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FOS/10/11/ 183350
Dams, which are constructed of earth and rock materials, are generally referred
to as embankment dams or fill-type dams. Embankment dams are classified into
two main categories such as earthfill dams and rockfill dams. The dam type in a
project is determined by considering various factors associated with topography
and geology of the dam site, and quality and quantity of construction materials
available. Most of catastrophic failures of embankment dams are caused by
overtopping of the reservoir water due to flooding or loss of free board. Despite
embankment dams should not be designed to withstand erosive action of water
flow over the crest, case histories reveal that inadequate capacity of spillway,
that is, insufficient estimation of the amount of flooding has often led to the
failure of the embankment due to overtopping.

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