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mechanical vibration

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College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

Mechanical Vibrations

804 420 3

Review Questions ( I )

BSc, MSc PhD

Room No.: 1080

Tel.: 00966 (012) 5270000 Ext.: 1163

E-mail: mssoufi@uqu.edu.sa

4. Harmonic Motions

Ministry of Higher Education

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

Section (1)

Q.1: Give brief answers to the following:

1. Give two examples each of the bad and the good effects of vibration?

2. What are the three elementary parts of a vibrating system?

3. Define the number of degrees of freedom of a vibrating system?

4. What is the difference between a discrete and a continuous system? Is it possible to solve

any vibration problem as a discrete one?

5. In vibration analysis, can damping always be disregarded?

6. What is the difference between deterministic and random vibration? Give two practical

examples of each?

7. How do you connect several springs to increase the overall stiffness?

8. Define spring stiffness and damping constant?

9. Define these terms: cycle, amplitude, phase angle, linear frequency, period, and natural

frequency?

10. How are

related to each other?

11. How do you add two harmonic motions having different frequencies?

12. What are beats?

13. Define the terms decibel and octave?

Section (2)

Q.2: Indicate whether each of the following statements is True or False:

(1) If energy is lost in any way during vibration, the system can be considered to

be damped.

(2) The superposition principle is valid for both linear and nonlinear systems.

(3) The frequency with which an initially disturbed system vibrates on its own is

known as natural frequency.

(4) Any periodic function can be expanded into a Fourier series.

(5) A harmonic motion is a periodic motion.

(6) The equivalent mass of several masses at different locations can be found

using the equivalence of kinetic energy.

True

(

)

False

(

)

(

(

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)

(

(

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)

(

(

(

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(

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)

Section (3)

Q.3: Fill in the blank with the proper word:

Systems undergo dangerously large oscillations at .

Undamped vibration is characterized by no loss of .

A vibratory system consists of a spring, damper, and .

If a motion repeats after equal intervals of time, it is called a . motion.

When acceleration is proportional to the displacement and directed toward the mean

position, the motion is called . harmonic.

6. The time taken to complete one cycle of motion is called the . of vibration.

7. The number of cycles per unit time is called the . of vibration.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Ministry of Higher Education

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

9. If a system vibrates due to initial disturbance only, it is called . Vibration.

10. If a system vibrates due to an external excitation, it is called . vibration.

11. Continuous or distributed systems can be considered to have . number of degrees of

freedom.

12. Systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom are called . systems.

Section (4)

Q.4: Select the most appropriate answer from the multiple choices given:

1. The number of degrees of freedom of a simple pendulum is:

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

2. The graphical representation of the amplitudes and phase angles of the various frequency

components of a periodic function is known as a

(a) spectral diagram

(b) frequency diagram

(c) harmonic diagram

3. When a system vibrates in a fluid medium, the damping is

(a) viscous

(b) Coulomb

(c) solid

(a) viscous

(b) Coulomb

(c) solid

5. When the stress-strain curve of the material of a vibrating system exhibits a hysteresis loop,

the damping is

(a) viscous

(b) Coulomb

(c) solid

6.

The equivalent spring constant of two parallel springs with stiffnesses k1 and k2 is

(b)

(c)

7.

The equivalent spring constant of two series springs with stiffnesses k1 and k2 is

(a)

(a)

(b)

8.

(a)

(c)

(b)

(c)

Ministry of Higher Education

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

Section (5)

Q.5: Match the equivalent spring constants:

k1 = 20 N/m, k2 = 50 N/m, k3 = 100 N/m and k4 = 200 N/m

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

k1, k2, k3, and k4 are in series

k1 and k2 are in parallel (keq = k12)

k3 and k4 are in parallel (keq = k34)

k1, k2 and k3, are in parallel (keq = k123)

k123 is in series with k4

k2, k3, and k4 are in parallel (keq = k234)

k1 and k234 are in series

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

18.9189 N/m

370.0 N/m

11.7647 N/m

300.0 N/m

70.0 N/m

170.0 N/m

350.0 N/m

91.8919 N/m

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

Section (6)

Q.6: Give brief answers to the following:

1. Can the energy method be used to find the differential equation of motion of all singledegree-of-freedom systems?

2. What assumptions are made in finding the natural frequency of a single-degree-of-freedom

system using the energy method?

3. State the parameters corresponding to m, c, k, and x for a torsional system?

4. What effect does a decrease in mass have on the frequency of a system?

5. What effect does a decrease in the stiffness of the system have on the natural period?

6. Why does the amplitude of free vibration gradually diminish in practical systems?

7. Why is it important to find the natural frequency of a vibrating system?

8. Is the frequency of a damped free vibration smaller or greater than the natural frequency of

the system?

9. What is the use of the logarithmic decrement?

10. What is critical damping, and what is its importance?

11. What happens to the energy dissipated by damping?

12. What is the reason for studying the vibration of a single-degree-of-freedom system?

13. How can you find the natural frequency of a system by measuring its static deflection?

14. What is the significance of c < 0?

Section (7)

Q.7: Indicate whether each of the following statements is True or False:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

A system vibrating in air can be considered a damped system.

The equation of motion of a single-degree-of-freedom system will be the

same whether the mass moves in a horizontal plane or an inclined plane.

When a mass vibrates in a vertical direction, its weight can always be

ignored in deriving the equation of motion.

The principle of conservation of energy can be used to derive the equation

True

(

)

(

)

(

)

False

(

)

(

)

(

)

Ministry of Higher Education

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

(6)

(7)

(8)

The damped frequency can in some cases be larger than the undamped

natural frequency of the system.

The damped frequency can be zero in some cases.

The natural frequency of vibration of a torsional system is given by

where k and m denote the torsional spring constant and the polar mass

moment of inertia, respectively.

(9) Rayleighs method is based on the principle of conservation of energy.

(10) For an undamped system, the velocity leads the displacement by

(11) For an undamped system, the velocity leads the acceleration by

(12) The motion diminishes to zero in both underdamped and overdamped cases.

(13) The logarithmic decrement can be used to find the damping ratio.

(14) The characteristic equation of a single-degree-of-freedom system can have

one real root and one complex root.

(

(

)

)

(

(

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)

(

(

)

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(

(

)

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(

(

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(

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Section (8)

Q.8: Fill in the blank with the proper word:

1. The logarithmic decrement denotes the rate at which the . of a free damped vibration

decreases.

2. The free vibration of an undamped system represents interchange of . and .

energies.

3. A system undergoing simple harmonic motion is called a . oscillator.

4. The mechanical clock represents a . pendulum.

5. Rayleighs method can be used to find the . frequency of a system directly

6. Any two successive displacements of the system, separated by a cycle, can be used to find

the . decrement.

7. The damped natural frequency

can be expressed in terms of the undamped natural

frequency

as .

Section (9)

Q.9: Select the most appropriate answer from the multiple choices given:

1. The natural frequency of a system with mass m and stiffness k is given by:

(a)

(b)

(c)

velocity is given by:

(a)

(b)

(c)

Ministry of Higher Education

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) linear coordinate

(b) angular coordinate

(c) force coordinate

5. The damping ratio, in terms of the damping constant c and critical damping constant cc is

given by

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) periodic

(b) aperiodic

(c) harmonic

7. If the characteristic roots have positive real values, the system response will be:

(a) stable

(b) unstable

(c) asymptotically stable

8. The frequency of oscillation of the response of a system will be higher if the imaginary part

of the roots is:

(a) smaller

(b) zero

(c) larger

9. If the characteristic roots have a zero imaginary part, the response of the system will be:

(a) oscillatory

(b) nonoscillatory

(c) steady

Section (10)

Q.10: Match the following for a single-degree-of-freedom system with m = 1, k = 2, and c = 0.5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Natural frequency,

Linear frequency,

Natural time period,

Damped frequency,

Critical damping constant,

Damping ratio,

Logarithmic decrement,

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

1.3919

2.8284

2.2571

0.2251

0.1768

4.4429

1.4142

(

(

(

(

(

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)

)

)

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