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Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - A

Block 001: Chemistry and the Scientific Method

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Block 001:
NAME: ________________________________
Chemistry and the Scientific Method
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and the changes that substances undergo.
This is the definition of chemistry written in a textbook commonly used by high school sophomores. While it is
technically accurate, it doesnt really begin to describe the important ways that chemistry has shaped the world
we live in. The following are just some of the ways that chemistry has shaped our lives and our world:

Chemistry is used in agriculture to produce fertilizers that grow the crops we eat.

Chemistry is used in medicine to construct specialized drugs to combat disease and suffering.

Chemistry is used in construction to make building materials capable of supporting buildings 100 stories tall.

Chemistry has been used to design weapons capable of annihilating all life on earth.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - A

Block 001: Chemistry and the Scientific Method

Page 2 of 5

Chemistry is a pure science, and like all other pure sciences, attempts to build and organize knowledge about
the universe which we live in. Like other pure sciences, it is inherently neither good nor bad. However, through
use or misuse, it can be used for the betterment or detriment of mankind. While the main focus of this course is
an exploration of the principles behind chemistry, we will also spend some time discussing the uses of
chemistry, for good and bad, throughout history.
Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of substance being studied or the kind of
study. These include, but are not limited to the following:

Inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter

Organic chemistry, the study of carbon-based matter

Biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms

Physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts

Analytical chemistry, the study of the composition of substances

In recent years, more specialized disciplines have arisen in the field of chemistry. Using your own prior
knowledge, as well as an internet search, identify three of them, and explain what they are in your own words.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - A

Block 001: Chemistry and the Scientific Method

Page 3 of 5

The scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or
correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on
gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. Youve undoubtedly
used the scientific method in previous science classes. Lets consider a problem from everyday life in order to
refresh our memories as to the steps involved in the scientific method.
Suppose you want to use a flashlight,
but when you turn it on, it does not
light. You have made an observation
that is, you have used your senses
to obtain information directly. In
this case, your observation is that
the flashlight does not light. This
raises a question: What is wrong
with the flashlight? Name all of the
things that could be the cause of the
flashlights inability to light:
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
What you have just listed are the variables involved in the problem. In science, variables are aspects of a system
that we can change. Changing a variable might change how the system behaves. In using the scientific method,
it is important to only change one variable at a time.
Alright, lets say that you guess that the flashlight batteries are probably dead. By guessing, you have proposed
a reason for your observation. You have made a hypothesis, or a proposed explanation or reason for what is
observed. Usually, the hypothesis is drawn from the experience of the person who creates it. In the scientific
method, scientists typically first observe something of scientific interest and then propose a hypothesis.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - A

Block 001: Chemistry and the Scientific Method

Page 4 of 5

What is the difference between an observation and a hypothesis? Answer in your own words.

Returning to the flashlight problem, you will probably want to test your hypothesis with an experiment. An
experiment is a means to test a hypothesis. Most likely, you will put new batteries in the flashlight. If the
flashlight lights, you can be fairly certain from the one experiment that your hypothesis is valid. Scientists also
perform experiments to test their hypotheses. For the results of an experiment to be accepted, the experiment
must produce the same result no matter how many times it is repeated, or by whom. The repeatability of
scientific experiments distinguishes science from nonscientific fields.
Why do you think it is important to only change one variable at a time?

Many different kinds of experiments may be needed to learn whether a hypothesis is valid. A scientific
hypothesis is useful only if it accounts for what scientists observe in many situations. Suppose the flashlight does
not work after you replace the batteries. What does this indicate about your hypothesis?

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - A

Block 001: Chemistry and the Scientific Method

Page 5 of 5

When experimental data do not fit a hypothesis, the hypothesis must be rejected or changed. The new or refined
hypothesis is then subjected to further experimental testing. Again, returning to the flashlight problem, you
might now decide to replace the light bulb because replacing the batteries was not helpful. The original, false
hypothesis (dead batteries) has led to a new hypothesis (burnt-out bulb) and a new experiment to test it. The
scientific method of observing, hypothesizing, and experimenting is repeated until the hypothesis fits all the
observed experimental facts.
Why should a hypothesis be developed before experiments take place? Is there ever an instance when
experimentation can or should take place before a hypothesis is formed?

Once a scientific hypothesis meets the test of repeated experimentation, it may be elevated to a higher level of
ideas. It may become a theory. A theory is a broad and extensively tested explanation of why experiments give
certain results. A theory can never be proved because it is always possible that a new experiment will disprove it.
But theories are very useful because they help you form mental pictures of objects or processes that cannot be
seen. Moreover, theories give you the power to predict the behavior of natural systems.
A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. A
scientific law describes a natural phenomenon without attempting to explain it.
In your own words, what is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory and a scientific law?

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 1 of 11

Block 002:
NAME: ________________________________
Experimentation and Paper Chromatography
Chromatography, a type of analytical chemistry, is an experimental process that scientists use to separate out
the constituents (i.e. molecules, chemicals, minerals, pollutants, etc.) in a mixture. Once separated, the
individual pieces can be identified, analyzed, purified, and/or quantified.

You have probably done a chromatography project before -- in a middle school science class. Marker ink is a
mixture of several different pigments. It is very common for American middle school science students to do an
experiment separating the various pigments in marker ink using coffee filters as the stationary phase and water
as the mobile phase. We will be doing a similar project here today.

The following diagram shows a simple setup for paper chromatography.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 2 of 11

We will soon get our materials together and get ready to begin the experiment. Before we start, however, we
need to consider a few things.
The two important components of chromatography are called the stationary phase and the mobile phase. The
stationary phase is usually a solid material, like filter paper, that will attract and absorb the materials to be
separated. The mobile phase is a liquid solvent, like water, which carries the materials through the stationary
phase. Changing these components will change the results of the experiment. Recall that aspects of the
experiment that we can change are called variables; the filter paper and water are variables. From this point
onward, the variables have been underlined. Feel free to make a note of other variables you think are relevant.
For our first trial, use a piece of chromatography paper for the stationary phase. Remember, different marker
pigments will travel through the stationary phase at different rates due to how the pigments are attracted to the
stationary phase. Components that have a weak attraction to the stationary phase will move more easily. As a
result, they will move farther than the components that have a strong attraction. Look at the following figure,
demonstrating how a mixture might separate throughout a chromatography run.

Time = 0

Time = 1

Time = 2

Time = 3

Time = 4

Which components in the figure have the weakest attraction to the stationary phase? Which components have
the strongest attraction to the stationary phase?

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 3 of 11

Unlike the pigments in the marker ink, the pencil line has a complete attraction to the stationary phase.
Therefore, it will not move at all throughout the experiment. Make a pencil line about two centimeters from the
end of the chromatography paper it must start out above the solvent level. This end of the chromatography
paper will be immersed in the solvent.
Next, select a marker to perform chromatography on. For this purpose, select either a brown or black marker
from your given allotment. Every time you choose a marker, make sure to record all relevant information about
the marker, including both color and brand. Both factors are variables, and must be controlled during
experimentation.
The mobile phase, or solvent, will be water for the first trial. The mobile phase will start at the bottom of the
cup, only barely touching the stationary phase. It will rise through the stationary phase, taking the marker ink
with it. Through capillary action, the mobile phase will rise through the stationary phase. The pigments in the
marker ink will be carried through the stationary phase by the mobile phase.
The distance traveled by the mobile phase, and the relative distances traveled by the components of the
mixture are important to note. Make sure you have a ruler handy every time you do a chromatography
experiment.
Lets run one trial and see what kind of data we will get. Assemble the chromatography apparatus according to
the diagram on page 1. Make sure everything fits together properly before putting in the mobile phase. When
you are ready, fill the bottom of the cup with water, and allow the mobile phase to come into contact with the
stationary phase.
Let the mobile phase rise through the stationary phase, and make any observations you think are relevant. You
should record any relevant data in the following data table:

Stationary Phase
Mobile Phase
Brand of Marker
Color of Marker
Other
relevant
observations:

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 4 of 11

When some of the solvent has almost reached the top of the paper, remove the paper and mark that level as
the solvent front. Use the ruler, and record the distance travelled in centimeters. For any of the pigments that
moved through the stationary phase, record data as well.

Component

Color

Solvent Front

-------------------

Distance Traveled (cm)

Rf value
1

1
2
3
4

The different components are identified by their Rf value (retention factor) which compares the distance they
have moved relative to the maximum distance moved by the solvent, the solvent front. Use this equation:

Components with a high Rf value are not attracted to the stationary phase and so move quickly through the
system. Components with a relatively low Rf value are more strongly bonded to the stationary phase and so do
not move as far.
You now know how to set up the chromatography apparatus, and how to record and interpret data. Now, its
time to do some actual experimentation. The choice of variable manipulation is up to you. Remember, change
only one variable at a time for each of the experiments you will do.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 5 of 11

Experiment 1 Variable being manipulated: ________________________________

Marker #1

Marker #2

Stationary Phase

Stationary Phase

Mobile Phase

Mobile Phase

Brand of Marker

Brand of Marker

Color of Marker

Color of Marker
Color of
Pigment

Solvent Front

Distance
Traveled

----------

Color of
Pigment

Rf
1

Solvent Front

Any other observations that might be significant:

----------

Distance
Traveled

Rf
1

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 6 of 11

Experiment 2 Variable being manipulated: ________________________________

Marker #1

Marker #2

Stationary Phase

Stationary Phase

Mobile Phase

Mobile Phase

Brand of Marker

Brand of Marker

Color of Marker

Color of Marker
Color of
Pigment

Solvent Front

Distance
Traveled

----------

Color of
Pigment

Rf
1

Solvent Front

Any other observations that might be significant:

----------

Distance
Traveled

Rf
1

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 7 of 11

Experiment 3 Variable being manipulated: ________________________________

Marker #1

Marker #2

Stationary Phase

Stationary Phase

Mobile Phase

Mobile Phase

Brand of Marker

Brand of Marker

Color of Marker

Color of Marker
Color of
Pigment

Solvent Front

Distance
Traveled

----------

Color of
Pigment

Rf
1

Solvent Front

Any other observations that might be significant:

----------

Distance
Traveled

Rf
1

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 8 of 11

IB QUESTION:
A student wanted to investigate the green color in some leaves by
paper chromatography using the organic solvent ethanol. The
results are shown on the right.
(a) Suggest a possible reason why the student used ethanol and
not water in her investigation.

(b) State and explain the conclusion which the student can make about the coloring matter in the leaves.

(c) Explain why some of the colored material had not moved from the original spot.

(d) Explain why a pencil and not a pen is used to draw the base line.

(e) Suggest why repeating the experiment with a different solvent may give more information.

(f) Identify the mobile and stationary phase in the separation technique.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 9 of 11

IB QUESTION:
The following is an actual IB test question from several years ago. You are expected to show sufficient work and
reasoning for each part of the question. The point breakdowns for each part of the question are displayed in
brackets.
A student used the technique of ascending paper chromatography in an experiment to investigate some
permitted food dyes (labeled P1-P5). The result is shown below.

(a) By reference to the diagram above, describe how the experiment would be carried out and explain the
meaning of the terms stationary phase, mobile phase, solvent front, and Rf value. [8]

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 10 of 11

(i) Calculate the Rf value of P1. [2]

(ii) State, giving a reason, whether P4 is a single substance or a mixture. [1]

Long before the science of chemistry existed, people made use of chemical reactions to dye cloth, tan leather,
and prepare foods. Eventually people began to search for explanations for the structure and behavior of matter.
Greek philosophers 2500 years ago believed that knowledge of the natural world could be achieved through
pure reasoning. One group, the Atomists, proposed that matter was made of tiny indivisible particles called
atoms. The famous philosopher Aristotle disagreed. He said that matter was composed of four elements: fire,
air, water, and earth. Because of Aristotles fame and reputation, much of the world agreed with his ideas. As a
result, the idea of atoms was not discussed seriously for more than 2000 years.
With the destruction of Greek civilization, European science fell into disrepair and did not reappear until the
Middle Ages. This period saw the rise of the alchemists. Their goal was to change common metals into gold.
Although the alchemists were unable to succeed in their quest, they did spur the development of science. They
developed many experimental procedures and laboratory apparatus. Through trial and error, they also
developed a wealth of knowledge about the characteristics of substances.
During the 13th century, an English Franciscan monk named Roger Bacon introduced a new idea. He held that an
understanding of the natural world could be gained through observation and experiment rather than by pure
logic. Bacons ideas were not immediately popular. They were finally put into practice, however, by scientists of
the 16th and 17th centuries. The Englishman Robert Boyle (1627-1691) emphasized the necessity of using
experiments to test ideas that were obtained by reason. In his book, The Sceptical Chymist, he challenged
Aristotles four elements. He also advanced a definition of an element very similar to that used today.
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) took an important new step in the process of experimentation. This was to make
precise measurements of the mass changes in chemical reactions. His experiments transformed chemistry from
a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today. For this reason, Lavoisier is often called
the founder of modern chemistry.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - A

Block 002: Experimentation and Paper Chromatography

Page 11 of 11

After reading the four paragraphs on the previous page, consider the following quotes from famous historical
figures. Carefully read each quote. In the space that follows, choose one of the quotes, and explain how it
relates to what you read on the previous page.
1.

Think wrongly, if you please, but in all cases think for yourself. -Doris Lessing

2. We keep moving forward, opening new doors, and doing new things, because were curious and curiosity
keeps leading us down new paths. Walt Disney
3. When we all think alike, no one thinks very much. -Albert Einstein
4. If you cant fly, then run, if you cant run, then walk, if you cant walk, then crawl, but whatever you do, you
have to keep moving forward. Martin Luther King, Jr.
This does not have to be a formally constructed essay. Well-argued content matters more than style here.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Block 002X:
Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 1 of 7

NAME: ________________________________

Chromatography is one of the most useful methods of separating organic compounds for identification or
purification. In this activity, you will measure the migration distance of five common dyes and calculate their Rf
values to identify three unknown dyes.
Background
Note: The terminology used in this Block tends to be a little technical. Do your best to pay attention and keep
up its not as difficult as it might seem. You will periodically be asked to restate the principles at work in your
own words in order to make sure you get the concepts. Refer back to the laboratory activity in Block 002 if you
have to.
Dye molecules are generally large molecules which vary greatly in structure and composition. A typical dye
molecule contains at least three functional chemical groups, each responsible for a particular property of the
dye. These three groups include the chromophore, which is the color-producing portion of the dye, the
auxochrome, which influences the intensity of the dye and provides a site for bonding (as to fabric), and the
solubilizing group, which allows a dye to be water-soluble. Typical examples of each of these groups can be
found in the following table.

Chromophores

Auxochromes

Solubilizing Groups

CH3
SO3 Na+
OCH3
OH

NH2+ Cl

NH2

SO2 NH2+

NO2

O Na+

SO3Na

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 2 of 7

It is the variation in number and arrangement of these chemical groups that determines the polarity of the dye
molecule. In general, the chromophores tend to be non-polar, while the auxochromes and solubilizing groups
tend to increase the polarity of the dye molecule, although, again, this is subject to the location and
arrangement of the groups. The structures of the dye molecules used in this activity can be seen later in this
Block.
Many different types of chromatography are used but most work because of the relationship between the
stationary phase and the mobile phase. A good stationary phase is usually a solid material that will attract and
bind the components in a mixture. Paper, silica gel, or alumina, are all very good stationary phases. The mobile
phase is the solvent that carries the materials to be separated through the stationary phase.
Chromatography works on the concept that the compounds to be separated are slightly soluble in the mobile
phase and will spend some of the time in the mobile phase and some of the time on the stationary phase. When
the components of a mixture have varying solubilities in the mobile phase, they can then be separated from one
another. The polarity of the molecules to be separated and the polarity of the mobile phase are very important.
Changing the polarity of the mobile phase will only slightly change the solubility of the molecules but will greatly
change the degree to which they are held by the stationary phase. This affinity for the mobile phase versus the
stationary phase is what separates the molecules.
In your own words, explain the relationship between stationary phase and mobile phase. Keep it simple.

To separate complex organic molecules, thin-layer


chromatography (TLC) is frequently used. In TLC, the
stationary phase is usually silica gel (SiO2) or alumina (AI2O3)
coated on a glass plate or plastic sheet and the mobile
phase is an organic solvent. The polarity of the mobile
phase is very important in TLC since a small change in
polarity can dramatically increase or decrease the solubility
of some organic molecules. Many times, a mixture of a
nonpolar solvent (petroleum ether) and a polar solvent
(acetone) is used to achieve an optimum polarity. When placed in a chromatography chamber as shown in the
figure on the right, chromatography solvent, which is petroleum ether and acetone) moves up the plate, being
drawn by both capillary action and by the silica gel itself. The molecules, which were "spotted" onto the TLC
plate, separate as they are carried with the mobile phase up the plate at different rates. Those molecules that

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 3 of 7

have a polarity closest to the polarity of the mobile phase will be the most soluble, and will move up the plate
the fastest.
In your own words, explain what Rf factor is. Explain how it relates to stationary phase and mobile phase.

The choice of the mobile phase is the most difficult task. Choosing the right polarity is critical because this
determines the level of separation that will be achieved. Common solvents used in TLC, in order of increasing
polarity, are: petroleum ether or hexanes, cyclohexane, toluene, chloroform, ethyl ether, acetone, ethanol, and
methanol. Sometimes mixtures of solvents are used to achieve the desired degree of polarity. A general rule of
thumb is if the substances to be separated are polar, the developing solvent should be slightly less polar.
Likewise, non-polar substances would require slightly polar solvents.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 4 of 7

Materials
Acetone chromatography solvent
Dye samples:
Eosin Y solution
Fast green FCF solution
Fluorescein solution
Methylene blue solution
Safranin solution
Unknown mixture

Capillary tubes, 6
Chromatography chamber (250-mL beaker with Parafilm cover)
Pencil
Ruler
TLC plates, 2
Watch glass or glass plate

Safety Precautions
The chromatography solvent is flammable and a dangerous fire risk; toxic by ingestion and inhalation. This lab
should be performed only in an operating chemical fume hood or well-ventilated area. Wear chemical splash
goggles, chemical-resistant gloves, and a chemical-resistant apron. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water
before leaving the laboratory.
Procedure
1. Obtain two TLC plates. Using a pencil, draw a horizontal line 1 cm from the bottom edge of each TLC plate.
2. Again using a pencil, label the top of the first plate with the numbers
1, 2, and 3. Label the top of the second plate with the numbers
4 and 5 and the letter M (for mixture) (see Figure 4). The
numbers on the plates correspond to the dye samples according to the
following key:
1 = Methylene Blue
2 = Safranin
3 = Eosin Y

4 = Fluorescein
5 = Fast Green FCF

3. Place one drop of Sample 1 (methylene blue) on a watch glass or glass


plate.
4. You are now ready to "spot" the TLC plates. The sample spot will be
placed on the pencil line under its corresponding number. Touch the
narrow end of a spotter to the drop of sample. The sample will be
drawn up the tube due to capillary action. Gently and very briefly touch
the tip of the spotter to the line on the TLC plate (under the
corresponding number), keeping your index finger over the end of the

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 5 of 7

tube, so that only a small amount of solution is transferred. It is extremely important to keep the spot as
small as possible, as the dyes are very concentrated. It is also important not to disrupt the silica gel, so a
gentle touch is required.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the other dye samples (safranin, eosin Y, fluorescein, and fast green FCF) according
to the key provided in step 2.
6. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for one of the unknown dye mixtures (the spot will be placed on the pencil line under
"M").
7. Remove the Parafilm cover of the chromatography chamber. Carefully place the first TLC plate in the
chromatography chamber with the sample end down (as shown in Figure 2). Important: (1) Do not get any
solvent on the upper portion TLC plate, and (2) the sample spots must remain above the level of the solvent.
If the solvent level is too high, the sample will dilute into the solvent! Carefully place the second TLC plate in
the chamber, making sure the two plates do not touch. Replace the Parafilm cover.
8. The solvent will be drawn up the TLC plates. As it is drawn up, it will carry the dyes in each sample up the
plates at different rates depending on the characteristics of the individual compounds.
9. When the solvent front is within 1-2 cm of the top of the TLC plate, the run is stopped by removing the plate
from the chamber.
10. Mark the location of each of the separated bands on the TLC plates and the final solvent front, again using a
pencil. This is done because some of the color and brightness of each of the spots may be lost over time.
11. Measure the distance from the pencil line where the dyes were spotted to the solvent front near the top of
the TLC plate. Record in the data table on the Thin-Layer Chromatography Worksheet.
12. Repeat step 11 for each of the dyes, measuring from the pencil line to the center of each colored band.
13. Optional: If an ultraviolet light is available, shine it on each of the TLC plates in a darkened room. Note any
differences in color. Can you make any additional inferences about your unknown sample, or are your
conclusions further confirmed?
Disposal
The TLC plates may be placed in the trash. The chromatography solution should be returned to the instructor.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 6 of 7

Data Table
Band

Distance (mm)

Solvent front (Plate 1)

Band Color

Rf

----------------

----------------

----------------

----------------

1. Methylene blue
2. Safranin
3. Eosin Y
Solvent front (Plate 2)
4. Fluorescein
5. Fast Green FCF
Post-Lab Analysis and Questions
1. Since the samples are dyes, they are relatively easy to see. Draw representations of each of the TLC plates,
including the dye colors and locations, as well as the starting spot and final solvent front locations in the
space below. To compare and identify compounds separated by TLC, calculate the Rf (rate of flow) values
for each dye, using the following equation:
Rf =

distance traveled by dye


distance traveled by solvent front

Record Rf values for each of the dyes in the data table above.

2. Attach one of your TLC plates on the right to prove that you did the activity.

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Analytical - B

Block 002X: Thin-Layer Chromatography

Page 7 of 7

3. Which dyes appear to be in your unknown?

4. Knowing that the solvent is quite polar, what can you infer about the relative polarities of the various dyes?

5. Look at the structures of the chromophores on page


1 of this packet. As it is written in the text,
chromophores are the portion of the dye molecules
responsible for color. Now, look at the structure of
Fast Green FCF on the right. Which chromophores
from page 1 are present in Fast Green FCF?

6. Auxochromes are structures that increase the intensity of the dyes, and a list of them is also found on page 1
of this Block. What auxochromes do you see in the structure of Fast Green FCF?

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 1 of 7

Block 003:
NAME: ________________________________
Physical and Chemical Changes
The material things around us are all various types of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has
mass. Aluminum, water, air, glass, and you are different kinds of matter. Ideas, light, and heat are not matter.
They do not take up space or have mass. The amount of matter that an object contains is its mass. A golf ball
has more mass than a table tennis ball. It contains more matter.
Some materials are composed of numerous types of matter. Others consist of a single kind. A substance is a
particular kind of matter that has a uniform and definite composition. Table sugar is a substance. It is 100%
sucrose. Substances are often called pure substances. Lemonade is not a substance. It contains different
amounts of sugar and lemon juice in water.
Classify each of the following as a substance or a mixture.
Silver

Alphabet soup

Textbook

Table salt

Is every sample of matter a substance? Explain. In your own words, try to come up with a simple system for
demonstrating whether something is a substance.

All samples of a substance have identical properties. A physical property is a quality or condition of a substance
that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition. Some physical properties of
matter include color, solubility, mass, odor, hardness, density, electrical conductivity, magnetism, melting point,
and boiling point. Physical properties help chemists identify substances. A colorless, odorless liquid in which
both salt and sugar dissolve and that boils at 100C is probably water. Another colorless liquid that has a
distinctive odor, that evaporates quickly when placed on your skin, and in which salt will not dissolve is most
certainly not water.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 2 of 7

What physical properties could distinguish the components of a mixture of sand and salt? How could you
separate the sand from the salt in the mixture?

Similar question - what properties could distinguish the components of a mixture of sand and iron filings? How
could you separate the sand from the iron in the mixture?

Matter can exist in three different physical states: solid, liquid, and gas. The physical state of a substance is a
physical property of that substance.
A solid is matter that has a definite shape and volume. The shape of a solid does not depend on the shape of
the container. Solids usually have a high density, and they expand only slightly when heated. They are almost
incompressible. Coal, sugar, bone, ice, and iron are examples of solids.
A liquid is a form of matter that flows, has a fixed volume, and takes the shape of its container. Liquids are
generally less dense than solids. They expand slightly when heated and are almost incompressible. Examples of
liquids are water, milk, and blood.
A gas is matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container. Gases expand without limit to fill any
space and are easily compressed.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 3 of 7

The term gas is limited to those substances that exist in the gaseous state at room temperature. For example,
air is a mixture of gases including oxygen and nitrogen. The word vapor describes a substance that, although in
the gaseous state, is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature. Steam, the gaseous form of water, is a
vapor. Moist air contains water vapor. The words gas and vapor should not be used interchangeably there is
a difference.
Define the following terms in your own words.

Matter

Mass

Physical Property

Physical State

What is the physical state of each of the following at room temperature?


Silver

Gasoline

Helium

Wax

Neon

Steel

Mercury

Water

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 4 of 7

Matter can be changed in many ways. Discounting atomic reactions, changes in matter can be classified as
physical or chemical. A physical change will alter a substance without changing its composition. A chemical
change will fundamentally alter the composition of matter. A brief table comparing physical and chemical
changes follows.
Physical Changes

Chemical Changes

Doesnt result in a new substance

Does result in a new substance

Change in size and shape

More than a change in size and shape

Change in state of matter

More than a change in the state

Examples of Physical Changes

Examples of Chemical Changes

Tear paper

Burn paper

Chop wood

Burn wood

Wet something

Burn something

Add vinegar to water

Add vinegar to baking soda

Melt wax

Burn candle wick

Mix sulfur and iron

Make iron sulfide from elements

Mix cake batter

Bake cake

Crack open egg

Cook egg

Hammer a nail

Corrode a nail

Make a mixture

Make a compound

Separate a mixture

Decompose a compound

Which of the following are physical changes? Circle the letter of any that are physical changes.
(a) Making caramel from sugar

(b) Freezing mercury

(c) Carving a wooden figure

(d) Dissolving salt in water

Which change, physical or chemical, can be undone? Which changes in the list above can be undone?

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 5 of 7

DEMONSTRATION: Physical Change Machine


Your teacher has a drawing that was done by a five year old relative. Record what happens when the drawing is
put into the Physical Change Machine.

Can this change be easily undone? Explain.

Why is this a physical change, and not a chemical change?

DEMONSTRATION: The Coin Sorter


Your teacher has a sample of coins. Record what happens when the coins are fed into the Coin Sorter.

Can this change be easily undone? Explain.

Why is this a physical change, and not a chemical change?

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 6 of 7

DEMONSTRATION: Three Solutions


Your teacher has three solutions. Record any observations you can make about the solutions.
Solution 1

Solution 2

Solution 3

What do you think will happen when Solution 1 combines with Solution 2?

What does happen when Solution 1 combines with Solution 2?

What do you think will happen when the combination of 1 and 2 combines with Solution 3?

What does happen when the combination of 1 and 2 combines with Solution 3?

Can these changes be easily undone? Explain.

Was this a chemical change or a physical change? Explain.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - B

Block 003: Physical and Chemical Changes

Page 7 of 7

You have just witnessed a chemical change. Chemical changes involve a rearrangement of how the atoms
involved are put together. Unlike physical changes, chemical changes cannot easily be undone, and are
considered permanent. There are four indications that a chemical change is occurring:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Color Change
Precipitate Formation (solid forms in liquid)
Temperature Change
Gas Evolution (bubbles or smoke)

You have just witnessed the first two indications, color change and precipitation. Lets have a look at the last
two indications, temperature change and gas evolution.

DEMONSTRATION: Growling Gummy Bear


Watch what happens when an ordinary gummy bear comes in contact with molten potassium chlorate. Record
your observations.

Did you notice the temperature change and the gas formation? There was also a color change. When the test
tube has sufficiently cooled down, your teacher will pass it around, and you can see what the gummy bear looks
like now.
DEMONSTRATION: Magnesium Metal and Hydrochloric Acid
Watch what happens when your teacher reacts a small piece of magnesium metal with a sample of hydrochloric
acid. What observations can you make about the reaction? Record your observations.

Is this a physical change or a chemical change? Why do you think so?

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - A

Block 004: Unit Conversions Familiar Units

Page 1 of 4

Block 004:
NAME: ________________________________
Unit Conversions Familiar Units
Lets say I wanted to convert 3 hours into minutes. First, write out the problem.

Next, write out what the problem gives you, and put it over the number 1.

Following that, write a fraction line next to it, and think about what units to cancel. I want to get rid of hours
and replace it with minutes. I know that there are 60 minutes in one hour, so I can write that. I put hours on
the bottom of the second fraction, and minutes on the top. This has the effect of canceling the units I dont
want, and replacing them with the units that I do want. Remember, the numerator of the second fraction (60
minutes) and the denominator (1 hour) must be equal for this procedure to work.

If I stop there, I will have created an arrangement of fractions that, when combined together, will convert 3
hours into minutes. The units have cancelled, so all that is left is to plug numbers into a calculator and perform
a mathematical operation to get a numerical answer. Rather than combining numbers and dealing with the
rules of fraction math, or using the parenthesis function on your calculator to keep numerator and denominator
separate, it is easier to simply multiply the numbers on top and divide the numbers on the bottom.

If you remember to multiply the numbers on top, and divide each of the numbers on the bottom, you will never
get any of these calculations wrong. (Of course, you dont have to bother multiplying and dividing by one.) Here
is the calculation of how many feet are in 6 inches, requiring the division function.

12 inches ends up in the denominator. Therefore it is divided in order to get the proper answer of 0.5 feet.

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - A

Block 004: Unit Conversions Familiar Units

Page 2 of 4

Use this technique, as well as the following equalities, to solve the following unit conversion problems involving
familiar units. Show all work.
5280 feet = 1 mile
32 miles = ? feet

45 inches = ? feet

160 oz = ? pounds

800 pounds = ? tons

50 dollars = ? quarters

32 quarters = ? dollars

16 oz = 1 pounds

1 dollar = 4 quarters

1 ton = 2000 pounds

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - A

Block 004: Unit Conversions Familiar Units

Page 3 of 4

Okay, now lets say I wanted to convert 4 hours into seconds.

This is a slightly more complex problem, but it begins the same way. To start out, write out what the problem
gives you, and put it over the number 1.

Write a fraction line next to it, and think about what units to cancel.

I want to get rid of hours and replace it with seconds, but I dont know how many seconds are in one hour. I do
know that there are 60 minutes in one hour, so I can do that, canceling the units as I go.

If I stop there, I will have converted 4 hours into minutes. A quick glance back at the problem tells me that I
have to keep going until I have seconds as my units. So, I continue on, canceling minutes with seconds, just like I
canceled hours earlier.

Finally, multiply all the fractions together, and get the answer.

Again, this method works because the units are properly canceled. Each of the conversion fractions I wrote have
a numerator that is equal to a denominator. 60 minutes is the same as 1 hour. 60 seconds is the same as 1
minute. I multiplied the numbers together because they were all in the numerators.
What if I wanted to find out how many miles are in 6 inches? Consider the following solution:

The answer should be a very small number, because miles are very large and inches are very small. Think about
your answers as you calculate them, and double check them by making sure that the answer makes sense.
Also, it bears repeating that each of the unit conversion fractions should have a numerator that is equal to the
denominator, and that you should multiply the numbers on top and divide the numbers on the bottom. Use
the same method to solve the two-step conversion problems on the next page. Show all work.

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - A

5280 feet = 1 mile

Block 004: Unit Conversions Familiar Units

16 oz = 1 pounds

Page 4 of 4

1 ton = 2000 pounds

16 miles = ? inches

130 inches = ? miles

85 oz = ? tons

240 tons = ? oz

84 hours = ? seconds

Your teacher is 1198368000 seconds old. Calculate his age in years. This will require more than two steps.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 1 of 8

Block 005:
NAME: ________________________________
Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements
Mixtures consist of a physical blend of two or more substances. They differ from pure substances because they
have a variable composition. Most materials found in nature are mixtures. We all recognize beef stew as a
mixture of meat, vegetables, and gravy. On the other hand, the identification of air or brine as mixtures is much
less obvious. (Air is a mixture of gases. Brine is a mixture of salt and water.) The component parts of these
mixtures cannot be distinguished even under a microscope.
Mixtures can be heterogeneous or homogeneous. A heterogeneous mixture is not uniform in composition. If
we were to sample one portion of the mixture, its composition would be different from another sample. Soil is a
heterogeneous mixture. It contains bits of decayed material along with sand, silt, and/or clay. By contrast, a
homogeneous mixture has a completely uniform composition. Its components are evenly distributed
throughout the sample. Salt water from the ocean is a homogeneous mixture. It is the same throughout a
sample.

Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous.


Blood

Chocolate-Chip Cookie

Gold

Homogenized Milk

Coffee

Bottled Water

In your own words, what is the difference between a heterogeneous and a homogeneous mixture? Provide two
examples of each from your own experience.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 2 of 8

One important characteristic of both heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures is that their compositions may
vary. The composition of air in a forest differs from that near an industrial city, particularly in the amounts and
kinds of pollutants it contains. Blood is a mixture of water, various chemicals, and cells. Blood composition
varies somewhat from one individual to another. Moreover, each persons blood composition varies with
health, nutrition, and activity.
Homogeneous mixtures are so important in chemistry that chemists give them the special name of solutions. A
solution is a homogeneous mixture. Solutions may be gases, liquids, or solids. It is probably fairly easy to
identify some solutions made up of gases or liquids from your personal experiences. However, can you name a
solution that contains solids mixed into other solids? Explain your answer.

In Block 003, we discussed how a mixture of two solids could be separated. A mixture of salt and sand can be
separated using water and filtration, because the salt will dissolve in the water, while the sand will not. A
mixture of iron and sand can be separated using a magnet. However, what if the mixture was not a mixture of
solids, but instead made up of liquids?
Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid
mixture. Distillation is a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. A typical distillation
apparatus is pictured in the following diagram.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 3 of 8

Look at the diagram. Assuming the distilling flask contains a mixture of two liquids, how do you think distillation
is used to separate the mixture?

Watch as your teacher performs distillation of a mixture of food coloring and water. Does what you see support
your explanation as to how distillation works? Why or why not?

Commercially, distillation has a number of applications. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for
specific uses such as transport, power generation, and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as
salt, from seawater. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled
beverages with a higher alcohol content. The premises where distillation is carried out, especially the distillation
of alcohol, are known as a distillery.
You might be surprised to find that the uses of distillation are not confined to the separation of mixtures of
liquids. Distillation can also be used to separate mixtures of gases. Air can be distilled to separate its
components notably oxygen, nitrogen, and argon for industrial use.

How could you separate a mixture of sawdust and sand? Describe a brief procedure that would accomplish this.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 4 of 8

By separating mixtures into their component parts we obtain pure substances. As you remember, a substance
has a uniform and definite composition. Substances are divided into two groups, elements and compounds.
Because you will work with elements and compounds in the laboratory, you should know how to distinguish
between them. Elements are the simplest forms of matter that can exist under normal laboratory conditions.
They cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Elements are the building blocks for all
other substances. Two or more elements can combine with one another to form compounds. Compounds are
substances that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical reactions. The elements in a
compound are always present in the same proportions. Every element and every compound has its own unique
set of properties.
In general, the chemical and physical properties of compounds are quite different from those of their
component elements. For example, table salt, also known as sodium chloride, is a common food additive made
up of sodium and chlorine. Sodium is a soft, shiny metal that bursts into flames when it comes in contact with
water. Chlorine is a pale yellow-green poisonous gas.
Deciding whether a sample of matter is a pure substance or a homogeneous mixture can sometimes be difficult.
A homogeneous mixture often looks like a pure substance. It might help to ask yourself, Is there more than
one kind of this material? For homogeneous mixtures like air, gasoline, steel, or tap water, the answer is yes.
For pure substances like the compound sodium chloride and the element neon, the answer is no.

Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture.


Spaghetti sauce

River water

Sugar

Cough syrup

Glass

Nitrogen

Argon

Ethanol, C2H5OH

Grape juice

Cheese

The periodic table on the next page will prove useful as we continue our discussion of elements and compounds.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 5 of 8

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

This page has been intentionally left blank.

Page 6 of 8

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 7 of 8

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sodium, and chlorine are only a few of the approximately 120 known elements. All
matter in the universe is composed of these elements. Each element is represented by a chemical symbol. The
symbols for most elements consist of the first one or two letters of the name of the element. The first letter is
always capitalized. If a second letter is needed, it must be lowercase. Some elements are derived from older
Latin names. In those cases, the symbol is not always consistent with the common name.
Use your periodic table to find the names or chemical symbols of the elements in the following table.
Element Name

Chemical Symbol

Lithium

Element Name

Chemical Symbol

Sulfur

Ca

Gallium

Ti

Strontium

Xe

Po

As mentioned above, some elements are derived from older Latin names, and their symbol might not match up
with the common name. Look at your periodic table. How many elements can you find whose chemical symbol
doesnt match up with the name. List them in the box below. One has been done as an example.

Sodium = Na

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - C

Block 005: Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds, and Elements

Page 8 of 8

Each element has properties in some way different from those of every other element. For example, helium
(He) is a chemically inert gas that is lighter than air. Iron (Fe) is a silver-gray solid that conducts electricity and
rusts in moist air.
Chemical symbols are used to write chemical formulas of compounds. The familiar compound water is
composed of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. The formula for water is H2O. The formula for sucrose is
C12H22O11. Sucrose is composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Baking soda, sodium
bicarbonate, has the formula NaHCO3. Baking soda is made of four elements: sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and
oxygen. The numbers in chemical formulas represent the proportions of the various elements in the compound.
Every compound is always made up of the same elements in the same proportions. Thus, the formula for each
compound is always the same.
Name the elements found in each of the following compounds. The first one has been done for you.

N = Nitrogen
Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl

H = Hydrogen
Cl = Chlorine

Potassium permanganate, KMnO4

Propan-2-ol, C3H7OH

Calcium Iodide, CaI2

Carbon dioxide, CO2

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - B

Block 006: Unit Conversions Unfamiliar Units

Page 1 of 3

Block 006:
NAME: ________________________________
Unit Conversions Unfamiliar Units
Barter is a system of exchange by which goods or services are
directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a
medium of exchange, such as money.
Consider what you know about the barter system as you solve
the following Conversion Token Economy Problem:
_2_ dinosaurs = _3_ bears
_3_ cubes = _8_ bears
_3_ dinosaurs = _7_ cops
_1_ cube = _4_ Admiral Ackbars

Given the conversions above, how many cubes is equal to 10 dinosaurs?


This problem might seem a bit nonsensical, but given the equalities listed above, as well as our rules for
converting units, it is solvable. Consider each of the items in the above table as commodities. Dont ascribe any
other value to them other than the equalities listed in the chart. From there, it is a simple matter to convert
from dinosaurs to bears, and then bears to cubes. A solution is presented here:

Did you forget how to plug in the numbers? Remember, always multiply the numbers on top and divide the
numbers on the bottom. If you consistently multiply the top and divide the bottom, the order you plug in the
numbers doesnt even matter:

Follow this simple rule, and you will always arrive at the correct answer. Dont try to combine numbers before
solving the problem. It is unnecessary, and will often lead to mistakes.

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - B

Block 006: Unit Conversions Unfamiliar Units

Page 2 of 3

Use what you know about this process to solve the following problems. Show all work in the spaces provided.
_2_ dinosaurs = _3_ bears

_3_ dinosaurs = _7_ cops

_3_ cubes = _8_ bears

_1_ cube = _4_ Admiral Ackbars

32 bears = ? cops

85 cubes = ? Admiral Ackbars

1600 bears = ? dinosaurs

8 Admiral Ackbars = ? bears

15.5 cops = ? cubes

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - B

Block 006: Unit Conversions Unfamiliar Units

0.00095 cops = ? bears

0.5 dinosaurs = ? cops

6 cubes = ? bears

18 Admiral Ackbars = ? dinosaurs

205 dinosaurs = ? cubes

Its a trap!

Page 3 of 3

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - C

Block 007: Safety in the Laboratory

Block 007:
Safety in the Laboratory

Page 1 of 6

NAME: ________________________________

Before we go any further in our study of chemistry, we should


have a discussion about safety in the laboratory. Safety should
be the number one concern of anyone working in a chemistry
laboratory. The teachers and students working in the lab should
make sure that all potential safety hazards are taken into
account before any experimentation begins.
Lets do a few demonstrations that will help us understand
some of the issues of laboratory safety.

DEMONSTRATION: Acid in Your Eye


Any time chemicals are being used in the lab, it is essential that you protect your eyes. The soft, gel-like portion
of your eye is called the vitreous humour. Chemically speaking, it is similar to the transparent portion of egg
white, which is the protein albumin. Your teacher will crack open an egg and pour the egg white into a Petri
dish.
Now, lets find out what happens when you get acid in your eye. Your teacher will place a few drops of
Hydrochloric acid, a particularly nasty chemical, onto the egg white in the Petri dish. Watch the egg white and
make any observations you can about what is happening. Be sure to make observations about what you see,
and if possible, what you smell.

The protein in the egg-white is denatured by the acid. In other words, the egg-white is being cooked.
The same thing would happen to the vitreous humor of your eye. Is it possible to uncook an egg?

So, what must you always remember to do in lab, in order to protect your eyes?

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - C

Block 007: Safety in the Laboratory

Page 2 of 6

DEMONSTRATION: Flaming Vapor Ramp


The sign at the right was spotted at a Chicago area gas station.
Read the sign. You probably knew that smoking was prohibited
at gas stations, and for obvious reasons. Did you know that you
werent supposed to use your cell phone while gassing up your
car? Why do you think that is?

Now, watch as your teacher demonstrates an important safety principle. At the bottom of the ramp, you will
see a lit candle. At the top of the ramp, the teacher will hold a solution of hexane, a flammable, volatile liquid
that is very similar to gasoline. The teacher will not pour any hexane down the ramp. What do you notice?

If the teacher didnt pour any of the liquid hexane down the ramp, why did the fire shoot up the ramp?

As it turns out, if a substance is flammable, its fumes, or vapor, are also flammable. If you have your cell phone
on while putting gas in your car, a spark from the cell phone battery could ignite the fumes from the gasoline,
causing a fire or explosion. Hopefully, you will keep this in mind, in the laboratory and at the gas pump.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - C

Block 007: Safety in the Laboratory

Page 3 of 6

DEMONSTRATION: Too Hot to Handle


How can you tell the difference between glassware (or ceramics or metal) that is at room temperature and
glassware that is really hot?

If you said, You cant tell the difference, youre right. Glass,
ceramics, and metal all look exactly the same, whether they are at
30 or 300. Watch as your teacher uses a Bunsen burner to heat up
a metal crucible for several minutes.
Now, watch as the teacher removes the crucible from the flame, and
places it on a small piece of balsa wood. What happened to the
wood?

Thats right. Since the metal crucible was in the flame for several minutes, it became really hot. The heat was
transferred to the wood, causing it to become charred. If you arent careful in the laboratory, your hands could
end up just like that balsa wood.

DEMONSTRATION: Dont put that just anywhere!


You wouldnt store gasoline near an open flame. Some things just dont belong near each other. It is important
to make sure you dont cause an accident by placing two substances that react with each other next to each
other. Since this is your first time learning chemistry, you are not necessarily going to know what chemicals will
react with what other chemicals. You should always consult your teacher if you have any questions regarding
chemicals in the lab.
What happens when you put steel wool from a Brillo pad too close to a 9V battery? Watch as your teacher
demonstrates this reaction. What happened?

Hopefully, remembering this will help you be more safety conscious in the lab.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - C

Block 007: Safety in the Laboratory

Page 4 of 6

Take a few minutes to look around the chemistry classroom. When designing and constructing the classroom,
some safety issues were dealt with properly, while others were dealt with poorly. Identify several safety
concerns in the room, and explain whether or not they were handled correctly by the designers of the
classroom. The first one has been done for you.
Safety issue: ___East side gas jets (room 121)_____ Was it handled correctly? __No____
Explain. _The gas jets on the east side of the room are directly below a set of wooden cabinets. If the
Bunsen burner flame gets too high, the cabinets could easily light on fire._______________

Safety issue: ________________________________ Was it handled correctly? ________


Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Safety issue: ________________________________ Was it handled correctly? ________


Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Safety issue: ________________________________ Was it handled correctly? ________


Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Safety issue: ________________________________ Was it handled correctly? ________


Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - C

Laboratory Safety Contract

Block 007: Safety in the Laboratory

Page 5 of 6

NAME: __________________________

To: Chemistry Students and Parents:


Listed below are safety rules to be observed throughout the year by any students participating in class. It is the schools job
to provide a safe classroom environment, and all students are expected to follow these rules.
In Lab:
1.

I will never under any circumstance take any chemical out of the room unless the teacher tells me to do so.

2.

Off task behavior (goofing off, jumping, running, pushing, throwing things, and loud talking) in the science classroom is
dangerous. I will stay on task.

3.

I will follow all written and verbal instructions concerning procedures and/or precautions because they are created for
my protection.

4.

I will perform only authorized experiments.

5.

I will handle only the chemicals that the teacher has instructed me to handle.

6.

I will never eat, taste, or inhale anything in lab.

7.

I will not eat, drink, or chew gum in lab.

8.

I will carefully read and label all chemicals correctly, and never mix any chemical that is marked unknown with any
other substance, unless told to do so.

9.

I will be careful when using the Bunsen burners. I will not reach across or put flammable objects near the flame.

10. I will not light the gas jet directly on fire.


11. I know where all the fire equipment is located in the room in case of an emergency.
12. I will be careful when working with hot objects because I do not want to get burned.
13. I will wear my goggles at all times because they are required by state law and I do not want to get any chemical in my
eyes.
14. I will report any injuries, accidents, or broken glass to the teacher, and follow instructions in cleaning it up.
15. I will always keep electrical outlets, gas jets, and sinks free of foreign objects.
16. I will clean my workspace when I am done with each experiment that I do, and I will make sure all garbage is put in the
proper bins.
17. I will not sit on lab stools or in desks during lab time so I do not spill any chemicals on my lap.
18. I will wash my hands to make sure all of the chemicals are off my hands, and so I do not contaminate any other
substance that may go near my mouth or eyes.

Sophomore Chemistry

Analytical - C

Block 007: Safety in the Laboratory

Page 6 of 6

In the classroom:
1.

I will not touch any of the teachers materials.

2.

I will listen when others are speaking.

3.

I will follow all directions given by the teacher.

4.

I will be ready with the proper materials needed for class by the time the teacher is ready to start work for the day.

Homework:
1.

Homework will be turned in on time. No late work will be accepted unless I have an excused absence. It is my
responsibility to find out what homework I miss during an excused absence, and to do the homework before returning
to class (if possible). If I fail to make up homework missed due to an excused absence, I will receive a 0 for that grade.

2.

Homework, labs, and tests assigned on or due during an unexcused absence will be counted as a zero towards my
grade.

3.

Quizzes and tests will be given out and I know that some may be unannounced.

4.

Labs will be given out at least once a chapter. It is my responsibility to make up labs missed during an excused
absence.

Consequences:
1.

I am expected to attend class every day, and to be on time. Attendance and participation constitute 10% of my
semester grade. Excused absences require a note from home, and will almost always be verified with a teacher to
parent phone call. We have a lot to cover in this class, so I must be here as often as possible. Any work assigned
during an absence of any kind must be made up. If class is missed for any reason, I am still responsible for missed
work. I will coordinate with Mr. Galinski during the absence, and I will make up the homework while absent.

2.

Consequence for any other misdeeds will be dealt out on an individual basis. I know that I will need to follow all of the
above rules to succeed in this class, and if I do not follow them I will be dealt with in a reasonable way.

I have read all of the rules and understand them. I will follow these rules all year long to ensure the safety of myself and my
fellow classmates.
X_________________________________________ Date_______________
I have read the following rules and understand them; I encourage my child to follow them at all times. I know that if my
child does not follow them he/she will be disciplined according to the nature of his/her offense.
X_________________________________________ Date_______________ Phone Number: ___________________

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - C

Block 008: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 1

Page 1 of 3

Block 008:
NAME: ________________________________
Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units Part 1
By now, you already know how to convert familiar units. If you wanted to solve the conversion problem:

You would start with the given information, put it over 1, and then multiply by a conversion fraction.

This process works because in the conversion fraction, the numerator (12 inches) and denominator (1 foot) are
equal to each other. The units cancel, and the answer is the only thing that remains after the math operation.
However, what happens if we want to solve the following problem?

What is a square foot? What are square inches? These are units commonly associated with the measurement
of area. Area can measured my multiplying the length of a region by its width. The units are also multiplied, and
can be rewritten in the following way for clarity.

This now presents itself as a two-step conversion problem. In order to convert square feet to square inches,
feet must be converted to inches twice.

1 foot2

1 foot

If you dont believe it,


feel free to count the
little boxes on the right!

12 inches

12 inches

1 foot

144 inches2

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - C

Block 008: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 1

Page 2 of 3

The same technique is to be used when converting from inches2 to feet2, except the conversion fractions will be
inverted. Lets say we wanted to solve the following problem:

As usual, begin by writing the given information, and putting it over 1. Expanding the units will prove helpful,
and the appropriate conversion fraction will have to be used twice, because of the squared units.

You can, whenever possible, double check your answer by thinking about whether it makes sense. This answer
makes sense because inches are small and feet are larger. Remember, the key to arriving at the correct
mathematical answer is to always multiply the numbers on top and divide the numbers on the bottom.
Use the same method to solve the problems below. Show all work.
1 foot = 12 inches

1 mile = 5280 feet

32 miles2 = ? feet2

4500 inches2 = ? feet2

9050 feet2 = ? miles2

8 miles2 = ? inches2 (This problem will require extra steps think about it before you jump in)

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - C

Block 008: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 1

Page 3 of 3

Area is commonly measured in square inches, square feet, or square miles. Because the units are squared, they
have to be converted twice. Volume, on the other hand, is measured in cubic units. Volume is calculated by
multiplying measurements in three dimensions, namely length, width, and depth. As a result, when cubic units
of volume are converted, they have to be converted three times. Consider the following problem.

To solve the problem, the same method is applied. However, feet have to be canceled to inches three times.

Use this unit conversion method to perform the following conversions. Show all work.
10 feet3 = ? inches3

450000 inches3 = ? feet3

90500 inches3 = ? feet3

2 miles3 = ? inches3 (Again, extra steps are needed here be careful!)

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - D

Block 009: Energy and the Law of Conservation of Mass

Page 1 of 4

Block 009:
NAME: ________________________________
Energy and the Law of Conservation of Mass
Energy is the capacity for doing work. Nearly all chemical and physical changes in nature involve the absorption
or emission of energy. Energy may exist in any one of several forms. It includes chemical, nuclear, electrical,
radiant, mechanical, and thermal energies.
Light is radiant energy. The use of light by plants is an example of how one form of energy may be converted to
another. Green plants use the radiant energy of sunlight to do the work of making carbon dioxide and water
into complex chemicals. This process is called photosynthesis. The chemicals store chemical energy that can be
used by plants for life processes. Green plants, therefore, survive by acquiring energy in one form and using it in
another. Stored chemical energy is a form of potential energy, the energy of position. Chemical energy
depends on the composition of a substance. When we buy gasoline to power our cars, we are buying chemical
potential energy. When the gasoline is burned in the cars engine, this potential energy is converted into kinetic
energy, the energy of motion.
One type of bicycle light is powered by a generator located on the rear wheel of the bicycle. In the space
provided, trace the interconversion of energy from the sun to the light produced by this bicycle light.

It is not hard to see that various forms of energy may be interconverted. An important question is: What
happens to the amount of energy as it is changed from one form to another? The answer is that in any physical
or chemical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed. This statement is known as the law of
conservation of energy. Energy is converted from one form to another, even sometimes to forms that are not
useful. However, the amount of energy present at the beginning of a process is equal to the amount of energy
present at the end.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - D

Block 009: Energy and the Law of Conservation of Mass

Page 2 of 4

In Block 001, we discussed what a scientific law was. What was our definition of a scientific law? Explain how
the definition of the law of conservation of energy given on page 1 of this Block fits our definition of a law.

Combustion, or burning, is an example of one of the most familiar chemical changes. When we burn a piece of
coal, atmospheric oxygen combines with the carbon in the coal. The products are carbon dioxide gas, water
vapor, and a large residue of ash. With careful measurements we can find that the mass at the beginning or the
reaction and the mass at the end are exactly equal.
This is essentially the principle at work behind the law of conservation of mass. The law states that no matter
what you do to a sample, whether it is a physical change or a chemical change, you cannot change the total
number of atoms present you can only change how they are attached to each other. The number of atoms of
reactants, the starting chemicals, is equal to the number of atoms of products, the chemicals you end up with.
Watch as your teacher performs the following demonstration. Write the masses of the reactants and products
in the appropriate spaces in the following diagram.

What happened to the mass of the chemicals in the system?

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - D

Block 009: Energy and the Law of Conservation of Mass

Page 3 of 4

When a log burns in a fire, the mass of the ash left in the fire is lower than the mass of the initial log. Is this a
violation of the Law of Conservation of Mass, or is something being overlooked? Explain.

Examine the data for the following experiment, and answer the questions based on analysis of the data.
Experiment #1:
REACTANTS

PRODUCTS

Magnesium

Oxygen

Magnesium Oxide

48.6 g

32.0 g

80.6 g

What is the mass of each reactant?

What is the mass of the product?

What is the total mass of the reactants?


Does the experimental data support the law of conservation of mass? Explain.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - D

Block 009: Energy and the Law of Conservation of Mass

Page 4 of 4

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - D

Block 010: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 2

Page 1 of 4

Block 010:
NAME: ________________________________
Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units Part 2
Sometimes, one unit of measurement by itself is not completely effective at describing a situation. In the case
of area and volume, we had to use squared and cubed units to describe how big something is. Squared units
had to be canceled twice; cubic units had to be canceled three times.
Another example of one unit not being sufficient to describe a situation occurs when we measure velocity, or
the speed of travel. To describe speed of travel, we have to consider both the distance traveled, and the time it
took. Speed of travel for cars is usually measured in miles per hour. This compound unit contains a unit of
distance and a unit of time, but does not actually tell us how far something moved or what length of time
elapsed.
Lets try a conversion involving one of these compound units. The speed limit on most highways is 55 miles per
hour. What is that speed in terms of feet per minute? Again, we begin by writing down the given value, and
putting it over the number 1.

This is not particularly helpful, as it does not suggest what to do next. Lets consider what 55 miles per hour
means. What does per mean? If a car is traveling at 55 miles per hour, that means that the car will move 55
miles for every 1 hour of time that passes. So, the term per really means in 1. A better way to write out our
first step would be as follows.

This is a better approach to the problem, because it divides the unit and suggests a course of action. If a car is
traveling at 55 miles for every hour that passes, we should be able to calculate how many feet will it travel in
one minute. Moreover, at both the beginning and the end of the problem, the numerator contains units of
distance, and the denominator contains units of time. In order to convert miles into feet, we proceed as we
have done before, by using a well thought out conversion fraction.

This is not exactly the result we were looking for. As you can see, we converted miles to feet by using the
equality 5280 feet equals 1 mile as a conversion fraction. The problem is that we have solved for the wrong
units. The answer is currently in feet per hour, and not in feet per minute as the problem asks for.

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - D

Block 010: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 2

Page 2 of 4

So, how do we convert a unit in the denominator? In order to convert a unit from the numerator, we canceled it
by using a conversion fraction that put the same unit in the denominator. To convert a unit from the
denominator, we cancel it by using a conversion fraction that puts the same unit in the numerator.

Look at the two conversion fractions. Each of them have a numerator that is equal to the denominator (5280
feet = 1 mile in the first conversion fraction and 1 hour = 60 minutes in the second). The order in which it is
written, just like the order in which it is entered in the calculator, does not matter. We could have just as easily
canceled hours to minutes first, and miles to feet last.

The order is not important, so long as the units cancel, and you remember to always multiply the numbers on
top and divide the numbers on the bottom. The units for the numerator started out and ended as units of
distance. The units for the denominator started out and ended as units of time.
Consider the following example. Lets say I wanted to convert 30 miles per hour into feet per second. We will
set up and execute the problem in the same way. However, there is one small difference:

This time, an extra step was added. We cancel miles to feet as before, but the time unit conversion required an
extra step, from hours to minutes, and then from minutes to seconds.
Use what you have learned to solve the following problems:
10 dollars per hour = ? quarters per minute

25 feet per second = ? miles per hour

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - D

Block 010: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 2

Page 3 of 4

15 nickels per minute = ? dollars per hour

100 miles per hour = ? inches per second

Compound units have another important use. They can serve as a bridge between units. Velocity is the
measurement of distance per time. Therefore, if I know how much time has passed, and I know the velocity, I
can find out how much distance has been traveled.
Consider this example: If a car has been traveling at 50 miles per hour for 8 hours, how far has it gone?
Again, we begin with what we are given, which in this case, is the amount of time elapsed. The velocity of the
car serves as a conversion fraction, allowing us to change from time to distance.

The converse is also true. If I know the distance traveled, I can use velocity to find the elapsed time. Consider
the following example: If a car has been traveling at 30 miles per hour, and has covered 360 miles, how long has
it been moving?

The conversion is set up in a similar fashion as above. However, this time, the conversion fraction is inverted. In
the earlier example distance (miles) was in the numerator and time (hours) was in the denominator. In the last
example, time was on the top and distance was on the bottom. The arrangement of the units in the conversion
fraction will vary from problem to problem. It should provide the correct answer as long as units cancel and you
remember to multiply the numbers on top and divide the numbers on the bottom.
Use this technique to answer the questions on the following page. Show all work.

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - D

Block 010: Unit Conversions Compound Familiar Units 2

Page 4 of 4

Juan earns 8 dollars per hour. How many hours will he have to work to make 400 dollars?

A train travels at a speed of 85 miles per hour. How far will it travel in 18 hours?

Gas costs $4.50 per gallon. How many gallons can Maurice buy if he has $85?

An airplane travels at 650 miles per hour. How many minutes will it take for the plane to travel 79000 feet?

Donna earns 15 dollars per hour. How much will she earn if she works for four days, assuming she is paid for
8 hours of work each day.

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - E

Block 011: Introductory Recap Sheet

Block 011:
Introductory Recap Sheet

Page 1 of 3

NAME: ________________________________

Answer the following questions in your own words. Include examples when appropriate.
What is organic chemistry? Why is it important to learn about organic chemistry?

What is analytical chemistry? Why is it important to learn about analytical chemistry?

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

Why is it important that we only change one variable at a time while conducting an experiment?

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - E

Block 011: Introductory Recap Sheet

Is chromatography a physical or chemical process?

What is chromatography used for?

What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas?

Give three examples of physical changes.

Give three examples of chemical changes.

Page 2 of 3

Sophomore Chemistry

Introduction - E

Block 011: Introductory Recap Sheet

List four indications that a chemical change is taking place.

Explain the difference between a chemical change and a physical change.

What is a compound? How is a compound different from an element?

Is distillation a physical or chemical process?

What is distillation used for?

Explain the law of conservation of mass.

Page 3 of 3

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - E

Block 012: Unit Conversions Simple Metric Units

Page 1 of 3

Block 012:
NAME: ________________________________
Unit Conversions Simple Metric Units
By the eighteenth century, dozens of different units of measurement were commonly used throughout the
world. Length, for example, could be measured in feet, inches, miles, spans, cubits, hands, furlongs, palms, rods,
chains, leagues, and more. The lack of common standards led to a lot of confusion and significant inefficiencies
in trade between countries. At the end of the century, the French government sought to alleviate this problem
by devising a system of measurement that could be used throughout the world. In 1790, the French National
Assembly commissioned the Academy of Science to design a simple decimal-based system of units; the system
they devised is known as the metric system. In 1960, the metric system was officially named the Systme
International d'Units (or SI for short) and is now used in nearly every country in the world except the United
States. The metric system is almost always used in scientific measurement.
The simplicity of the metric system stems from the fact that there is only one unit of measurement (or base unit)
for each type of quantity measured (length, mass, etc.). The three most common base units in the metric
system are the meter, gram, and liter. The meter is a unit of length equal to 3.28 feet; the gram is a unit of mass
equal to approximately 0.0022 pounds (about the mass of a paper clip); and the liter is a unit of volume equal to
1.05 quarts. So length, for example, is always measured in meters in the metric system; regardless of whether
you are measuring the length of your finger or the length of the Nile River.
To simplify things, very large and very small objects are expressed as multiples of ten of the base unit. For
example, rather than saying that the Nile River is 6,650,000 meters long, we can say that it is 6,650 thousandmeters long. This would be done by adding the prefix "kilo" (meaning 1,000) to the base unit "meter" to give us
6,650 kilometers for the length of the Nile River. This is much simpler than the American system of
measurement, in which we have to remember inches, feet, miles, and many more units of measurement.
Metric prefixes can be used with any base unit. For example, a kilometer is 1,000 meters, a kilogram is 1,000
grams, and a kiloliter is 1,000 liters. The common metric unit conversions that will come up in chemistry class
are listed here:
1 kX = 1000 X

1 X = 10 dX

1 dX = 10 cX

1 cX = 10 mX

with X representing any unit of measurement, like meters, grams, or liters.


To convert units in the metric system, you could remember these metric conversions, and use the same
technique as we have for all unit conversions:
Lets see how this will work for actual unit conversions. Consider the following conversion problem:

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - E

Block 012: Unit Conversions Simple Metric Units

Page 2 of 3

You might look at this problem and think that it will require several steps. One possible solution to the problem
is as follows:

This is absolutely correct. However, this is far more work than is required. Consider the following consolidated
list of important metric units:

0.001 kX = 1 X = 10 dX = 100 cX = 1000 mX


The numbers that are written next to these units account for the relative sizes of the units, and make all five of
these quantities equal. That means that every metric conversion can be done in one step:

As usual, as long as units cancel, and you remember to always multiply the numbers on top and divide the
numbers on the bottom, this method will yield the correct answer.
Lets consider another example. If a textbook is 2.5 dm long, what is its length in km?

Again, choosing the right numbers and units from the box above allows us to perform this conversion in only
one step. The answer 0.00025 km makes sense because a kilometer is a very large unit of length, and a textbook
is relatively very small. Whenever possible, you should check your answer and make sure that it makes sense.
Use what you know to perform the following conversions. Show all work. You should be able to solve every
problem in one step.
67 dg = ? cg

56 mL = ? dL

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - E

Block 012: Unit Conversions Simple Metric Units

0.012 kL = ? dL

954 mg = ? dg

0.054 g = ? mg

50 cm = ? dm

0.0014 km = ? cm

700 cL = ? dL

750000 cL = ? kL

200 m = ? dm

860 mm = ? dm

600 cg = ? mg

13 kg = ? mg

500 mm = ? dm

Page 3 of 3

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - A

Block 013: Recording Measurements

Block 013:
Recording Measurements

Page 1 of 5

NAME: ________________________________

Everyone makes and uses measurements. You decide how to dress in the morning based on the measured
outside temperature. You measure out the ingredients for your favorite cookie recipe. If you were building a
cabinet, you would carefully measure each piece of wood.
Measurements are also fundamental to the experimental sciences. The reference standards used by scientists
are those of the metric system, which you were introduced to in Block 012. The understanding of scientific
concepts is often based on measurements. It is important to be able to make measurements and to decide
whether a measurement is good or bad.
In chemistry, it is important to record data for every measurement you make. This data can be a recording of
numbers and units, or words. Quantitative data gives results in a definite form, using numbers and units.
Qualitative data gives a nonnumeric description.
Identify the following as quantitative or qualitative measurements.

A flame is hot.

A candle has a mass of 90 g.

Wax is soft.

A candles height decreases by 4.2 cm/hr.

A quantitative measurement, regardless of what it is a measurement of, is useless unless it consists of both a
number and a corresponding unit. When making a measurement, we choose a unit that makes sense based on
our perceptions and experience. When someone asks about your age, you tend to come up with an answer in
years, as opposed to seconds, days, minutes, or centuries. Similarly, if you were measuring the height of a
person, you would probably tend to choose feet or meters, rather than inches, centimeters, or miles.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - A

Block 013: Recording Measurements

Page 2 of 5

As a group, choose a celebrity to evaluate using qualitative and quantitative data. Then, fill in the following
chart with your answers. Remember, this is all in good fun, and doesnt have to be 100% correct.
Celebrity Name

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data
Age
Intelligence
Wealth
Weight

The units we will be making measurements with in this class are standard units used by scientists throughout
the world. These units are part of the International System of Units (or SI), a revised version of what is
commonly called the metric system. Some of the accepted SI units we will be using in this class are as follows:

Length:
The standard unit of length in the metric system is the meter. Other units of length and their equivalents in
meters are as follows:
1 millimeter = 0.001 meter
1 centimeter = 0.01 meter
1 decimeter = 0.1 meter
1 kilometer = 1000 meters
For reference, 1 meter is a little longer than 1 yard or 3 feet. It is about half the height of a very tall adult. A
centimeter is nearly the diameter of a dime, a little less than half an inch. A millimeter is about the thickness of
a dime. These prefixes can be used for any metric unit.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - A

Block 013: Recording Measurements

Page 3 of 5

Volume:
The standard unit of volume in the metric system is the liter. One liter is equal to 1000 cubic centimeters in
volume. 1 liter is a little more than 1 quart. One teaspoon equals about 5 milliliters.

Mass:
The standard unit of mass in the metric system is the gram. 1 gram is about the mass of a paper clip. One
kilogram is about the mass of a liter of water.

Time:
The following conversions are useful when working with time:
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds
1 day = 24 hours
1 week = 7 days
1 year = 365 days (for the Earth to travel once around the sun)

Order these lengths from smallest (1) to largest (8).

Centimeter

___

Meter

___

Kilometer

___

Decimeter

___

Micrometer

___

Nanometer

___

Millimeter

___

Picometer

___

By drawing lines, match the appropriate volume with each item.

a. orange

(1) 30 m3

b. basketball

(2) 200 cm3

c. van

(3) 20 L

d. aspirin tablet

(4) 200 mm3

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - A

Block 013: Recording Measurements

Page 4 of 5

By drawing lines, match the appropriate mass with each item.

a. peanut

(1) 400 cg

b. pear

(2) 50 mg

c. stamp

(3) 60 kg

d. person

(4) 150 g

Name the quantity measured by each of the following SI units. A quick internet search might help you find the
ones you arent yet familiar with.
mole

kilogram/cubic meter

second

pascal

meter

kilogram

meters per second

cubic meter

gram

Kelvin

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - A

Block 013: Recording Measurements

Page 5 of 5

Explain the difference between mass and weight. Again, a brief internet search might be useful here.

What is the symbol and meaning of each prefix?

milli-

nano-

deci-

centi-

kilo-

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - F

Block 014: Unit Conversions Compound Metric Units

Page 1 of 5

Block 014:
NAME: ________________________________
Unit Conversions Compound Metric Units
There are several metric units that can be used to measure the volume of a sample. Generally, for measuring
the volume of a liquid or gas, the easiest unit to work is the liter, L. Converting liters into other metric variants
of the liter can be accomplished in one step, using the conversion factors we have already learned about.

0.001 kL = 1 L = 10 dL = 100 cL = 1000 mL


For example, how would you convert 22.4 L into cL? The simple, one-step conversion is as follows:

Performing conversions from liters to centiliters, milliliters, deciliters, and kiloliters is uncomplicated and
straightforward. Perform the following one-step conversions. Show your work, and do each conversion in only
one step.
6.2 dL = ? mL

0.008 kL = ? cL

700 mL = ? L

4200 cL = ? L

Another method for measuring volume might come up if you were measuring a rectangular solid. By measuring
and multiplying the length, width, and height of a rectangular solid, you could arrive at a value for volume
measured in cubic meters, cubic decimeters, cubic centimeters, or cubic millimeters. (Cubic kilometers is also a
possibility, but it doesnt come up often in chemistry class due to the ridiculous size of a cubic kilometer.)

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - F

Block 014: Unit Conversions Compound Metric Units

Page 2 of 5

As cubic units like cubic meters have three dimensions, converting them requires repeating the same conversion
three times. For example, to convert 67 dm3 into cm3, the following treatment would be appropriate:

Remember, a dm3 is equal to 1 dm dm dm. In order to convert for length, width, and thickness, dm must be
converted to cm three times.
Perform the following three step conversions. Show all work. Check your answers to make sure they make
sense, based on the sizes of the units involved.
16.60 m3 = ? mm3

0.0045 mm3 = ? cm3

850000 km3 = ? dm3

75 cm3 = ? dm3

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - F

Block 014: Unit Conversions Compound Metric Units

Page 3 of 5

So, volume can be measured in non-cubic units like liters, or it


can be measured in cubic units like cubic meters, but how can
we convert between them?
Conveniently, 1 liter of volume is equal to a cube that is 1
decimeter in length, width, and height. Or in short:

1 L = 1 dm3
This equality serves as a handy conversion factor between
liters and cubic decimeters. Lets consider an example.
Suppose I have measured the volume of a liquid to be 45 dL, and I want to know how many cubic centimeters of
volume that is.

We cannot convert directly from dL to cm3. Instead, we have to begin by converting from dL to L.

This step converts our volume into liters, which is not quite what we want; however, from liters, we can go
another step using the equality above, and convert to cubic decimeters.

Cubic decimeters are still not the units we want, but from cubic decimeters, we can convert to cubic centimeters
by converting dm to cm three times.

Lets consider another example. On television and in movies, surgeons often ask for syringes filled with
medication measured in ccs, which is short for cubic centimeters. They say things like I need 20 cc of
epinephrine! Stat! How many mL is equal to 20 cm3?
The proper solution to this problem will start with 20 cm3. We will convert cm to dm three times. Then, we will
convert dm to L. Finally, we can convert L to mL to arrive at the answer.

Sophomore Chemistry

Conversions - F

Block 014: Unit Conversions Compound Metric Units

Page 4 of 5

Look at that result! 20 cm3 is the same thing as 20 mL! That means we have found another bridge between
cubic units of volume and non-cubic units. To switch between cubic and non-cubic units we can use either one
of the following conversion factors:

1 L = 1 dm3

or

1 mL = 1 cm3

Combining that with our previous metric conversions,

0.001 kL = 1 L = 10 dL = 100 cL = 1000 mL


and

0.001 km = 1 m = 10 dm = 100 cm = 1000 mm


we should be able to solve any conversion problem involving volume.
Remember these tips when performing volume unit conversions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

When converting cubic units to other cubic units, you have to repeat each conversion three times.
When converting non-cubic units to other non-cubic units, you only have to do the conversion once.
Make sure units cancel as you proceed through the problem.
Multiply any numbers in the numerators, and divide numbers in the denominators.

Use this treatment to solve the following volume conversion problems.


8300 mm3 = ? dL

1120 mL = ? dm3

Sophomore Chemistry

0.0308 dL = ? dm3

308 m3 = ? L

42500 L = ? km3

64.67 dm3 = ? cL

56 kL = ? m3

Conversions - F

Block 014: Unit Conversions Compound Metric Units

Page 5 of 5

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - B

Block 015: Temperature and the Celsius Scale

Page 1 of 3

Block 015:
NAME: ________________________________
Temperature and the Celsius Scale
Our investigation of energy began in Block 003 with the growling gummy bear demonstration, and continued in
Block 009 as we discussed the law of conservation of energy. You have probably heard several terms associated
with energy, so this is probably a good point to stop and clarify the terms heat, temperature, and energy.
Despite what you might think, energy, temperature,
and heat are not the same things. Energy is the
capacity for doing work. Temperature is directly
proportional to the average kinetic energy of a
substance. That is, every sample of matter is composed
of tiny particles called atoms, and they are in constant
motion. At lower temperatures, the atoms move very
slowly. At higher temperatures, they move very rapidly.
Energy typically moves from systems at high temperatures to systems at low temperatures. The energy that is
being transferred from one body to another is known as heat, and is measured in joules (J).
You might be familiar with the Fahrenheit scale for measuring temperature. The Fahrenheit scale is not
commonly used outside the United States, especially in the scientific world. The freezing point of water is 32F.
The boiling point of water is 212F.
Temperature is expressed in degrees Celsius in
the metric system. The boiling point of water
(at sea level) is 100 Celsius, or 100C. The
freezing point of water (at sea level) is 0
Celsius. These numbers make the Celsius scale
convenient for everyday use. However, the
Kelvin scale, or absolute temperature scale, is
directly related to kinetic energy. The zero
point on the Kelvin scale corresponds with zero
movement of particles, and is known as
absolute zero. This occurs at 0 K, which
corresponds with 273.15C.
A change of one Kelvin degree is the same as a change of one Celsius degree. Kelvin temperatures are always
exactly 273.15 degrees higher than Kelvin temperatures.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - B

Block 015: Temperature and the Celsius Scale

Page 2 of 3

If temperature is proportional to kinetic energy, or movement, what does it mean for a sample to be at a
temperature of 0 Kelvins?

Chocolate cookies are baked at 190C. Express this temperature in Kelvins. Show your work.

Why is Celsius temperature measured in degrees, while Kelvin temperature is not?

Under constant even heating, which would melt first, germanium with a melting point of 1210 K or gold with a
melting point of 1064C? Briefly explain your reasoning and show your work.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - B

Block 015: Temperature and the Celsius Scale

Page 3 of 3

Surgical instruments may be sterilized by heating at 450 K. Express this temperature in C. Show your work.

Complete the following chart.

Celsius

Kelvins

Importance
Water Boils
Water Freezes
Absolute Zero

Using algebra and the chart on page 1 of this Block, construct an equation to convert degrees Celsius to degrees
Farenheit. Remember, the freezing point of water is 32 F and 0 C, and the boiling point is 212 F and 100 C.
This might be more challenging than you think. Show your reasoning below.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - C

Block 016:
Density Part 1

Block 016: Density Part 1

Page 1 of 6

NAME: ________________________________

Look at the U-tube that the teacher has set up in the front of the room. In the space below, make some
observations about the chemicals that are in the tube. What do you notice about the heights of the liquids in
the tube?

Now, consider the plastic bottle at the front of the room. In the space provided, make some observations about
the chemicals in the bottle. How many different components are in the bottle? What happens when the bottle
is shaken up?

These chemical systems both are good demonstrations of the concept of density. In social studies class, you
might have heard of the term population density. Population density is a measurement of how many people live
in a certain area. It is a key statistic in the study of geography.

Cities like Chicago have a relatively high population density.

Rural farmland has relatively low population density.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - C

Block 016: Density Part 1

Page 2 of 6

In chemistry, density is the relationship between a substances mass and its volume. Density is characteristic of
a given substance, and does not depend on the size of the sample. Mathematically, density can be expressed as
follows:

Because density is equal to mass divided by volume, the units for density are the units of mass divided by the
units for volume. Density is often expressed in grams per cubic centimeter, or grams per liter. The following
table contains the densities of some common substances. Note that different units are used to quantify the
densities of solids and liquids than are used to quantify gases.

Densities of Some Common Substances


Solids and Liquids

Gases

Substance

Density at 20 C (g/cm3)

Substance

Density at 20 C (g/L)

Gold
Mercury
Lead
Aluminum
Corn syrup
Water (4 C)
Corn oil
Ice (0 C)
Ethanol
Gasoline

19.3
13.6
11.4
2.70
1.360
1.000
0.922
0.917
0.789
0.66

Chlorine
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Air
Nitrogen
Neon
Ammonia
Methane
Helium
Hydrogen

2.95
1.83
1.33
1.20
1.17
0.84
0.718
0.665
0.166
0.084

Values for density can be used to identify an unknown substance. Consider the following example.
A sample of metal has a mass of 65 grams and occupies 5.7 cubic centimeters of space. Using the table above,
identify the unknown metal.
Since we know the mass and volume of the sample, it is a simple matter to plug that information into the
density equation and find a numerical value for density.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - C

Block 016: Density Part 1

Page 3 of 6

Values for density can also be used to determine the mass or volume of a sample, assuming one of those values
is given. Consider the following example:
A sample of corn syrup occupies 15 mL of space. What is the mass of the sample?
Looking at the table on the previous page, we can find that the density of corn syrup is 1.360 g/cm3. Therefore,
the density of corn syrup can serve as a conversion fraction, allowing us to convert from volume to mass. Of
course, the units for volume given in the problem have to be converted as well. Fortunately, we have already
learned how to convert compound units of volume. One milliliter is equal to one cubic centimeter.

The value for density can also work as a conversion fraction to turn mass into volume. This requires us to flip
the fraction and use its reciprocal. Consider the following example:
Carbon dioxide has a density of 1.83 g/L. How many mL will be occupied by 88 g of carbon dioxide?
Again, the units for volume have to be converted, because the density of carbon dioxide is reported in g/L, but
the problem asks for an answer in mL.

Refer to these examples and the table on the previous page as you solve the following problems.
A sample of aluminum occupies 35 cm3. What is the mass of the sample in grams?

A liquid sample occupies 48 mL, and has a mass of 37.87 g. Which of the substances in the table is it?

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - C

Block 016: Density Part 1

Page 4 of 6

Neon has a density of 0.84 g/L. How many mL will be occupied by 135 g of neon?

Density can be used to determine whether an object will sink or rise. Look at the chart
on the previous page. You can see that the density of corn oil is less than the density of
water. For that reason, the corn oil floats on top of the water. For the same reason,
corn syrup will sink in water. If you were to combine all three liquids in a beaker, the
result would look something like the figure on the right.
Look again at the bottle on the teachers desk. What three components do you see?
Compare their densities.
__________________________
Lowest density

__________________________
Medium density

_________________________
High density

Youve probably seen a helium filled balloon rise rapidly to the ceiling when it is released. Whether a gas filled
balloon will sink or rise depends on how the density of the gas compares with the density of air. The density of
air is 1.20 g/L, while the density of helium is only 0.166 g/L. Would a balloon filled with carbon dioxide sink or
rise in air? Why?
_____________________________________________________________________________
As mentioned on page 2, there are several different units for density. You must include the correct units for
density every time you calculate it. When dividing mass by volume to get density, you must also divide the units
in order to find the proper compound units for density. For a dense object, like a solid or a liquid, the density is
usually measured in grams per cubic centimeter or grams per milliliter. When measuring the density of a gas,
grams per liter is more appropriate. Look again at the table in the chart on page 2. The density of liquid water is
1.000 g/cm3, while the density of air, a gas, is 1.20 g/L. It is important to note the units on each measurement.
Otherwise, someone looking at these numbers might think that you believe that air will sink in water. Consider
the following example:
An unknown sample has a mass of 42 grams and a volume of 35 cubic centimeters. Will it sink or float in corn
syrup?

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - C

Block 016: Density Part 1

Page 5 of 6

Use what you have learned to solve the following problems. Show all work.
A sample of gas has a mass of 1.3 g, and occupies 1.625 L. Will it rise or sink in methane gas?

What is the density of chlorine gas, in grams per cubic centimeter?

Will a piece of aluminum sink or float in a liquid that has occupies 65 cm3 and has a mass of 195 g?

Find the density of lead, in kg/m3.

One last interesting thing about density. Your teacher also has a Galileo Thermometer on display in the front of
the room. This type of thermometer has been used to accurately tell the temperature of rooms for four
hundred years. It operates using the principle that the density of liquids change with temperature, and that
materials of lower density float in materials of higher density. What is the temperature of the room, according
to the Galileo thermometer?

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - C

Block 016: Density Part 1

Page 6 of 6

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - D

Block 017:
Accuracy and Precision

Block 017: Accuracy and Precision

Page 1 of 5

NAME: ________________________________

The words accuracy and precision are often used interchangeably, but they mean two very different things in
the world of scientific measurement. Accuracy is how close a measurement comes to the true or accepted
value of whatever is measured. Precision is concerned with the closeness of multiple measurements to each
other the reproducibility of a measurement.
Darts stuck in a dart board can be used to illustrate the difference between these two terms. The following four
scenarios represent all possible combinations of low and high accuracy and precision.

To sum up, accuracy means getting the right answer, while precision means getting the same thing over and
over again. These terms are commonly confused in the world of advertising.

This is a sign that belongs to a real auto repair shop. Briefly


explain what is wrong with this sign in the space provided.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - D

Block 017: Accuracy and Precision

Page 2 of 5

At this point, your teacher will direct you to numerous shooting targets that have been placed throughout the
room. The targets have had paint applied to them to represent attempts to hit the target. Your job is to take a
couple of minutes to assess the accuracy and precision of each shooter. Fill in the following chart by circling the
appropriate number, with 0 being the lowest and 10 being the highest possible degree of accuracy or precision.
After you are done, you will discuss your results as a group.
Target

Accuracy

Precision

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Do you think you can do better? Several members of the class will take turns shooting a Nerf dart gun at a
target on the board. In the space below, comment on their accuracy and precision.

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - D

Block 017: Accuracy and Precision

Page 3 of 5

Three students made multiple weighings of a copper cylinder, each using a different balance. The correct mass
of the cylinder had been previously determined to be 47.32 g. In the space provided, describe the accuracy and
precision of each students measurements.

Weighing 1
Weighing 2
Weighing 3
Weighing 4

Mass of Cylinder (g)


Lissa
Lamont
47.05
47.34
48.42
47.30
46.83
47.31
47.32
47.33

Leigh Anne
47.95
47.95
47.94
47.94

Which of these synonyms or characteristics apply to the concept of accuracy? Which apply to the concept
of precision?

multiple measurements

correct

repeatable

reproducible

single measurement

true value

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - D

Block 017: Accuracy and Precision

Page 4 of 5

Comment on the accuracy and precision of these basketball free-throw shooters.

99 of 100 shots go through the hoop.

99 of 100 shots hit the front of the rim and bounce off.

33 of 100 shots go through the hoop; the rest miss.

You will now use some rulers to make some measurements. Your teacher will pass out centimeter rulers. Use
only the ruler your teacher gives you do not trade rulers in fact, dont even look at anyone elses ruler. Your
job will be to use your ruler to measure the length and width of the boxes below. Then, calculate the area of
each box, by multiplying the length and the width. When you are done, we will discuss the results as a group.
Box A:

Box B:

Box C:

Length: ______ cm
Length: ______ cm
Width: ______ cm

Length: ______ cm
Width: ______ cm
Width: ______ cm
Area: ________ cm

Area: ________ cm2


What can you say about the various rulers used in this activity?

Area: ________ cm2

Sophomore Chemistry

Measurements - D

Block 017: Accuracy and Precision

Page 5 of 5