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PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS PRACTICAL REPORT

MODULE 2.2
BULK DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) AND VOIDS IN FINE AGGREGATE

GROUP K1
Ahmad Fady Ganis 1406545301
Fatharani Taqisa Nadhira Effendi 1406545346
Oh Jong Min 1406562932
Pricilia Clarissa Syafira - 1406545333

Date of Experiment

: October , 2014

Practicum Assistant

: Fira Riza Aulia

Date of Approval

Score

Assistants Signature

LABORATORY OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
DEPOK 2014

2.2.1 Objective
Determine the density and air cavity within fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, or a mixture
of both.
Density is the ratio between its weight and volume
2.2.2 Apparatus
1. Scale with a weight accuracy of 0.1%
2. Container with sufficient capacity to dry the specimen
3. A penetration stick with a diameter of 15 mm, as well as a length of 60 cm with a round
edge. Preferably made with stainless steel
4. Straight edge
5. A steel container shaped like a cylinder with handle bars. With capacity as follows:
Capacity
(Liter)

Diameter
(mm)

Height
(mm)

2.832
9.435
14.158
28.316

152.42.5
203.22.5
254.02.5
355.62.5

154.92.5
292.12.5
279.42.5
284.42.5

Minimum container thickness


(mm)
Base
Wall (side)
5.08
2.54
5.08
2.54
5.08
3.00
5.08
3.00

Maximum
grain size
(mm)
12.7
25.4
38.1
101.6

2.2.3 Materials
Pour the specimen into the container with a minimum volume as mentioned in table above.
Dry it in the oven with a temperature of (110 + 5) oC until the weight is constant.
2.2.4 Procedure
Loose Density
1. Practicians first weigh and note the weight of the container (w1)
2. The specimen is then poured carefully so that there is no grain separated from a height of
5 cm above the container using a shovel or a spoon
3. Practicians then flatten the surface using the straight edge
4. The weight of the specimen and the container is then measured and noted (w2)
5. The weight of the specimen is then found (w3 = w2-w1)

Density of aggregate with a maximum grain size of 38,1 mm (1 )by penetration


1. Practicians first measure the weight of the container (w1)
2. The container is filled with 1/3 of the volume each time and each layer is penetrated 25
times using the penetration stick
3. Practicians then flatten the surface using the straight edge

4. The weight of the specimen and container is then measured (w2)


5. The weight of the specimen is then found (w3 = w2-w1)

Density of aggregate with grain size between 38,1 mm (1 ) and 101,6 mm (4) by shaking
1. Practicians first weigh and note the weight of the container (w1)
2. The container is filled with 1/3 of the volume each time
3. Practicians dense the layers by shaking the container as stated below:
a. The container is put on a strong and straight surface, then 1 side is lifted 5cm and is
then dropped
b. The same step is repeated for the other side. Each side is shaken 25 times
4. Practicians then flatten the surface using the straight edge
5. The weight of the specimen and the container is then measured
6. The weight of the specimen is found ( w3 = w2-w1)

2.2.5 Calculation
Some formulations for this experimental work:
Density of aggregate =B= kg/dm3
(

Air voids =

)
(

Note:
V

= Volume of Container (dm3)

= Bulk specific gravity of aggregate (kg/dm3)

= Density of aggregate (kg/dm3),obtained from experiment B.1

= Water density (kg/dm3)

2.2.6 Result
W1 = Weight of Container
W2a = Weight of container with specimen in method 1
W2b = Weight of container with specimen in method 2
W2c = Weight of container with specimen in method 3
W3a = Weight of aggregates in method 1
W3b = Weight of aggregates in method 2
W3c = Weight of aggregates in method 3
W3a = W2a - W1 = 3.280 kg 1.037 kg = 2.243 kg
W3b = W2b - W1 = 3.634 kg 1.037 kg = 2.597 kg
W3c = W2c - W1 = 3.712 kg 1.037 kg = 2.675 kg
Ba = Density of aggregate using method 1
Bb = Density of aggregate using method 2
Bc = Density of aggregate using method 3
V = Volume of container = 2 dm3
Ba = W3a / V = 2.243 kg / 2 dm3 = 1.1215 kg/dm3
Bb = W3b / V = 2.597 kg / 2 dm3 = 1.2985 kg/dm3
Bc = W3c / V = 2.675 kg / 2 dm3 = 1.3375 kg/dm3
Ra = Air cavity of container in method 1
Rb = Air cavity of container in method 2
Rc = Air cavity of container in method 3
A = Bulk specific gravity of aggregates = 2.26 kg/dm3
W = Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 = 1 kg/dm3

Ra =

Rb =

Rc =

x 100% =

x 100% =

x 100% =

x 100% = 44.91%

x 100% = 32.76%

x 100% = 30.51%

The density of loose aggregates is 1.1215 kg/dm3. The density of aggregates using the
penetration method is 1.2985 kg/dm3. The density of aggregates using the shaking method is
1.3375 kg/dm3. While the air cavity of loose aggregates is 44.91%, the air cavity of aggregates
using the penetration method is 32.76%, and the air cavity of aggregates using the shaking
method is 30.51%.

2.2.7 Analysis
1. Experiment Analysis:
In this experiment, it was necessary to oven-dry all the aggregates one day before the
experiment. During the experiment, the container of the aggregates is weighed (W1),
which is used for all 3 methods. The oven dried aggregates are then poured into the
container until it was full, then the surface of the aggregates is flatten using the
straight edge. The weight of the container with the aggregates is measured (w2) and
then the formula (WL3 = WL2 - W1) is used to find the weight of the Loose
Aggregates.
After the weighing, the container is emptied and is then refilled using a different
method. Instead of just pouring the aggregates all at once, the container is filled by
filling one layer at a time, with each layer is 1/3 full. After each layer was filled, the
layer surface is penetrated 25 times before the next layer is filled. After the container
was completely filled, the surface is flatten using a straight edge. The container with
the aggregates is then weighed (W2b) and the formula (W3b = W2b - W1) is used to
find the weight of the aggregates.

Finally, the container is emptied and refilled using three layers again. However,
instead of penetrating, each layer was shaken 25 times on each side before the next
layer was added. The surface is then flatten using the straight edge again. Afterwards,
the container with the aggregates is weighed (W2c) and the formula (W3c = W2c - W1)
is used to find the weight of the Aggregates after Shacking Process.

2. Result Analysis:
Using the data obtained during the experiment, it was possible to calculate the density
of the aggregates after each process. However, Since the bulk specific gravity is
needed, the first module must be finished first. After Module 1 was finished, the
formula

was used, where A is the bulk specific gravity, B is the density of

the aggregates, and W is the density of water, to find the percentage of the cavity in
each sample of aggregates for each methods.
Once the percentage of the air cavity was calculated, it was revealed that simply
pouring aggregates into a container will result in a lot of unnecessary air cavities. To
remove the air cavities, the shaking method was the most effective method, as the
sample after the shaking method had the highest density and the lowest percentage of
air cavity. While the penetration method did reduce the percentage of air cavity as
well as increased the density, it was not as effective as the shaking method.

3. Errors:

Because the specimen was weighed using a mechanical scale, an error may
occur due to improper reading of the scale. Additionally, as the scale has a
miscalculation of .1%, the weight of each sample of aggregates may not be
completely accurate

Some aggregates could also have fallen from the container during the
flattening of the surface process

2.2.8 Conclusion
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the density and air cavity in fine
aggregates. This was found using 3 methods of removing air cavity from a given volume

of fine aggregates. In the end, the experiment proved that the shaking method is the most
effective way of removing the air voids.

2.2.9 References
American Society for Testing and Materials. Standards Test Method for Bulk Density
(Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate. No.ASTM C 29/C 29M 97 ( Reapproved
2003).Annual Book of ASTM Standards,Vol.04.02.
Badan Standarisasi Nasional. Metode Pengujian Berat Isi dan Rongga Udara dalam
Aggregat ,SNI 03-4804-1998.