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FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND MULTIMEDIA

COMMUNICATION

CBAA4203
3D ANIMATION

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1.0

INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ANIMATION


Animation is the process of creating a continuous motion and deformation of illusion through the

rapid display of a sequence of static images of the minimum different from each other. Illusion-like in
motion pictures generalists considered depending on the phi phenomenon. Animators are artists who
specialize in the creation of animation

Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model
positions in order to create an illusion of movement. The effect is an optical illusion of motion
due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in several
ways. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video
program, although there are other methods

Figure 1.1 The bouncing ball animation consists of these six frames.

Animations can be recorded either analog media, such as a flip book, motion picture films, video
tapes, or digital media, including formats such as GIF animation, Flash animation or digital video. For
display, digital camera, computer, or projectors are used.
Methods of the invention include a method of creation of animation traditional animation and
stop motion animation involving two-and three-dimensional objects, such as paper cutouts, puppets and
clay figures. The images displayed in rapid succession, usually 24, 25, 30, or 60 frames per second

2.0

CEL ANIMATION
Cell Animation was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual

frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, first drawn on paper.

The term cell derives from the clear celluloid sheets were used for drawing that's each
frame. The series of frames in between the key frames (the first and last frame of action) are
drawn in a process called tweening. Tweening an action requires calculating the number of
frames between key frames and the path the action takes, and then actually cell with a syringe
sketching pencil the series of progressively different outlines
A process performed by software that emulates a traditional cell animation, the use of
transparent celluloid sheets ("cell" or "Cels" for short) to superimpose the active element in a
frame animation to a static background. Computer cell animation is quite effective because the
images can be reproduced quickly and manipulated.
Identification Cell animation cans easily often be identified by the quality of the
animation. Because computer-generated animated pieces are drawn and rendered within a
computer, they often are reflected to have three dimensions. Due to the nature of hand-drawing
animation, cell-animated films to be reflected to only have two dimensions. The coloring in a
movie is also an easy way to identify it as a hand drawn. The color in a traditionally animated
film is often applied with paint directly to the animation cell, a very giving it a distinct look. As
with everything about a computer-generated film, the color is rendered by the computer and also
a giving it a distinct look that's easily distinguishable from traditional animation.
The cell animation technique, popularized by Walt Disney, uses a series of drawings or
pictures that overlap one frame with another frame. Cell animation benefits the three major
techniques which are the keyframes, tweening and onion skinning. For your information, films
are normally built using 24 frames per second (fps). Therefore, to produce one minute of
animation we will require 1440 different frames. The term cel originates from clear celluloid
sheets that are used to draw each frame. Nowadays, it has been replaced with acetate or plastic.
Cell animation begins with the keyframes. For example, when a person walks across the screen,
he balances his body on one leg and then on the other leg. Thus, the picture of the first keyframe
will show him bending a little then straightening a little then bending a little again and so on and
so forth, continuously. The sequence of producing the frames in between the keyframes is known
as tweening. Through this cell animation technique, each character or object that requires having
movement, will be drawn on transparent sheets. Pictures of the background are drawn on opaque
sheets. For an animation to succeed, many characters or objects will be drawn on overlapping
transparent sheets that are placed on top of each other and in turn placed on top of the opaque
paper with the background drawing. Examples of traditionally animated feature films include
Pinocchio (United States, 1940), Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and Akira (Japan,
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1988). Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology
include The Lion King (US, 1994) Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away) (Japan,
2001), and Les Triplettes de Belleville (France, 2003).
Cel animation is the process used for most films animated the 20th century. Individual
frames of traditional film animation drawing painting, first provided on paper.
The term cell derives from the clear celluloid sheets were used for drawing that's each
frame. The series of frames in between the key frames (the first and last frame of action) are
drawn in a process called tweening. Tweening an action requires calculating the number of
frames between key frames and the path the action takes, and then actually cell with a syringe
pencil the series of progressively
The process was undertaken by software that emulates traditional cell animation, the use
of pieces of celluloid transparent ("cells" or "Cels" for short) to override the active element in a
frame animation to a static background. Computer animation cells with a hint of his deep-image
original image may be generated quickly and manipulated.
Identification Cell animation cans easily be identified by the qualities of animation. His
deep-chip computer generated animation has been provided and administered in the computer,
they are often depicted has three dimensions. By the nature of his deep hand painted animation,
cell animation film can be viewed only has two dimensions. A dye in the film is also an easy way
to know for sure he is as hands are provided. The colors in a traditionally animated film are often
used to continue to paint animation cells, which are very giving differing views. Like everything
else about the film generated by computer, the colors are interpreted by the computer and also
provide a differing view it easily distinguished than traditional animation.
Cell animation technique was popularized by Walt Disney, using an unregistered painting
or picture frame by frame overlapping one another. Animation cells benefit the three main
techniques which are keyframes, tweening and onion-skinning. For your edict, films are usually
cultivated using 24 frames per second (fps). Thus, to generate the animation minutes 1440, we
will require differing frame which is derived from the term cell clear celluloid sheets that are
used to draw each frame. At present, it has been replaced with acetate or plastic. The animation
cells begin with keyframes. For example, if someone walks in the screens, he's balancing his
body on one foot and then the other leg. Thus, the first keyframe images will show him bowed
slightly and then straighten out a little bit and then bowed again and so on and so forth, are the
quest. The series of frames between keyframes produce recognizable as tweening. Through this
cell animation techniques, each character or object that needs to have movement, will be
attracted to the over looping transparent sheet. The pictures of the background have been
provided in the opaque sheet. For animations to prevail, many character or object will be painted
on transparent overlapping sheets placed on top of each other and so placed on the paper with
painting opaque background. Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio
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(United States, 1940), Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and Akira (Japan, 1988).
Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include
The Lion King (US, 1994) Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away) (Japan, 2001), and
Les Triplettes de Belleville (France, 2003).
2.1

History Of Cel Animation


The cell animation process was early 21st century. Today, animation and background painting are

either scanned into or removed continuously into a computer system. Various programs are used to
software colored painting and simulated camera movements and impressions. Last piece of animation is
spending to one rather than several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm film and newer media
such as digital video. That "look" of traditional cell animation is still perpetuated, and the character
animators work 'has been conserved basically the same over the last 70 years. Some dispensing animation
has been using "tradigital" term to describe cell animation which uses a lot of computer technology
2.2

Technique Of Cell Animation


A cell, short for celluloid, is transparent sheet on objects painted or painted for traditional, hand-

painted animation. Celluloid truth (which consists than cellulose nitrate and camphor) have been used in
the first half of the 20th century, but his deep it is flammable and unstable dimension he settled some
magnitude was replaced with cellulose acetate. In general, characters painted on the cells and placed on a
static background painting. This reduces the number of times an image has to be redrawn and enables
studios to split up the production process to different specialized teams. Using this installation method
lifeless lineup has been possible to produce films more effective boarding. The outlines of the image have
been provided in front of the cell when the colors are painted on the back to eliminate brushstrokes.

According to Wikipedia (2014), The Cell is an important innovation to traditional


animation, as it allows some parts of each frame to be repeated from frame to frame, thus saving
labor. A simple example would be a scene with two characters on the screen, the one that speaks
and the others stood in silence. Since the latter character is not moving, it is displayed in this
scene using only one drawing, on one cell, while multiple drawings on multiple Cells used to
animate talking character.
As a more complex example, consider a sequence in which men set a plate on the table.
The table remained still for the entire sequence, so it can be taken as part of the background.
Plates can be taken along with the character as the character puts it on the table. However, after
the plates on the table, the plate will no longer move, although the boy continues to move as she
pulled her hand away from the plate. In this example, after the boy put the plate down, the plate
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may then pulled in separate cells from the boy. Another new feature of cell skeleton of children,
but the plate does not need to be redrawn because it does not move; cells of the same plate can be
used in each remaining frame that it is still on the table. Cat cell shaded version is actually
produced in each color to compensate for the extra layer of cells added between the image and
the camera; in this example a little brighter painted plate for offset moved one layer down. In TV
and other low-budget production, cells are often "recycled" (ie cell sequence was repeated
several times), and also archived and reused in other episodes. After the film was completed, the
cell either discarded or, especially in the early days of animation, washed and reused for the next
film. Some studios have kept part of the cell and either sold in stores or studio to produce as gifts
to visitors.
In early cartoons made before the use of cell, such as Gertie the Dinosaur (1914), the
entire frame, including the background and all characters and items, were drawn on a single
sheet of paper, then photograph. All need to be redrawn for each frame containing movements.
This led to a "jittery" appearance; imagine seeing a sequence of paintings of mountains, each a
little different than before. Animated pre-cells are then improved by using techniques such as
slash and tear system invented by Raoul Barre; animated backgrounds and objects are drawn on
a separate sheet. The frame is made by removing all the empty parts of the paper in which the
objects are drawn before being placed on the background and finally the picture. Cell animation
process was invented by Earl Hurd and John Bray in 1915.
2.2

Advantage of Cell Animation


The advantage is that the animation cells appear crisper / cleaner and most have more than a very

detailed look at it. More expressive style, and has a more classic feel to it, and makes the audience can
more easily relate to the characters. Cell animation is regarded as a classic art form. Cell animation is an
animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand. This technique is the dominant form of
animation in cinema until the advent of computer animation

This technique saves time and energy for the graphics artists because they do not need to
draw each character or object repeatedly. Instead, these artists only need to draw certain parts of
the characters that require movements.

2.3

Example Of Animation Created For Cel Animation

Below is the example of cell animation created frame by frame.

This image shows how two transparent cells, each with a different character drawn on them, and
an opaque background are photographed together to form the composite image.

Each frame is drawn by hand


Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps)
Thats 1440 pictures to draw per minute

Examples of traditionally animated feature films include:

Full animation
Refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that often use
detailed drawings and reasonable movement, smoothly animated. Fully animated film can be
made in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works such as those produced by the
Walt Disney studio (Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Lion King) to the 'cartoon' style more than
Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full
animation, as are non-Disney works such as The Secret NIMH (U.S., 1982), The Iron Giant
(U.S., 1999), and Nocturna (Spain, 2007)

Limited animation
Involves the use of drawings and methods of less detailed and / or more stylish animated motion
usually wavy or "Skippy" movement. Spearheaded by the U.S. artist studio Productions of
America, limited animation can be used as a means of artistic expression style, such as Gerald
McBoing Boing in (USA, 1951), Yellow Submarine (UK, 1968), and many anime produced in
Japan. The main purpose, however, has resulted in a cost-effective animated content for media
such as television (the work of Hanna-Barbera, Filmation, and other TV animation studios) and
later the Internet (web cartoons).

Rotoscoping
The technique patented by Max Fleischer in 1917, where animators trace live-action movement,
frame by frame. The movie can be copied directly from the source lines that actors' into animated
drawings, as in The Lord of the Rings (U.S., 1978), or used in a stylized and expressive, as in
Waking Life (U.S., 2001) and A Scanner dark (USA, 2006). Some other examples are: Fire and
Ice (USA, 1983) and Heavy Metal (1981).

Live-action/animation
This technique combines hand-drawn characters into live action shots. One of the application, are
in Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live action footage. Other examples include the
Framed Roger Rabbit (USA, 1988), Space Jam (USA, 1996) and Osmosis Jones (USA, 2001).

A live-action/animated film is a film that features a combination of actors or real


elements: live-action and animated elements, typically interacting in Three Caballeros
(1945), Donald Duck cavorts with some Latin-American dancer, added Aurora Miranda
(sister of Carmen Miranda), who gives him a kiss.

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3. STOP MOTION ANIMATION

Stop motion is a powerful animation technique that makes static objects appear to be
moving. Creating stop motion draws attention to placement, framing, direction and speed of
movement. There are many types of stop motion techniques, in both 2-D and 3-D media.
Stop motion (also known as stop frame) is an animation technique to make a physically
manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small increases in the individual
picture frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a continuous
sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are often used in stop motion for their ease of
repositioning. Stop motion animation using clay is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all motion
stops require figures or models; many stop motion films may involve use of human, household appliances
and other for comedic effect. Stop motion using objects are sometimes referred to as an animated object.
There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to
create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation; however, the
traditional stop motion animation is usually less expensive and time consuming to produce than current
computer animation.
Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating realworld objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement.
There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to
create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation.
3.1

History of Stop Motion Animation


Stop motion animation has a long history in film. He often used to show objects moving as

magical. The first incidence of stop motion techniques may be credited to Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart
Blackton for The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1898), in which a toy circus of acrobats and animals . In
1902, the film Fun in Bakery Shop used clay to stop the movement of "lightning sculpting" sequence.
French maestro Georges Mlis film ruse used to generate the header-card moving letter to one of the
short films, but never exploited the process for everywhere he films the other [dubious - discuss]. The
Haunted Hotel (1907) is another stop motion film by J. Stuart Blackton, and was a proud triumph when
released. Segundo de Chomn (1871-1929), from Spain, released El Hotel Electrico later in the same
year, and using the same techniques as the Blackton film. In 1908, a Welsh Rarebit Nightmare Engraver
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is issued, such as The Engraver's Nightmare, a film by Billy Bitzer. Italian animator Romo Bossetti
amazed audiences with his object animation ramble-de-power, Automatic Moving Syarikat in 1912.
European Large movements stopped Starewicz pioneer was Wladyslaw (1892-1965), who animated The
Beautiful Lukanida (1910), The Battle of the beetle Stag (1910), The Ant and the grasshopper (1911).
Stop-motion has changed dramatically since the early 20th century. In fact, stop-motion is rarely
used anymore, only in TV shows kids that you see the effect as like Gumby. With the development of 3D
digital animation, 3D character animation in movies has become easier and faster, which is favored by the
industry. 3D animation allows the characters do not really seem to be alive.
3.2

Process of Stop Motion Animation

Those who have spent a lot of time watching jittering Lego blocks on YouTube, Wallace
and Gromit shorts on an iPod, or Tim Burton's recent film animation in the theater know that
stop-motion film making is a continuous effort. For those unfamiliar with the term, stop-motion
animation is the painstaking process of capturing still images of the scene, moving objects in the
scene ever so slightly after each still image capture, and stringing together the resulting images
as video frames so that when played back they mimic movement.
Unlike in the days of the golden claymation Gumby and tricks, create stop motion video
is good in understanding and Mac users usual budget. With little more than a digital camera or
camcorder, software, and a fair measure of patience and planning, you can create impressive
animations. Here are some suggested ways to go about it.
The basic process involves taking pictures animated objects or characters, moving them a
little bit, and take another picture. When playing back images in succession, objects or characters
appear to move on their own.
When thinking about doing some kind of animation we need to think outside the box and realize
that just about anything would make a good subject. And we need to think about the fact that just
about any medium will work well also
Two Dimensional Ideas
Working in two dimensions gives a lot of creative options and cheap. We can only draw
pictures on paper and then delete the face they show the movement that you want. An alternative
to fighting is to draw a series of pictures on a separate sheet of paper and photograph them
individually. This can give you incredible results but is very challenging to make a living as a
clean image without deterioration detected that would make it very jerky and shaky.
The best way to draw pictures is to use some kind of surface that can be deleted. This
tends to be easier than drawing pictures on paper and two very good medium for this is a dry
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erase board and chalkboard. This makes it very easy to erase your drawing and painting materials
movement. We are using a dry erase board if we want to get some great looking animation and
drawing skills.
Drawing the figure and image of the object and then cut them out and use them in the
animation is the best way to get the animation is very creative and very expressive. There are two
important addition that can make up for this style of animation. We can reduce the drawing into
segments to show movement. An example of this is to draw the human form then cut into
different parts like arms, legs, head and torso. In this way we can move individually by moving
people. Another way to increase deductions is to make painting different paintings of the same
object to show motion or rotation. A good example of this would be the face. We will draw a
variety of faces like that with your mouth closed and mouth open. In this way can alternate
between painting and simulations talk.
Three Dimensional Animations
There are some interesting possibilities available when we start to think about doing
animation in three dimensions. And the first place we can start is with clay or Play-Doh. If we do
not have any of these ingredients we can easily make some flour, salt and water. Another
technique that is very simple but very expressive is to use wires. We can form into figures and
objects. It holds its shape well but easy to manipulate to simulate motion. Wire is so effective
that it often frames modern public figures made. This technique is called using a wire armature.
Action figures and dolls make great animation subjects as long as they have movable
joints and body parts so that we can articulate them. But we do not have to stick with it. Just
about any three-dimensional object can be used in an interesting way. We can make small eyes,
nose, and mouth, and then attach it to any object and come up with some interesting projects
anthropomorphic. We can also carve potatoes or apples and get some great videos. And just
moving objects around can be a source of some interesting videos. Watching furniture move to a
room can be a good idea to move a table or view items could also be interesting.
Animating and the real world is also a fun way to approach the animation. If we stand at
attention and take pictures and then move forward six inches, stand at attention and take pictures,
we can come up with a series of pictures that show the magic sliding around without moving our
feet. We can also do the same thing by jumping into the air and snapping pictures. Move forward
six inches, jumping, and snap another picture. With this technique we can create an animation
that shows floating.
Some final
Do not forget the camera. If you really wanted to make a typical animation, we had to
move our camera to take a picture series. We should do this with the same no zooming in or out
or highlight from side to side. It moves the camera is the single best way to make an animation
stand.

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3.3

Advantages Of Stop Motion Animation

Stop Motion Animation is a very creative hobby. Everyone can make stop motion animation. It is
also very cheap to get started in; and may be able to do it for no cost at all. All we need is a digital
camera yet, some basic software, and a few ideas.
At the same times we can create some cool effects and also can animate inanimate objects such
as photo, clay, wire or etc. Its realistic, more depth of field for filming, classic genre and the viewer of a
stop motion film would appreciate the effort and time put into the production.
3.4

Example Of Animation Created For Stop Motion Animation

Puppet animation typically involves stop motion puppet figures interacting in the built
environment, in contrast to the real-world interaction in model animation. Puppets generally have an
armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as to constrain their movement to a
particular joint. Example: Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pal, are puppet
animation film which typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply
manipulating one existing puppet. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation.

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3.5

TECHNIQUE OF ONE STOP ANIMATION

a)

Clay animation
Clay animation, or Plasticine animation (often called claymation, which, however, is a

trademarked name), uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion
animation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation
(below), that can be manipulated to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of
clay, such as in the films of Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes.
Clay animation is one rather than many forms of stop motion animation. Every piece of
animation, equally no character or background, is "change form"-done rather than malleable material,
usually plasticine clay.
All traditional animation is produced in the same form, as there is done through cel animation or
stop motion. Each frame, or still picture, recorded on film or digital media and then played initially rapid
succession. When played on the original frame levels greater than 10-12 frames a second, somewhat
convincing illusion of movement is achieved quest. Although the characteristics of the original toys that
embody the illusion is true for all moving images (from zoetrope to films to video games), the techniques
involved in creating CGI are usually issued rather than the frame-by-frame.
In clay animation, each object is sculpted in clay or clay material also like plasticine, usually
around a wire skeleton called an armature. As in other forms of object animation, the object is arranged
on the set (background), the film frame is exposed, and the object or character is then moved slightly by
hand. Another frame is taken, and the object is to move a little more. This cycle is repeated until the
animator has achieved the desired amount of film. The human mind processes the series slightly variable;
quick play images as motion, thus making it appear that the object is moving by itself. To achieve best
results, a consistent shooting environment is needed to maintain the illusion of continuity. This means
paying special attention to maintaining consistent lighting and object placement and working in a quiet
environment. Examples of clay-animated works include The Gumby Show (US, 19571967) Morph
shorts (UK, 19772000), The Trap Door (UK, 1984). Films include Wallace &Gromit: The Curse of the
Were-Rabbit, Chicken Run and The Adventures of Mark Twain.

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b) Cutout animation

Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving two-dimensional


pieces of material. Cutout animation is a technique for producing animations using flat characters, props
and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or pictures. The earliest known
animated movie in the world is a cutout animation (made in Argentina by Quirino Cristiani); as the
earliest surviving animated feature in the world.
Today, cutout animation style is often produced using computers, with scanned images or vector
graphics taking the place of physically cut. South Park is a notable example of this shift since the first
episode was made with paper cutouts before turning to computer animation

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c) Silhouette animation

Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only
visible as silhouettes. Examples include The Adventures of Prince Achmed (Weimar Republic, 1926) and
Princes et princesses (France, 2000).

The animation silhouette is animation in which the characters are only visible as black
silhouettes. This is usually accomplished by backlighting expressed cardboard cut-outs, although other
methods exist. It was partly inspired by, but for some technical reasons different from, shadow puppets.

Traditional silhouette animation created by Reiniger is a cutout animation subdivision (own one
of the many forms of stop motion). It uses a figure cut paperboard, sometimes reinforced with thin metal
sheets, and tied together at their joints with thread or wire (usually replaced by plastic or metal paper
fasteners in contemporary productions) who later moved frame by frame in the animation stand and
filmed top to bottom with a camera platform - such techniques have been used, even with the change of
style, by practitioners as Nobur fuji in the 1940s and Bruno J. Bttge in this series 1970s.Michel the
Ocelot's television Cine (Cinema If, 1989) is slightly different, incorporating cutouts and cells and, more
occasionally, live-action and animated clay (the series is known as the Princes et princesses, the film
version described below). This is also the first successful animated silhouette makes the characters seem
to speak for themselves (traditional, whether intertitles or voice-over narration was used) as a medium
mixture may be lip syncing right. The traditional animation can also be used to mimic the silhouette
animation, as seen frequently in the Be-Papas' Shojo Kakumei Utena (Revolutionary Girl Utena, 1997).

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d) Model animation

Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a
live-action world. Intercutting, matte effects, and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion
characters or objects with live actors and settings.

Model animation is a form of stop motion animation designed to merge with live action
footage to create the illusion of a real-world fantasy sequence.
Model animation was pioneered by Willis O'Brien, and it was first used in The Lost World
(1925). His work also includes

King Kong (1933)


The Son of Kong (1933)
Mighty Joe Young (1949)
The Black Scorpion (1957)
The Giant Behemoth (1958)

Picking up baton animated models of O'Brien, and improve the process again, introducing
color and smooth animation, is his protg, Ray Harryhausen. Helping O'Brien in Mighty Joe
Young in 1949, Harry went to the animation model (and other distinctive visual impression) at
siri characteristic length films, such as:

The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms (1953)


It Came from Beneath the Sea (1955)
Earth vs. the Flying Saucers (1956)
The Animal World (Opening Dinosaur sequence, with O'Brien, 1956)
20 Million Miles To Earth (1957)
The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (1958)
The Three Worlds of Gulliver (1960)
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Mysterious Island (1961)


Jason and the Argonauts (1963)
First Men in the Moon (1964)
One Million Years B.C. (1967)
The Valley of Gwangi (1969)
The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (1974)
Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger (1977)
Clash of the Titans (with Jim Danforth, 1981)

e) Go motion

Go motion is a variant of model animation that uses various techniques to create motion blur
between frames of film, which is not present in traditional stop-motion. The technique was invented by
Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett to create special effects scenes for the film The Empire Strikes
Back (1980). Another example is the dragon named "Vermithrax" from Dragonslayer (1981 film).

Going proposed variation of stop motion animation, and has woken up jointly by Industrial Light
& Magic and Phil Tippett Stop motion animation may make confuse, and distinctive, staccato impression,
you indulge animated object is really sharp in every frame, every frame of animation that you indulge if
the object was actually shot was perfectly still. Land of moving objects in the same scene the same film
will have motion blur, you indulge those of the control switch when the camera is opened.

Going movement has been cooked up to circumvent this, by moving the animated model slightly
during the exposure of each frame of film, generates realistic motion blur. The main distinction is that
when a frame in stop motion-image is composed by the mount images taken between the movement of
small objects, frames go movement-image is the image of the object taken during her move. This frameby-frame, split second proposal always created with the help of computers, often through a rod attached to
the doll or where computer models manipulated to issue a movement originally programmed by
puppeteers.

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Going movement was originally designed to be used extensively for a dinosaur in Jurassic Park,
so that Steven Spielberg made the decision to try appropriate techniques to build computer generated
image opposite.

f) Object animation

Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as
opposed to specially created items.

Object animation is a form of stop motion animation that involves the movement of any object
animation not withdrawn such childhood games, blocks, child statue, and others that are not entirely
malleable, like clay or wax, and not cooked up to look recognizable as human nature or animal.

Object animation is considered differing forms differing animation rather than the animation
models and animated dolls, you indulge both forms of the stop-motion animated characters, typically
using recognized as their subjects, and not just static objects such as Soldier toys, or toys such as Tinker
Toys coaching , brand LEGO bricks (Brickfilm), Lincoln Logs, Enforcers Set, Playmobil, and other

Object animation is often combined with other forms of animation, usually for a more realistic
impression (eg, Model or Puppet Animation adds a more complex movement or depth to the character-

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character). As an example; A toy train be animated, but more often easily visible character animation with
guiding rail.

The use of animated objects in the film has been present since the earliest times cinema.
Examples modern animated objects can be seen on Robot Chicken, Adult Swim block half than usual on
the Cartoon Network, which combines animation doll animated objects with variations, in this case the
puppet made to resemble plastic action figures of various design TV, film and pop culture.

g) Graphic animation

Graphic animation variation of stop motion (and probably more concepts related to traditional flat
cell animation and animation paper painting, but still technical feasibility as stop motion) consisting
instead of animated images (in whole or portion) and others not drawn flat visual graphic material, such
as news paper and magazine cutouts.

In the most simple form, the graph "animation" should take the form of animation simply panning
the camera up and down and / or in individual images, one after another, (filmed frame-by-frame, and
with it, "animation") without exchanging image from frame to frame, as in the various Ken Burns
documentary films for PBS history. But if the pictures (or "chart") also moved from frame to frame,
montage more interesting movements may be generated, such as the 1977 short film Los Angeles
animator Mike Jittlov this, Animato, also seen the film, The Wizard of Speed and Time, released to

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theaters in 1987 and to video in 1989. Animations chart may (and often) combined with other animations
including animated direct manipulation and traditional cell animation.

Examples are Frank Mouris 1973 Oscar-winning short film, Frank Film, and Charles Braverman's
Concentrated Cream Beatles (1973), was originally produced for TV through the night this past Geraldo
Rivera, Good-bye America. Animated chart is also used as a Playboy magazine used a piece of history on
Saturday Night Live when the magazines founder, Hugh Hefner, appeared in the past demonstrated that
during the late 70's or early 80's.

h) Brickfilm

Brickfilm A sub-genre of object animation involving using Lego or other similar brick toys to
make an animation. These have had a recent boost in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites like
YouTube and the availability of cheap cameras and animation software

A Brickfilm is a movie made out of LEGO bricks, or other similar plastic construction toys. They
are usually created with stop motion animation though CGI, traditional animation and live action films
featuring plastic construction toys (or representations of them) are also usually considered brickfilms. The
term 'brickfilm' was created by Jason Rowoldt, founder Brickfilms.com.

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i) Pixilation

Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of
surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the
ground, and other such effects. Examples of pixilation include The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb and
Angry Kid shorts.

Pixilation (from pixilated) is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as subjects of
frame-by-frame in the animated film, by repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and
changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames. The actor becomes a kind of living stop motion
puppet. This technique is often used as a way to blend live actors with animated people in the film, as in
The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb by Bolex Brothers, who used the technique to attract and eerie
effect.

An early example of this technique is El hotel Elctrico in 1908 and 1911 mile Cohl's film
Jobard ne peut pas travailler voir les Femmes' (Jobard can not see women working). The term is widely
credited to Grant Munro. He made an experimental film called "Pixillation", which is available in the
DVD collection "Cut Up - The Film Grant Munro".

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4.0

COMPUTER ANIMATION
Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the

animation is created digitally on a computer. 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image


manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and
interact. 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.

Some typical application of computer generated animation is entertainment (films and


cartoons), advertising, scientific studies and engineering studies, and training and education.
Although we tend to think of animation as object the proposal states, the term "computer
animation" refers to the sequence of future ubiquitous visual changes in the scene. In addition to
swapping the position of the object by translation or rotation, computer-generated animation may
explain the variation in the period size objects, colors, transparency, or surface texture.
Animation one form of advertising often turn objects into one another, for example, change the
motor oil tin into the train engine. Computer animation also is generated by changing camera
parameters, such as position, orientation, and focal length, and we can produce computer
animation with lighting or exchanging impressions of other parameters.
There are two categories of two-dimensional animation computer animation (2D) and threedimensional animation (3D).
4.1

2D Animation

2D animation figures created and / or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or
realized and edited using 2D vector graphics. This includes automatic computerized versions of
traditional animation techniques such as morphing determinant, onion skins and decisive
alteration rot scoping. 2D animation has many applications, including analog computer
animation, Flash animation and PowerPoint animation. Graf Cinema still images in the form of an
animated GIF file which settled some animation.

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2D animation is method traditional animation that has been in existence since the 1800s. He is
one of the paintings was followed by the slightly differing poses, followed by another one in a
pose that slightly differed, at 24 frames a second and.
In this tradition has been put together in an amazing process in which the artist draw pencil
painting each frame of film, the image-this image was painted onto clear plastic pieces that are
called 'cells', and each rather than the thousands handrawn and cell -cells have painted the picture
one by one over the image of the hand painted backgrounds and their thousands of images
compiled to run as a film at 24 frames a second.
Today most 2D animation involves the use of computer software to one degree or another; from
just digitally color the cells to be photographed in the traditional method, to do every single
element in a computer.
4.2

3D Animation

3D computer graphics (different to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a threedimensional representation of data geometry (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer to
carry out the intent assumption and give 2D images. The images may be stored for viewing later
or time.3D truth presented in computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D
computer vector graphics in the framework of string models and 2D computer raster graphics in
the final given exposure. In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is
sometimes blurred; 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve the impression of light,
and 3D may use 2D making techniques.3D computer graphics are often referred to as 3D models.

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Apart from the rendered graphic, the model is contained within graphic data file. However, there
are differences. 3D model is the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object.
Model nontechnical graphic until it is displayed. The model can be displayed visually as a twodimensional image through a process called gives 3D or used in non-graphical computer
simulations and calculations. With 3D printing, 3D modeling is also given to the physical
representation of a 3D model, with limitations on how accurate the translation can match the
virtual model.
3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. The animators began to
realize the outside to manipulate 3D network. Mesh geometry is a configuration that provides the
visual appearance of shape for 3D objects or 3D environment. The network may have a lot of
angle which is a point geometry that make up the network; he is given a digital skeletal structure
was called haunted depths may be used for networks with heavy escort. This process may be
called fraud and is programmed to move the main frame.

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4.3 Technique Of 3d Computer Graphics Animations


The Technique of 3D computer graphics Animations creation falls into three basic phases:
a) Modeling

This model describes the process of forming the shape of the object. The two most common
sources of 3D models are those of an artist or engineer comes on the computer with some kind of
3D modeling tool, and scanned into a computer model of a real object. The model can also be
produced procedurally or via physical simulation. Basically, the 3D model made of points called
vertices (or vertexes) that determine the shape and form of a polygon. A polygon is an area made
up of at least three vertexes (a triangle). A four-point polygon is a quad, and more than a fourpoint polygon is n-gon. The overall integrity of the model and its suitability for use in animation
that depends on the structure of the polygon.
b) Layout and animation

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Before giving into the image, the object must be placed (set) in the scene. This defines the spatial
relationships between objects, including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal
description of an object, that is, how they move and change shape over time. Popular methods
include keyframing, inverse kinematics, and motion capture. These techniques are often used in
combination. As a model, physical simulation also set motion

c) Lighting
Lighting also plays a major role in the production of computer animation. It is important
to simulate the object or mood. In addition, it also helps to provide dimension to the
objects involved. Among the main types of lights are often used Ambient, Directional,
position and focus

Ambient

Directional

Positional

Spotlight

By using digital light, each display will suit the mood and the circumstances surrounding
the image. Digital lighting can be done with 3D modeling software itself or by using
certain software to trigger a lights cape

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Lighting by lightscape software

d) Mapping
Mapping is the process of adding texture, color or action 3D surface models and its
environment.
Mapping is an important process to ensure that models or images that would be more
realistic and in accordance with the concept of animation developed. Realistic choice of
colors and textures to the model being established would pervert the whole animation
project. Some frequently used method texture mapping, reflection mapping and mapping
environment

Figure 8.16: Wireframe

Figure 8.17: Solid Object

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e) Rendering

Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get photorealistic images, or by using some kind of style as in non-photorealistic rendering. The two basic
operations in realistic rendering are transport (how much light gets from one place to another) and
scattering (how surfaces interact with light). This step is usually performed using 3D computer
graphics software or a 3D graphics API. Changing scene into a suitable form for rendering also
involves 3D projection, which displays three-dimensional image in two dimensions.

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4.4

Advantages Of Using Computer Animation

Generally, the common advantages of the using computer animation:


a) Skill and ability Improvement
Interactive animation takes less time to learn complex subject students and make them enjoy it
more difficult to learn something. Education and training is higher when information is conveyed
through computer animation system from traditional classrooms. Using interactive animation will
solve the problem of imagination-skills education and training. Therefore, the ability to adopt
new concepts in a risk-free environment that enhances the skills and abilities of students. It is
important to mention that computer animation is also enhancing the skills and capabilities of
trainers because they will be able to improve and change their way of teaching to be better.
b) Interactivity
Interactivity is a joint action between students, learning systems and learning materials. Students
will be faster to learn, and have a better attitude towards learning when using interactive
animation, especially if other techniques such as the use of audio and video
c) Engagement
Interactive learning with live-action animation, simulation, video, audio, graphics, feedback,
expert advice, and questions and answers to keep students interested and reinforce skills. Because
it is exciting, challenging, and fun to use, it encourages students to return to the program again
and again. Through constant practice, learning is absorbed and integrated into the daily
performance
d) Flexibility and safety
Many things are dangerous to be carried out in real learning such as experiments in physics and
chemistry. Computer animation can offer the following issues:

Most of the experiments that can not be done in the classroom because they are dangerous,
but students need these skills in the workplace.

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Animation program could represent a dangerous event without danger.

If the student is to make mistakes, experiment can be repeated without injury. Real life
experiences not available, but the animation course in the past to bring students some sense of
what it must have been like.

The main issue is flexible animation to show things that are not possible in real learning.

Students have more interaction with content and thus more likely to assimilate the
knowledge, skills and concepts involved (Discovery Learning).

e) Eliminates frustration
Computer animation is a high-level way to measure student decide. It can adapt to consumer
preferences and respond in different ways to explore what would happen if the case will be
charged. Computer animation allows students to measure their ability to perform a particular task
or job without any risk. This will definitely help them to avoid disappointment. In addition, the
measurement of a student's ability to do for a large number of students with very fast and cheap.
This can be a critical point for education and training ROI. Therefore, students will not face trial
does not work as a result of faulty apparatus or techniques
f) Practicality
Computer animation is able to convey the true life situations that students encounter every day.
Adult learners are very practical-they learn better when dealing with a truth that has the
impression of truth. Computer animation allows students to learn for the sake of seeing, or
learning for learning sake coahing treatment. All are memorable to wake developing practical
skills and increase perpetuate intimation
g) Consistent
All students learn the principles and skills that are the same. Computer-Based Animation usually
forces the designer to organize teaching and learning materials better structures, and this only will
it give the advantage of learning.

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on is used to mimic traditional animation using CG software. Shading looks stark, with
less blending of colors. Examples include, Skyland (2007, France), Appleseed Ex
Machina (2007, Japan), The Legend of Zelda: Wind Waker (2002, Japan)

Machinima Films created by screen capturing in video games and virtual worlds.

Motion capture is used when live-action actors wear special suits that allow
computers to copy their movements into CG characters. Examples include Polar
Express (2004, US), Beowulf (2007, US), A Christmas Carol (2009, US), The
Adventures of Tintin (2011, US)

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Photo-realistic animation is used primarily for animation that attempts to resemble


real life, using advanced rendering that mimics in detail skin, plants, water, fire,
clouds, etc. Examples include Up (2009, US), Kung-Fu Panda (2008, US), Ice Age
(2002, US).

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4.5

References

stop, combinations section (Comb.), stop-motion a device for automatically stopping


a machine or engine when something has gone wrong (The New Shorter Oxford
English Dictionary, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Vol. 2 N-Z, 1993 edition, see page
3,074)Time-lapse

"First animated film". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 5 January 2013."Elmer


Kaan". Elmer Kaan. Retrieved 2010-04-24.

"Alexander Lentjes". Moonridge5.com. Retrieved 2014-05-24.3-D Revolution


Productions. "Animation". The3drevolution.com. Retrieved 2014-05-24.

http://www.hancinema.net/the-future-looks-bright-for-companies-that-moved-intothe-gyeonggi-digital-content-agency-9527.html

"The Boxtrolls: LAIKA Announces Third Animated Feature". Blog. Laika. February
7, 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-20.

"About ClayNation stop motion animation". ClayNation.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-0506.

"Blu-Tack - Make Our Next Advert". Blu-tack.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-24.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-21267741

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_animation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brickfilm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_motion
http://www.macworld.com/article/1146623/stop_motion_Mac.html

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