Seven Tools of Quality Control Prepared by Sirak Tesfahun siraktesfahun81@gmail.


Seven Tools of Quality Control
1. Ishikawa diagrams - (Also called fishbone diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include: o People: Anyone involved with the process o Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws o Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools etc. required to accomplish the job o Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final product o Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality o Environment: The conditions, such as location, time, temperature, and culture in which the process operates


A Pareto chart - named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart which contains both bars and a line graph that displays the values in descending order as bars and the cumulative totals of each category, left to right, as a line graph. - The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence, but it can alternatively represent cost or other important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is the cumulative percentage of the total number of occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of measure. Because the reasons are in decreasing order, the cumulative function is a concave function.


Seven Tools of Quality Control Prepared by Sirak Tesfahun

The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors. In quality control, it often represents the most common sources of defects, the highest occurring type of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer complaints, and so on.


The check sheet - is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real-time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the checksheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. - A defining characteristic of a checksheet is that data is recorded by making marks ("checks") on it. A typical checksheet is divided into regions, and marks made in different regions have different significance. Data is read by observing the location and number of marks on the sheet. 5 Basic types of Check Sheets: - Classification: A trait such as a defect or failure mode must be classified into a category. o Location: The physical location of a trait is indicated on a picture of a part or item being evaluated. o Frequency: The presence or absence of a trait or combination of traits is indicated. Also number of occurrences of a trait on a part can be indicated. o Measurement Scale: A measurement scale is divided into intervals, and measurements are indicated by checking an appropriate interval.


Seven Tools of Quality Control Prepared by Sirak Tesfahun

Check List: The items to be performed for a task are listed so that, as each is accomplished, it can be indicated as having been completed.


Control charts, - also known as Shewhart charts or process-behaviour charts, in statistical process control are tools used to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control or not. A flowchart is a common type of diagram, that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.



Seven Tools of Quality Control Prepared by Sirak Tesfahun


Histogram - In statistics, a histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies, shown as bars. It shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several categories: it is a form of data binning. The categories are usually specified as non-overlapping intervals of some variable. The categories (bars) must be adjacent. The intervals (or bands, or bins) are generally of the same size.[1] - Histograms are used to plot density of data, and often for density estimation: estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable. The total area of a histogram used for probability density is always normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1, then a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot. - An alternative to the histogram is kernel density estimation, which uses a kernel to smooth samples. This will construct a smooth probability density function, which will in general more accurately reflect the underlying variable.


Seven Tools of Quality Control Prepared by Sirak Tesfahun


Scatter plot is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. - The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.[2] This kind of plot is also called a scatter chart, scatter diagram and scatter graph.


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