You are on page 1of 66

# Circuits Lab

Report File
Submitted To : Proff. S.K. Suman

## Submitted By: Chaitanya Srivastava

SID: 12104010
Branch: Electrical B.E. 2nd Year
Date: May 7, 2014

CONTENTS:
(Application of MATLAB Stimulation)
1. Network analysis
2. To Verify network theorems :
a.
Nortonss Theorem
b.
Thevenins Theorem
c.
Superposition Principle
d.
Millmans Theorem
e.
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
3. To verify the Voltage and Current relationships in Three Phase
Circuits
a. Y Connected Supply, Y Connected Load, 3 Wire
Connections
b. Y Connected Supply, Y Connected Load, 4 Wire
Connections
c. Delta Connected Supply, Delta Connected Load
d. Y Connected Supply, Delta Connected Load
e. Delta Connected Supply, Y Connected Load
4. To find out the Z, Y, G, H and ABCD Parameters for a Two-Port
Network(TPN)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

ABCD Parameters
G Parameters
H Parameters
Y Parameters
Z Parameters

Network Analysis
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such
as resistors, inductors, capacitors, voltage sources, current sources and
switches. An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop,
giving a return path for the current. Linear electrical networks, a special
type consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped
elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed
elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are
linearly superimposable. They are thus more easily analyzed, using
powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to
determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.
A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors and ideal current
and voltage sources. Analysis of resistive circuits is less complicated
than analysis of circuits containing capacitors and inductors. If the
sources are constant (DC) sources, the result is a DC circuit.
A network that contains active electronic components is known as an
electronic circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require
more complex design and analysis tools.

Nortons Theorem
Norton's theorem holds that :
Any linear electrical network with voltage and current
sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an
equivalent current source INO in parallel connection with an equivalent
resistance RNO. This equivalent current INO is the current obtained at
terminals A-B of the network with terminals A-B short circuited. This
equivalent resistance RNO is the resistance obtained at terminals A-B of
the network with all its voltage sources short circuited and all its
current sources open circuited.

Any black box containing resistances only and voltage and current
sources can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of an
equivalent current source in parallel connection with an equivalent
resistance. For AC systems the theorem can be applied to reactive
impedances as well as resistances.
The Norton equivalent circuit is used to represent any network of linear
sources and impedances at a given frequency. Norton's theorem are
widely used for circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit's
initial-condition and steady-state response.

Basic Circuit:

Finding Voc

Finding Isc

Final Circuit

Thevenins Theorem
Thvenin's theorem holds that:
Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only
resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent voltage
source Vth in series connection with an equivalent resistance Rth.. This
equivalent voltage Vth is the voltage obtained at terminals A-B of the
network with terminals A-B open circuited.
This equivalent resistance Rth is the resistance obtained at terminals A-B
of the network with all its independent current sources open circuited
and all its independent voltage sources short circuited.
For AC systems, the theorem can be applied to reactive impedances as
well as resistances.

Thvenin's theorem and its dual, Norton's theorem, are widely used for
circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit's initial-condition and
steady-state response.
Thvenin's theorem can be used to convert any circuit's sources and
impedances to a Thvenin equivalent; use of the theorem may in some
cases be more convenient than use of Kirchhoff's circuit laws

Basic Circuit

Finding Zth

Finding Vth

Superpositions Theorem
The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear
system the response (voltage or current) in any branch of a bilateral
linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the
algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source
acting alone, while all other independent sources are replaced by their
internal impedances.
To ascertain the contribution of each individual source, all of the other
sources first must be "turned off" (set to zero) by:
Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short
circuit (thereby eliminating difference of potential i.e. V=0;
internal impedance of ideal voltage source is zero (short circuit)).
Replacing all other independent current sources with an open
circuit (thereby eliminating current i.e. I=0; internal impedance of
ideal current source is infinite (open circuit)).
This procedure is followed for each source in turn, then the resultant
responses are added to determine the true operation of the circuit. The
resultant circuit operation is the superposition of the various voltage
and current sources.
The superposition theorem is very important in circuit analysis. It is
used in converting any circuit into its Norton equivalent or Thevenin
equivalent.The theorem is applicable to linear networks (time varying
or time invariant) consisting of independent sources, linear dependent
sources, linear passive elements (resistors, inductors, capacitors) and
linear transformers.

Millmans Theorem
Millmans Theorem is a theorem which helps in simplifying electrical
networks with a bunch of parallel branches. It was invented by the
Russian born, American Engineer Jacob Millman. Millmans Theorem
can be used to find the potential difference between two points of a
network which contains only parallel branches.
Millmans Theorem states that:
The total voltage or potential difference between any two terminals in
a circuit is equal to:

Where,
i = the current flowing through each branch.
G = I/R = Admittance of each parallel branch or current source where
R = Internal resistance of each parallel branch or current source.
In above statement of Millmans Theorem the theorem takes into
account only the current flowing through or current source in each
branch. Millmans theorem can also be stated taking the Voltage source
in each branch into account. Using Millmans Theorem we can easily
find the Norton and Thevenin equivalent circuit of a network so,
Millmans Theorem is also sometimes called the combination of
Nortons and Thevenins theorem.

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

The maximum power transfer theorem states that, to obtain maximum
external power from a source with a finite internal resistance, the
resistance of the load must equal the resistance of the source as
viewed from its output terminals
The theorem results in maximum power transfer, and not maximum
efficiency. If the resistance of the load is made larger than the
resistance of the source, then efficiency is higher, since a higher
percentage of the source power is transferred to the load, but the
magnitude of the load power is lower since the total circuit resistance
goes up.
If the load resistance is smaller than the source resistance, then most of
the power ends up being dissipated in the source, and although the
total power dissipated is higher, due to a lower total resistance, it turns
out that the amount dissipated in the load is reduced.
The theorem states how to choose (so as to maximize power transfer)
the load resistance, once the source resistance is given. It is a common
misconception to apply the theorem in the opposite scenario. It does
not say how to choose the source resistance for a given load resistance.
In fact, the source resistance that maximizes power transfer is always
zero, regardless of the value of the load resistance.
The theorem can be extended to AC circuits that include reactance, and
states that maximum power transfer occurs when the load impedance
is equal to the complex conjugate of the source impedance.

## Three Phase Circuit Systems

In a three-phase system, three circuit conductors carry three alternating
currents (of the same frequency) which reach their instantaneous peak
values at one third of a cycle from each other. Taking one current as the
reference, the other two currents are delayed in time by one third and two
thirds of one cycle of the electric current. This delay between phases has the
effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and
also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric
motor.
The conductors connected to the three points of a three-phase source or
load are called lines. The phase currents tend to cancel out one another,
summing to zero in the case of a linear balanced load. This makes it possible
to reduce the size of the neutral conductor because it carries little to no
current; all the phase conductors carry the same current and so can be the
same size, for a balanced load.
Three-phase Y connection has three voltage sources connected to a
common point.
Three-phase, four-wire Y connection uses a "common" fourth wire.
Three-phase, three-wire Y connection does not use the neutral wire.
If the Y-connected source or load is balanced, the line voltage will be
equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3:

## Two Port Networks

A two-port network (a kind of four-terminal network ) is an electrical
network (circuit) or device with two pairs of terminals to connect to external
circuits. Two terminals constitute a port if the electric current entering one
terminal equals the current emerging from the other terminal on the same
port. In a two-port network, often port 1 is considered the input port and
port 2 is considered the output port.

## The two-port network model is used in mathematical circuit analysis

techniques to isolate portions of larger circuits. A two-port network is
regarded as a "black box" with its properties specified by a matrix of
numbers. For example, transistors are often regarded as two-ports,
characterized by their h-parameters which are listed by the manufacturer.
Any linear circuit with four terminals can be regarded as a two-port network
provided that it does not contain an independent source and satisfies the
port conditions.
Examples of circuits analyzed as two-ports are filters, matching networks,
transmission lines, transformers, and small-signal models for transistors
(such as the hybrid-pi model).
The common models that are used are referred to as z-parameters, yparameters, h-parameters, g-parameters, and ABCD-parameters. These are
all limited to linear networks since an underlying assumption of their
derivation is that any given circuit condition is a linear superposition of
various short-circuit and open circuit conditions. They are usually expressed
in matrix notation, and they establish relations between the variables
V1 -voltage across port 1

## Z-parameters are also known as open-circuit impedance parameters

as they are calculated under open circuit conditions. i.e., Ix=0, where
x=1,2 refer to input and output currents flowing through the ports (of
a two-port network in this case) respectively.

Where,

Y Parameters - admittance
For all ports the currents may be defined in terms of the Y-parameter matrix
and the voltages by the following matrix equation:
I=YV
where Y is an N N matrix the elements of which can be indexed using
conventional matrix notation. In general the elements of the Y-parameter
matrix are complex numbers and functions of frequency. For a one-port
network, the Y-matrix reduces to a single element, being the ordinary
admittance measured between the two terminals.
HYBRID pARAMETERS
INVERSE H - G