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Report File

Submitted To : Proff. S.K. Suman

SID: 12104010

Branch: Electrical B.E. 2nd Year

Date: May 7, 2014

CONTENTS:

(Application of MATLAB Stimulation)

1. Network analysis

2. To Verify network theorems :

a.

Nortonss Theorem

b.

Thevenins Theorem

c.

Superposition Principle

d.

Millmans Theorem

e.

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

3. To verify the Voltage and Current relationships in Three Phase

Circuits

a. Y Connected Supply, Y Connected Load, 3 Wire

Connections

b. Y Connected Supply, Y Connected Load, 4 Wire

Connections

c. Delta Connected Supply, Delta Connected Load

d. Y Connected Supply, Delta Connected Load

e. Delta Connected Supply, Y Connected Load

4. To find out the Z, Y, G, H and ABCD Parameters for a Two-Port

Network(TPN)

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

ABCD Parameters

G Parameters

H Parameters

Y Parameters

Z Parameters

Network Analysis

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such

as resistors, inductors, capacitors, voltage sources, current sources and

switches. An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop,

giving a return path for the current. Linear electrical networks, a special

type consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped

elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed

elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are

linearly superimposable. They are thus more easily analyzed, using

powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to

determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.

A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors and ideal current

and voltage sources. Analysis of resistive circuits is less complicated

than analysis of circuits containing capacitors and inductors. If the

sources are constant (DC) sources, the result is a DC circuit.

A network that contains active electronic components is known as an

electronic circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require

more complex design and analysis tools.

Nortons Theorem

Norton's theorem holds that :

Any linear electrical network with voltage and current

sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an

equivalent current source INO in parallel connection with an equivalent

resistance RNO. This equivalent current INO is the current obtained at

terminals A-B of the network with terminals A-B short circuited. This

equivalent resistance RNO is the resistance obtained at terminals A-B of

the network with all its voltage sources short circuited and all its

current sources open circuited.

Any black box containing resistances only and voltage and current

sources can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of an

equivalent current source in parallel connection with an equivalent

resistance. For AC systems the theorem can be applied to reactive

impedances as well as resistances.

The Norton equivalent circuit is used to represent any network of linear

sources and impedances at a given frequency. Norton's theorem are

widely used for circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit's

initial-condition and steady-state response.

Basic Circuit:

Finding Voc

Finding Isc

Final Circuit

Thevenins Theorem

Thvenin's theorem holds that:

Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only

resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent voltage

source Vth in series connection with an equivalent resistance Rth.. This

equivalent voltage Vth is the voltage obtained at terminals A-B of the

network with terminals A-B open circuited.

This equivalent resistance Rth is the resistance obtained at terminals A-B

of the network with all its independent current sources open circuited

and all its independent voltage sources short circuited.

For AC systems, the theorem can be applied to reactive impedances as

well as resistances.

Thvenin's theorem and its dual, Norton's theorem, are widely used for

circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit's initial-condition and

steady-state response.

Thvenin's theorem can be used to convert any circuit's sources and

impedances to a Thvenin equivalent; use of the theorem may in some

cases be more convenient than use of Kirchhoff's circuit laws

Basic Circuit

Finding Zth

Finding Vth

Superpositions Theorem

The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear

system the response (voltage or current) in any branch of a bilateral

linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the

algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source

acting alone, while all other independent sources are replaced by their

internal impedances.

To ascertain the contribution of each individual source, all of the other

sources first must be "turned off" (set to zero) by:

Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short

circuit (thereby eliminating difference of potential i.e. V=0;

internal impedance of ideal voltage source is zero (short circuit)).

Replacing all other independent current sources with an open

circuit (thereby eliminating current i.e. I=0; internal impedance of

ideal current source is infinite (open circuit)).

This procedure is followed for each source in turn, then the resultant

responses are added to determine the true operation of the circuit. The

resultant circuit operation is the superposition of the various voltage

and current sources.

The superposition theorem is very important in circuit analysis. It is

used in converting any circuit into its Norton equivalent or Thevenin

equivalent.The theorem is applicable to linear networks (time varying

or time invariant) consisting of independent sources, linear dependent

sources, linear passive elements (resistors, inductors, capacitors) and

linear transformers.

Millmans Theorem

Millmans Theorem is a theorem which helps in simplifying electrical

networks with a bunch of parallel branches. It was invented by the

Russian born, American Engineer Jacob Millman. Millmans Theorem

can be used to find the potential difference between two points of a

network which contains only parallel branches.

Millmans Theorem states that:

The total voltage or potential difference between any two terminals in

a circuit is equal to:

Where,

i = the current flowing through each branch.

G = I/R = Admittance of each parallel branch or current source where

R = Internal resistance of each parallel branch or current source.

In above statement of Millmans Theorem the theorem takes into

account only the current flowing through or current source in each

branch. Millmans theorem can also be stated taking the Voltage source

in each branch into account. Using Millmans Theorem we can easily

find the Norton and Thevenin equivalent circuit of a network so,

Millmans Theorem is also sometimes called the combination of

Nortons and Thevenins theorem.

The maximum power transfer theorem states that, to obtain maximum

external power from a source with a finite internal resistance, the

resistance of the load must equal the resistance of the source as

viewed from its output terminals

The theorem results in maximum power transfer, and not maximum

efficiency. If the resistance of the load is made larger than the

resistance of the source, then efficiency is higher, since a higher

percentage of the source power is transferred to the load, but the

magnitude of the load power is lower since the total circuit resistance

goes up.

If the load resistance is smaller than the source resistance, then most of

the power ends up being dissipated in the source, and although the

total power dissipated is higher, due to a lower total resistance, it turns

out that the amount dissipated in the load is reduced.

The theorem states how to choose (so as to maximize power transfer)

the load resistance, once the source resistance is given. It is a common

misconception to apply the theorem in the opposite scenario. It does

not say how to choose the source resistance for a given load resistance.

In fact, the source resistance that maximizes power transfer is always

zero, regardless of the value of the load resistance.

The theorem can be extended to AC circuits that include reactance, and

states that maximum power transfer occurs when the load impedance

is equal to the complex conjugate of the source impedance.

In a three-phase system, three circuit conductors carry three alternating

currents (of the same frequency) which reach their instantaneous peak

values at one third of a cycle from each other. Taking one current as the

reference, the other two currents are delayed in time by one third and two

thirds of one cycle of the electric current. This delay between phases has the

effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and

also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric

motor.

The conductors connected to the three points of a three-phase source or

load are called lines. The phase currents tend to cancel out one another,

summing to zero in the case of a linear balanced load. This makes it possible

to reduce the size of the neutral conductor because it carries little to no

current; all the phase conductors carry the same current and so can be the

same size, for a balanced load.

Three-phase Y connection has three voltage sources connected to a

common point.

Three-phase, four-wire Y connection uses a "common" fourth wire.

Three-phase, three-wire Y connection does not use the neutral wire.

If the Y-connected source or load is balanced, the line voltage will be

equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3:

A two-port network (a kind of four-terminal network ) is an electrical

network (circuit) or device with two pairs of terminals to connect to external

circuits. Two terminals constitute a port if the electric current entering one

terminal equals the current emerging from the other terminal on the same

port. In a two-port network, often port 1 is considered the input port and

port 2 is considered the output port.

techniques to isolate portions of larger circuits. A two-port network is

regarded as a "black box" with its properties specified by a matrix of

numbers. For example, transistors are often regarded as two-ports,

characterized by their h-parameters which are listed by the manufacturer.

Any linear circuit with four terminals can be regarded as a two-port network

provided that it does not contain an independent source and satisfies the

port conditions.

Examples of circuits analyzed as two-ports are filters, matching networks,

transmission lines, transformers, and small-signal models for transistors

(such as the hybrid-pi model).

The common models that are used are referred to as z-parameters, yparameters, h-parameters, g-parameters, and ABCD-parameters. These are

all limited to linear networks since an underlying assumption of their

derivation is that any given circuit condition is a linear superposition of

various short-circuit and open circuit conditions. They are usually expressed

in matrix notation, and they establish relations between the variables

V1 -voltage across port 1

as they are calculated under open circuit conditions. i.e., Ix=0, where

x=1,2 refer to input and output currents flowing through the ports (of

a two-port network in this case) respectively.

Where,

Y Parameters - admittance

For all ports the currents may be defined in terms of the Y-parameter matrix

and the voltages by the following matrix equation:

I=YV

where Y is an N N matrix the elements of which can be indexed using

conventional matrix notation. In general the elements of the Y-parameter

matrix are complex numbers and functions of frequency. For a one-port

network, the Y-matrix reduces to a single element, being the ordinary

admittance measured between the two terminals.

HYBRID pARAMETERS

INVERSE H - G

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