehorse

Procedural History: The case was tried before a justice of the superior court sitting without a jury, and resulted in a decision for the plaintiff for his cost of boarding the horse for the five months immediately subsequent to when the plaintiff took the horse in, and for certain expenses incurred by him in trimming its hoofs. The cause is now before us on the plaintiff's appeal and defendant's cross-appeal from the judgment entered pursuant to such decision. Facts: Defendant purchased a race horse, 'Bascom's Folly" and arranged to have it shipped to him. Upon its arrival, defendant's trainer discovered the horse was lame. Defendant then ordered that the horse be shipped back to the seller. Seller refused to accept delivery, and so the van driver, Kelly, called defendant's trainer for further instructions. During this conversation, defendant's trainer told Kelly, "***he would have to do whatever he wanted to do with the horse, that he wouldn't be on any farm at the defendant's expense***." Plaintiff was not aware of this conversation, but was aware that there was a controversy surrounding the ownership of the horse. Issue No.1 : Did the trial judge err when he found a contract "implied in fact" when the plaintiff acted to benefit the defendant , even though the defendant did not intend on incurring any expenses and the plaintiff was not certain whom he was making a contract with? Objective intent Summary of Arguments No. 1: The defendant shipped the horse to the seller, not the plaintiff, and furthermore, expressed that defendant had instructed Kelly that defendant would not be responsible for boarding the horse on any farm. Additionally, the plaintiff knew from the time Kelly delivered him the horse that there was a dispute regarding the horse's ownership, and his subsequent actions indicated he did not know with whom, if anyone, he had a contract. Holding/Rule No.1: The trail justice overlooked and misconceived material evidence which established beyond question that there never existed between the parties an element essential to the formulation of any true contract, namely, an "intent to contract." Reasoning No. 1: An implied contract must have discernable terms. For such a situation to exist, the parties must exhibit mutual expressions of agreement. Issue No. 2: Assuming the trial justice was in essence predicting defendant's liability upon a quasi-contractual theory, was the plaintiff acting as a volunteer which would null the rule of quasi-contract? Summary of Arguments No. 2: Since plaintiff knew at the time he accepted the horse for boarding that a controversy surrounded its ownership, plaintiff could not reasonably expect compensation from defendant, nor can it be said that defendant agreed in the conferment of a benefit upon him. The defendant, upon receipt of plaintiff's first bill, immediately notified him that he was not the owner of "Bascom's Folly" and would not be responsible for its keep. Holding/Rule No.1: The plaintiff was a volunteer who boarded and maintained "Bascom's Folly" at his own risk and with the full knowledge that he might not be reimbursed for expenses he incurred incident hereto. Reasoning No. 2: The essential elements of a quasi contract are a benefit

conferred upon the defendant by plaintiff, appreciation by defendant of such benefit, and acceptance and retention by defendant of such benefit under such circumstances tat it would be inequitable to retain the benefit with payment o the value thereto. Judgment/order: The Supreme Court denied and dismissed plaintiff's appeal, sustained the defendant's cross-appeal, and the cause is remanded to the superior court for entry of judgment for the defendant. Implied in fact - must have objective intent