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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &


TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

1/3
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

10/2/2012

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To familiar with the physical properties of minerals in laboratory by hand.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a)
b)

Students should able to identify various specimens of mineral by physical testing.


Students should able to identify minerals content in rock formation.

3.0 THEORY
Each mineral possesses certain physical properties or characteristics by which it may be recognized or
identified. Some are subjected to certain simple tests. Physical properties are useful in mineral identification.
A mineral can be defined as a natural inorganic substance having a particular chemical composition or range of
composition, and a regular atomic structure to which its crystalline from is related. To study rocks, it is necessary
to know the common minerals that formed the rock.

4.0 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Minerals from Reference Set


Hardness Pens Set
Information & Hints
Eye dropper bottle with dilute HCI (appx. 10% solution)
Mineral Identification Chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples according by doing few physical tests and tabulate
the results from the observation in the Table 1.1 attached for:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Name of mineral
Colour
Luster
Hardness
Reaction with acid
Others/usage

Prepared by

Name

Signature

Date

Lecturer
Aziman Madun

10 February 2012

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

2/3
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

10/2/2012

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


(a) MINERALS NAMES
Refer to the samples prepared (Mineral from reference set).
(b) COLOUR
The colour of the mineral is that seen by eye. Colour may be influenced by impurities in the sample, the light in
the room or strong reflective surfaces. Therefore, colour is a general rather than specific indicator.
(c) STREAK
Streak is the colour of a mineral in its powdered form. We can observe streak when we scraped a mineral
along a roughened surface such as unglazed pottery (porcelain slab streak plate), that mark left behind can
be a characteristic feature of the mineral. The streak is not necessarily the same as the colour of the mineral.
(d) LUSTRE
Luster is reflected from the surface of a mineral, the amount of light is a function of the state of the surface.
Luster is described in terms of the degree of brightness.
Metallic
Submetallic
Dull
Viterous

Like polished metal


Less brilliant
e.g. chalk
Like broken glass

(e) HARDNESS
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion (scratching) is termed hardness. This property is determined by
rubbing the mineral to be identified against another mineral of known hardness. One will stretch the other
(unless they have the same hardness). Geologists used a standard hardness scale, called the Mohs scale
developed by German Mineralogist Friedrich Mohs (1773 1839) which assigns relative hardnesses to
several common and a few rare and precious minerals as given below.
Relative hardness
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Minerals
Diamond
Corundum
Topaz
Quartz
Feldspar
Apatite
Fluorite
Calcite
Gypsum
Talc

Mineralogy
Carbon
Alumina
Aluminium silicate
Silica
Alkali silica
Calcium phosphate
Calcium fluoride
Calcium carbonate
Hydrated calcium sulphate
Hydrated magnesium silicate

(f) REACTION WITH ACID


When dilute hydrochloric acid (typically 10%) is capped on to some minerals a reaction takes place. On calcite
(CaCO3) bubbles of carbon dioxide are produced, in some iron sulphide ores, hydrogen sulphide is produced.

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

3/3
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

10/2/2012

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)


1.

Discuss the problem encountered while identify the minerals using field test technique (simple test).

2.

Briefly describe how to identify minerals using laboratory technique (aided by equipments).

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your results of the mineral samples in the Table 1.1 by rate its significance in construction industry, etc.

QUESTION AND DISSCUSSION

CONCLUSION

TABLE 1.1

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS IDENTIFICATION

NAME

COLOUR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNESS

REACTION WITH
ACID

AUGITE

GRAYISH
BLACK

WHITE

SUB METALIC

5.6

NO

WHITE

SUB METALIC

NO

WHITE

NON METALIC

3.35

NO

FLUORITE

VERY PALE
GREEN

BARITE

WHITE

TALC

BLUISH WHITE

WHITE

SUB METALIC

YES

HORNBLENDE MEDIUM LIGHT


GREY

WHITE

NON METALIC

5.5 6.5

YES

SKETCH

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK (LAB 1b)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

1/2
LAB 1b

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing features of igneous rock specimen in the laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a)
b)
c)

Students should able to recognize types of igneous rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.
Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of igneous rocks for civil engineering application.
Students should able to understand igneous rock forming on the earth.

3.0 THEORY
(a) Criteria for distinguishing igneous rock
In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on
weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is igneous or other types of rock. The outstanding
characteristics of the igneous rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by itself proof positive
that the rock belongs to a certain class.

Rock Type

Characteristic
Interlocking grains, massive structures

Igneous

Texture such as glassy, prophyritic, phaneritic, aphantic


High feldspar or ferromagnesian content
Absent of stratification or fossils

(b) Description
Physical characteristics

Colour
Massive rock is uniform in appearance showing no banding or other structural features

Structure

Pegmatite the rock is very coarse grained


Vesicular the rock contains many cavities
Crystallinty or degree of crystallization
Holocrystalline wholly crystalline
Hemicrystalline partly crystals and partly glass
Holohyaline wholly glass

Texture
Granularity, the size of crystals
Fine-grained when particles are 1 mm or less in diameter
Medium grained when particles are 1 5 mm or more in diameter
Coarse grained when the particles are 5 mm or more in diameter

Prepared by

Head of Engineering Geology and Geophysics Laboratory / Lecturer

Name

Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin

Signature

Date

8 January 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

NO. OF PAGES:

2/2

DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &


TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK (LAB 1b)

EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

LAB 1b

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

8/1/2007

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Igneous rock from reference set
b) Igneous classification chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the igneous classification charts and tabulate the
results observation in the Tables 1.2.1 attached.

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


a) Rock name
b) Texture
c) Colour
d) Mineral composition
e) Chemical composition
f) Origin
g) Sketch / Others

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)


(1) Briefly explain two (2) types of igneous rock
(2) Explain the igneous rock classification according to the texture and chemical and mineral composition.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your observation of the igneous rock in the given Table 1.2.1 by rate its significance in construction industry, etc.

CONCLUSION AND DISSCUSION

CONCLUSION

TABLE 1.2.1
ROCK
NAME
OBSIDIAN

RHYOLITE

TEXTURE

APHANITIC
EVEN
PORPHYRITIC

FRAGMENTAL

COLOUR

LIGHT

LIGHT < 25%


DARK MINERAL

IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK

MINERAL COMPOSITION

MUSCOVITE
QUARTZ
ORTHOCLASE
HORNBLENDE
PLAGROCLASE
BIOTITE

MUSCOVITE
QUARTZ
ORTHOCLASE
HORNBLENDE
BIOTITE

CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION

ACID
> 60%

ACID
> 65%

ORIGIN

MAGMA

MAGMA

SKETCH

BIOTITEGRANITE

BASALT

MEDIUM TO
COURSE,
PHANERIC

APHANITIC
EVEN
PORPHYRITIC

LIGHT < 25%


DARK MINERAL

DARK MINERAL
PRECOMINANT

MUSCOVITE
QUARTZ
ORTHOCLASE
HORNBLENDE
BIOTITE

MAGNETITE &
ILMENITE
HORNBLENDE
AUGITE
OLIVINE
PLAGIOCLASE

ACID
> 65%

45% - 55%
BASIC

MAGMA

MAGMA

GABBRO

MEDIUM TO
COURSE,

DARK MINERAL
PRECOMINANT

MUSCOVITE
QUARTZ
ORTHOCLASE
HORNBLENDE
BIOTITE

45% - 55%
BASIC

MAGMA

IGNEOUS CLASSIFICATION CHART

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK
(LAB 1c)

NO. OF PAGES:

1/2

EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

LAB 1c

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT
DATE:

8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing features of sedimentary rock specimen in the laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a) Students should able to recognize types of sedimentary rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.
b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of sedimentary rocks for civil engineering application.
c) Students should able to understand sedimentary rock forming on the earth.

3.0 THEORY
(a) Criteria for distinguishing sedimentary rock

In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on
weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is sedimentary or other types of rock. The
outstanding characteristics of the sedimentary rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by
itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class.

Rock Type

Characteristic
Stratification and sorting of grains into layers according to their size.
Fragmental texture.
Grains often rounded.

Sedimentary

Structures such as bedding, ripple marks and mud cracks.


Presence of fossils.
Presence of minerals of chemical or organic origin, such as halite, gypsum, chert carbonates.
Absence of easily weathered minerals such as biotite and augite.

(b) Description

Physical characteristics
Structure

Colour
Massive, bedded or cross bedded
Note whether grain is uniform or uneven.

Grain and constituents

To be uneven, there must be marked contras between larger and smaller grains. If
the rock is uniform, it is usually fine in grain and does not show definite fragments,
but may contain fossils.

Prepared by

Lecturer

Name

Aziman Madun

Signature

Date

8 January 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK
(LAB 1c)

NO. OF PAGES:

2/2

EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

LAB 1c

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT
DATE:

8/1/2007

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Sedimentary rock from reference set
b) Sedimentary classification chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the sedimentary classification charts and
tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1.2.2 attached.

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


a) Rock name
b) Texture
c) Mode of origin
d) Composition of clastic rock
e) Composition of crystalline rock
f) Sketch / others

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)


(1) List the characteristics that distinguish sedimentary rocks from igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(2) Explain all the genesis of sedimentary rocks.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your observation of the sedimentary rock in the given Table 1.2.2 by rate its significance in construction
industry, etc.

QUESTION AND DISSCUSION

CONCLUSION

TABLE 1.2.2
ROCK NAME

TEXTURE

IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK

MODE OF
ORIGIN

COMPOSITION
OF ROCK

COASLOMERATE

RED SAND
STONE

CLASTIC

CRYSTALINE

MICH OR
BIOLASTIC

HYDROGENIC
BIOCHEMICAL
OR
CHEMICALLY
ALTERED

QUARTZ &
FELDSPAR ROCK
FRAGMENTS
NOYISILTY,
SANDY,
FERRUGIRIOUS,
CARBONOUOUS

SILICIOUS,
FERRUGIRIOUS,
VARIOUS SALTS,
CALCEREOUS

CLASSIFICATION

SEDIMENT

SEDIMENT

SKETCH

ARGILLA CEOUS
SAND STONE

SHELL
LIMESTONE

BITUMINOUS
COAL

CRYSTALINE

CLASTIC

CRYSTALINE

HYDROGENIC
BIOCHEMICAL
OR
CHEMICALLY
ALTERED

MICH OR
BIOLASTIC

HYDROGENIC
BIOCHEMICAL
OR
CHEMICALLY
ALTERED

SILICIOUS,
FERRUGIRIOUS,
VARIOUS SALTS,
CALCEREOUS

SEDIMENT

QUARTZ &
FELDSPAR ROCK
FRAGMENTS
NOYISILTY,
SANDY,
FERRUGIRIOUS,
CARBONOUOUS

SEDIMENT

SILICIOUS,
FERRUGIRIOUS,
VARIOUS SALTS,
CALCEREOUS

SEDIMENT

SEDIMENTARY CLASSIFICATION CHART

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK
(LAB 1d)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

1/2
LAB 1d

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing features of metamorphic rock specimen in the laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a)
b)
c)

Students should able to recognize types of metamorphic rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.
Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of metamorphic rocks for civil engineering application.
Students should able to understand metamorphic rock forming on the earth.

3.0 THEORY
(a) Criteria for distinguishing sedimentary rock

In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on
weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is metamorphic or other types of rock. The
outstanding characteristics of the metamorphic rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by
itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class.

Rock Type

Characteristic
Parallel orientation of mineral crystals.

Metamorphic

Interlocking crystal.
Secondary cleavage independent bedding.
Foliation, schistosity and slaty texture.

(b) Description

Physical characteristics

Colour
Decide whether the rock is best described as uniform fine grained, medium fine
grained or coarse grained.

Structure and Grain

The coarser grained granular rocks results from high-grade metamorphism in which
great pressure from many directions, not from one direction only, has been the
dominant factor.

Prepared by

Lecturer

Name

Aziman Madun

Signature

Date

8 January 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK
(LAB 1d)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

1/2
LAB 1d

EFECTIVE DATE :

8/1/2007

AMENDMENT DATE:

8/1/2007

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Metamorphic rock from reference set
b) Metamorphic classification chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the metamorphic classification charts and
tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1.2.3 attached.

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


(a) Rock name
(b) Structure
(c) Grain
(d) Mineral composition
(e) Parent Rock
(f) Metamorphism type
(e) Sketch / Others

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)


(1) Define a foliation.
(2) Distinguish between slaty cleavage, phyllitic, schistosity and gneissic texture.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your observation of the metamorphic rock in the given Table 1.2.3 by rate its significance in construction
industry, etc.

QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

TABLE 1.2.4
ROCK
NAME

STRUCTURE

GRAIN

IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK

MINERAL COMPOSITION

SLATE

CATACLASTIC
CLEAVED

VERY
FINE

GNEISS

GNEISSIC

MEDIUM
TO
COARSE

QUARTZ
FELDSPAR
MINOR
FERROMAGNESIANS

MARBLE

GRANULOSE

MEDIUM
TO
COARSE

CALSITE OR
DOLOMITE GREATLY
DOMINANT

QUARTZ GREATLY
PREDOMINANT

QUERTZITE

GRANULOSE

MEDIUM
TO
COARSE

CLAY MINERALS,
DETRITAL MICAS
CHLORITE

PARENT ROCK

METAMORPHISM
TYPE

SHALE
MUDSTONE
TUFF

DYNAMIC

GRANITE
ARKOSE
CONGLOMERATE

REGIONAL

LIMESTONE

CONTACT OR
REGIONAL

QUARTZ
SANDSTONE

REGIONAL

SKETCH

MICA
SCHIST

SCHISTOSE

MEDIUM
TO
COARSE

MICAS,
QUARTZ
FELDSPAR

SHALE
MUDSTONE,TUFF

METAMORPHIC CLASSIFICATION CHART

INCREASING
REGIONAL

Lab Report Assessment


Rubric
CLO 1 (Technical expertise): 10%
Criteria (KI)
1
Introduction
Result and analysis
Question and Discussion
Relevant calculation /
information
Conclusion
Total

CLO 2 (Communication skill): 2.5%


Criteria (KI)
1
Material and organization
Short and ease to understand
Attractive presentation
Total

Weightage
0.25
0.5
0.5

Total

0.5
0.25
Total = 10%

Weightage
0.17
0.17
0.16
Total = 2.5%

Total