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MODULE 2.2

BULK DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) AND VOIDS IN FINE AGGREGATE

GROUP K1

Ahmad Fady Ganis 1406545301

Fatharani Taqisa Nadhira Effendi 1406545346

Oh Jong Min 1406562932

Pricilia Clarissa Syafira - 1406545333

Date of Experiment

: October , 2014

Practicum Assistant

Date of Approval

Score

Assistants Signature

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

DEPOK 2014

2.2.1 Objective

Determine the density and air cavity within fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, or a mixture

of both.

Density is the ratio between its weight and volume

2.2.2 Apparatus

1. Scale with a weight accuracy of 0.1%

2. Container with sufficient capacity to dry the specimen

3. A penetration stick with a diameter of 15 mm, as well as a length of 60 cm with a round

edge. Preferably made with stainless steel

4. Straight edge

5. A steel container shaped like a cylinder with handle bars. With capacity as follows:

Capacity

(Liter)

Diameter

(mm)

Height

(mm)

2.832

9.435

14.158

28.316

152.42.5

203.22.5

254.02.5

355.62.5

154.92.5

292.12.5

279.42.5

284.42.5

(mm)

Base

Wall (side)

5.08

2.54

5.08

2.54

5.08

3.00

5.08

3.00

Maximum

grain size

(mm)

12.7

25.4

38.1

101.6

2.2.3 Materials

Pour the specimen into the container with a minimum volume as mentioned in table above.

Dry it in the oven with a temperature of (110 + 5) oC until the weight is constant.

2.2.4 Procedure

Loose Density

1. Practicians first weigh and note the weight of the container (w1)

2. The specimen is then poured carefully so that there is no grain separated from a height of

5 cm above the container using a shovel or a spoon

3. Practicians then flatten the surface using the straight edge

4. The weight of the specimen and the container is then measured and noted (w2)

5. The weight of the specimen is then found (w3 = w2-w1)

1. Practicians first measure the weight of the container (w1)

2. The container is filled with 1/3 of the volume each time and each layer is penetrated 25

times using the penetration stick

3. Practicians then flatten the surface using the straight edge

5. The weight of the specimen is then found (w3 = w2-w1)

Density of aggregate with grain size between 38,1 mm (1 ) and 101,6 mm (4) by shaking

1. Practicians first weigh and note the weight of the container (w1)

2. The container is filled with 1/3 of the volume each time

3. Practicians dense the layers by shaking the container as stated below:

a. The container is put on a strong and straight surface, then 1 side is lifted 5cm and is

then dropped

b. The same step is repeated for the other side. Each side is shaken 25 times

4. Practicians then flatten the surface using the straight edge

5. The weight of the specimen and the container is then measured

6. The weight of the specimen is found ( w3 = w2-w1)

2.2.5 Calculation

Some formulations for this experimental work:

Density of aggregate =B= kg/dm3

(

Air voids =

)

(

Note:

V

2.2.6 Result

W1 = Weight of Container

W2a = Weight of container with specimen in method 1

W2b = Weight of container with specimen in method 2

W2c = Weight of container with specimen in method 3

W3a = Weight of aggregates in method 1

W3b = Weight of aggregates in method 2

W3c = Weight of aggregates in method 3

W3a = W2a - W1 = 3.280 kg 1.037 kg = 2.243 kg

W3b = W2b - W1 = 3.634 kg 1.037 kg = 2.597 kg

W3c = W2c - W1 = 3.712 kg 1.037 kg = 2.675 kg

Ba = Density of aggregate using method 1

Bb = Density of aggregate using method 2

Bc = Density of aggregate using method 3

V = Volume of container = 2 dm3

Ba = W3a / V = 2.243 kg / 2 dm3 = 1.1215 kg/dm3

Bb = W3b / V = 2.597 kg / 2 dm3 = 1.2985 kg/dm3

Bc = W3c / V = 2.675 kg / 2 dm3 = 1.3375 kg/dm3

Ra = Air cavity of container in method 1

Rb = Air cavity of container in method 2

Rc = Air cavity of container in method 3

A = Bulk specific gravity of aggregates = 2.26 kg/dm3

W = Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 = 1 kg/dm3

Ra =

Rb =

Rc =

x 100% =

x 100% =

x 100% =

x 100% = 44.91%

x 100% = 32.76%

x 100% = 30.51%

The density of loose aggregates is 1.1215 kg/dm3. The density of aggregates using the

penetration method is 1.2985 kg/dm3. The density of aggregates using the shaking method is

1.3375 kg/dm3. While the air cavity of loose aggregates is 44.91%, the air cavity of aggregates

using the penetration method is 32.76%, and the air cavity of aggregates using the shaking

method is 30.51%.

2.2.7 Analysis

1. Experiment Analysis:

In this experiment, it was necessary to oven-dry all the aggregates one day before the

experiment. During the experiment, the container of the aggregates is weighed (W1),

which is used for all 3 methods. The oven dried aggregates are then poured into the

container until it was full, then the surface of the aggregates is flatten using the

straight edge. The weight of the container with the aggregates is measured (w2) and

then the formula (WL3 = WL2 - W1) is used to find the weight of the Loose

Aggregates.

After the weighing, the container is emptied and is then refilled using a different

method. Instead of just pouring the aggregates all at once, the container is filled by

filling one layer at a time, with each layer is 1/3 full. After each layer was filled, the

layer surface is penetrated 25 times before the next layer is filled. After the container

was completely filled, the surface is flatten using a straight edge. The container with

the aggregates is then weighed (W2b) and the formula (W3b = W2b - W1) is used to

find the weight of the aggregates.

Finally, the container is emptied and refilled using three layers again. However,

instead of penetrating, each layer was shaken 25 times on each side before the next

layer was added. The surface is then flatten using the straight edge again. Afterwards,

the container with the aggregates is weighed (W2c) and the formula (W3c = W2c - W1)

is used to find the weight of the Aggregates after Shacking Process.

2. Result Analysis:

Using the data obtained during the experiment, it was possible to calculate the density

of the aggregates after each process. However, Since the bulk specific gravity is

needed, the first module must be finished first. After Module 1 was finished, the

formula

the aggregates, and W is the density of water, to find the percentage of the cavity in

each sample of aggregates for each methods.

Once the percentage of the air cavity was calculated, it was revealed that simply

pouring aggregates into a container will result in a lot of unnecessary air cavities. To

remove the air cavities, the shaking method was the most effective method, as the

sample after the shaking method had the highest density and the lowest percentage of

air cavity. While the penetration method did reduce the percentage of air cavity as

well as increased the density, it was not as effective as the shaking method.

3. Errors:

Because the specimen was weighed using a mechanical scale, an error may

occur due to improper reading of the scale. Additionally, as the scale has a

miscalculation of .1%, the weight of each sample of aggregates may not be

completely accurate

Some aggregates could also have fallen from the container during the

flattening of the surface process

2.2.8 Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the density and air cavity in fine

aggregates. This was found using 3 methods of removing air cavity from a given volume

of fine aggregates. In the end, the experiment proved that the shaking method is the most

effective way of removing the air voids.

2.2.9 References

American Society for Testing and Materials. Standards Test Method for Bulk Density

(Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate. No.ASTM C 29/C 29M 97 ( Reapproved

2003).Annual Book of ASTM Standards,Vol.04.02.

Badan Standarisasi Nasional. Metode Pengujian Berat Isi dan Rongga Udara dalam

Aggregat ,SNI 03-4804-1998.

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