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MINI PROJECT REPORT 2014

OVER SPEED ALARM FOR TWO-WHEELERS

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
.

Riding of two wheeler needs constant attention. The moment you become

unmindful of the high speed, applying sudden breaks to avoid obstacles may lead to an
accident.
An over-speed alarm can be of great helpful to avoid such situations. It acts like a
watchful friend that warns

you or make you aware whenever you drive faster than the set

speed limit.
So here we are presenting a simple circuit given further with a property of Hall
Effect. Hall Effect sensor is the bone of this circuit. Over speed indicator totally depends on
this sensor and the complete kit should be placed on the handle and the speaker magnate is
at the wheel drum. The whole circuit uses 12v battery as the voltage source

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CHAPTER 2
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION
2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Hall sensor

Frequency to
voltage
convertor

Comparator

Loud speaker

Music generator

FIG 2.1 Block diagram

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2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


2.2.1 HALL SENSOR
Hall sensor is one of the major part of the project. A Hall effect sensor is a
transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field. Hall sensor, which
works on the basis of Hall Effect. When the magnet aligns with hall sensor a voltage is
generated when the aligning is lost the voltage will fall. Thus it produces a voltage
proportional to magnetic field intensity.

2.2.2 FREQUENCY TO VOLTAGE CONVERTER


It consist of an input amplifier with built in hysteresis ,a charge pump frequency to
voltage convertor ,a versatile op-amp comparator with an uncommitted output transistor
and an active zener regulator. The inbuilt charge pump technique converts frequency to
proportional voltage with the help of external passive components which is available at the
shorted junction of pin 5&10

2.2.3 COMPARATOR
Output from the frequency to voltage convertor is fed to comparator and compared
with the reference voltage set using preset. The comparator provide regulated 3.3V(via
zener diode to music generator.

2.2.4 MUSIC GENERATOR


To generate music when the speed become high than the set limit speed. We use
um66 IC as music generator.
2.2.5 LOUD SPEAKER
A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is an electro acoustic transducer that converts an
electrical signal into sound. The speaker moves in accordance with the variations of an
electrical signal and causes sound waves to propagate through a medium such as air or
water

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CHAPTER 3
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & DESCRIPTION

3.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

FIG 3.1.Circuit diagram

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3.2 CIRCIT WORKING


Hallsensor A1302(IC1)gives an output proportional to the magnetic field intensity,
which is converted into pulse by op-amp LM358. LED1 glows to indicate a high pulse
output. The sensitivity of op-amp LM358 can be adjusted using preset VR1.
The

output of

LM358

(IC2)

is

applied

to

frequency-to-voltage

converter LM2917N (IC3).LM2917N consists of an input amplifier with builtin hysteres


is, a charge pump frequency-to-voltage converter, a versatile op-amp/comparator with an
uncommitted output transistor, and an active Zener regulator. The in built charge
pump technique of LM2917N converts the frequency into a proportional voltage with the
help of external passive components (capacitor C3 and preset VR2), which is available at
shorted junction of pins 5 and 10. Preset VR2 is used to get stable output voltage.
The output of LM2917N is filtered by capacitors C4 and C5 and applied to the noninverting input (pin 3) of low-noise opamp TL071 (IC4). IC4 is wired as a differential
amplifier to amplify the difference between its inverting and non-inverting inputs.
Thus IC3 output proportional to the speed change is amplified by op-amp IC4. The
output from pin 6 of IC4 is fed to comparator CA3130 and compared with the reference
voltage set at its pin 2 using preset VR4. The comparator provides regulated 3.3V (via
zener diode ZD1) to music generator UM66. The output of UM66 drives speaker LS1 with
the help of transistor T1, to sound an alarm whenever the two wheeler over speeds.
The circuit is powered by the 7v battery of two wheeler. IC 7805 is used to provide
regulated 5V to IC1 & IC2. Capacitor C8 & C9 bypass the ripples present in the supply.
LED2 acts as power indicator and R12 limits the current through LED2.

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CHAPTER 4
COMPONENT LIST AND DESCRIPTION
4.1 COMPONENT LIST
1. RESISTORS - 220,470,10k,560k,100
2. CAPACITORS 0.1u,22n(Polyester capacitor),
220u,470,0.47,2.20(Electrolytic capacitor)
3. IC LM2917
4. IC LM358
5. IC CA 3130
6. IC TL071
7. IC 7805
8. IC A1302
9. IC UM66
10. TRANSISTOR BC548
11. DIODE 1N4148,1N4007
12. LED
13. LOUDSPEAKER
14. 12V BATTERY

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4.2 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION

4.2.1 RESISTORS
A resistor is a two terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its
terminal that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with
ohms law

.
FIG 4.1 RESISTORS
Resistance
Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow of electric
current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component drives the current as heat.
Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0.1 or as high as
10M.size and position of the leads are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be
physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating power. We are using the ranges:
100 to 100k.

4.2.2 TRANSISTOR BC548


The transistor is a component with 3electric wires coming out of it. They are named
B(base), C( collector) and E ( emitter).

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals.


It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for
connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistors
terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the
controlled(output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the
transistor provides amplification of a signal. Today, some transistors are packed
individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuit.

FIG 4.2 BC 548 TRANSISTOR

4.2.2.1 TRANSISTOR AS A SWITCH


Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, both for high- power
applications such as switched mode power supplies and for low power applications such as
logic gates.

4.2.2.2 TRANSISTOR AS AN AMPLIFIER


The common emitter amplifier is designed so that a small change in voltage in (VIN)
changes the small current through the base of the transistor and the transistors current
amplification combines with the properties of the circuit mean that small swings in VIN
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produce large change in VOUT. Here we are using BC 548 which is a general purpose low
power IC used for amplification.

4.2.3 HALL SENSOR


The Hall sensor IC A1302 is continuous-time, ratio metric, linear Hall-effect sensor
IC. It is optimized to accurately provide a voltage output that is proportional to an applied
magnetic field. These devices have a quiescent output voltage that is 50% of the supply
voltage. Two output sensitivity options are provided: 2.5 mV/G typical for the A1302 and
1.3 mV/G typical for the A1302.
The Hall-effect integrated circuit included in this device includes a Hall sensing
element, a linear amplifier, and a CMOS Class A output structure. Integrating the Hall
sensing element and the amplifier on a single chip minimizes many of the problems
normally associated with low voltage level analog signals.
High precision in output levels is obtained by internal gain and offset trim
adjustments made at end-of-line during the manufacturing process. These features make the
A1302 ideal for use in position sensing systems, for both linear target motion and rotational
target motion. They are well suited for industrial applications over extended temperature
ranges, from -40C to 125C.

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FIG 4.3 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A1302

Features:
Low-noise output
Fast power-on time
Ratio metric rail-to-rail
output
4.5to 6.0 V operation
Solid-state reliability

FIG 4.4 HALL SENSOR IC

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4.2.4 IC LM358
The LM358 series consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency
compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a
single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is
also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the
power supply voltage.
The LM358 is available in a chip sized package (8-Bump micro SMD) using
Nationals micro SMD package technology.

FIG 4.5 INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF LM358


FEATURES:
Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
Large dc voltage gain: 100 Db
Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
Wide power supply range: 3V to 32V.
Very low supply current drain (500 A)essentially independent of supply
voltage
Low input offset voltage: 2 mV
Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage
Large output voltage swing
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4.2.5 LM2917N IC
LM2917N is a frequency to voltage converter high gain op amp IC, designed to
operate as a relay, lamp and other load when the input frequency reaches or exceeds the
selected rate. The tachometer uses the charge pump technique and offers frequency
doubling for low ripple. It has full input protection. The op amp/comparator is fully
compatible with the tachometer and has a floating transistor as its output. This feature
allows either a ground or supply referred load of up to 50 mA. The collector may be taken
above VCC up to a maximum VCE of 28V.

FIG 4.6 PIN DIAGRAM

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Features:
Ground referenced tachometer input interfaces directly with variable reluctance
magnetic pickups.

Op amp/comparator has floating transistor output

50 mA sink or source to operate relays, solenoids, meters, or LEDs.

Frequency doubling for low ripple.

Built-in zener on LM2917

Ground referenced tachometer is fully protected from damage due to swings above
VCC and below ground.

Applications

Over/under speed sensing.

Frequency to voltage conversion (tachometer) .

Speedometer.

Breaker point dwell meters.

Hand-held tachometer.

Speed governors.

Automotive door lock control.

Clutch control.

Horn control.

4.2.6 TL071 IC
The JFET-input operational amplifiers in the TL07x series are designed as lownoise versions of the TL08x series amplifiers with low input bias and offset currents and
fast slew rate. The low harmonic distortion and low noise make the TL07x series ideally
suited for high-fidelity and audio preamplifier applications.

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Each amplifier features JFET inputs (for high input impedance) coupled with
bipolar output stages integrated on a single monolithic chip.
The C-suffix devices are characterized for operation from 0C to 70C. The I-suffix
devices are characterized for operation from 40C to 85C. The M-suffix devices are
characterized for operation over the full military temperature range of 55C to 125C.

Features

Low Power Consumption

Wide Common-Mode
and Differential Voltage
Ranges

Low Input Bias and


Offset Currents.

Output Short-Circuit
Protection

FIG 4.7 TL071 PINOUT

4.2.7 CA3130 IC
Gate-protected P-Channel MOSFET (PMOS) transistors are used in the input circuit
to provide very-high-input impedance, very-low-input current, and exceptional speed
performance. The use of PMOS transistors in the input stage results in common-mode
input-voltage capability down to 0.5V below the negative-supply terminal.
A CMOS transistor-pair, capable of swinging the output voltage to within 10mV of
either supply-voltage terminal is employed as the output circuit.The CA3130 Series circuits
operate at supply voltages ranging from 5V to 16V, (2.5V to 8V). They can be phase
compensated with a single external capacitor, and have terminals for adjustment of offset
voltage for applications requiring offset-null capability.

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FIG 4.8 PINOUT OF CA3130

Features
MOSFET Input Stage Provides:
- Very High ZI = 1.5 T (1.5 x 1012) (Type)
- Very Low II . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5pA (Type) at 15V Operation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .= 2pA (Type) at 5V Operation
Ideal for Single-Supply Applications
Common-Mode Input-Voltage Range Includes
Negative Supply Rail; Input Terminals can be Swung 0.5V
Below Negative Supply Rail
CMOS Output Stage Permits Signal Swing to Either (or both) Supply Rails.

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4.2.8 UM66 IC
Here is a simple melody generator circuit you can make using an IC. The UM66
series are CMOS ICs designed for using in calling bell, phone and toys. It has a built in
ROM programmed for playing music. The device has very low power consumption. Thanks
for the CMOS technology. The melody will be available at pin3 of UM66 and here it is
amplified by using Q1 to drive the speaker. Resistor R1 limits the base current of Q1 within
the safe values. Capacitor C1 is meant for noise suppression.

Features:

Power supply must be between 1.5V & 4.5V .Do not exceeds 4.5 V.

Speaker can be driven with external NPN transistor.

Melody begins from the first note if power is reseted.

Assemble the circuit on a good quality common board.

If transistor HE8050S is not available use any NPN transistor like BC548 or
2N2222.

FIG 4.9 PIN OUT OF UM66

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Pin
Function
No
1
Melody output
2
Supply voltage (1.5V - 4.5V)
3
Ground (0V)
Table 4.1 Pin description of UM66

Name
Output
Vcc
Ground

FIG 4.10 MELODY GENERATOR USING UM66 IC

4.2.9 7805, 5V regulator IC


7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is member of 78xx series of fixed
linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and
would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output
voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed
to provide. 7805 provides +5V regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be
connected at input and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.
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FIG 4.11 PINOUT OF 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Pin
No

Function

Name

1
2
3

Input voltage (5V-18V)


Ground (0V)
Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V)

Input
Ground
Output

Table 4.2 Pin Description of 7805

Features:

Output Current up to 1A.

Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.

Thermal Overload Protection.

Short Circuit Protection.

Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.

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CHAPTER 5
IMPLEMENTATION

5.1 PCB LAYOUT DESIGN


The first step of assembling is to procure a printing circuit board .The fabrication of
the PCB plays a crucial role in the electronic field. The success of a circuit is also depends
on the PCB. As far as the cost is concerned the more than 25% of the total cost is gone for
the PCB design and fabrication.
Design of a PCB is consider as the last step in electronics circuit design as well as
the first step in production of the PCBs. It forms a distant factor in electronics circuits
performance and reliability. The productivity of the PCB and its assembly and service
ability also depends on the design. The designing of the PCB consist of the designing of the
layout followed by the generation of the artwork. LIVE WIRE PCBWIZARD is a feature
rich software package for designing electronics circuit diagrams.
PCB Fabrication Techniques
The steps in PCB fabrication techniques are described below. The steps involved are
selection of media, photo resist lamination, exposure, developing, etching, and drilling,
cutting, soldering, and finally case making.
A. Media
Artwork quality is very development on both the output devices and the media is
used. It is not necessary to use a transparent artwork medium -long as it is reasonably
translucent to UV, its fine less translucent material may need a slightly longer exposure
time. Line definitions, black opaqueness and toner/ink retention are much more important.
B. Output Devices
Laser printers offer the best all-round solutions. These are affordable, fast and goodquality. The printer used must have at least 600dpi resolution for all but the simplest PCB's
as you will usually be working in multiples of 0.06cm (40 tracks per inch). 600dpi divides
into 40, so you get consistent spacing and line width. It is very important that the printer
produces a good solid black with no toner pinholes. If you're planning to buy a printer for
PCB use, do some test prints on tracing paper to check the quality first. If the printer has a
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density control, set it to the blackest.


C. Photo resist PCB Lamina
Always use good-quality, pre-coated photo resist fiber glass (FR4) board. Check
carefully for scratches in the protective covering and on the surface after peeling off the
covering. You don't need darkroom or subdued lighting when handling boards, as long as
you avoid direct sunlight, minimize unnecessary, and develop immediately after UV
exposure.

D. Exposure
The photo resist board needs to be exposed to UV light through the artwork,

using a UV exposure box. UV exposures units can easily made using standard fluorescent
lamp ballasts and UV tubes. For small PCB's two or four 8-watt, 30.5cm tubes will be
adequate. For larger (A3) units, four 38cm tubes are ideal.
E. Developing
Does not use sodium hydroxide for developing photo resist laminates. It is a
completely and utterly dreadful stuff for developing PCB's. Apart from its causticity, it is
very sensitive to both temperature and concentration, and made-up solution doesn't last
long. When it's too weak it doesn't develop at all, and when too strong it strips all the resist
off. It is almost impossible to get reliable and consistent results, especially when making
PCB's in an environment with temperature variations. A much better developer is a silicatebased product that comes as a liquid concentrate. You can leave the board in it for several
times the normal developing time without noticeable degradation. This also means that it is
not temperature critical no risk of stripping at warmer temperatures. Made-up solution also
has a very long shelf-life and lasts until its used up. You can make the solution up really
strong for very fast developing.
F. Etching
Ferric chloride etchant is a messy stuff, but easily available and cheaper than most
alternatives. It attacks any metal stainless steel. So when up a PCB etching area, uses a
plastic or ceramic sink, with plastic fitting and screws wherever possible, and seals any
metal screws with silicone. Copper water pipes may get splashed or dripped-on, so sleeve
or cover them in plastic; heat-shrink sieving is great if you're installing new pipes.

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G. Tin Plating
Tin-plating a PCB makes it a lot easier to solder, and is pretty much essential for
surface mount boards. Unless you have access to a roller tinning machine, chemical tinning
is the only option. Unfortunately, tin- plating chemicals are expensive but the results are
usually worth it. If you don't tin- plate the board, either leave the photo resist coating on or
spray the board with rework flux to prevent the copper from oxidizing. Room-temperature
tin- plating crystals produce a good finish in a few minutes. There are other tinning
chemicals available, some of which require mixing with acid or high-temperature use.
H. Drilling
If you have fiber glass (FR4) board, you must use tungsten carbide drill bits. Fibre
glass eats normal high-speed steel (HSS) bits very rapidly, although HSS drills are all right
for odd larger sizes (>2mm).Carbide drill bit are expensive and the thin ones snap very
easily. When using carbide drill bits below 1mm, you must use a good vertical drill stand;
you will break very quickly without one. Carbide drill bits are available as straight-shank or
thick shank. In straight shank, the whole bit is the diameter of the hole, and in thick shank, a
standard -size shank tapers down to the hole size.
I. Cutting
A small guillotine is the easiest way to cut fiber glass laminate. Ordinary saws will
be blunted quickly unless these are carbide tipped, and the dust can, cause sink irritation. A
carbide tail- saw blade in a jig saw might be worth a tray. Its also easy to accidently
scratch through protective film when sawing, causing photo resist scratches and broken
teaks on finished board. A sheet metal guillotine is also excellent for cutting boards
provided the blade is fairly sharp. To make cut outs, drill series of small holes, punch out
the end file to size. Alternatively, use after saw or small hack saw, but be prepared to
replace blade often. With practice it is possible two do corner cut outs with a guillotine but
you have two be very careful that you don't over cut.
J. Soldering
Soldering is the joining together of two metals to give physical bonding and good
electrical conductivity. It is used primarily in electrical and electronic circuitry. Solder is a
combination of the metal, which are solid at normal room temperature and became liquid at
between 180 c and 200 c. Solder bonds well to vary metals and extremely well to copper.
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Soldering is a necessary skill you need to learn to successfully build the electronics circuit.
It is a primary way how electronics components are connected to circuit boards, and some
time directly to other components. For soldering we can use the soldering iron.

5.2 PCB LAYOUT

FIG 5.1 PCB LAYOUT

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CHAPTER 6
APPLICATIONS
The circuit helps to prevent accidents in two wheelers due to over speed Avoid the
consequences of speeding: costly speeding tickets, suspended drivers licenses, and
needless injuries and fatalities. The Over Speed alarm For two wheelers is the ultimate
solution to help rebuild and reinforce safe driving habits. It acts like a watchful co-pilot and
warns you every time you are driving faster than you should be. Using micro controllers
and interfacing with GPS we could set the speed limit accordingly to the speed limit of the
road we travel .

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CHAPTER 7
CONCULSION
Here we are using electronic device for reducing the accidents occurring due to the
high speed of riders. If any uncertain condition comes than our device may help in alarming
the person for the increment in speed to the limit. So that rider may reduce the speed and
we can stop that accident. Its main advantage is of low cost and no risk. This job is totally
non risky of using this kit.

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CHAPTER 8
REFERENCES

Electronics For You, published on May 2011


www.wikipedia.com
www.howstuffworks.com

Gaykwad, Op-amps and Linear integrated Circuits, Pearson Education/ PrenticeHall India Ltd, 4/e,2010

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX B

COMPONENTS LIST & COST ESTIMATION

Sr.no

Component

Specification

Quantity

Price
(Rs)

1.

REGULATOR

2.

BATTERY

LM7805

12

9V

40

3V

10

TRANSISTOR

BC 548

4.

RESISTOR

4.7K

IK

10K

100

560K

220

220uF

.47uF

2.2uF

5.

CAPACITORS

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6.

7.

8.

9.

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PRESET

IC

DIODE

10 K

1K

100K

2K

LM358

10

CA 3130

45

TL071

10

LM2917

40

A1302

40

UM66

1N4007

1N4148

ZENER

RED

WHITE

LED

10..

SPEAKER

30

11.

PCB

50

13.

MAGNET

60

TOTAL

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APPENDIX B

DATASHEET

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