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Central Railway

Underwater Bridge Inspection


Manual
February 2006

Central Railway

Underwater Bridge
Inspection Manual

February 2006

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Date
Prepared by
Checked by
Approved by

5721063-07_L012_Ver01_UWI_manual.doc
2006-03-10
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Rambll Denmark A/S


Bredevej 2
DK-2830 Virum
Denmark
Phone +45 4598 6000
www.ramboll.com

Statement of copyright and liability


Copyright
Copyright 2006 Ramboll and its sub consultants. All rights reserved. This publication
must not be copied, reproduced, translated into any other language, in any way, manually or otherwise, or exhibited in its entire form or partly without the expressed written
consent of Ramboll Denmark A/S, Bredevej 2, 2830 Virum, Denmark.

Liability
Ramboll Denmark and its sub consultants assume no warranty with regard to accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in this publication, and specifically no liability with regard to the product described in the publication, or to the use,
or usefulness of the product for specific purposes.

Table of contents

1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Introduction
General
Reasons for performing Underwater Bridge Inspection
Levels of underwater bridge inspection
Non Destructive Testing
Personnel and equipment
Applications NDT-methods

1-1
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4

2.
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.2
2.3

Level I Inspection overview


Primary Planning
Requisition
Information retrieval
Check of equipment
Making appointments
Safety considerations
Execution of level I inspection
Reporting

2-1
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3

3.
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3

Level II Inspection overview


Primary Planning
Execution of level II inspection
Piles
Piers and abutments (solid components)
Reporting

3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

Level III Inspection - overview


Primary Planning
Detailed planning of Non Destructive Tests
Execution of the inspection and tests
Assessment of damage cause and extent
General considerations regarding future maintenance activities
Reporting

4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Planning of level III inspections including NDT-measurements


Visual inspection
Areas requiring investigation
Homogeneous areas
Evaluation of test results

5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2

6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

Types of damage
General structural damage
Damage due to water
Damage on concrete structures
Damage on steel structures
Damage at masonry structures
Damage at wooden structures

6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2

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6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2

Registration of damage
Concrete structures
Steel structures

7.
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7
7.3.8
7.3.9
7.3.10
7.3.11
7.3.12
7.3.13
7.4
7.4.1
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.3
7.7
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.7.4
7.7.5
7.7.6
7.8
7.9

Damage mechanisms
General
Structural Deficiencies
I. Structural cracks (load induced cracks) in concrete members
II. Excessive/unintended deflections and movements
III. Fracture/crushing
IV. Structural Problems, Steel Components
Structural Cracks in Concrete Members
Structural Cracks, Examples
Non-Structural Cracks in Concrete
Shrinkage cracks (due to drying)
Thermal Cracks (due to hydration)
Cracks due to plastic shrinkage
Cracks due to plastic settlement
Initiation of Corrosion
Carbonation
Chlorides
Carbonation and Chlorides
Propagation of Corrosion
Corrosion products and corrosion rate
Local/general corrosion
Pier column
Wing walls / retaining walls
Alkali-aggregate Reactions
Crack Pattern
Chemical Attack of Concrete and Masonry
Acid Attack
Sulphate Attack
Seawater Attack
Erosion / Scour
Aggradation / degradation
General scour
Local scour
Corrosion of steel structures
Electrochemical corrosion
Chink Corrosion
Galvanic Corrosion
Stress Corrosion
Corrosion and Fatigue
Atmospheric Corrosion
Ageing of Steel
Erosion of masonry structures

8.
8.1
8.2

NDT-methods
General
Visual inspection

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6-2
6-2
6-2
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-5
7-5
7-6
7-6
7-8
7-10
7-11
7-13
7-17
7-18
7-19
7-21
7-22
7-23
7-24
7-25
7-27
7-28
7-29
7-31
7-32
7-32
7-33
7-33
7-34
7-34
7-38
7-38
7-38
7-38
7-39
7-40
7-41
8-1
8-1
8-2

II

8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.3.8
8.3.9
8.3.10
8.4
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.10.1
8.10.2
8.10.3
8.10.4
8.10.5
8.10.6
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14

Ultrasonic testing of steel structures


Definition of ultrasound
Through transmission technique
The pulse echo technique
Definitions and general terms
Refraction and reflection of ultrasonic waves
Probes
Examination of rolled, cast and forged objects
Examination of welds
Determination of defect size
References
Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete Structures
Ultrasonic thickness gauge
Introduction
Thickness measurements of steel plates
Special equipment
Covermeter Measurements
Schmidt hammer
Coring equipment
Chloride content
Evaluation of concrete cores
Macro analysis on cores and plane sections
Crack detection on impregnated plane sections
Micro analysis on thin sections
Air void analyse on plane section
Moisture analysis
Residual Reactivity Test
Crack measuring gauge
Impulse Response equipment
Impact-Echo equipment
Half-cell potential Measurements

9.
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
9.2.5
9.2.6
9.2.7
9.2.8

Economic analysis
General
Present Value Method
Repair Strategies
Service Life
Time Frame
Time of Repair
Residual Value
Discount Rate
Sensitivity Analysis
Optimum solution

10.
10.1
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3

Reporting of Level I Inspection


General
Text Section
Cover Page
Front Page
Method and Extent of Investigation

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8-1
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-5
8-7
8-9
8-16
8-24
8-31
8-37
8-40
8-42
8-42
8-43
8-45
8-47
8-48
8-49
8-50
8-52
8-52
8-54
8-55
8-57
8-57
8-58
8-59
8-60
8-62
8-65
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-5
9-6
9-6
9-6
9-6
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-2

III

10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4

Background Material
Registrations
Evaluation of registrations
General considerations regarding future maintenance activities
Appendices
A: Background Material
B: Selected Drawings
C: Sketches and Registrations
D: Photos and Video Recordings

10-2
10-2
10-2
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5

11.
11.1
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.2.6
11.2.7
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.3.3
11.3.4

Reporting of Level II Inspection


General
Text Section
Cover Page
Front Page
Method and Extent of Investigation
Background Material
Registrations
Evaluation of registrations
General considerations regarding future maintenance activities
Appendices
A: Background Material
B: Selected Drawings
C: Sketches and Registrations
D: Photos and Video Recordings

11-1
11-1
11-1
11-1
11-1
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2

12.
12.1
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.2.4
12.2.5
12.2.6
12.2.7
12.2.8
12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4
12.3.5
12.3.6
12.3.7

Reporting of Level III Inspection


General
Text Section
Cover Page
Front Page
Summary
Motivation of the level III inspection
Background Material
Registrations
Evaluation of registrations
General Considerations Regarding Future Maintenance Activities
Appendices
A: Background Material
B: Selected Drawings
C: Visual Inspection
D: Photos and Video Recordings
E: NDT-method No. 1
F - ?: NDT-method No. 2 - ?
G.. Other

12-1
12-1
12-1
12-1
12-1
12-2
12-2
12-2
12-2
12-2
12-3
12-3
12-3
12-3
12-3
12-3
12-3
12-4
12-4

13.

References

13-1

IV

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Appendices
A:

B:
C:
D:
E:

Handout of slides from classroom training in UWI-methods


A1:
Introduction to the Classroom Training in NDT- and UWI
A2:
General Introduction to Deterioration Mechanism
A3:
General Introduction to Systematic Operation and Maintenance
A4:
Introduction to Underwater Inspection
A5:
Levels of Underwater Inspection
A6:
Practical Considerations on Underwater Work
A7:
Underwater Repair Methods
A8:
Case The Kalvebod Bridge
A9:
Case Power Plant: Asnaes
A10:
Case The Great Belt Bridge
A11:
Ultrasonic Testing Concrete
A12:
Ultrasonic Testing - Steel
A13:
Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge
A14:
Covermeter
A15:
Schmidt Hammer
A16:
Coring Equipment
A17:
Chloride Content
A18:
Evaluation of Concrete Cores (from NDT-course)
A19:
Crack Measuring Gauge (from NDT-course)
A20:
Impulse Response (sMASH) (from NDT-course)
A21:
Impact-Echo (from NDT-course)
A22:
Half Cell Potential Measurements (from NDT-course)
Underwater Inspection of Bridges, Federal Highway Administration,
(FHWA-DP-80-1)
Template for Level I Inspection Report
Template for Level II Inspection Report
Template for Level III Inspection Report

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1.
1.1

Introduction
General
The present manual is addressed to Central Railway and covers the subjects of Underwater Inspection (UWI) including selected methods of Non Destructive Testing
(NDT). The manual has been prepared as part of a pilot project in the area of Underwater Inspections of railway bridges on Central Railway. The manual describes
the basic issues regarding planning, execution and reporting of underwater bridge
inspections including selected NDT-investigations for Level III inspections. The manual is primarily based on the Federal Highway Administration report: Underwater
Inspection of Bridges, FHWA-DP-80-1, 1989, [1]. This report is enclosed to the
manual as Appendix B.
The purpose of this manual is to give guidelines for carrying out and reporting underwater bridge inspections including the use of selected NDT-methods and to describe some of the most common damage mechanisms. The issues of carrying out
underwater inspections in general are described in Appendix A4-A7 and Appendix B.
This manual describes issues regarding level I, level II and level III inspections. Both
the level I and level II inspections are purely visual inspections, while the level III
inspection may include Non Destructive Testing such as coring, ultrasonic testing etc.
Selected types of damage and damage mechanisms are also described in this manual as an extensive knowledge of the possible damage mechanisms and signs of
damage are very important for selecting the right NDT-method to apply in each individual case when performing Level III inspections. Selected NDT-methods to be used
on concrete, steel and masonry bridges are described in the manual.
For each of the NDT-methods included in the pilot project descriptions are given with
regards to the following subjects:

Theory Technical Method Description

Applications and Limitations

Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Interpretation and Reporting of Results

As appendices to this manual the handouts of the presentations from the classroom
training are enclosed. All the above mentioned subjects are described in the handouts for each of the NDT-methods.
Chapters on reporting of Level I, Level II and Level III inspections are also included
as well as a chapter of economic analysis using the present value method.
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Enclosed to this manual are handouts of presentations regarding underwater bridge


inspections used for the classroom training during the pilot project.

1.2

Reasons for performing Underwater Bridge Inspection


A majority of major railway bridges are built over waterways, and most bridge failures occur because of underwater problems. Thus, underwater bridge inspections are
essential to maintain the safety of the bridges. If underwater inspections are not
performed regularly serious damage can occur and develop without being detected
before it is too late.
The underwater inspection must comprise all structural components under water, the
riverbed and possible river bed protection around them. The interval between routine
inspections should never exceed 5 years, and in many cases it must be shorter. The
interval depends on several factors such as:

The condition of the riverbed (hard rock / sand / mud), the amount and speed of
water flow in general and at high flood.

Possible prop wash (turbulence caused by the propellers of passing ships) that
can cause erosion/scour and a sandblasting effect on piers.

The aggressiveness of the water (steel structures or reinforced concrete structures in salt water call for attention).

The condition and sturdiness of the structures.

Besides the regular underwater inspections unscheduled inspections have to be carried out in case of e.g.:

After unusual floods.

After vessel impact (unless it is obvious that no damage has occurred).

Build-up of debris at piers and abutments (horizontal forces on the structures and
scour because of reduced cross section of the river).

Unusual prop wash from vessels.

In case of settlements or other evidence of scour.

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Figure 1-1: Settlements of a bridge in Honduras caused by flooding after the hurricane Mitch.

1.3

Levels of underwater bridge inspection


Typically three levels of underwater bridge inspections are carried out these are
described in more detail in sections 1-3:

1.4

Level I:

Purely visual inspection supplemented by water depth soundings. This


inspection is often characterized as a swim by inspection.

Level II:

Detailed visual inspection that includes cleaning of selected areas for


closer inspection.

Level III: Detailed investigation of specific components using Non Destructive


Testing (NDT).

Non Destructive Testing


When a component of the substructure of the bridge needs extensive repair or if a
visual inspection has revealed damage for which the cause or extent can not be determined, Non Destructive Testing (NDT) can be carried out as part of a detailed
underwater inspection (Level III inspection).
The field of NDT is a very broad, interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable
and cost effective fashion. NDT technicians and engineers define and implement
tests that locate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise
lead to damage and eventually cause trains to derail. These tests are performed in a
manner that does not affect the future usefulness of the object or material. In other
words, NDT allows parts and materials to be inspected and measured without dam-

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aging them or with only little damage compared to the knowledge gained by the
test.
The purpose of performing inspections using NDT-methods is to determine:

the type of damage

the extent of damage

the cause of damage

the expected development in time of damage

The information from the NDT-investigations provides the basis for decisions concerning the selection of the optimum repair strategy.

1.5

Personnel and equipment


Performing underwater inspections involves making evaluations and taking decisions
on-site, based on knowledge and experience. Compared to inspections carried out
above water very often only one inspector/diver sees the damage. The diver must
have contact to a team leader above water. The team leader must be an experienced
engineer and must be able to guide the diver during the inspection. Preferable the
diver carries a video camera which makes it possible for the team leader to see a
real-time image of the substructure on a screen.

1.6

Applications NDT-methods
The manual covers descriptions of the NDT-methods mentioned in Table 1-1.
NDT-method

Used for structures made of:

Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge

Steel

Ultrasonic Testing

Concrete and steel

Covermeter

Concrete

Schmidt Hammer

Concrete and masonry

Chloride Content

Concrete

Coring Equipment

Concrete and masonry

Evaluation of Concrete Cores

Concrete

Crack Measuring Gauge

Concrete and masonry

Impulse Response Equipment

Concrete

Impact-Echo Equipment

Concrete and masonry

Half-Cell Potential

Concrete

Table 1-1: Test methods.

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2.

Level I Inspection overview


A level I inspection is usually carried out as a routine inspection to ensure continuity
of the full length of all underwater components and to report major damage. Typically, the inspection includes 100% of the underwater structural components.
The level I inspection activities comprise:

Primary planning.

Execution of inspection.

Reporting.

2.1

Primary Planning

2.1.1

Requisition
In the requisition of the level I inspection some information is required which the
inspector needs in order to make a proper planning. 'As built drawings', previous
reporting and the inventory report should be enclosed with the requisition. Also existing information regarding water depths, tidal range, currents, pollution etc. is required in the planning phase.
Before execution of the inspection, the owner of the bridge and the company carrying out the inspection should agree on a time schedule and a budget.

2.1.2

Information retrieval
The major part of the primary planning consists of retrieving information on the
bridge in question. This information includes:

All relevant previous reports concerning the bridge (including inventory).

"As built" drawings number and design of piers, piles, etc.

Information on major events during maintenance.

The planning phase should also include a site visit to evaluate the local conditions
such as:

Critical areas of the structure.

Wave actions.

Water temperature range.

Atmospheric temperature range.

Water depths.

Tidal range.

Water visibility the need for a clear water box should be identified.

Pollution / sewage in the water.


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Estimation of currents (for instance time the flow of a branch in the water to estimate the current condition).
Susceptibility of streambed materials to scour.
Amount of biofouling growth on the bridge component(s).
Seasonal flooding / (ice).
Based on the abovementioned parameters an estimation of the expected possible
working time per day is made.
2.1.3

Check of equipment

Does the visibility require a clear water box.


What specific equipment is needed for the diver see Appendix B, Chapter IV,
Section 2-3.

2.1.4

Making appointments

With the Bridge Engineer.

With other authorities e.g. the local maritime authority.

About accommodations for inspection personnel (diver inspections usually take


several days).

2.1.5

2.2

Safety considerations
During the planning it is important to consider the safety factors regarding the diving
see Appendix B, Chapter II, Section 2 and Chapter V, Section 1.

Execution of level I inspection


Typically, the level I inspection is carried out on the entire substructure. The level I
inspection should be carried out by an experienced diver guided by an experienced
team leader. The result of the level I inspection is a condition rating of all the bridge
components included in the inspection. See section 10.2.6 for more details regarding
condition rating.
The level I inspection is a visual, tactile inspection using large sweeping motions of
the hands where visibility is limited. If needed, a clear water box is used. During the
inspection the continuity of the full length of all members should be confirmed. Major
damage or deterioration due to over-stress or severe deterioration (spalling) or corrosion should be detected and reported. Undermining or exposure of normally buried
elements should be detected and reported.
The level I inspection is carried out in predefined patterns see Figure 2-1 and
Figure 2-2 and Appendix B Chapter 5, Section 2.

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Figure 2-1: Inspection of a pile bent in a spiral motion.

Figure 2-2: Example of inspection pattern for inspection of a pier or abutment.

2.3

Reporting
The report of a level I inspection is carried out using standard forms for conditions
rating as shown in Appendix C. The standard forms should be supplemented with
specific description, sketches and photos of any significant damage.
The report of a level I inspection comprises the following sections:

Method and extent of investigation.

Background material.

Registrations.

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Evaluation of registrations (condition rating of the underwater bridge components).

Need for further inspections (level II or III) if relevant.

In an extended version of the level I inspection a section of General considerations


regarding future maintenance activities Should be added to the report as well.
The inspection report will include those relevant of the following appendices:

Background materials (inventory and previous inspection reports).

Selected drawings (relevant extracts from 'as built' drawings).

Sketches.

Photos and video recordings.

The level I inspection should be supplemented by scour investigation and water


depth soundings. In this case sketches of the scour are enclosed in the appendix of
sketches. Sounding plans and sections are to be enclosed as a separate appendix to
the report.
The content of each section in the level I inspection report is described in more detail
in chapter 10.

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3.

Level II Inspection overview


A level II inspection is usually carried out as a routine inspection to report damage
hidden by marine growth on the surface. Typically, the inspection includes visual
inspection of specified bands of 10% of the area of underwater structural components.
The level II inspection activities comprise:

3.1

Primary planning.

Execution of inspection.

Reporting.

Primary Planning
The primary planning of the special inspection is similar to the one described for the
level I inspection see section 2.1.

3.2

Execution of level II inspection


Typically the level II inspection is carried out in specified bands of approximately
10% of underwater components. The level II inspection should be carried out by an
experienced diver guided by an experienced team leader. The result of the level II
inspection is a registration of damage in the selected areas. The damage should be
measured and the extent and severity of the damage should be documented.
The level II inspection is a detailed inspection requiring parts of the structure to be
cleaned of marine growth. The cleaning of the substructure components is performed
in three different water depths. The thoroughness of cleaning should be governed by
what is necessary to identify and register the condition of the underlying material. A
clear water box and water jet cleaning equipment should be used if necessary.
During the inspection damage or deterioration (spalling, corrosion, cracks, etc.) or
corrosion should be detected and measured, and the extent and severity of the damage should be documented and reported.
In the following, guidelines for areas to be cleaned for closer inspection are given.

3.2.1

Piles
For piles three bands with the height of approximately 25 cm covering of the perimeter are to be cleaned. The three bands are to be located in the splash zone (low
waterline), the mudline (bottom of river) respectively midway between low waterline
and mudline. When selecting the areas for cleaning you should concentrate on damaged and suspicious areas, but you should also include apparently undamaged areas.

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Figure 3-1: Cross sections of piles. of the perimeter is to be cleaned as part of a


level II inspection.
3.2.2

3.3

Piers and abutments (solid components)


For solid components such as piers and abutments three areas of approximately 30
cm x 30 cm are to be cleaned on each face of the component. The three areas shall
normally be located in the splash zone (low waterline), the mudline (bottom of river)
respectively at construction joints or other structural details. If no joints exist the
area could be placed midway between the low waterline and mudline. When selecting
the areas for cleaning you should concentrate on damaged and suspicious areas, but
you should also include apparently undamaged areas.

Reporting
The report of a level II inspection is done by using standard damage descriptions
supplemented by sketches and photos.
If damage or deterioration is observed, a level III inspection may be required if the
cause or extent of damage cannot be determined by the visual inspection. Usually a
level I inspection is carried on at the same time of the level II inspection and the
results from the inspections can be reported together. Thus, the report of a level II
inspection could comprise the following sections see also section 2.3:

Method and extent of investigation.

Background material.

Registrations.

Evaluation of registrations (condition rating of the underwater bridge components).

In an extended version of the level II inspection a section of General considerations


regarding future maintenance activities could be added to the report as well.
The inspection report will include those relevant of the following appendices:

Background materials (inventory and previous inspection reports).

Selected drawings (relevant extracts from 'as built' drawings).

Sketches (sketches showing the areas that has been cleaned and inspected by a
level II inspection must be included).

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Photos and video recordings.

The content of each section in the level II inspection report is described in more detail in chapter 11.

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4.

Level III Inspection - overview


A level III inspection is carried out to determine in detail the type, extent and cause
of damage. Furthermore, the level III inspection should evaluate the future development of damage. In this way, the level III inspection forms the necessary basis for
the detailed assessment of the damage and the preparation of the rehabilitation design.
A level III inspection is a highly detailed inspection of critical components or components where extensive repair or possible replacement is contemplated. During the
level III inspection hidden or interior damage must be detected, loss of cross sectional area must be detected and the material homogeneity must be evaluated.
The level III inspection includes extensive cleaning, detailed measurements and selected Non Destructive Tests (NDT).
The level III inspection activities comprise:

Primary planning.

Detailed planning of tests.

Execution of tests.

Assessment of damage cause and extent based on the test results.

Evaluation of future damage development.

Setting up of relevant repair strategy.

Reporting.

The level III inspection may be supplemented with an economic analysis of one or
more strategies (incl. selection of the optimum strategy).

4.1

Primary Planning
Most of the primary planning of the level III inspection is similar to the one described
for the level I inspection see section 2.1.
Besides the issues of the primary planning mentioned in section 2.1 it has to be considered what kind of tests must be done on each bridge component, and which NDTequipment must be used? As part of the planning you must check that the equipment (and necessary consumables) is present and is functioning.

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4.2

Detailed planning of Non Destructive Tests


The planning of which tests to perform on the bridge is based on a preliminary hypothesis regarding the type, cause and extent of damage.
The planning consists of selecting the appropriate test methods and deciding on
which parts of the bridge/the bridge component to apply the tests. The number of
tests carried out must be sufficient to confirm or reject the hypothesis, and to determine the type and extent of necessary repair works.
See also chapter 5 for a more detailed description of planning inspections including
NDT-methods.

4.3

Execution of the inspection and tests


During the level III inspection extensive cleaning of the surface is necessary. A water
jet cleaning equipment should be used if necessary. For the locations selected for the
level III inspection a visual inspection is performed. For this purpose a clear water
box is used as necessary.
The tests are carried out according to the test plan and following the 'directions for
use' of the test equipment. See also chapter 8 for more detailed description of the
most relevant NDT-methods.
It is important to follow the test plan and not to draw premature conclusions from
the first test results obtained.

4.4

Assessment of damage cause and extent


If the test methods have been thoroughly selected and applied, the results should
give a reliable picture of the condition of the bridge component as well as of the
cause and extent of each damage type.
However, it is not possible to set up a set of rules that give an unambiguous answer
as to the type of damage. For this reason it is essential that the assessment (as well
as the planning of tests) is carried out by experienced engineers with a thorough
knowledge of the relevant damage mechanisms and test methods. This experienced
engineer could be the team leader guiding the diver.

4.5

General considerations regarding future maintenance activities


Based on the test results general considerations regarding future maintenance activities are described. The need for major rehabilitation jobs and further inspections is
described but no detailed economic analyse is made.
The level III inspection could be supplemented with an economic analysis to help
choosing the optimum repair strategy. For this purpose the 'Present Value Method'
could be used.
The postponement of a repair work may lead to increased repair and maintenance
costs as the amount of damage will increase.

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In order to compare costs that occur at different times, all amounts are discounted
back to the same year (compensating for interest and inflation). The sum of the discounted values of the costs of a strategy is the present value of the strategy. The
strategy with the smallest present value is the most profitable and is the optimum
strategy for the rehabilitation.
The principle of the economic analysis is described in more detail in chapter 9.

4.6

Reporting
In order to facilitate comparison of level III inspection reports, and in order not to
forget important aspects of the inspection, the reporting is made using a fixed table
of contents:

Summary

Motivation of (reason for) the level III inspection

Background documents (list of the background material that has been available
for the inspection)

Registrations (extent and location of tests, and a summary of the results)

Evaluation of registrations (what do the registrations indicate regarding cause


and extent of damage, including the risk of further deterioration)

General considerations regarding future maintenance activities (such as: further


investigations, repair works, doing nothing).

The inspection report will include those relevant of the following appendices:

Background materials (inventory and level I (or II) inspection reports).

Selected drawings (relevant extracts from 'as built' drawings).

Visual inspection.

Sketches (sketches showing the areas that has been cleaned and inspected by a
level II inspection must be included).

Photos and video recordings.

NDT-method no 1.

NDT-method no 2.

The content of each section in the level III inspection report is described in more
detail in chapter 12.

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5.

Planning of level III inspections including NDTmeasurements


To create a proper background for the planning and specification of repair and rehabilitation works, the following information is required from level III inspection:

Identification and evaluation of the condition in the damaged areas.

Identification and evaluation of the total damaged area.

Assessment of the cause of the damage.

Evaluation of future damage development - development rate of existing damage


and risk of future damage in apparently undamaged areas.

To fulfil these requirements, a certain minimum number of tests must be carried out.
The tests are planned using all available information from the as-built drawings, previous underwater inspections of the bridge, underwater inspections of similar bridges
and the knowledge and experience of the persons performing the underwater inspection. On this basis a hypothesis concerning the cause of damage, the total damaged
area and the condition of the damaged area may be formulated. The hypothesis
serves as a basis for the selection of the type and number of measurements to be
performed - including the type and number of NDT-measurements.
A checklist of available standard tests and optional tests will facilitate the planning of
the inspection.
Every single test method might be supplemented with other test methods to confirm
and complete the results of the measurements.

5.1

Visual inspection
A detailed visual underwater inspection of the cleaned areas is always carried out as
the first activity. On paper sketches the cracks (length, width, direction) are marked
as well as areas with spalling, rust stains, disintegration and other relevant observations. The result of the underwater visual inspection is part of the basis for determining the NDT-methods to be used, and the extent of the tests.
If possible, the test plan should be discussed with the rehabilitation engineer before
carrying out the underwater inspection.

5.2

Areas requiring investigation


The determination of areas requiring investigation depends on:

The extent of visible damage (first impression of the condition).

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The size of the component.

The hypothesis for the damage mechanism.

As a rule-of-thumb:

In determining the areas requiring investigation, just as much attention should


be paid to the areas without visible signs of deterioration as to areas with visible
signs (especially in case of corrosion).

Evaluation of the condition in areas with no visible signs of deterioration is more


difficult, but very important, when estimating the remaining service life of the
bridge and the optimum repair strategy.

5.3

Homogeneous areas
On the basis of the visual underwater inspection (level I and II inspections) and prior
knowledge the substructure may be divided into homogeneous areas. A homogenous
area is defined as an area where the present level of deterioration and parameters
affecting the deterioration of the substructure exhibits only a random variation.
Consider for example a bridge pier in saline water. The chloride surface concentration will be large in the tidal and splash zones. The chloride surface concentration will
decrease with increasing distance from the mean water level. In this case it makes
no sense to compare results from different piers if the tests are not performed at the
same distance from the mean water level. To overcome this problem the piers may
be divided into homogenous areas. Tests originating from the same homogenous
area may be treated as coming from the same population e.g. in conjunction with a
statistical analysis.
The division of the structure into homogenous areas also depends on the material
parameters. If for example two different concrete compositions have been used for
two piers in saline water results of chloride measurements from these two different
structures cannot be treated as a whole even though the measurements have been
performed at the same distance from the mean water level.

5.4

Evaluation of test results


When all planned tests are completed, the visual registrations and test results must
be evaluated to see if they form a sufficient basis for concluding the type, cause,
extent, and possible development of the damage. Otherwise, supplementary tests
must be selected and performed.
If the test results do not confirm the hypothesis regarding the cause of damage, the
hypothesis must be revised. It may be necessary to perform supplementary tests to
confirm the revised hypothesis.

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6.

Types of damage
This section includes a short description of the different types of damage observed
for the different causes of damage and for the different types of materials. The
bridge owner is advised to compile and update a database of the most typical damage observed at the level I and II inspections. The content of this database will depend on the type of substructure, the climate, the tidal variation, etc.

6.1

General structural damage

6.2

Damage due to water

6.3

Scour
Ponding of water
Deposition
Debris and vegetation
Difference in level
Erosion
Material loss/disintegration
Silting at culvert
Inadequate size

Damage on concrete structures

6.4

Permanent deformations (deflections/displacement)


Tilt/settlement
Abnormal vibration (too slender structures/insufficient supports)
Water leakage
Loss of friction

Cracks
Spalling
Corrosion of reinforcement
Wear and abrasion
Material deterioration
Impact damage
Fracture
Weathering
Honeycombing

Damage on steel structures

Corrosion
Cracks
Loose connections (loose bolts)
Unintended eccentricities

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6.5

Damage at masonry structures

6.6

Deteriorated stones
Deteriorated joints
Cracks
Unintended eccentricities
Overloading
Moisture movement
Thermal movement
Impact damage
Fracture

Damage at wooden structures

6.7

Impact damage
Fracture

Fungous growth
Rot
Noxious animals or insect pests

Registration of damage
When inspecting the inspectors should pay particular attention to the following components:

6.7.1

6.7.2

Concrete structures

The influence of cracks on the carrying capacity may be harmless at the time of
inspection but some cracks may initiate corrosion that later may be critical. Fine
cracks in reinforced structures may be harmless unless the structure is exposed
to very aggressive environment, e.g. positioned in the splash zone of saline water. Fine cracks in pre-stressed structures are more critical.

Common reinforced concrete structures will not fail without an early warning
such as coarse cracks and visible deflections.

Pre-stressed concrete structures are much more sensitive to damage; corrosion


of cables or failure of anchorage may lead to sudden failure of a structure.

Steel structures

If a welding in high-stress areas of steel structures is not executed correctly,


fatigue cracks may occur at the edge of the welding. A close inspection is necessary to find such cracks. If the inspector detects more cracks at the same type of
weld particular attention should be paid to extend the random samples to cover
larger samples of components with the same positions.
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Connections in steel structures exposed to repetitive loads may fail in fatigue


without any other warning than very fine cracks. Therefore, potentially dangerous details of steel structures should be pinpointed in advance of the inspection
in order to give these details a closer inspection.

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7.
7.1

Damage mechanisms
General
This chapter contains a description of the most commonly occurring damage mechanisms encountered.
The intention is that the description should be sufficient as a guideline to recognise
the damage when it occurs on a bridge, and to evaluate how significant it is.
However, the descriptions in this relatively short manual cannot be exhaustive, and
it is essential that investigations are carried out by experienced engineers with a
thorough knowledge of bridges and damage mechanisms, and a good amount of
common sense.

7.2

Structural Deficiencies
Structural deficiencies may be a danger to the structural safety. Therefore, identifying such problems is very important.
Structural deficiencies can be divided into the following four types, which can be distinguished by their appearance:

7.2.1

I. Structural cracks (load induced cracks) in concrete members


Structural cracks can be recognised as cracks with well defined orientation and with
specific crack patterns related to each type of internal forces (bending, shear).
Structural cracks might be a sign of a structural deficiency.
For reinforced concrete (RC) structures, cracks in most cases are not serious. RC is
allowed to crack. The crack width and spacing will indicate whether there is something wrong or not, taking the specific type of load and type of reinforcement into
consideration. Coarse cracks are an indication of over-load and/or under-design.

7.2.2

II. Excessive/unintended deflections and movements


Examples:

Settling of foundation (possible causes: poor soil condition, scour).

Horizontal movements of retaining walls and wing walls (possible causes: low
stiffness, creep, compaction of back fill, soil condition, under-design).

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7.2.3

III. Fracture/crushing
Examples:

Local crushing at supports/bearings (possible causes: honeycombs, wrong positioning of bearings and/or reinforcement, overload, inadequate initial load bearing capacity).

7.2.4

Columns (possible causes: impact during flooding).

IV. Structural Problems, Steel Components


Examples:

Fatigue cracks at welded connections.

Brittleness due to ageing and cold brittleness.

Buckling of compression members.

Eccentricities in welded connections.

In the following sections, selected examples from the four groups of structural deficiencies are shown.

7.2.5

Structural Cracks in Concrete Members


Types of Structural Cracks
From a structural point of view, it is important to distinguish structural cracks from
the non-structural cracks caused by concrete shrinkage etc.
Pure Tension
All cracking in concrete members is caused by tensile stresses (concrete has a low
tensile strength, but high compressive strength). Therefore it is obvious to consider
pure tension as the basic case.

In a reinforced prismatic concrete beam subjected to pure tension, cracks formed


will cross the whole cross section.
An increase/jump in the steel stress will suddenly arise at the crack, when the cracks
are formed. This affects the bond between the concrete and the bar in a certain zone
(slip distance l0) around the cracked section, so that no shear stresses can be transferred, see Figure 7-1.
Between the cracks, the steel stresses will be lower due to the effect of the surrounding uncracked concrete (this is called tension stiffening).

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Figure 7-1: Tension crack / bond slip.

The crack width has its minimum at the rebar and increases with the distance from
the bar, see Figure 7-1 and Figure 7-2.
This variation is one of the reasons for the statistical scattering of measured crack
widths, which for an example is greater for slabs with larger rebar spacing than for
beams with close rebar spacing.

Figure 7-2: Variation in crack width.

7.2.6

Structural Cracks, Examples


In the following pages, some further examples are shown.

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Columns and Piers


Eccentricities between piles in pile bents - out of plane - may introduce considerable
bending moments and under extreme circumstances lead to collapse.

Figure 7-3: Eccentricity in pile bent.


Compression failure in a column will have the same appearance as a compression
failure in a test cylinder in the laboratory.

Figure 7-4: Compression failure.

Figure 7-5: Cap beam.

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Pier Caps, Cap Beams

Figure 7-6: Pier cap.

7.3

Non-Structural Cracks in Concrete


These cracks are divided into four groups:

7.3.1

Shrinkage cracks (due to drying) (see below)

Thermal cracks (due to hydration) (see page 7-6)

Cracks due to plastic shrinkage (see page 7-6)

Cracks due to plastic settlement (see page 7-8)

Shrinkage cracks (due to drying)


The appearance and development of shrinkage cracks depend on the geometry, the
size of the member and possible restraints. The crack orientation is normally well
defined and depends on the geometric conditions (e.g. restraints caused by other
parts of the structure). Drying shrinkage cracks pass through the whole cross section.
Normally, these cracks are harmless from a structural point of view. But they may be
harmful with regard to durability.
Some examples are shown below.

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Figure 7-7: Geometric conditions.

Figure 7-8: Shrinkage cracks, abutments.

7.3.2

Thermal Cracks (due to hydration)


The appearance of thermal cracks caused by thermal stresses due to temperature
differences in the hardening concrete is very similar to the appearance of ordinary
shrinkage cracks (geometric conditions).
However, different from ordinary shrinkage cracks and structural cracks, thermal
cracks are young cracks (developed in the young concrete). This means that the
cracks will follow the surface of the coarse aggregates and stones, and not go
through them.

7.3.3

Cracks due to plastic shrinkage


Plastic shrinkage cracks are caused by rapid drying of the concrete surface (low humidity, wind, high temperature) in its plastic state (e.g. caused by improper curing).
Similarly to the temperature cracks, the cracks will follow the surface of the stones,
not go through them.
The cracks are normally wide and shallow and may form a definite pattern. In cases
of a wide surface (concrete wearing course or similar), a state of hydrostatic tension
will arise (no shear stresses). If there is no crack "guidance", the crack will be
formed "at random" and the appearance will be a net crack pattern, in most cases
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with hexagonal meshes. Typical crack patterns caused by plastic shrinkage are
shown in Figure 7-9-Figure 7-11.
Plastic shrinkage cracks are normally harmless from a structural point of view (although wide cracks may influence the load carrying capacity and the behaviour under service load), but may be harmful to durability.

Figure 7-9: Parallel at random.

Figure 7-10: Skewed at random.

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Figure 7-11: Hexagonal mesh.

7.3.4

Cracks due to plastic settlement


Normally, these cracks are due to a high concrete slump when cast.
The appearance and position of these cracks is normally above the reinforcement at
the surface, refer Figure 7-12, or at changes in the cross section, refer Figure
7-13. Plastic settlements are also seen in slabs with voids.
Normally, the cracks are harmless from a structural point of view, but may be very
harmful with regard to durability. This is because the bars are not sufficiently protected against environmental effects (the cracks often reach the bars).

Figure 7-12: Plastic settlement at rebars.


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Figure 7-13: Plastic settlement in slab with voids and slab/girder.

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7.3.5

Initiation of Corrosion
In the highly alkaline environment in concrete (pH-value close to 13) the anodic
steel surface becomes coated with a very thin grey passive layer of ferric oxide. The
ferric oxide is stable over a wide range of potentials and so acts as a protective coating. Thus, reinforcement is protected against corrosion when embedded in a concrete
of a good quality and with a sufficient cover.
But, the protection against corrosion is not everlasting. The surroundings will always
affect the concrete and finally lead to a breakdown of the passive layer. The breakdown of the passive layer may be caused by free chlorides at the reinforcement or
by carbonation of the concrete cover. These mechanisms are described in the following sections. However, corrosion depends on moisture content and the availability of
oxygen and therefore of the rate at which oxygen diffuses through the concrete.
The period during which the passive layer breaks down is normally called the period
of initiation.
The duration of the initiation period depends on:

The thickness of the concrete cover; the thinner the cover, the shorter is the
period of initiation.

The quality of the concrete cover (primarily water/cement ratio dependent); i.e.
the initiation period decreases when the concrete quality gets poorer (the water/cement ratio increases). In special cases (honeycombs, "cold joints", too
small cover), poor workmanship can lead to corrosion immediately after casting.

The aggressiveness of the environment, the temperature and the humidity.

The kind of mechanism causing deterioration. Chloride penetration is by far the


most aggressive mechanism, leading to a much shorter initiation period than the
mechanism of carbonation (chloride ions facilitate the corrosion process).

During the period of initiation there is no actual corrosion going on. The protection of
the reinforcement is being broken down with no visible signs of deterioration, neither
on the surface of the concrete nor on the reinforcement.
Therefore:
The risk of future corrosion damage can only be assessed by performing special investigations.
Four steps of corrosion of steel in concrete may be defined as:
1.

The passive state.

2.

Pitting corrosion.

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3.

General corrosion.

4.

Active low potential corrosion.

These relate to corrosion as an electrochemical process which requires a potential


difference between two connected electrodes in an electrolyte. In concrete the electrodes may be neighbouring points on the same reinforcing bar, or separate bars or
groups of bars which have a potential difference between them.
7.3.6

Carbonation
Carbonation is caused by the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air. The CO2 reacts with the
calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, in the cement paste eventually leading to a critical decrease of the alkalinity. The pH-value decreases to less than 9, which normally is
insufficient to protect the reinforcement against corrosion.
The reaction in which calcium hydroxide is converted to calcium carbonate is as follows:
Ca(OH)2 + H2CO3 CaCO3 + 2H2O
3CaO2SiO23H2O + 3CO2 3CaCO32SiO23H2O
These reactions consist of the following elementary steps:
1. The diffusion of atmospheric CO2 in the gaseous phase of the concrete pores.
2. The dissolution of solid Ca(OH)2 from cement gel into the pore water and the
diffusion of dissolved Ca(OH)2 from regions of highly alkalinity to those of low.
3. The reaction of dissolved CO2 with dissolved Ca(OH)2 in the pore water.
4. The reaction of dissolved CO2 with CSH.
The effective diffusivity, De, CO2, of CO2 in concrete is given by the following empirical expression:

De ,CO2

RH
= 2.1 10 p1

100

2.2

Where p is the porosity of the hardened cement paste and RH is the ambient relative
humidity.
The speed of the reaction will depend on the rate of removal of water formed. In
other words, carbonation depends on a drying atmosphere and are impeded in the
presence of water. On the other hand dry CO2 does not react with dry Ca(OH)2 so
the presence of moisture is essential to the carbonation process. The optimum moisture content for carbonation is intermediate between 40 and 70 % relative humidity.
An increase in temperature with 10 oC will approximately double the speed of the
reaction. Carbonation of concrete results in increased strength and reduced permeability, possible because water released by carbonation aids the process of hydration
and CaCO3 reduces the voids within the cement paste.

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The carbonation depth in concrete, x in mm, is given by the following empirical


equation:

x= K T
where
x = carbonation depth
K = constant
T = time
When x is measured in mm and T in years, the value of the constant K can be estimated as the following in air at 50 % relative humidity:

K = 72
0.126 , where fc is the concrete strength in MPa.
f

If the relative humidity in the pores of the concrete is different from 50%, K must be
multiplied by a factor < 1, dependent of the humidity. See Figure 7-14.

Figure 7-14: Depth of carbonation in relation to humidity.


Example:
Compressive strength: 20 MN/m2
Age of structure:
25 years
Relative humidity: 65 % RH

K = 72
- 0.126 = 7.03
20

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K must be multiplied by 0.95 (Figure 7-14, RH = 65%). An estimate of the carbonation depth will be:

x = 0.95 x 7.03 25 33 (mm)


If the actual carbonation depth and the concrete cover are measured on site, a prediction of the time until initiation of corrosion can be made:

x= K T
K=x / T
c= K T1
2

2
2
c T
c
=T
T1= = c
K x
x

where:
x
c
K
T
T1

=
=
=
=
=

the actual depth of carbonation (mm, measured on site)


cover (mm)
constant
age of the concrete (years)
period of initiation (years)

Example:
Carbonation depth, measured:
Concrete cover, measured:
Age of the concrete:

x = 25 (mm)
c = 35 (mm)
T = 20 (years)

Initiation of corrosion is estimated to begin when the structure is T1 years old:


2

35
T 1 = 20 39(years)
25

7.3.7

Chlorides
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Chloride induced reinforcement corrosion is in many areas considered the main durability problem for reinforced concrete structures. The amount of chloride necessary
to initiate reinforcement corrosion (the critical chloride concentration or the threshold
value) depends, among others, on the composition of the concrete and the moisture
content of the concrete, see Figure 7-15.

Figure 7-15: Critical chloride content as a function of relative humidity.


Chlorides in the concrete may originate from various sources:

the mix water,

the aggregates,

admixtures

curing water,

surrounding soil (from which chlorides are washed out in wet periods),

de-icing salt (in cold areas),

in coastal areas from the seawater (reaching the concrete directly or air-borne in
windy periods).

In general, most of the chlorides contained in fresh concrete ("initial chlorides", i.e.
chlorides from mix water, aggregates and some from the curing water) will be
chemically bonded during the hardening of the concrete.
Bonded chlorides are not regarded as harmful while remaining bonded, as they are
not breaking down the passive layer on the steel.
Threshold Value
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The threshold value is the chloride value where the chloride concentration is so large
that corrosion occurs in the solution can be approximated as follows:

C Cl
= 0.61
C OH
Where CCl and COH is the concentrations of hydroxide and chloride ions in equivalents
per litre, respectively.
The hydroxide concentration can be calculated as follows:

C OH

c ( Na ) c (K )
+
23
39 100
=
P

Where c is the cement content (kg/m3), (Na), (K) is the weight share Na and K respectively in cement, and P is the porosity of the concrete in % by volume.
Normally, there are strict requirements to the maximum chloride content of fresh
concrete. Further more sufficient protective properties of the cover (denseness and
cover thickness) should be selected considering the environmental exposure. If the
desired protective properties of the cover cannot be obtained, additional protective
means need to be applied.
Diffusion of chlorides into concrete
Ingress of chlorides may take place by:

Capillary suction or permeation of water containing chloride.


Diffusion of chloride ions in the pore liquid.

Based on Ficks 2nd law diffusion of chlorides into concrete can roughly be described
by the following two equations:

x = Kx T

(1)

C x = C s (C s C i ) erf

2 D T
Where:
x
=
Kx
=
T
=
Cx
=
Cs
=
=
Ci
Erf
=
D
=

(2)

depth below concrete surface (mm)


constant
age of concrete (years)
chloride content at depth x
chloride content at the concrete surface
initial chloride content
Error function
diffusion coefficient (mm2)
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The chloride diffusion coefficient of ordinary Portland cement concrete (w/c > 0.4) in
a Danish environment may be obtained form the following equation:
[mm2/year]

D = 2000 (w/c 0.35)

The Error function takes the following values.


x

erf(x)

erf(x)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7

0
0.122
0.223
0.329
0.428
0.521
0.604
0.678

0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
2.0
2.4

0.742
0.797
0.843
0.910
0.952
0.976
0.995
0.999

Based on measurements of the chloride profiles in the concrete, the different parameters can be calculated giving a prediction of the time until corrosion occurs.
The calculations will be similar to the calculations regarding carbonation.
A typical chloride content profile looks as follows:

Figure 7-16: Chloride content profile.


In this example, the initial chloride content has been approximately 0.02 %.
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A prediction of the service life depends on the knowledge of a critical chloride level.
Each structure is supposed to have its own critical limits, because the limit is dependent on various factors such as humidity and concrete quality.
As a preliminary assumption, 0.05 % of dry concrete weight can be used as the critical limit in normal concrete. For piers in seawater a value of 0.10 % of dry concrete
in normally used.
7.3.8

Carbonation and Chlorides


For concrete with a high initial content of chlorides, the chemically bonded chlorides
in front of the carbonation front will be freed.
Since carbonated concrete provides almost no resistance against chloride penetration, the chlorides will be break through the carbonation front (diffusion).
Therefore, the chloride content will increase constantly behind the carbonation front
when the carbonation front is moving into the concrete, leading to corrosion when
the critical limit of chloride content is reached at the reinforcement.
A typical chloride content profile in a concrete with a carbonation depth of approximately 30 mm is as follows:

Figure 7-17: Chloride content profile with carbonation.


If this mechanism takes place together with alternating wetting and drying in a chloride contaminated environment, the corrosion process can run very fast (e.g. in tidal
waters).
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A simple method for evaluating the chloride penetration from outside is, in this
case, to ignore the carbonated concrete layer. The thickness of the carbonated layer
can be calculated from the previous mentioned equations.

7.3.9

Propagation of Corrosion
When the chloride content at the reinforcement level reaches the critical limit or the
carbonation front reaches the reinforcement, the passive layer is broken down and
the corrosion process starts.
A corrosion process is an electrochemical process, where a current runs between
corroding areas (the anodes, where the passive layer has been broken down) and
non-corroding areas (the cathodes, where the passive layer is complete).
The current runs due to the theoretical fact of the behaviour of metals in liquids and
concrete, see Figure 7-18. If two metals with different electrochemical potential are
electrically connected, corrosion is likely to take place on the metal with the lowest
potential.
Therefore, the risk of corrosion can be evaluated by measuring the potentials (HCPmeasurements, see Chapter 8.14).

Figure 7-18: The electrochemical series.


When the passive layer breaks down locally, the area changes its place in the electrochemical series becoming more negative. This creates a potential difference,
which generates the corrosion current.
Where the passive layer is broken, the following "anodic reaction" takes place.
Anodic reaction:
Fe -> Fe++ + 2e-

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If water and oxygen is present at the steel surface, the "cathodic reaction" takes
place.
Cathodic reaction:
O2 + 2H2O + 4e- -> 4OH-

The anode and the cathode may be far apart, as long as there is an electric connection between them.
The anodic process produces electrons, and the cathodic process consumes electrons. If there is an electric (through the reinforcement) and electrolytic (through the
moist concrete) connection between the anode and cathode, an electric current will
flow.
The corrosion process is illustrated in Figure 7-19.

Figure 7-19: The corrosion process.


7.3.10

Corrosion products and corrosion rate


The Fe++ reacts with oxygen, OH- and water, forming corrosion products. The type of
corrosion products produced primarily depends upon the available amount of oxygen
and water.
If there is little available oxygen, the first products will be white Fe(OH)2.
These white products may be transformed into black FeO and water. This type of
corrosion product is typical for local, chloride initiated corrosion.

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If oxygen is added to FeO, black Fe3O4 may be formed. Fe3O4 is not expansive, so
there are not necessarily any exterior signs of corrosion.
If water and oxygen become available to the white Fe(OH)2, the products turn via a
green intermediate stage into brown Fe(OH)3.
If additional water is available, expansive yellow/red/brown Fe(OH)3,nH2O (rust) is
formed.
If oxygen is plentiful, the expansive yellow/red/brown Fe(OH)3,nH2O (rust) is formed
without any intermediate stages. This type of corrosion product is typical of carbonation initiated corrosion in porous concrete.
The development of the corrosion attack and the velocity of the process primarily
depend upon:

The temperature.

The ratio between corroding and non-corroding areas.

The moisture content.

As for most chemical reactions the corrosion rate increases with increasing temperature.
If the area of the anode is small compared to the area of the cathode (Aa/Ac << 1)
the corrosion rate will be high, because the corrosion takes place in a small area
(local corrosion).
The process of local corrosion normally leads to corrosion products, which are black,
non expansive and liquid-like. This means that local corrosion cannot be expected to
give visible signs of corrosion on the surface. Local corrosion is hidden corrosion
where serious attacks can be developed without visible signs, increasing the risk of
unexpected collapse.
In case of chloride attack, the chloride ions facilitate the formation of Fe++, thus
increasing the corrosion rate. As chloride initiated corrosion normally starts as local
corrosion, a considerable reduction of cross section of a steel bar may take place
within a short time and without visible signs on the concrete surface.
A ratio between anode area and cathode area, Aa/Ac approx. 1, gives what is called
general corrosion. This type of corrosion leads to the well-known yellow/red/
brown corrosion product, which quickly gives rise to visible signs of corrosion
(spalling of the concrete, cracks, rust stains).
The corrosion rate depends on the moisture content and the electrolytic contact between anode and cathode. The RH % below refers to the moisture content in the
pores of the concrete at the anode area (the electric resistance at the anode is decisive for the corrosion current, and the resistance drops with increasing moisture con-

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tent. In outdoor concrete there will normally be sufficient water for the cathode
process). The moisture content in the concrete in average over a year can be different from the RH % in the air, especially in case of the presence of chlorides in the
concrete.
At RH % less than 80, the corrosion rate is negligible. Normally the corrosion rate
drops at RH above 95% and reaches 0 at RH = 100%. See. But if there is electric
contact to areas with less moisture content, a cathode may be formed in this area
and the corrosion rate will increase.

Figure 7-20: Corrosion rate in relation to humidity.

This may be the case when a column is partly submerged in saturated soil. Corrosion
may take place at an anode area below ground (RH=100%), because the cathode
process takes place above ground at a lower humidity.
The two types of corrosion can normally be located at different places in the structure.

7.3.11

Local/general corrosion
Local Corrosion (giving no visible signs on the surface) is typically located:

at restrained cross-sections (max. negative bending moment), e.g. brackets and


cantilever decks,

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at construction joints and cracks in concrete with high content of chloride and
moisture,

in concrete with a high initial content of chloride.

General Corrosion (giving visible signs at the surface) is typically located:

in concrete of poor quality, especially in the cover concrete;

in concrete with insufficient thickness of the cover;

in concrete, where alternating wetting and drying takes place, such as horizontal
surfaces (especially soffits) and vertical surfaces above sea- or ground level.

In practice, most structures (except structures submerged in water or saturated soil)


will be exposed to both wetting and drying.
In the early phase, corrosion will normally develop as local corrosion. In the later
phase, general corrosion follows with evident signs of corrosion at the surface. In
structures with corrosion caused by chlorides, the corrosion (i.e. the reduction of
cross section) will normally be critical in the later phase.
Two typical cases of corrosion (column and wing wall) are described in the following.

Figure 7-21: Example 1, pier column.

7.3.12

Pier column
1)

Areas with the risk of local corrosion especially in constantly wet and chloride
contaminated concrete. In concrete exposed to alternating wetting and drying,
the corrosion product will expand causing cracks and spalling of the cover.

2)

General corrosion, mainly caused by carbonation. The corrosion will develop


slowly, but visible damage will appear at an early stage.
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3)

Areas at risk of local corrosion. The lack of oxygen does not prevent corrosion
as the cathodic process will take place at the steel areas above ground level.
The corrosion rate can be very high.

In general, most of the chlorides contained in fresh concrete ("initial chlorides", i.e.
chlorides from mix water, aggregates and some from the curing water) will be
chemically bonded during the hardening of the concrete.
Bonded chlorides are not regarded as harmful whilst remaining bonded, as they are
not breaking down the passive layer on the steel.
Diffusion of chlorides into concrete can roughly be described by the following two
equations:

x= K x T

(1)

C x = C s - ( C s - C i ) erf 0.5 x / TD

(2)

Figure 7-22: Example 2, Wing walls.

7.3.13

Wing walls / retaining walls


Wing walls may suffer from several types of corrosion attack:

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1)

At ground level and below, the conditions are similar to those of a column.

2)

At the top, there is a risk of very high chloride content originating from surface
water running from the overpassing road and the slopes (through chloride
contaminated soil) to the top and the upper part of the back side of the wall.
Due to alternating wetting and drying, visible signs of corrosion of the reinforcement are seen as vertical splitting at the top. This splitting causes easier
access to water, which increases the rate of the corrosion process, etc.

3)

On the backside of the wall, there may be a constantly high moisture and chloride content level. Even if there is a lack of oxygen, severe corrosion may occur. (The situation is similar to that of a column footing).

4)

At the front of the wall, the chloride content may be very high, because saline
water penetrating from the back side evaporates, leaving chlorides in the concrete.

5)

At all surfaces exposed to the air, carbonation initiated general corrosion may
occur.

Note
Any investigation of corrosion problems on out-door concrete structures has to include an evaluation of:

The actual corrosion level and -activity

The future risk of corrosion

Both in areas with evident corrosion and in areas without visible signs of corrosion
(especially in areas where corrosion normally is expected to take place), the investigation should be carried out as described in Chapter 5.2.

7.4

Alkali-aggregate Reactions
In humid concrete, alkalis from the cement (or from the surroundings) may react
with siliceous aggregate.
The process may briefly be described as follows:
Alkali ions (Na+ and K+) from cement, mix water or from the surroundings (on
bridges, typically seawater or de-icing chemicals) lead to an increase of the concentration of OH- in the water in the pores of the concrete. OH- dissolves amorphous
silicon (SiO2) which may be present e.g. in flint aggregate, producing a gel.
This gel absorbs possible water from the surroundings and expands. Under certain
circumstances the expansion pressure leads to cracks in the concrete, forming a

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crack pattern on the concrete surface. If the reactions take place in coarse aggregate
near the concrete surface, the result may be 'pop-outs'. See Figure 7-23.
7.4.1

Crack Pattern
In general, concrete attacked by alkali silica reactions (or some other deterioration
processes) will expand and crack in 'the easiest way'. This means that:

The coarsest cracks will form parallel to the section with the weakest reinforcement.

Weaknesses in the design of the reinforcement will be disclosed. E.g. very coarse
cracks may appear if a cross section is not (or very weakly) reinforced.

Normally, a system of internal cracks parallel to the concrete surface is formed.


This kind of cracks may be detected by drilling out cores, or by more sophisticated techniques, such as the 'Impact-Echo' method (see Chapter 8 regarding
test methods).

The interaction between internal tension stresses from the alkali-aggregate reactions and from the load induced forces reveals the path of the internal forces
in the structure: The cracks will follow the direction of the internal stresses, particularly clear at concentrated loads. See Error! Reference source not found..

The conclusion on the above damage pattern is that serious carrying capacity problems may occur if the design of the reinforcement is insufficient. (E.g. un-reinforced
sections or too small overlap at splices). If the reinforcement design is good (closed
stirrups, sufficient overlaps, U-stirrups at beam ends, transverse reinforcement at
anchorage zones etc.) alkali-aggregate reactions do not reduce the carrying capacity
considerably.

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Figure 7-23: Alkali silica reactions.


The gel may form drops emerging from the cracks. The gel is soluble in water, therefore on outdoor structures it is washed away by rain. But on indoor structures it
may be seen.
Alkali-aggregate reactions can only take place if the concrete contains alkalis, calcium hydroxide, silica and water see Figure 7-24. It has to be noted that even if
the concrete does not contain enough alkalis the reactions may take place anyway if
alkalis are supplied from the surroundings.

Reactive Silica (e.g. SiO2H2O)

Ca(OH)2
AAR

Water (H2O)

Alkali (Na+, K+)

Figure 7-24: Illustration of the necessary components for alkali-aggregate reactions.


To prevent damage, one or more of the four components must be shut out or limited
to an acceptable level. On existing structures with alkali-aggregate problems, the
only practicable way is to keep water away from the concrete, either by putting up a
shield, or by applying a surface protection (waterproofing, but permitting diffusion of
vaporised water).

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It is not possible to establish exact threshold values, but the following may serve as
a guide regarding the humidity: If the relative humidity in the pores of the concrete
is about 80-95% RH, the gel is solid, and the expansion pressure may cause cracks
and pop outs. If the humidity is higher, the gel is liquid. It will fill pores and cracks
and it may penetrate to the surface, but it will not cause serious damage. If the humidity is lower than about 80%, the reactions are not expected to take place.
On new structures (and on rehabilitation works on existing structures), alkaliaggregate reactions must be prevented by using aggregate which does not react
with alkalis, and/or using cement with a low alkali content and at the same time protect the structure from alkalis from external sources.
If no knowledge is available regarding the reactivity of the aggregates, it must be
determined by tests.
It is very important in preventing alkali-aggregate reactions that a great effort is
made to avoid initial cracks in the concrete (see Chapter 7.3).
The alkali-aggregate reactions may take place for a considerable time (years) before
visible signs of damage occur. In time, the internal stresses have grown to a magnitude that causes expansion and cracking of the concrete. The cracking and expansion go on for some time (years) after which they die out typically caused by lack
of alkalis or reactive material. To evaluate the risk of future development of damage
due to alkali silica reactions a residual reactivity test can be performed see section 8.10.
The deterioration rate may rise considerably if frost/thaw action takes place at the
same time, because freezing water creates internal stresses in the cracks initiated by
the alkali silica reactions.
The only reliable way to identify alkali-aggregate reactions with certainty is by
means of specific microscope techniques in the laboratory (microscope inspection of
thin slices of a drilled out concrete core) see section 8.10.

7.5

Chemical Attack of Concrete and Masonry


Water containing sulphates attacks the concrete or masonry chemically. Further
more dissolved carbon dioxide in the rain water will attack masonry chemically.
Both the ground water and the surface water may contain sulphates. The mix water
may contain sulphates too, if not checked for.
Seawater contains sulphates, and sewage water may contain sulphates too.
Further, sulphates may contaminate the aggregates.

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7.5.1

Acid Attack
Pollutant gases are increasing drastically in the atmosphere. These air contaminants
are usually found in gas form (SO3, HNO3, HCl, O3 and organic acids), in particle
form (H2SO4, NH4SO4, (NH4)2SO4) or dissolved in water as droplets (CH+, NH4+,
HSO3-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-). They are fairly reactive and may cause degradation on
concrete and masonry. Measurements in Gothenburg in Sweden have shown that
pH-value varied between 3.0 4.5.
Degradation of concrete may occur as the result of the dissolution of the cement
hydration products causing a more porous weaker matrix as a result of internal expansion associated with gypsum formation and its subsequent reactions.
Pure water can dissolve the calcium products (calcium hydroxide) in concrete. Theoretically the hydrolysis of cement paste can continue until most of the calcium hydroxide has been leached away. This exposes other cementitious constituents to
chemical decomposition. The process leaves behind silica and alumina gels with little
or no strength.
The hydrated calcium silicate, which is alkaline, is neutralised by contact with hydrochloric acid water:
2HCl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + 2H2O
Calcium chloride made by the reaction of hydrated calcium silicate and hydrochloric
acid is very soluble to water. All acids attack concrete, and the cement paste is degraded generally as in the example with hydrochloric acid:
2HX + Ca(OH)2 CaX2 + 2H2O
where X is the acid residue.
Exposure to NOX, while also lowering pH, results in the formation of calcium nitrate
hydrates. The calcium nitrate hydrates volumes significantly exceed those of the
solid reactants; however, these nitrates are highly soluble and readily leached. As a
consequence, the principal durability issue in this regard is the development of a
more porous matrix, in turn, more susceptible to other forms of attack.
Nitric acid will react with the calcium hydroxide and form calcium nitrate:
Ca(OH)2 + 2HNO3 + 2H2O Ca(NO3)24H2O
Exposure to SO2, either alone or in combination with elevated levels of CO2, is likely
to lead to severe disruption. pH is lowered and the formation of gypsum results in
expansion in cement. In addition the subsequent reactions of gypsum with the hydration products of cement result in additional expansion.

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Sulphuric acid will attack calcium hydroxide with the formation of gypsum
Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 CaSO42H2O
Water containing free CO2 attacks concrete and produces Ca(HCO3)2 which is very
soluble. Without considerations of stoichiometry the following may be described:
H2O + CO2 + Ca(OH)2 Ca(HCO3)2
Or attack on carbonated calcium hydroxide
H2O + CO2 + CaCO3 Ca(HCO3)2
Acid

Reactant

Product

Volume change (%)

Carbonic

Ca(OH)2

CaCO3

11

Sulphuric

(OH)2

CaSO42H2O

123

Nitric

Ca(OH)2

Ca(NO3)24H2O

274

Table 7-1: The changes in the volumes of the solid phases associated with the attack of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate by nitric, sulphuric or carbonic
acid.
Rainwater contains dissolved carbon dioxide forming a very mild acid which dissolves
calcium carbonate by producing soluble bicarbonate. Lime mortars will eventually be
destroyed by percolating rainwater because calcium carbonate is their main binding
agent.
7.5.2

Sulphate Attack
Water containing sulphates attacks the concrete in different ways. When sulphate
ions come in contact with the hydration products, a chemical reaction starts. In most
cases, this reaction results in volume expansion.
1. High concentrations of sulphate ions (SO4- -):
SO4- - + Ca(OH)2 + 2H2O ->
CaSO42H2O (gypsum) + 2OH- + volume expansion
2. Lower SO4- - concentrations:
Calcium Aluminate Hydrate + CaSO42H2O ->
3CaOAl2O3CaSO432H2O (ettringite) + volume expansion
3. Most serious: Magnesium and Ammonium Sulphate:
MgSO4 reacts with CaO3Al2O3's hydrate products

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and
MgSO4 + Ca(OH)2 ->
CaSO4 + Mg(OH)2 + volume expansion
In case 1 and 2, hydrated calcium silicates will be transformed into gypsum and ettringite, which means that the concrete will lose its strength. Further, the cement
paste will expand, which causes cracking and disintegration of the concrete surface
(scaling).
Risk of Sulphate Attack
The risk of sulphate attack depends on the following parameters:

The content of sulphate in the surroundings (seawater, ground water, sewage,


soil). The aggressiveness of water and soil can be divided into three groups:
o

Moderate: water with less than 300 mg SO3/l or soil with less than 0.2 %
SO3.

Aggressive: water with 300 - 1000 mg SO3/l or soil with 0.2 - 0.5 % SO3.

Very aggressive: water with more than 1000 mg SO3 or soil with more
than 0.5 % SO3.

The moisture content of the concrete. The reaction needs the presence of water.

The type of cement. Especially the C3A content of the cement.

Sulphate contaminated aggregates.

The permeability and/or the ability of capillary suction (e.g. from the buried part
of a column to the free part).
The sulphate concentration will constantly increase in the evaporation zone leading to a rapid deterioration. Capillary suction may also lead to a general sulphate
attack on the concrete in the whole cross section.

Possible surface protection of the concrete.

A special case of both sulphate attack and corrosion is seen on partly submerged
structures, especially structures with large dimensions.
Partly submerged structures normally have the biggest problems in the splash zone.
However, if the cover below sea level disintegrates due to sulphate attack, one big
anode is formed under the sea level. The cathode will be the part above sea level.
In structures with large dimensions, a large amount of current flows, leading to severe corrosion attack on the submerged part.

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In masonry sulphate attacks are the most common problem and is due to the reaction between sulphate ions in water solution and the tricalcium aluminate (C3A)
phase in mortars to form calcium sulphoaluminate or ettringite.
The commoner sulphates are the sodium, potassium and magnesium salts, which are
all freely soluble, and calcium sulphate, which is less soluble but will leach in persistently wet conditions.
The sulphates may be present in groundwater and can effect masonry below the
waterproofing and masonry in contact with the ground such as retaining walls,
bridges and tunnels. Sulphates are also present in some types of clay bricks and will
be transported to the mortar in wet conditions.
Sulphates do not attack pure lime mortars as there is no calcium aluminate present
but may have some effect on hydraulic lime mortars.
7.5.3

Seawater Attack
Concretes exposed to marine environment may deteriorate as a result of the combined effects of chemical action of sea water constituents on cement hydration products, alkali silica expansion, crystallisation of salts in concrete, corrosion of embedded steel and physical erosion due to wave action and floating objects.
Direct chemical attack comes from the magnesium salts in seawater. The concentrations may be low but they are sufficient to produce calcium chloride, gypsum (both
soluble) and ettringite.
In the following the action of magnesium and calcium salts are given.
Action of sulphate:
MgSO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + Mg(OH)2
Where calcium sulphate can be soluble or solid and may act in a secondary reaction
and produce ettringite:
CaSO4 + C3A + 32H2O C3A3CaSO432H2O
Action of chloride, MgCl2:
MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + Mg(OH)2
The action of calcium chloride can result in producing chloroaluminate, ettringite and
thaumasite with large expansions as result:
Chloroaluminate:
CaCl2 + C3A + 10H2O

C3ACaCl210H2O
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Ettringite:
+ SO3

C3A3CaSO432H2O

Thaumasite:
+ CO2 + SiO2

CaCO3CaSO4CaSiO315H2O

Interestingly, in spite of the high sulphate content of seawater, and even with high
C3A Portland cement and large amounts of ettringite from sulphate attack, little expansion is usually present. The deterioration is usually characterised by erosion or
loss of solid constituents form the mass. It has been suggested that the ettringite
expansion is suppressed in environments where OH- ions have essential been replaced by Cl- ions.
Concrete between the tide marks, subjected to alternating wetting and drying, is
severely attacked, while permanently immersed concrete is attacked less. The actual
progress of attack by seawater varies, and is slowed down by the blocking of the
pores in the concrete through deposition of magnesium hydroxide. In warmer environments the attack is more rapid.

7.6

Erosion / Scour
Scour is the erosive action of running water, excavating and carrying away material
from the bed and banks of waterways.
Scour is one of the most frequent causes of bridge failures, mainly because it may
develop to a very large extent within a short time.
If the level of the riverbed has changed significantly in general or around
piers/abutments there is always reason to carry out closer investigations. Note
that there may very well be problems, even if the erosion has not reached the level
of the underside of the foundation. In many cases the load carrying capacity of a
direct foundation is dependent on the pressure (the weight) from the surrounding
soil. And particularly pile foundation depends on the surrounding soil.
Scour problems may be divided into three groups:

7.6.1

Aggradation / degradation

General scour

Local scour

Aggradation / degradation
Aggradation and degradation are long term changes in the level of the riverbed.
Aggradation is deposition of material, elevating the riverbed, while degradation is the
lowering of the bed caused by erosion.

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Aggradation reduces the cross section of the waterway. This will cause the surface of
the water to rise, and during a flood, the superstructure may be affected by streaming water and debris, causing unintended horizontal forces to the bridge.
Degradation may lead to undermining of the foundation, eventually leading to failure
of piers / abutments and thus of the whole bridge.
7.6.2

General scour
General scour is characterised by the removal (erosion) of material from the whole
width of the waterway. Generally, it is caused by increased water speed. There is no
strict distinction between general scour and degradation, but in general, degradation
is a slow erosion of material over a long period of time (years), while general scour
may take place over a shorter period.
General scour often occurs because of a contraction of the flow of water. It may be a
result of the construction of the bridge, as piers, abutments and embankment slopes
reduce the cross section of the waterway channel. However, it may also be caused
by obstructions or other changes in the waterway, upstream or downstream.
Another possible cause of general scour is mining in the riverbed, i.e. excavation of
sand and gravel.

7.6.3

Local scour
Local scour is scour that only affects a minor part of the width of the waterway. Generally, it occurs where obstructions (natural or artificial) change the flow of water,
creating accelerations and vortex systems.
The occurrence of local scour very much depends on the design of the obstructions
to the water flow (Piers, abutments).
If a scour protection only covers part of the riverbed, local scour may occur at the
edges of the protection. Particularly if the protection is of a solid type like concrete or
asphalt. Open, flexible types of protection (wire mattresses, riprap) are less vulnerable to local scour.
Scour is prevented by:

Minimising the reduction of the waterway cross section caused by the bridge.

Not making regulations of the stream (upstream or downstream) that cause increasing water speed at the bridge.

Giving structures in the stream (piers and abutments, scour protection) designs
that minimise the formation of vortexes.

Protecting riverbed and slopes.


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7.7

Preventing mining (excavation of sand and gravel) from the riverbed.

Corrosion of steel structures


In this part the mechanical corrosion such as abrasion, cavitations, erosion, etc. and
chemical corrosion such as gas corrosion is not described.
This part will describe the type of corrosion that takes place when moisture is a part
of the corrosion process.

7.7.1

Electrochemical corrosion
If a metal is exposed to water or a solution of water a certain part of the metal is
dissolved by metal ions leaving the surface and making the solution positive while
the electron stays in the metal and makes it negative:
Me Me++ + 2eAs the process increases, the metal negativity increase, and it is more and more
difficult for the positive ions to leave the metal surface and dissolve. At the end the
process stops and a equilibrium is achieved. In this condition of equilibrium ions are
send from the metal into the solution and back again into the metal as:
Me++ + 2e- Me
The potential difference between metal and solution when the same amount of metal
atoms is dissolved and ions precipitated per time unit is called the equilibrium potential. The metals mutual inclination to reaction is described in electrochemical series,
see Table 7-2.
The metals ability to corrosion in a practical situation depends on the metals ability
to create dense oxide layers and of the solution they are exposed against. To give an
overview of the corrosion tendencies in a specific environment galvanic series is sat
up. In Table 7-2 metal exposed to seawater are put in a galvanic series.
The potential difference between two metals in a series shows how dangerous it is to
connect the metal to each other. The metal with the lowest potential will corrode.
The metal will stop dissolve when equilibrium is reached. However if the electron is
removed from the metal gradually the dissolution of the metal will continue and the
metal corrodes. The recipient of the electron is called an acceptor or calls it an oxidation or depolarisation.
The normal electron acceptor is oxygen that causes the formation of hydroxyl ions.
In acid solutions is H+ acceptor. Seldom more cathodic metal acts as electron acceptor.

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Oxygen acts as electron acceptor by creation of hydroxyl ions with the free electron
and water. The formed OH- reacts with the free Me++ and will create rust products.
For instance if we look at corrosion of iron in water:
The iron reacts with the following process:
Fe Fe++ + 2e- (anode process)
From the atmosphere the water uptake oxygen and together with the free electron is
created hydroxyl ions:
2H2O + O2 + 4e- 4OH- (cathode process)
Fe++ from the anode process and OH- from the cathode process creates Fe(OH)2.
This product is not stabile in oxidise atmosphere; it is oxidised further to the readbrown Fe(OH)3 which is able to uptake water and create rust Fe(OH)3nH2O. It is the
last created product that result in the typical read-brown colour of the rust.
Iron is stable as long as the air relative humidity is below 65 %. Over 65 % will the
water film, which is on the surface, be so thick that it is able to act as an electrolyte.

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Water Drop

Steel

Figure 7-25: As example on the rust creation we will look on a water drop on a steel
surface. The water drop will result in visible rust after a few hours. The rust will be
formed ring shaped around blank steel. This due to the following:
The water drop will dissolve oxygen for the atmosphere, however in the marginal
zone where the water layer is thin the oxygen reach the steel very fast and act as an
electron acceptor according to the cathode process. Inhomogeneities in the steel
surface result in a certain area to be come anode and dissolve Fe++ while the remaining e- runs though the steel and leaves it near the marginal zone where it is up
taken by the acceptor. The circuit is working and the steel corrodes anodic in the
centre and a rust ring of iron hydroxide is created around the anode area. The rust
ring will grow to a rust hillock that will cover the blank anode. Be aware that oxygen
is necessary for the process to continue but no corrosion takes place where the oxygen is supplied.

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Electrochemical series

Galvanic series
Metals in sea water

Anodic

Thermodynamic series
Metal/Cation

Normal potential in
volt at 25 C
against hydrogen
electrode

Metal

Potential in volt
at 20-25 C
against hydrogen
electrode

Mg/Mg++

-2,34

Magnesium

-1,4

Al/Al

-1,67

Zinc

-0,8

Zn/Zn++

-0,76

Al alloys

-0,8 -0,5

Cr/Cr++

-0,74

Cadmium

-0,5

Fe/Fe++

-0,44

Steel, cast iron

-0,5 -0,4

Cd/Cd++

-0,40

Stainless steel, active

-0,3 -0,1

-0,25

Copper

-0,1

Sn/Sn++

-0,14

Tin

-0,1

Pb/Pb++

-0,13

Lead

0,0

H/H+

0,00

H/H+

0,00

++

Ni/Ni

++

Cu/Cu++

+0,34

Ni-Al-Bronze

0,0

+0,52

Stainless steel, passive

-0,1 +0,3

Ag/Ag+

+0,80

Silver

+0,1

Pt/Pt++

+1,12

Platinum

+0,4

Au/Au+

+1,68

Graphite

+0,4 +0,5

Cathodic

Cu/Cu

Table 7-2:

Electrochemical and galvanic series.

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7.7.2

Chink Corrosion
A normal situation for electrochemical corrosion is where oxygen concentration cells
create cathode areas on free steel surfaces while the corresponding anode areas with
the dangerous corrosion is hidden in pores, cracks and connections. The attack is
often called chink corrosion or crack corrosion.

Water

Figure 7-26: The principle in chink corrosion is as follows:


Two plates overlap each other, and there is water in the overlaps (in the chink). The
free water surface uptake oxygen and the metal surfaces in the marginal zones become cathodes. In the chink the oxygen have difficulties to penetrate and the metal
surfaces become anodes and is corroded. This corrosion is not visible from the outside and dangerous.
7.7.3

Galvanic Corrosion
If two different metals are in electrical contact in a moist environment galvanic corrosion is created. The more anodic metal releases ions and is corroded.
An important factor in evaluation of the danger of this type corrosion is the ratio between anode and cathode area. If the anode area is small compared to the cathode
area the current density over the anode will be large and the corrosion will be severe. The galvanic series is shown in Table 7-2.

7.7.4

Stress Corrosion
Stress corrosion occurs in corrosive environment when the steel is exposed to tension stresses. Often the attacks are not visible and thereby very dangerous.
The stresses may be introduced when the steel melt is solidified, or due to cold deformation of the steel, or due to outer static forces.
The corrosion takes place where the stresses and thereby the energy level is highest.

7.7.5

Corrosion and Fatigue


If the steel is exposed to alternating stresses there are a risk of fatigue fracture of
the steel. This risk is increased when corrosion occurs together with the alternating
stresses.
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7.7.6

Atmospheric Corrosion
Atmospheric corrosion is corrosion on un-protected steel surfaces exposed to the
atmosphere. The air humidity is normally always higher than 65 % relative humidity
that is the limit for adsorption of connected water film and thereby electrochemical
corrosion.
The water films is only a few molecule layers thick, however when there are small
amounts of different salts on the surface, the water film becomes a powerful electrolyte. Some salts, for instance calcium hydroxide is very hygroscope and creates a
water film already at 30 % relative humidity. Different factors influence the risk and
velocity of the corrosion:

Temperature
The corrosion velocity is doubled for every 10 oC increase in temperature.

Air pollution
Both NaCl and other salts from the sea and the content of the SO2 play an important role. The sulphur dioxide originates the volcanic activity and from burning of fossils fuels like coal and oil. The sulphur dioxide creates H2SO3 which is
oxidized to sulphur acid (H2SO4) which increases the corrosion velocity.
In industrial environments the creation of soot is high. The soot contains sulphur
and carbon and due to the hygroscopic properties the soot will be changed to
sulphur acid. Between carbon and steel the sulphur acid is a strong electrolyte
and a powerful corrosion cell is created.
In marine environments the large amount of salts in the air may cause stronger
corrosion than in the inner parts of the country. The salts originate from the sea
where fog and moisture is airborn.

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Corrosion
class

The aggressiveness of
the environment

In-door environment

None

Rooms with relative humidity


lower than 60 %, dehumidified rooms

Insignificant

Non heated well ventilated


rooms without condense,
steel buildings with natural
ventilation

Out-door environment

Heated rooms with relative


humidity more than 60 %
without condense
2

Medium

Changing exposure of moisture with brief condense

Non polluted land atmosphere and similar


environment with low
sulphate acid-base and
chloride pollution

Large

Alternating humidity, severe


condense

Polluted atmosphere,
sulphate and other pollution from industry occurs

Chemical exposure

Not polluted marine atmosphere


4

Very large

Constant moist
Chemical exposure

Polluted marine atmosphere

Submerged

Chemical exposure
In water and in earth

Table 7-3: Corrosion classes defined in Denmark.

7.8

Ageing of Steel
Impact on steel at very low temperatures may result in fracture without any large
deformations as seen at normal temperatures. The brittle fracture form may also be
seen on very old steels at normal temperatures. This phenomenon is called brittle
fracture due to ageing of the steel.
Steels ability to uptake dynamic loading is measured in Charpy s impact-notch sensitivity measuring test. The tendency to brittle fracture is evaluated by carrying out
Charpy tests over a specified temperature interval. The ability is characterised by the
transition temperature. It normally vary from 85 oC for the best steel types to +55
o
C for the poorest steel types. However it should be mentioned that the transition

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temperature is not similar to the lowest operation temperature of a structure constructed with the said steel. The operation temperature depends on the loading,
thickness of the members and the notch sensitivity in the structural connections.
The steel may be aged and hereby the transition temperature is changed. This is due
to dissolved nitrogen in the steel immediately after the rolling which is precipitated
after some time as very small nitride crystals that make the steel brittle. The change
in the transition temperature is approximately 15 oC for the best steels and 80 oC for
the poorest steels. Steel with a low transition temperature have normally lesser tendency to ageing.
Impact ductility according to Charpy-V test
Brittle

Transition

Ductile

Ageing

Transition temperature

Figure 7-27: Example on evaluation of a steels ability to brittle fracture. At normal


temperatures the steel is ductile. Around 0 oC the impact ductility drops to very low
values. This property is described by the transition temperature which may be defined as the temperature where the impact ductility is reduced by 27 Nm.

7.9

Erosion of masonry structures


Erosion of masonry structures is mainly caused by particles in flowing water and
wind, frost attacks salt crystallization and plant root action
Frost
Frost is the principal eroding agent of masonry exposed to normal exterior conditions. Its effect is due to the stresses created by the expansion of water on freezing
in the pore system of materials and thus only occurs in water-saturated or nearsaturated conditions in porous materials. Typical effects are the spalling of small areas of the mortar to form a layer of detrius at the foot of the wall or just general
softening and erosion of the mortar indistinguishable from chemical erosion.
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Salt crystallization damage


Salt crystallization damage is a analogous process to frost attack and is due to expansive crystallization of hydrated salts in the pore structure. Salt crystallization
damage often occurs in warm conditions where the rapid drying of water is causing
the salts to crystallize out below the surface.
Abrasion
Abrasion by particles in wind and water mostly acts together with other processes.
The appearance will normally be of loss of surface and change of colour and texture.

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8.

NDT-methods

8.1

General
The philosophy of a level III inspection is to combine a superior visual assessment of
a substructure (the level I or II inspection) with appropriate test methods to obtain
sufficient information on the condition of the substructure. Location and selection of
representative samples are important for giving accurate conclusions for the entire
structural component considered. The extent of tests must be sufficient for determining the right repair strategy, and for giving a good estimate of the total area requiring repair.
The personnel in charge of the level III underwater bridge inspection including NDTmethods should be experienced and competent in three ways. They should be
knowledgeable on the subjects stated below:

How to carry out the available methods of testing in practice, including how to
operate the equipment.

How to select the right type of test method and the right test locations for different types of damage.

How to interpret the results of the measurements.

The diver performing the test must be knowledgeable on the subject stated below
besides the standard diving conditions see Appendix B, Chapter VIII, Section 3:

How to carry out the available methods of testing in practice, including how to
operate the equipment.

The test methods can be divided into three categories:

The non-destructive survey methods, which are suitable for mapping damage on
large areas of the structure.

The detailed non-destructive and destructive sampling and measurements on


small areas.

The laboratory analysis, which when applied on the samples, provides very detailed and precise information about a specific location.

Normally, the combination of all three categories leads to very reliable conclusions
on mechanisms of deterioration (deterioration types), causes and the extent of dam-

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age. However in most cases, the two first categories of test are satisfactory to conclude upon.
Recording of registrations must refer to a unique numbering system for the substructure. The numbering system must be indicated on a sketch (normally a plan view).
One way to select a numbering system is to use the compass directions, e.g. pier
N1, E1 etc. A clear notation for each face of the piers should be used as well. The
road or railway destinations in the two directions should appear from the plan.

8.2

Visual inspection
The visual inspection (level I and level II inspections) involves using a divers eyes to
look for defects. During the inspection the diver should have contact to the person in
charge of the inspection (above water) by auditable underwater communication
equipment or preferable by underwater video camera and auditable underwater
communication equipment.

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8.3

Ultrasonic testing of steel structures


In the following sections the general principles of ultrasonic testing is described.
When using the equipment for ultrasonic testing of underwater structures one has to
be aware of the following issues:

8.3.1

The transducers and cables must be waterproof.

Couplant gel will often not be necessary.

Water filled cracks will not be detected.

Definition of ultrasound
Mechanical vibrations of different kinds can travel through solids due to their elastic
properties. A good example is a spring, which is tightened at one end. The other end
is able to expand up and down. If it makes enough oscillations per second, you will
be able to hear a sound. This is due to the fact that the air also starts vibrating as
compression waves. The human ear can hear these compression waves, if the frequency is higher than the lowest audible range, which is about 12 oscillations/sec.
The faster the spring oscillates the higher the sound. Over a certain number of oscillations, we are not able to hear anything. We have then reached the upper audible
level, which is about 20.000 oscillations per second.
Sound waves with a higher frequency are called ultrasound waves.
After changing to the use of ultrasound the method became useful in a greater scale.
Ultrasonic waves gives due to their higher frequency and smaller wave length a
much better possibility of finding defects and determine their size and their position.
The vibrations are normally generated by the use of a piezoelectric crystal, which can
be excited by an electrical pulse. See section 8.3.6 for more information about
transducers.
We are going through the two most common test methods, the through transmission
technique and the pulse echo technique.

8.3.2

Through transmission technique


When using this technique you have a transmitter on one side and a receiver on the
other side of the object to be tested. The transmitter sends out ultrasonic waves
either as continuous oscillations or as short pulses, each consisting of a few oscillations. In the last case the pulses are send out with an interval, which is long compared to the duration of the pulse itself. The wave travels through the object and is
then received by the receiver. The signal from the receiver shows the sound energy,
which has travelled from the transmitter to the receiver. If the sound beam hits a
discontinuity in the object, the received sound energy will be less. The signal from
the receiver will then be smaller. This signal can be registered and used in different
ways. For example the signal can automatically activate an alarm, if the sound beam
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hits a defect over a certain size, by which the received sound energy goes down under an equivalent fixed level.
The signal can also be registered with ordinary ultrasonic equipment, which contains
an oscilloscope. It is seen as vertical reflections of the signal on the screen at a distance to the right of the deflection on the left side of the screen. This reflection to
the left is called the initial pulse.

The ultrasonic equipment's way of working will be discussed later. If there is a defect
between the transmitter and the receiver, it will prevent a larger or smaller part of
the sound beam from reaching the receiver, which will weaken the signal. This is
seen on the screen as a smaller deflection as seen on Figure 8-1.

A
B

Figure 8-1: Principles of through transmission technique.


8.3.3

The pulse echo technique


This is the most common used technique.

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The principle in this technique is almost the same as used in an echo sounder. A
transmitter sends out a short pulse consisting of a few oscillations into the object to
be tested.
The sound wave travels through the object with a constant speed, the sound velocity, which is always the same in the same material, regardless of the frequency. If
the object is without defects, the pulse continues until it hits the back wall of the
object, from where it is reflected like light beam from a mirror. The pulse then travels back through the object - still with the same velocity - and is received by a receiver. As the pulse travels with a constant speed, the time the sound pulse has
travelled from the transmitter till it returns is equivalent to twice the thickness of the
object. After a while a new pulse is send out, which travels exactly like the first one.
In order to measure the very short time from sending out one pulse till it is received
again, the ultrasonic equipment is provided with an oscilloscope or a digital display.
An electron beam makes a bright spot to travel horizontally across the screen with a
constant velocity from left to right. The movement begins at the same time as the
pulse is send out from the crystal. The initial pulse gives a vertical deflection on the
left side of the screen.
After that the bright spot continues to the right with a speed that can vary from
about

1
200

to 5 times the velocity of sound in steel. See Figure 8-2.

A
B
F

Figure 8-2:

F
F

Principles of pulse echo technique.

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If you adjust the velocity of the bright spot on the screen, to be the same as the
sound velocity in the test piece, it will travel to the right on the screen with the same
speed as the pulse travels inside the object. When it returns to the receiver, the
bright spot has travelled a distance, which is twice the thickness of the test piece.
The moment the pulse hits the receiver, it sends an electrical signal to the ultrasonic
equipment. On the screen it is seen as a brief, vertical reflection of the bright spot.
This is called a bottom echo. The distance on the screen between the initial pulse
and the bottom echo is in this case twice the thickness of object.
Changing the speed of the bright spot on the screen, the distance between the initial
pulse and the bottom echo can be adjusted. You can change it in such a way that the
thickness of the steel object between approximately 2 mm and 10 m can be read off
on the screen.
If the sound wave hits a reflecting surface during its way through the object for example a crack, a part of the sound will reflect back and will be seen as a vertical reflection before the bottom echo. This deflection is called the defect echo. By its position on the screen you can determine the distance from the surface of object quite
accurate, see Figure 8-2. The height and shape of the flaw echoes might give you
some information about the size and type of the defect.
The sending out of a pulse and the movement on the screen is repeated many times
a second. The single instant pictures appear on the screen as constantly shining
lines, which only moves when the probe is moved across the surface of the object.
However, there is a distance between the pulses, which allows the first to die out
before a new pulse is send out. In most ultrasonic equipment it means that a pulse
can move backwards and forwards in a 10 m long steel bar, before a new pulse is
send out.
Figure 8-3 and Figure 8-4 show some common ultrasonic equipment.

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8.3.4

Figure 8-3:

USM 35 and EPOCH IV.

Figure 8-4:

USK 7 D.

Definitions and general terms


Sound beams are mechanical vibrations of every single particle within an object. If
you imagine the object split up into many small particles, which are mutual connected with elastic power, you will generate a wave motion by getting one or several
particles out of balance for example by giving them a shock. Because of the elastic
power the neighbour particles will after a while get out of balance too. The shock will
spread in the object as a wave motion.

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It is characteristic for a wave motion that a transport of energy is taking place, but it
does not result in a transport of substance. Each particle oscillates with larger or
smaller oscillation around their equilibrium, but keeps their position in relation to the
other particles. It can be shown that the oscillations are sinus oscillations.
Wave motions can appear in many different shapes. In the following we will mention
some important definitions and general terms concerning ultrasonic oscillations and
the most important types of oscillations.
Frequency (number of oscillations)
The frequency is the number of oscillations per second.
One oscillation is a movement from a mean position to a maximum through a mean
position to a maximum and back to a mean position again.
The term for a cycle is Hertz or c/s.
And the time used for one oscillation is called a period.

In ultrasonic testing frequencies between 1-6 MHz (megahertz, mega = million) is


often used. For example is the time for one single oscillation at 1 MHz equivalent to
1
1.000.000

sec.

The sound direction is the direction of the wave propagation. It does not have to
merge with the direction of the particle movement. The particles can move in the
direction of propagation or at right angles to the direction of propagation.
Wavelength
The wavelength is the distance measured in the sound direction from one particle to
the next particle in the same mode.
The wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency that is to high frequencies
you will have small wavelengths and conversely.
The sound velocity
If you call the wavelength and frequency f this equation applies for a wave motion
f x = V = constant
The constant is the velocity of sound in the material and not of the single particle
itself. It tells you how many wavelengths, that is how long a distance, the wave
propagates per second.
The velocity is a quality of the object and for a certain object, the velocity of sound is
constant for all frequencies and wavelengths.

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Types of oscillations
Sound can propagate under various forms:
Longitudinal waves
Longitudinal waves are characterised by the fact that the particle motion is in the
direction of propagation of the sound
Longitudinal waves can propagate in solids as well as in gases and liquids. The audible sound is for example longitudinal waves in air.
Transverse waves
Transverse waves are characterised by the fact that the particle motion is at right
angles to the direction of propagation.
The elastic forces, which make the particles oscillate, are displacement forces. These
forces are not found in liquids and gases, so transverse waves can only be transmitted in solids.
Pure longitudinal- or transverse waves can only be generated inside an object if the
extent is great compared to the wavelength.
8.3.5

Refraction and reflection of ultrasonic waves


Refraction
If a sound beam hits an interface between two different materials in an oblique direction, a part of the wave will be refracted in the surface and continue into the
other material in a diverging direction. Another part of the incident wave will be reflected from the interface. This refraction and reflection happens due to the laws of
optics for the lights refraction and reflection. See Figure 8-5.

V1

Material 1
Material 2

V2

Figure 8-5:

Sound wave passing through an interface.


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Reflection at right angles


If a sound beam hits an interface at right angles a part of the sound will travel
through the interface and continue in the same direction, but with another velocity.
No refraction happens in this case of course.
The other part of the sound will be reflected back from the interface at a right angle.
At the interface between steel and air the reflections coefficient is almost -1 that
means that the incident sound wave is completely reflected and that there is no
sound wave transmitted into the air.
By ultrasonic testing of materials for internal defects the reflected signal will always
come from an interface of this type. Most discontinuities in a material will have an
interface towards the part without a defect, which has the character of an air gap.
Such an interface is a great reflector at air cracks with a thickness down to

1
10.000

mm.
Reflection at an oblique angle of incidence
If a sound wave hits an interface with an angle of incidence i, a part of the wave
will be reflected with the angle of reflection r, as already illustrated in Figure 8-5.
As for a light beam reflecting in a mirror the same rule applies that the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection are equal, that is i = r. Besides this similarity between the laws of light and those of sound waves, there is an important difference
due to the fact that sound beams in solids can be either transverse or longitudinal
and change from one form to the other under certain conditions.

Longitudinal wave

Transversal wave

Longitudinal wave

rT
rL
i
Material 1(solid)
Material 2 e.g. air

Figure 8-6:

Reflection of a longitudinal wave at an interface.

When a longitudinal wave in a solid material hits a plane interface with an angle of
incidence i, a part of the beam will be reflected as a longitudinal wave with an an-

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gle of reflection equal to i. Furthermore a part of the beam will change into a
transverse wave, which is reflected with a smaller angle of reflection (Ut) due to the
smaller velocity for transverse waves (Figure 8-6).
Steel is one of the most common used materials in construction and therefore the
material most often tested with ultrasound.
Below the condition at an interface between steel and air is further discussed. As
mentioned earlier such an interface will reflect a sound beam completely which
means that it is totally reflected.
Longitudinal waves in steel propagate with the velocity VL 5900 m/sec. and transverse waves with the velocity VT 3230 m/sec.
Decibel
On most equipment you have a control, with which you can regulate the gain. This
control is divided and adjusted in decibel (dB). In this way it is possible to measure
and compare the height of different echoes. Such measurements are necessary when
comparing defects, testing for absorption and estimating the size of defects.
8.3.6

Probes
Normal probes
A normal probe generates longitudinal waves, which leaves the probe at a right angle to its contact surface. If the probe is in contact with a specimen, the sound wave
penetrate into it. It travels in straight lines, with a certain beam spread. See Figure
8-7.

Figure 8-7:

Normal probes.

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Construction
A normal probe is constructed as shown in
Figure 8-8 below.

Figure 8-8:

Normal probe.

The crystal must be damped in order to quickly stop the oscillations after it has been
excited, either by an electrical pulse or by a reflected sound wave. In this way the
initial pulse and the echoes on the screen of the equipment are prevented from being
too wide
Dual probe (TR-probes)
The near resolution can be increased considerably by using a probe with two separate crystals one for transmission and one for receiving. Figure 8-9 shows the inside
of a TR- probe.

Transmitter

Receiver
Transmitter

Receiver

Perspex

Figure 8-9:

TR-probes.

The piezoelectric crystal is glued to perspex blocks, which works as a delay line for
the sound. The crystals are placed in a slight angle to the surface of the object, and
turned against one another. Due to that you can detect defects right under the surface. Unfortunately this construction may give spurious echoes from surface waves.

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This can be avoided using a probe where the crystals are parallel to the surface of
the object. In return you have a minor sensitivity for defects right under the surface.
Beyond these common types you have special probes developed for specific tasks
e.g. waterproof types and heat resistant types.
Choice of probe
Normal probes differ from one another as regards to the type of crystal, its diameter
and frequency. When choosing a probe you have to evaluate the influence of these
variables to the quality of the probe.
Below is summarised what to consider when choosing a probe.
Choosing a higher frequency gives you:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The possibility of detecting smaller defects.


Less sensitivity, shorter penetration into the material.
A longer near field.
Smaller angle of divergence.
A better resolution.

Choosing a crystal with a bigger diameter gives you:


1. A better sensitivity, longer penetration into the material.
2. A longer near field.
3. A smaller angle of divergence.
Choosing a crystal of another material you can obtain another combination of sensitivity and resolution.

Angle probes
Angle probes are normally manufactured with frequencies between 2 and 5 MHz and
the angles 35, 45, 60, 70 and 80 for testing in steel. Other frequencies and
angles are available. The angles are always stated in proportion to the normal. See
Figure 8-10.
The probe index is marked on the side of the probe with a line.

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Figure 8-10:

Angle probes.

Construction
An angle probe is constructed as shown on Figure 8-11 below.
Lead

Damping
Connector

Perspex wedge

Crystal

Figure 8-11:

Angle probe.

Between the piezoelectric crystal and the exit point a wedge-shaped middle piece is
placed. When the probe is brought into contact with an object, the longitudinal
waves, generated from the crystal, will travel at an oblique angle to the interface
between the wedge and the object. Here they will be refracted and continue into the
object with a different angle.
If the wedge angle is small, a part of the longitudinal waves in the wedge will continue into the object as longitudinal waves and a part as transverse waves. These

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two wave types will penetrate into the object in different directions, which means
that it will be difficult to decide, where possible echoes comes from.
Due to that the wedge is fabricated with an angle, which is larger than the 1. critical
angle. The longitudinal waves are totally reflected inside the wedge. The final result
is a refracted transverse wave in the specimen.
The shape of the wedge results in quite a lot of spurious echoes on the screen, because a part of the sound beam being reflected at the interface and inside the wedge
will be reflected back and forth and finally hit the crystal.
As shown on Figure 8-11 you can provide the wedge with a crystal backing for absorption of the reflected sound beams inside the wedge. Another solution is to provide the wedge with different saw cuts in order to make the reflected sound beams
not hit the crystal.
If you place an angle probe on a plate the sound wave will travel between the two
surfaces as shown in the Figure 8-12.

Figure 8-12:

Sound beam from an angle probe.

The distance between the place, where the ultrasonic wave enters the plate and the
point where it hits the top again is called the skip distance P.
If you place a probe on other materials than steel with another sound velocity, the
angle will change. Therefore the above mentioned factors can only be used when
testing steel.

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Table 8-1 shows how the angle () changes from testing steel to aluminium, copper
and cast iron.
Steel

Aluminium

Copper

Cast iron

35

33

23.6

23

45

42,4

29.7

28

60

55.5

37.3

35

70

63.4

41

39

80

69.6

43.4

41

Table 8-1:

Angles in different materials.

Field of application
Angle probes are normally used for testing welds and for testing of parent material in
pipes.
Welds are tested for internal weld defects e.g. slag inclusions, porosity, cracks, lack
of sidewall fusion and lack of penetration. Pipes are tested for material defects and
for transverse and longitudinal cracks
Common angle probes can be used on hot surfaces with a temperature up to 70-80
C. You should also be aware of the fact that the refracted angle may change, due to
the sound velocity in the probe and in the object changes with temperature. The
sensitivity of the probe will decrease with temperature, because the attenuation in
the probe will increase.
Check of probes
A probe is characterised by a series of qualities, which is of importance for its function. Before you start using a complete new probe or when you have used a probe a
while, it might be of interest to check that it fulfils the specifications, which are listed
by the manufacturer.
It can be necessary to check the following qualities:
Frequency - sensitivity - resolution - the width of the initial pulse - the width of the
flaw echo and the shape of the sound field. For angle probes you must check the
probe index and the direction of sound.
Most probes have a wear plate called the sole between the crystal and the object in
order to avoid wear of the crystal. When checking the probe you should inspect and
maybe have the sole replaced.
Coupling media
At the interface between steel and air or between air and another solid material or
liquid, you will have an almost 100% reflection of the sound. In practice it is not

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possible to produce a direct contact without air gap between the probe and the object under test, so you will have to place a coupling media between the probe and
the object.
As coupling media are used oil, grease, water, glycerine or wallpaper paste. Oil or
grease is normally used when testing machine elements.
By continues testing of welded seams, you will of financially reasons often use water
as coupling.
Angle probes can be provided with special water coupling so the water comes out in
the middle of the contact surface.
Wallpaper paste is rather thick and therefore ideal when testing on sloping or vertical
surfaces. After finishing the examination you can easily remove it with cold water.
Using water as a coupling in frosty weather can be difficult because it freezes. Adding spirit is an easy and cheap solution. Better, but more expensive is the use of
glycerine, which at the same time spares the hands of the user.

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8.3.7

Examination of rolled, cast and forged objects


Lamination examination of rolled plates and profiles
Lamination examination is carried out with a normal probe or a TR-probe.
If you place a normal probe on a plate with no defects you get a row of echoes,
where the mutual distance corresponds to the thickness of the plate. (Figure 8-13a).
If there is lamination present (Figure 8-13b) the pulse is reflected from the lamination and the distance between the echoes is reduced corresponding to this. The size
of the lamination can be estimated by moving the probe along the edge of the lamination. Normally a lamination is extensive slag inclusions in the middle of a plate,
but sometimes it consists of small slag inclusions, which can be either in the same
depth or distributed in the entire thickness of the plate. From this type of defect you
still have echoes corresponding to the normal thickness of the plate, but between
those you see small echoes from the slag inclusions (Figure 8-13c).

Figure 8-13:

Lamination examination of plates.

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Laminated plate material is rather common. It is very dangerous to use such plates
in welded constructions in places, where pull occurs at right angles to the surface of
the plate. Before welding a fitting onto a plate or a profile, you should carry out a
lamination examination to make sure that the material is not laminated. Figure
8-14 shows what can happen if a fitting is welded on to a laminated plate.

Figure 8-14:

Fitting welded onto plate with lamination.

The laminations arise when inclusions and hollowness from the chill mould are imperfect rolled. A plate will therefore mostly contain laminations in the areas shown
on Figure 8-15.

Figure 8-15:

Areas where lamination often occurs in plates.


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Testing a plate can be done manually with a plate tester as shown on Figure 8-16
or in an automatic ultrasonic testing installation, where the plate is moved past a
row of probes for example 40-80 probes according to the width of the plate. Each
probe scans the plate along a line and the results are registered on a paper slip.

Figure 8-16:

Plate tester with mounted ultrasonic equipment.

The results can be stored in a computer with the specifications from the client as
regards for dimensions and allowable content of laminations and slag inclusions. The
computer then cuts out the plate and distributes these according to order. This system often causes that clients who do not specify permissible content of laminations
and slag inclusions may have screened out plates, which may contain defects.
Testing of rolled profiles for laminations in body or flanges is done in the same way
as for lamination testing of plates.
Another situation where it is important to check for lamination is e.g. where 2 plates
are welded together.
If a lamination is present in the area where you would scan with angle probes the
sound beam will do as shown in Figure 8-17.

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Figure 8-17:

Sound beam reflecting from lamination.

The lamination testing of plates are normally carried out with a nominal frequency of
2 or 4 MHz. Plate thicknesses down to about 5 mm can be tested quite accurate. For
testing thinner plates you must use a higher frequency or TR-probes.
When using a TR-probe you normally look for defect echoes showing up before 1st
bottom echo. You must also be aware that the maximum sensitivity from TR-probes
can be in different depths depending on the angle between the transmitting and receiving crystal. The relationship between defect and bottom echo will vary with this
angle and is different compared to a normal probe.
The permissibly extent of lamination in a plate varies of course with application. If
the plate is to be used to transmit great tractive forces at right angle to the surface,
you must ask for complete lamination free material. For other purposes you may
tolerate smaller areas with lamination.
In order to carry out a lamination examination you need an agreement between the
parties involved. This agreement concerns the extent of examination, the size of
defects and the number of defects according to a normative reference.
Examination of castings
In the production of casting defects like cracks, porosity, and big gas bubbles,
shrinkage and sand inclusions may occur.
Ultrasonic examination of such defects can be done in most cases depending on the
following conditions:
The penetrating power of material structures
Certain materials like steel and aluminium are easy to penetrate for ultrasonic oscillations. Others are more difficult or impossible to penetrate for example grey iron,
bronze and stainless steel. The attenuation of the sound beam is due to the reflection from graphite flakes in cast iron, and from segregation's in grain boundaries in
the other materials. SG-iron is easy to penetrate for ultrasonic oscillation because
the graphite flakes is found in the shape of small balls.
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For some materials the penetration power varies with the cooling rate the material
has been exposed to after the casting. By quick cooling you get a fine-grained structure with small segregation in the grain boundaries and with a good penetration for
ultra sound.
The penetration power of a specimen depends on frequency of the sound wave.
Sometimes you get sufficient penetration power to carry out the examination by
choosing a low frequency e.g. 0.5 MHz. At the same time the lower limit is raised for
the size of the defect, which can be detected.
The reflection ability of defect surfaces
In castings you can find defects with so uneven surfaces that all of the sound is reflected away, which means you do not get a flaw echo. See Figure 8-18.

Figure 8-18:

Casting with irregular casting defect.

Such defects can only be found using the through transmission technique with a
separated transmitter and receiver probe. As long as the receiver detects pulses
from the transmitter the subject is accepted. If the receiver detects nothing, there
must be a defect in the intervening material.
Examination of rivet joints
In rivet joints on steam boilers you can have stress corrosion or caustic breaking
cracks in the plates. The cracks start from the rivet holes and propagate from one
rivet to another (Figure 8-19).

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Figure 8-19: Examination of rivet joints for cracks in plates and rivets.
The cracks can be found with angle probes as shown in Figure 8-19. Cracks with
the same character can arise in the rivet shank itself. They can be found with a normal probe from the end of the rivet.
Spurious echoes

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Besides the direct and expected form echoes e.g. echoes from a back wall, an edge
in a plate, a welding cap or a recess and defect echoes from internal defects in the
object, you can have other echoes as well - the so called spurious echoes. These
echoes arise when the sound beam can be reflected in more different ways inside the
object, making the pulses return to the probe in different sound paths. These sound
paths normally have different length and the pulses do not return at the same time,
which means that equipment registers several echoes after one another. A delay in
time of a longitudinal wave can also be due to the fact, that it has been transformed
into a transverse wave on a part of the sound path, where it has travelled at the
smaller velocity of the transverse wave.
If the sound beam is spread out more than expected or if the subject has another
form than expected, it can also give unexpected echoes on the screen.
Below some common occurring spurious echoes are mentioned.

Examination of long objects with a normal probe


A normal probe is placed on the top or the edge of a long object, which is narrow,
compared to the sound beam. A part of the scattered sound beam will be reflected
from the sides and travel in paths, which are longer than the direct sound path. This
is seen as a row of successive echoes, as shown in Figure 8-20.
When reflecting against the side, the longitudinal wave is split up. A part continues
as a transverse wave, which again is transformed into longitudinal waves after a
later reflection.
Finally the sound beam returns to the probe as a longitudinal wave and you can see
an echo on the screen. Figure 8-20 shows some of the possible sound paths in a long
object. Sound wave 1 gives 1st bottom echo. No. 2 gives 1st spurious echo after a
single reflection of the longitudinal wave on the side. No. 3 gives 2nd spurious echo
after a transformation into a transverse wave on a part of the sound path. No. 4
gives the 3rd spurious echo after repeated reflections of the transverse wave.
All spurious echoes shows up after the 1st bottom echo - and will not interfere with
the examination, if the object has the same cross section over the whole length. If
you on the other hand have recesses or shrinked on bushing, the spurious echoes
will be able to cover possible echoes from defects in more distant areas of the object.

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L = logitudinal waves
L = longitudinal waves
T = transversal waves
T = transversal waves

Figure 8-20:

Spurious echoes after the bottom echo when examining long ob-

jects.

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8.3.8

Examination of welds
Application and purpose
The extensive use of ultrasound for examination of welds is due to the fact that it is
one of the most reliable and cheapest ways of getting information about the quality
of a weld. The method has also shown that it is suitable for automation and it is used
for continuous control of welding plants, where large amounts of identical welds are
produced under factory-like circumstances.
For examination of manual welds the ultrasound method is suitable as well. In this
case manual examination is more common and will be described in the following and
which still is a model for the more simplified automatic examination.
When examining a weld it is all about getting a detailed and accurate picture of the
existing defects, in order to record their position and size in a report, which is independent of the used equipment and the team using the equipment. The report
should give the client a satisfactory foundation in order to make his decision on the
quality of the weld.
The ability of a defect to reflect
Because the method is build on the ability of the defects in the weld to reflect the
used sound waves, we will first go through the welding defects common in practice,
seen from this point. The defects can be split into planar defects, meaning defects
which are very small in one direction, but has a certain size in the two other directions as e.g. cracks, lack of penetration and lack of side wall fusion see Figure 8-21,
and volumetric defects such as defects, which has a certain extension on all 3 sides
as e.g. slag lines, slags in lack of penetration, gas porosity and slag inclusions, see
Figure 8-22.

Figure 8-21:
A + B:
C:
D:
E:

Planar defects.

Longitudinal, oblique. E.g. lack of sidewall fusion cracks


Longitudinal, right angle to the surface. E.g. lack of penetration and cracks
Longitudinal, parallel to surface. E.g. thin layer of slags
Transverse, right angle to the surface. E.g. transverse cracks

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The planar defects will reflect the sound waves well, if the extension in both directions across the beam direction is larger than about a wavelength. The reflection
will then happen according to the laws of the optics and a necessary condition for the
defect to be found is the sound beam being either directly or via a close by surface
reflected back to the probe.
The volumetric defects will reflect sound beams more or less scattered. The best
reflections you will get, is from a defect with an almost plane/level surface, which is
at right angles to the wave. That is found on e.g. slag lines and lack of penetration
(Figure 8-22F + G). Less good reflections you get from wormholes, even though
they are lengthy in the direction of the weld (Figure 8-22 H). The worst reflection is
from porosity and scattered slag inclusion (Figure 8-22 J + K).

Figure 8-22:
F:
G:
H:
J:
K:

Volumetric defects.

Slag lines
Lack of penetration
Wormhole
Porosity
Slaginclusions

Examination technique
Because of the above mentioned possible location and orientation of welding defects
the method of testing must be carried out in such a way that as many defects as
possible are found. In a lot of cases where you know the welding method, you can
exclude some defects and simplify the method of testing. For instance is testing for
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transverse flaws not necessary in welding in plain carbon steel with low yield point,
as transverse flaws are very rare.
Butt welds in thinner plates
For this you should use an angle probe placed on the surface of the plate besides the
welding as shown on Figure 8-23. The sound beam travels obliquely into the plate
and is reflected alternately from the lower and higher surface of the plate, so the
beam describes a zigzag path in the plate. An important condition for this method to
work correctly is that the plate is free of lamination, which can reflect the beam, before it reaches the opposite side.

Pos. 2

Figure 8-23:

Pos. 1

Examination of a butt weld with an angle probe.

An effective test for the previous mentioned types of defects needs the following
movements of the probe (Figure 8-23).

Figure 8-24:

Scanning directions of angle probe when examining a butt

weld.

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Calibrating the range and measuring the beam angle is done in the easiest way by
using an IIW-block. You find it in two types, type 1 for angle probes of almost all
common sizes and type 2 for miniature angle probes.
The shape of these calibration blocks are shown in Figure 8-25 + Figure 8-26.

Figure 8-25:

Calibration block 1

Figure 8-26:

Calibration block 2.

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Using a normal probe on the 91 mm distance does the calibration of the range on
type 1, see Figure 8-25. This distance for a longitudinal wave corresponds to a transverse wave having travelled 50 mm sound path. The successive bottom echoes from
the 91 mm distance are used to calibrate the range.
The normal probe is replaced with the actual angle probe. It is directed towards the
100 mm arc, see Figure 8-27 and the maximum echo is found. The probe index point
will be on a level with the mark showing the centre of the arc. The probe index is
marked on the side of the probe. The echo from the 100 mm arc is displaced with
the delay or zero control, until it is placed on 100 mm on the actual range.

Figure 8-27:

Determination of probe index.

Maximising the echo from the 25 mm or 50 mm arc does the calibration of the range
on type 2.
Using the 25 mm arc the first echo is placed on 25 mm with the delay or zero control
and the second echo is placed on 100 mm with the material velocity control, and the
probe in an unchanged position on the block. By using the 50 mm arc the first echo
is placed on 50 mm with the delay control and the second echo is placed on 125 mm
with the material velocity control (Figure 8-27).
Measuring the beam angle is done by directing the sound beam towards the cylindrical drilled hole in the block as shown in Figure 8-28 and find the position of the
probe, where maximum echo is obtained.
On the grade scale, which is engraved on the side of the block, you can read the
beam angle on a level with the earlier marked probe index.

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Figure 8-28:

Determination of beam angle.

The sensitivity calibration is partly done by adjusting the pulser which - depending of
the type of equipment, - can be regulated stepwise in up to 5 different values - or
partly by adjusting the gain of the receiver in dB steps.
Which sensitivity you choose, depend on how big defects are allowed in the welding.
This information you must have and you should have a specification made by the
constructor for the specific welding, which indicates the maximum allowed defects
and how many minor defects is allowed pr. m weld and what types of defects you
can tolerate.
These tolerances can be found in national and international standards and codes or
in specific procedures.
In practice you manage by using a sensitivity calibration corresponding to that of a
well defined, artificial defect like a cylindrical drilled hole parallel to the contact surface and in the same distance as the actual defects, gives an echo of a certain size.
(Figure 8-29).
It is mandatory that the test block is made of a type of steel, which has the same
attenuation as the test piece and that the surface is similar to the test piece as well.

Figure 8-29:

Calibration of sensitivity on a side drilled hole parallel to the sur-

face.

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The test is done with this calibration, so that all defect indications equal to or bigger
than the indication from the drilled hole is noted in the report. It must be noticed
that if a defect lays in a considerable other distance (sound path) from the probe
than the drilled hole, you must adjust the sensitivity again on another drilled hole in
the same distance as the defect. On basis of the above mentioned calibrations and
measurements of the used equipment the location of defect and the marking can be
done.
Moving the probe in the previous mentioned ways tests the welding and the screen is
monitored all the time. All indications, above the fixed maximum, are noted and in
each case you must decide, if it is reflections from excess weld metal, undercut,
backing or other outer limitations. If this is not the case the position of the defect in
the horizontal direction from the probe and in depth is calculated. If a defect is big
compared to the cross section of the sound beam, the limitations of the defect shall
be laid down.
When calculating the horizontal distance and a vertical depth you use different
remedies.
a) You can mathematically calculate the horizontal and the vertical projection of the
read off sound path (s) see Figure 8-30, because the horizontal projection a is

a = s x sin

Figure 8-30:

Locating a defect by calculating horizontal distance "a" and verti-

cal depth "d" according to the read off sound path.


and the vertical projection (d) is
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d = s x cos

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8.3.9

Determination of defect size


Introduction
Ultrasonic examination of welds and materials normally involves that the found defects are estimated partly to make sure where the place of reflection is and partly to
get information about the size and type of the defect.
Determination of the size of large defects
In the cases, where the extension of the defect in one or in both directions, measured at right angles to the sound beam, is large compared to the sound beam, you
estimate the size by an acoustic scanning, determining the boundaries of the area,
from where you have the defect indicated.
To get precise information from where to where the defect runs, you use the socalled half value boundaries or 6 dB-drop method as the positions of the probe,
where the echo height has just reduced to half the normal height from a place on the
defect. The limits are determined by displacing the probe either laterally parallel to
the weld direction in order to determine the length (Figure 8-31), or forward and
beckwards at right angles to the weld direction to determine the extension of the
depth.

Figure 8-31:

The length is measured between the half value limits (6 dB-drop).

The accuracy of the defect size based on the half values can be rather good, but
sometimes you get large deviations from the actual sizes.
Decisive for that is both the surface of the defect and the characteristca of the
soundbeam. The method has the advantage of being quick and gives in many cases
adequate accurate and unambiguous results

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Determination of the width of defects is not always necessary, but can be used to
identify the places of reflection close the opposite surface. It is determined by measuring the horizontal distance to the defect from both sides of the weld. As shown in
Figure 8-32 an incomplete penetration will show a relatively wide defect, a crack or a
lack of penetration a quit narrow defect, and large excess penetration as a defect
with a negative width.
Positive defect width

a1

a2

Defect width

a1

a1

a2

Negative defect width

a2

Figure 8-32: A: Incomplete penetration gives great defect width


B: Lack of penetration and cracks in the root give a small width
C: Excess penetration gives negative defect width

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Determination of the size of small defects


When a reflective surface becomes small compared to the cross section of the sound
beam, you will not be able to limit it by moving the sound beam. On the other hand
the amount of reflected energy and with that the echo height will give information
about the size of the defect.
There is however a number of factors, which plays a role, so it is not possible to give
a simple connection between the size of a defect and the echo height you get on the
screen. Factors having an influence on the size of the flaw echo are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Pulse energy
Amplification
Coupling between probe and object
Type of defect, shape of defect (plane, spherical etc. )
The reflecting surface (roughness)
Orientation of defects in relation to the direction of sound
The position of the defect in the sound field, the distance between defect and
probe
The acoustic properties of the object.

One of the most important factors is the type and shape of the defect, which makes
the ability of reflection vary a lot from defect to defect. Also the orientation of the
defect in relation to the direction of sound is of great importance for the size of the
echo.
The significance of the position of the defect in the sound field.
Near field and far field
The size of an echo from a small reflector will generally decrease with increasing
distance from the probe. It will happen in a regular way at larger distances, but if
the defect gets closer to the probe, you will see large variations in echo height for
small changes of distances. That is due to interference, which can occur in the socalled near field (Figure 8-33).

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Figure 8-33:

Schlieren image of sound field, showing near field and far field.

Comparison with artificial defects


As seen from the previous situation, it can be rather complicated to determine the
size of a defect only on basis of the echo of the defect. It is therefore reasonable to
try to simplify the methods to determine the size of small defects. In practice it has
been proved very suitable to use a comparison of the actual indications of defects
with the indications, you can get from artificial defects of known size.
Such defects can be worked out with a well-defined shape e.g. as a cylindrical drilled
hole, flat-bottomed cylindrical holes or right-angled grooves. They must be placed in
reference blocks with such dimensions that the same distance from the probe can be
reached as the actual defect distance in the test piece. An example of such a reference block with cylindrical drilled holes is shown in Figure 8-34. It is also important,
that the reference block is of a material, which attenuates the sound just as much as
the actual material and that the surface is of the same nature, so the same degree of
coupling is reached.

Figure 8-34: Reference block with cylindrical bored holes for comparing echo sizes.
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Such artificial defects are used to calibrate the echo height to a certain height. With
unchanged calibration you carry out the examination and all indications, which
reaches a certain level are noted.
The method of comparison is normally satisfactory for approval control, because you
rarely will have difficulties concerning characteristics, sizes and surfaces of the reference blocks.
One must not forget that such artificial defects normally will represent optimum conditions of reflections and you will in the principle from such a comparison only be
able to find the smallest value of defects.
DGS diagram
If reference blocks with artificial defects cannot be produced or if it appears to be
awkward to use a large number of different reference blocks, you can use the DGS
diagram.
(D = distance, G = gain, S = size)
Such a diagram valid for 4 MHz angle probes of the type Krautkrmer MWB70 - 4 is
shown in Figure 8-35. Here you can read the size of a reflecting surface on basis of
the sound pressure in the reflected sound beam in relation to the distance of sound,
which means the distance between the reflector and the probe index on the probe.

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Figure 8-35:

DGS diagram for a 4 MHz angle probe.

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8.3.10

References
Journals:

Non Destructive Testing.


Applied Materials Research.
The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing.
Magnafacts.
Materials Evaluation.
Ultrasonics.
INFO, NDT.
Materials Research and Standards.
Das Echo.
Materialprfung.
Technische berwachung.
Schweissen + Schneiden.

Books:

L. Filipozynski and others "Ultrasonic Methods of Testing Materials". Butterworths. England. 1966.
B. Banks and others "Ultrasonic Flaw Detection in Metals. Theory and Practice". Lliffe Books Ltd. London. 1962.
Benson Carlin. "Ultrasonics". McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1949.
J. F. Hinsley. "Non-Destructive Testing". MacDonald & Evans Ltd. London.
1959.
W. J. McGonnagle. "Non-Destructive Testing". McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc. London. 1961.
J. Blitz. "Fundamentals of Ultrasonics". Butterworths. England. 1963.
Non-Destructive Testing Handbook. Vol. I-II. The Ronald Press Co. 1959.
Non-Destructive Testing, Programmed Instruction Handbooks, General Dynamics.
Krautkrmer. "Werkstoffprfung mit Ultraschall". 2. edition. Springer-Verlag.
1966.
Vaupel. Bild-Atlas fr die zerstrungsfreie Materialprfung. I-II-III.
J. Matauscheck. "Einfhrung in die Ultraschalltechnik". VEB Verlag Technik.
Berlin. 1957.
E. A. W. Mller. "Handbuch der zerstrungsfreien Materialprfung". R. Oldenburg. 1963.
Ludwig Bergmann. Der Ultraschall. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart. 1954.

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Norms and directions:

Stahl-Eisen Lieferbedingungen 072-69. (1. edition December 1969): Ultraschallgeprftes Grobblech.


Schweissen + Schneiden, Heft 6/66. Rudolf Trumpfheller, Technischer berwachungs-Verein, Essen a. V.: Abnahmeprfungen an Schweissnhten
nach dem Ultraschallprfverfahren.
Deutsche Industrie Normen:

DIN 54119. Vornorm Zerststrungsfreie Prfung; Ultraschallprfung, Begriffe.


DIN 54120. Vornorm Zerstrungsfreie Werkstoffprfung; Kontrol1krper 1
und seine Verwendung zur Justierung u. Kontrolle von UltraschallImpulsecho-Gerten.
DIN 54122. Entwurf Zerstrungsfreie Werkstoffprfung; Kontrol1krper 2
und seine Verwendung zur Justierung u. Kontrolle von Ultraschall Impulsecho-Gerten.

ASTM Standards:

A 435-67. Standard Method and Specification for Longitudinal-Wave Ultrasonic Inspection of Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels.
E 317, Part 31. Evaluating performance characteristics of pulseecho ultrasonic testing systems. Rec. practice for.
E 127, Part 31. Fabricating and checking aluminium alloy ultrasonic standard
reference blocks. Rec. practice for.
E 214, Part 31. Immersed ultrasonic testing by the reflection method using
pulsed longitudinal waves. Rec. practice for.
A 578, Part 4. Longitudinal wave ultrasonic testing and inspection of plain
and clad steel plates for special applications. Spec. for.
A 435, Part 4. Longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection of steel plates for
pressure vessels.
E 164, Part 31. Ultrasonic contact inspection of weldments.
A 503, Part 4. Ultrasonic examination of large forged crankshafts. Rec. practice for.
E 273, Part 31. Ultrasonic inspection of longitudinal and spiral welds of
welded pipe and tubing.
E 213, Part 31. Ultrasonic inspection of metal pipe and tubing for longitudinal discontinuities.
A 531, Part 4. Ultrasonic inspection of turbine-generator steel retaining
rings. Rec. practice for.

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A 577, Part 4. Ultrasonic, shear wave inspection of steel plates. Spec. for.
A 388, Part 4. Ultrasonic testing and inspection of heavy steel forgings. Rec.
practices for.
A 418, Part 4. Ultrasonic testing and inspection of turbine and generator
steel rotor forgings.
E 114, Part 31. Ultrasonic testing by the reflection method, using pulsed
longitudinal waves induced by direct contact. Rec. practice for.
E 113, Part 31. Ultrasonic testing by the resonance method. Rec. practice
for.
British Standards:

BS 2704. Specification for calibration blocks and recommendations for their


use in ultrasonic flaw detection.
BS 3683. Glossary of terms used in non-destructive testing.
BS 3923. Methods for ultrasonic examination of welds.
BS 4331. Methods for assessing the performance characteristics of ultrasonic flaw detection equipment.

Ultrasonic standards:
DS/EN 12062
DS/EN 1712
DS/EN 1713
DS/EN 1714
DS/EN 10160
DS/EN 10308
DS/EN 583-2
DS/ENV 583-6
DS/EN 12680-1
DS/EN 12680-2
DS/EN 12680-3
DS/EN 14127
ASME V Art. 4

Art. 5
VIII Art. 9-3
ADM HP 5/3

General rules for metallic materials


UT of welded joints. Acceptance levels
UT examination. Characterization of
indications in welds
UT of welded joints (technique)
UT of steel flat product (lamination)
UT of steel bars
Sensitivity and range setting
TOFD-technique (sizing of defects)
Steel castings for general purposes
Steel castings for highly stressed components
Spheroidal graphite cast iron castings
Ultrasonic thickness measurement
UT for inservice inspection
UT methods for materials and fabrication
UT examination of welds
Zerstrungsfreie Prfung der Schweisverbindungen

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8.4

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete Structures


The ultrasonic testing of concrete structures is usually used to evaluate the general
concrete quality, strength and the homogeneity of the concrete. The method is also
used to identify internal flaws and cracks in the concrete structure. However, when
using this test method for underwater structures one must be aware that water filled
cracks will not be detected while water filled voids are poorly detected. Furthermore
the water saturation reduces the measured velocities through the concrete. The
transducers and cables for the equipment must be waterproof for underwater use.
The basic principles of ultrasonic measurements are described in detail in section
8.3. In this section the specific issues regarding ultrasonic testing of concrete structures is described.
By using two transducers the transit time of a sound wave through a concrete structure with a know thickness can be measured see Figure 8-36.

Figure 8-36:

Measurement of the speed of sound through a concrete structure.

The speed of sound is correlated to the stiffness of the concrete and thereby also to
the strength and the general quality of the concrete.
The sound velocity of in reinforcement is approximately 1.2-1.9 times the velocity in
concrete and thus presence of reinforcement will influence the results. To minimise
the influence of the reinforcement the transducers must be placed in between the
reinforcement mesh.
The presence of cracks gives a longer transmission time as the sound wave must
travel a longer way to get around the crack see Figure 8-37.

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Figure 8-37: Illustrations of the influence of cracks and reinforcement on the measurements.

When performing the measurements of the underwater structure is it of great importance to establish a good surface contact between the transducer and the concrete.
Other practical considerations are described in section appendix A11.

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8.5

Ultrasonic thickness gauge


This method can be used for steel structures. For underwater use a waterproof probe
is used for the ultrasonic thickness gauge.

8.5.1

Introduction
An ultrasonic equipment is suitable for measuring thicknesses and it can be done just
with one side accessible and if the material can generate ultrasonic waves. For uneven or corroded surfaces, it may be necessary to grind the surface at the test positions to make proper contact. Possible rust on the opposite surface does not disturb
the reflections. If steel plates are laminated, the measured thickness will only be the
depth of the first layer.
Bringing a normal probe in contact with the object does the measurement. The distance between two successive bottom echoes on the screen indicates the thickness.
If the range is calibrated using a calibration block with a known thickness you can
read off the thickness of the specimen on the screen.
To achieve the best possible accuracy when measuring you not only read the distance between two successive bottom echoes, but the distance between 0 and the
last readable bottom echo. The last echo shall preferably be placed to the right on
the screen, in order to get the best accuracy, when reading the screen. This means
that the scale must have a good linearity, also to the very right of the screen. Then
you count the number of echoes you see and divide the reading with that number.
The thickness of the object can be measured with 1-2% accuracy.
On new digital equipments one or two gates are used where the measurement is
done at the intersection between the echo and the gate.
If the measurements are used in order to determine the thickness of a number of
components the results are reported in terms of the mean and standard deviation.
Relevant percentiles may also be reported. Such statistical analysis is only possible if
the measurements are independent and if the measurements form a homogenous
population (if a single measurement is performed at each of a number of identical
components).
The major advantages of the method are that it is easy to use and that it produces
instantaneous results.
Normally, a relatively large number of measurements are performed. The measurements may be used to map the thickness of the considered component. The results
may be reported in the form of a surface graph.

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8.5.2

Thickness measurements of steel plates


The thickness of a steel plate can be measured with a normal probe or a TR-probe,
which is placed on the surface. See Figure 8-38.

Figure 8-38:

Thickness measurement of plate.

Before starting the measurements, a contact liquid is applied to the test locations.
Further, the equipment must be calibrated. For common steel alloys, the calibration
is performed by means of test blocks. For unknown alloys (or if you are not sure),
the calibration is performed by adjusting the sound velocity setting of the equipment
until the equipment shows the same thickness as can be measured by a slide calliper
at a free edge.
After calibrating the range of the ultrasonic equipment using a suitable calibration
block for example a 5, 10 or 25 mm thick steel block, you can read off the thickness
of the plate in different ways.
Reading off the position of 1st bottom echo
This method is often used, if the plate has a very uneven surface, which only gives
you the 1st bottom echo. You would normally use a TR-probe. See Figure 8-39.

TR-probe

t
Figure 8-39:

Thickness measurement of uneven steel plate.


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At plate thicknesses below 20 mm, the range shall preferably be calibrated to 25 or


10 mm sound path in steel to achieve the best possible reading accuracy.
Another option is to use waterproof equipment. That means that you can bring both
the transducer and the apparatus with you into the water.
Reading off the position of one of the successive bottom echoes
If more successive bottom echoes turns up on the screen you choose one, which is
placed to the right of the screen. You count the number by counting echoes from the
left, and you read off its position on the screen, that is the equivalent sound path,
see Figure 8-40.

Bottom echoes
1

5
t = s/4

t
Soundpath s
Figure 8-40:

Thickness measurement with successive echoes.

The equipment time base range should be calibrated in order to give you as many
bottom echoes as possible on the screen. The gain should not be greater than corresponding to 1st bottom echo from the calibration block in scale height. This will give
you the most accurate reading.
Digitalised equipment does not need successive echoes because the reading is done
where the gate intersects with the echo you want to use.

Reading off the position of one of the successive bottom echoes, with 1st or 2nd bottom echo on 0 on the scale
If the surface of the plate is covered with paint or scale or if it has just become rusty
or rough, this method should be used. Doing this you avoid measuring the thickness
of the layer covering the surface, no matter if it is stuck to the surface or it is coupling agent on a corroded surface.
Such coatings can result in rather considerable errors. The velocity in for example
water is about of the velocity in steel. A 0.5 mm thick layer of water will therefore
give an error of 2 mm, if 1st bottom echo is read off. The reading of the thickness is
done exactly in the same way as for the previous method.
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You should be aware when using this method that it is necessary to place 1st or 2nd
bottom echo on 0 on the scale before each measurement. See Figure 8-41.

Bottom echoes
1

5
t = s/4

t
Soundpath s
Figure 8-41:

Thickness measurement of plate with a coating.

Todays' digital equipments are using so-called "gates" which means that you do not
have to move 1st or 2nd echo to zero.
You place the 2 gates in order to measure between 2 successive echoes. See Figure
8-42.

Layer

Steel
Steel
Steel

Figure 8-42:
8.5.3

Measuring through a layer with digital equipment.

Special equipment
Thickness measurements can also be done with special equipment, which normally
only are intended for this purpose. They are called thickness gauges and they can
operate with TR-probes or normal probes. The gauges normally give you the thickness in digits but some gauges have both digits and an oscilloscope. Some of these
gauges are capable of compensating for layers. See Figure 8-43.
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Figure 8-43:

Thickness gauge for measuring through coating (left), and (right)


for use without coating.

These gauges are normally calibrated in steel.

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8.6

Covermeter Measurements
This method can be used for concrete structures. For underwater use the transducers and cables must be waterproof.
The cover meter is used to locate the reinforcement in the concrete and to measure
the depth of the concrete cover. The cover meter is often used to locate the rebars
before starting other investigations such as HCP-measurements, core drilling, Capotests, inspection of cables etc.
The cover meter measurement is based on changes in the magnetic field lines/eddy
current. The presence of nearby magnetic rebars will cause changes, which can be
measured by passing the measuring head over the surface above the rebars.
The measuring head is an encapsulated unit containing the search coil. As the coil
windings are directional, the head should always be used with its longitudinal axis
parallel to the expected line of the reinforcing bars. A lead from the head is plugged
into the battery-operated cover meter.
The measurements are performed by performing a vertical and horizontal sweep of
the considered area, see figure below.

The method is generally suitable. Tests have shown that the inaccuracy increases
from 5-10% at approx. 35 mm depth to approx. 15-25% at 60-70 mm depth.
The findings may be reported in terms of the maximum and minimum values as well
as the mean and standard deviation of the cover. The findings may also be presented as a surface graph.

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8.7

Schmidt hammer
This method can be used for concrete and masonry structures. It is most commonly
used for concrete structures. For testing of underwater structures a special rebound
hammer (Schmidt Hammer) can be used. The rebound hammer is mounted in a waterproof housing which contains an electrical pickup to sense the position of the rebound mechanism. The rebound hammer is connected to a data acquisition system
above water where the signals are collected.
For underwater use one must be aware of the fact that water saturated concrete
tends to show lower rebound values than dry concrete. The accuracy is also affected
by the marine growth on the surfaces.
The Schmidt hammer is used for testing the strength of hardened concrete.
The device consists of a spring loaded steel mass that is automatically released
against a plunger when the hammer is pressed against a concrete surface. Part of
the energy is absorbed by the concrete through plastic deformation and part of the
energy causes a rebound of the hammer. The rebound of the hammer depends on
the hardness and thereby the strength of the concrete.
In order to estimate the strength of concrete at least 20 measurements should be
made. The measurements shall be performed at locations where the concrete surface
is smooth. The distance between the individual measurements should be at least 0,5
1,0 m. All measurement shall naturally be performed within a homogenous area.
The actual measurements are made by pressing the Schmidt hammer with the
plunger extended slowly against the concrete surface until the hammer is released.
At the moment of impact the hammer must be held perpendicular to the surface.
The Schmidt hammer should not be used to measure the strength of weak concrete,
fractured concrete and concrete with an uneven surface.
The results obtained using a Schmidt hammer are not as accurate as strength testing of concrete cores drilled from the structure. The method is best suited for scanning large areas in order to divide the structure into homogenous areas, i.e. areas
with different values (levels) of the concrete strength. The compressive strength of
the concrete in the poorest areas may then be estimated on the basis of a more accurate method such as e.g. compression tests on concrete cores.

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8.8

Coring equipment
This method can be used for concrete and masonry structures.
A qualitative assessment of the concrete quality may be obtained by scrutiny of
drilled-out cores.
The right place to take the cores depends on the structure geometry, the condition of
the concrete or masonry, and what information is required in order to determine the
type and extent of damage.
Prior to the drilling out of cores the condition of the concrete or masonry has usually
been investigated on the basis of a visual inspection or some NDT-measurement
such as e.g. half-cell potential, Impact-Echo or impulse response (for concrete structures). In areas where the previous investigations with a high degree of accuracy
have shown that the structure is either damaged or undamaged only few cores
should be drilled out. The majority of the cores should be drilled out at locations
where the results of the previous measurements are inconclusive. The cores will then
provide a basis for an interpretation of the results of the NDT-measurements in
these areas, thereby assuring that the degree of deterioration of the structure is estimated with the highest possible degree of accuracy.
The number of cores depends on the size of the considered area. Normally, about 2 4 concrete cores are drilled out within each area investigated by a given NDTmethod.
Avoid cutting reinforcement bars. To ensure this, locate the reinforcement by means
of the cover meter before drilling.
For under water use, the machine for drilling out the core is normally hydraulic or
pneumatic. Usually, the diameter of the concrete cores is 75-100 mm.

Once the core has been drilled out a photograph of the cores is taken and the location where the core was taken is registered. The location should be registered in
terms of the grid used for the NDT-measurements (HCP-measurements, Impact-

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Echo or Impulse Response), see the figure below. Also registration of the hole left in
the structure (where the core has been taken out) is to be made. Especially signs of
cracking are to be registered.

Once the surface of the core has dried out the core is wrapped in saran wrap and put
into an air-tight plastic bag.
The concrete cores provide very accurate information about the quality of the structure from which the cores were taken. However, it is time-consuming to drill out
cores. Furthermore, a core leaves a defect in the structure from which it was taken.

8.9

Chloride content
This method can be used for concrete structures.
The chloride content in concrete may be determined on the basis of:
Cores (underwater cores are used for chloride tests of the part of the structure
that is located under the water surface)
Dust samples (can be used in the splash zone)
Cores are obtained as described in the section Coring equipment. The diameter of
the cores should be at least 75 mm. The chloride content can be measured on underwater cores.
Dust samples are obtained using a power drill this can be performed in the splash
zone. The power drill should preferably be mounted with a unit for automatic collection of the concrete dust.
The dust sample should weigh at least 15 g. The dust samples are usually obtained
at different depths at the same location usually in steps varying between
10 20 mm (in depth). The number of holes necessary to obtain 15 g dust is shown
below as a function of the diameter or the drill. The holes should be located within a
circle with a diameter of 75 mm.
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It is recommended to measure the chloride content at the following depths from the
surface:
0 10 mm
10 20 mm
20 30 mm
30 50 mm
50 70 mm
The chloride concentration may be determined by the Rapid Chloride Test (RCT) or
by Volhard titration.
The Rapid Chloride Test, RCT, is a fast method of determining the acid soluble
amount of chlorides of concrete in-situ.
Pulverised concrete obtained by hammer drilling of hardened concrete or from a concrete core is mixed with a chloride extraction liquid and shaken for 5 minutes. The
amount of acid soluble chlorides - expressed as weight percent of concrete weight is determined directly by means of a calibrated chloride sensitive electrode connected to the RCT-electrometer.
Volhard titration must be conducted in accordance with a given code.
Both methods measures bonded as well as free chlorides.
Using the dust samples from different depths - the chloride profile is determined by
testing each depth interval.
Examining the profile, the probable source of the chlorides and mechanism of penetration can be detected (curing water, saline soil, seawater, freed chlorides from aggregates, air-borne chlorides etc.).
On the basis of the chloride profile and a mathematical model of chloride ingress
(e.g. Ficks second law see section 7.3.7) the time to initiation of corrosion may be
determined. The critical chloride concentration for initiation of corrosion must be
known. This value may e.g. be estimated on the basis of chloride measurements
performed at break-ups where corrosion has been initiated.
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The results may e.g. be reported in terms of charts showing the chloride concentration as a function of the distance from the surface. The results may also be shown on
the surface graphs of the registered half-cell potentials.

8.10

Evaluation of concrete cores


This method is naturally used for concrete structures. However it has to be noted
that cores of other materials can also be examined in the laboratory both as macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. Underwater cores can be drilled out from the
structure.
Besides serving as calibration for specific NDT-methods (e.g. Impact-Echo and impulse response measurements) the evaluation of concrete cores can be used to determine the concrete quality and composition and to evaluate the cause of damage.
By laboratory investigations of concrete cores the information of the composition,
condition and damage cause can be utilised to estimate the future development of
damage. This information can be used to define the optimum time of repair.
Some of the results from evaluation of concrete cores are:

8.10.1

Macro analysis on cores and plane sections.

Carbonation depth measurements.

Crack detection on impregnated plane sections.

Micro analysis on thin sections.

Air void analysis on plane sections.

Moisture analysis.

Residual reactivity (AAR/ASR Alkali-Aggregate / Alkali-Silica Reactivity).

SEM-analysis (SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy).

Macro analysis on cores and plane sections


Close macroscopic inspection of concrete cores (possibly using a magnifying glass or
a stereo microscope) can give information about the concrete mix (the aggregate
type, aggregate content, encapsulated air voids), and it may uncover internal deficiencies such as cracks and inhomogeneities. Casting defects and the condition of
joints can be determined by the macroscopic evaluation as well.
In particular the core can tell how deep cracks reach into the concrete, thus giving
an indication of the cause of the cracks. If reinforcement is included in the cores the
condition of the reinforcement can also be evaluated. An example of a concrete core
is shown in Figure 8-44.

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Figure 8-44: Concrete core for macroscopic evaluation.


The results from the macroscopic evaluations are usually registered by filling in a
standard form. The registrations are always supplemented by one or more photos of
the core.
By making a fresh cut in the concrete core the carbonation depth can be determined
by using phenolphthalein.

Figure 8-45: Measurement of carbonation depth by use of phenolphthalein. The red


part of the core is not carbonated.

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8.10.2

Crack detection on impregnated plane sections


The crack pattern can give valuable information regarding the cause of damage. To
evaluate the crack pattern impregnation of a plane section of the concrete core is a
great tool. The impregnation of the plane section is performed in two steps as illustrated in Figure 8-46.
a)

b)

Figure 8-46: Illustration of the two steps in impregnation of a plane section for detection of cracks. a) Vacuum-impregnation of full core with fluorescent epoxy resin.
Cracks, voids and porous paste connected to the core surface will be filled with fluorescent epoxy resin. b) Impregnation of plane section with fluorescent epoxy resin.
Cracks, voids and porous paste near the cut surface will be filled with fluorescent
epoxy resin.
By use of ultra-violet light on the impregnated plane section all cracks, voids and
porous paste near the cut surface will be shown clearly. An example of a fluorescent
impregnated plane section is shown in Figure 8-47. The crack pattern is very clear
and the extent and distribution of cracks can be determined.

Figure 8-47: Fluorescent impregnated plane section from a bridge deck under ultra
violet light. The cause of damage could be AAR or freeze-thaw.

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8.10.3

Micro analysis on thin sections


More information may be obtained from the cores by performing 'thin section petrography' which is a technique using a microscope in combination with various optical
filters and epoxy resin impregnation to investigate very thin slices of the concrete.
This technique requires sophisticated laboratory equipment and extensive experience.
A thin section is a 20-micron thick slice of concrete, which has been impregnated
with a fluorescent epoxy resin. The thin section is typically 35 mm x 45 mm in size.
The semi-transparency of the concrete slice allows the examination of the concrete
by transmitted light microscopy. The impregnation with the fluorescent epoxy resin
makes it possible to determine the water-cement ratio and the homogeneity of the
cement paste. Further more the air voids, cracks (including micro cracks) and porous
materials are clearly shown in the thin section.

Figure 8-48: To the left a thin section is shown. To the right a thin section is examined in a microscope.
When performing a thin section analyse it is possible to determine the following parameters:

concrete composition
cement type and content
aggregate type and mineralogy
w/c-ratio
air void content and void structure
defects (cracks and inhomogeneities)
aggressive environment (e.g. acid)
moisture conditions and effects

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signs of deterioration (e.g. AAR)


strength level
initial defects (casting, curing etc.)

Air void

Ettringite in air void

Sand

Figure 8-49: Part of thin section. To the left the thin section is shown in ordinary
light with parallel polarizers and to the right the thin section is shown in fluorescent
light. To the right the homogeneity of the cement paste is shown by the colour intensity the darker colour the more dense cement paste (low w/c).
Signs of deterioration can also be identified in a thin section. In Figure 8-50 an illustration of alkali silica reaction is shown.

Figure 8-50: Sand aggregate of reactive porous flint with interior and exterior cracking.
The results of the thin section analyse is very precise when performed by an experienced engineer or geologist. It is however very important to keep in mind that the
results from the microscopic analyse is only valid for the part of the structure represented by the thin section. Thus, selection of the position for the thin section is very
important remembering that the thin section is only 35 mm x 45 mm large. Typically the thin section is placed so it includes one or more cracks if any. Also intact

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areas of the concrete should be included in the thin section. It might be necessary to
make two thin sections of one core to represent the concrete of the entire core.
8.10.4

Air void analyse on plane section


By preparing a plane section of the concrete core, the air content and air void distribution can be determined.

Figure 8-51: Plane section prepared for determination of the air content and distribution. All air voids are white and all paste and aggregate are grey or black.
8.10.5

Moisture analysis
By slicing the concrete core into several slices a moisture profile through the core
can be determined.
If the moisture profile is to be determined it is very important that the core is sealed
in an air tight bag right after drilling out the core. The core must then be stored cold
(e.g. in a refrigerator) untill the measurements starts.

Figure 8-52: Slicing the concrete core makes it possible to determine the moisture
profile.
The mass of each of the concrete slices is measured (m0) and the concrete slices are
then stored in water. The initial mass is used to determine the actual water content

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of the concrete. The mass is measured regularly and the measurements continue till
the mass is constant (mcap) this constant mass is used to determine the degree of
capillary saturation. By placing the concrete slices in a pressure camber more water
can be pressed in to the concrete and by measuring the mass again (mpressure), the
degree of pressure saturation can be determined. Finally the concrete slices are
stored at 105 oC until the mass is constant (mdry) this provides the dry mass of the
concrete.
The formulas for determining the actual water content (U), the degree of capillary
saturation (Scap) and the degree of pressure saturation (Spresure) are given by:

U=

m0 mdry
mdry

S cap =

100%

m0 mdry
mcap mdry

S pressure =

100%

m0 mdry
m pressure mdry

100%

Moisture content [U%]


0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

0-20

Depth from surface [mm]

20-40
40-60
60-80
80-100

Kerne 2

100-120
120-140
140-160
160-180
180-200
200-220
220-230

Figure 8-53:
8.10.6

Moisture profile trough concrete core.

Residual Reactivity Test


If the registrations from the macroscopic and microscopic evaluations indicate alkaliaggregate reactions (AAR) as the cause of damage a residual reactivity test can be
preformed on one or more concrete cores. The purpose of the test is to evaluated
the potential risk of development of AAR damage and to estimate the residual potential for further reactions under the following conditions:
-

unlimited access for moisture (the test specimen is wrapped in a wet towel and
kept in a plastic container by the humidity of 100%)

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unlimited access for moisture and sodium chloride (the test specimen is kept in a
container filled with concentrated NaCl-solvent)

Expansion 0/00

The test is performed by storing two specimens cut out of the concrete core in the
conditions mentioned above. The size of the test specimens could be app. 4x4x15
cm. To accelerate the chemical reactions the specimens are stored at 50 oC. By regular measurements of the expansion of the test specimens the development of AAR
can be evaluated in the case of unlimited access for moisture respectively unlimited
access for moisture and sodium chloride (alkalis). The time of storing and there by
the time of performing the test depends on the type of reactive aggregate. If the
expansion exceed 1 0/00 harmful cracking of the structure could occur in the future.
In Figure 8-54 an example of test results from residual reactivity tests is shown.

Specimens stored in
sodium chloride
Specimens stored at
100% RH
Storing time in weeks at 50oC in sodium chloride solution
and at 100% relative humidity

Figure 8-54: Example of test results for residual reactivity tests.


In the example shown in Figure 8-54 there is a small risk of future harmful cracking
due to AAR if alkalis are provided from the surroundings.

8.11

Crack measuring gauge


A crack measuring gauge is used to measure the crack width of a visible crack. This
method can be used for both concrete, steel and masonry structures. The method is
most commonly used on concrete and masonry structures.
For underwater use the crack measuring gauges being a sheet of plastic with lines of
different thickness could be used. When using the crack measuring gauge one must
bear in mind that some cracks have broken edges that make the crack look wider
than it is.

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Some cracks are measured continuously at specified intervals in order to monitor a


possible crack growth.
If a large number of measurements have been performed the temperature-induced
changes of the crack width may be filtered out. Normally a series of measurements
spanning several years must be made in order to determine whether the crack is
expanding.
The results are reported in terms of a graph showing the crack width as a function of
time.

8.12

Impulse Response equipment


This method can be used for concrete structures. For underwater use the transducer
and the cables need to be waterproof.
Impulse response equipment is used to produce a stress wave in the considered
component. The stress wave may e.g. be produced by an impact with an instrumented rubber tipped hammer. The impact causes the component to act in bending
mode. A velocity transducer placed adjacent to the impact point measures the response of the component.
In contrast to the Impact-Echo method the impulse response equipment does not
measure the reflection of the impact. Furthermore, the impact used to produce the
response is considerably larger than the impulse used for the Impact-Echo method.
The hammer used to produce the impact and the transducer used to measure the
response of the component are both connected to a laptop PC. The laptop performs a
spectral analysis of the impact as well as the response. Dividing the resultant velocity spectrum by the force spectrum then derives the mobility. An example of a mobility graph is shown below.

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Mobility
Hammer

Impact

Transducer

Frequency

For each measurement the resulting mobility graph is shown. On the basis of the
mobility graph the following parameters are determined:
Average mobility: The average mobility is shown as the green line in the figure above. The average mobility depends on the thickness of the material. If
the thickness is reduced the average mobility is increased. This implies that
laminated concrete has a higher average mobility than non-laminated concrete.
Stiffness: The stiffness is determined as the inverse of the inclination of the
part of the mobility graph below 80 Mz, the red line in the figure above.
The stiffness depends on the stiffness of the material, the thickness of the material and it depends on how the component is supported. Based on a comparison of the stiffness at a number of different locations potential weak areas may be located.
Mobility slope: The presence of honeycombs in the concrete will reduce the
damping of the signal. This implies that the mobility graph will be increasing
within the considered frequency range, see figure below.

Voids index: The voids index is defined as the ratio between the initial maximum of the mobility and the average mobility.
If the component is laminated the initial maximum of the mobility will be con-

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siderably higher than the average mobility. If the voids index is higher than 2
4 it indicates a potentially weak area, see figure below.

The impulse response method is a fast method which may be used to screen a relatively large area within a short period of time. The equipment delivers surface graphs
of the measured parameters. In the figure below a surface graph of the average mobility of a bridge deck is shown.

The results of the impulse response testing shall always be calibrated on the basis of
e.g. cores, break-ups or a visual inspection using a boroscope. The locations of these
tests are selected on the basis of the surface graphs of the measured parameters.

8.13

Impact-Echo equipment
This method can be used for concrete structures. For underwater use the transducer
and the cables need to be waterproof.
Impact-echo equipment introduces a short-duration stress pulse into the considered
member by a mechanical impact.

The impact introduces three types of waves:

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P-waves (compressional wave)


S-wave (shear wave)
R-wave (surface wave)
The P-wave will be reflected when it reaches a surface or a material with another
acoustic impedance. The successive arrivals of the P-waves to the surface are registered by a displacement transducer.
On the basis of a spectral analysis of the reflected P-waves, the frequency of the
reflected wave is determined. The thickness of the material or the depth to the defect, d, may be determined by:

d=

v
2f

where v denotes the wave speed and f the frequency of the reflected wave.
The principle behind the Impact-Echo method is shown in the figure below. It is seen
that the frequency of the measured response is higher when a void is present than
when no void is present. This is due to the fact that the wave reflected from the void
reaches the transducer faster than the wave reflected from the bottom of the test
specimen.
Impact

Impact

Transducer

Transducer

Void

Concrete slap
Amplitude

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency

The wave speed may be determined by testing a specimen with known thickness
containing no defects. Alternatively the wave speed may be measured on the surface
using two transducers.
The equipment may also be used to measure the depth of a crack. Using the setup
indicated below, the crack depth may be determined on the basis of a measurement
of the time it takes the P-wave to reach the two transducers.

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Transducer

Impact
Transducer
Concrete slap
Crack

In general the equipment may be used to determine:


Thickness of members
Presence and depth of cracks, voids and honeycombing
Injection quality of cable ducts
The measurements are performed by producing an impact on the concrete surface
e.g. with steel balls (impactors) with diameters ranging between 2 to 15 mm. The
size of the steel ball should be selected on the basis of the thickness of the considered test specimen.
For each measurement the spectrum of the measured response is shown on a laptop
PC connected to the transducer. On the basis of the response spectrum the operator
estimates whether defects are present. The results obtainable from using the Impact-Echo equipment to a great extent depend on the experience of the operator.
The method is fast and an experienced operator is able to test relatively large areas
(e.g. a bridge deck with the dimensions 12 x 50 m) for defects within a working day.
The measurements should always be calibrated on the basis of independent tests.
Usually the inspection of concrete structures is calibrated on the basis of cores,
break-ups or a visual inspection using a boroscope.
The results of the measurements are used to report the general condition of the considered component as well as a detailed mapping of the detected defects.

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8.14

Half-cell potential Measurements


This method can be used for concrete structures. Underwater measurements can be
performed with a special underwater electrode.
The potential difference between a standard half-cell (normally a copper/copper sulphate reference electrode) placed on the surface of the concrete and the reinforcement underneath may be measured using the principle shown in the figure below.

Voltmeter

+
Reference electrode

Reinforcement

Concrete

The potential difference is associated with the rate of corrosion of the reinforcement.
The purpose of potential measurements is to map the electrochemical potentials in
order to locate areas with risk of corrosion see section 7.3.9.
In the field the following steps have to be followed:
1)

Exposure of a rebar for the electrical connection.


Normally go for:

Stirrups

The most convenient areas:

The cover often varies, find the areas with the smallest concrete cover.

2)

Check the circuit of the reinforcement:

The resistance between more contacts to the reinforcement must be zero


to have the circuit required. If that is the case, use the same connection
during the required series of measurements.
If the resistance is not zero, first of all check the connection to the rebar.
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Look for joints in the piers and check piers on all sides of the joints.
3)

Make a measuring grid (columns and rows) on each part to be measured, noting the following:
When making survey measurements on large areas, a mesh size of 500 x 500
mm may be chosen.
Prior to making the grid, survey measurements at (more or less) random locations may help locating the areas to be mapped.
When making measurements in areas where corrosion is likely to occur (selected as a result of survey measurements, experience or other test types),
the mesh size should be 250 x 250 mm or less.
The grid size, location and orientation must be marked on sketches of the
structure.

4)

Check the stability of the potential measurements:

wet a single measuring point

place the electrode and note the potential and time

wait until the potential is stable. NOTE the potential and time. This time
difference is the necessary time required between wetting and measuring.
In very dry concrete, it is normally necessary to wet continuously for a
longer period. This means that one person is constantly wetting the structure in front of the person doing the measuring.

5)

Start the Measuring


It should be noted that the potential measurement itself does not lead to a final assessment of the condition. Supplementary testing has to be carried out.
As a first guide to an evaluation of the reliability of the measured potential values, the measurements are normally divided into groups. Immediately after
completing the measurements, the results are printed out and then evaluated
according to a scale based on experience, e.g. (when using a copper/copper
sulphate reference electrode):
Group 1: potential > -200 mV:
90 % probability of no corrosion
Group 2: -200 mV > potential > -350 mV:
An increasing probability of corrosion

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Group 3: -350 mV > potential


90 % probability of corrosion
The probabilities of corrosion given above are also given in ASTM C876.
It is important to notice that the probability of corrosion also depends on many
other factors such as:

The oxygen concentration

Moisture content

Carbonation

Chloride concentration

Temperature

Use of corrosion inhibitors

Concrete resistance

Coatings and sealers

Cathodic protection systems

All the above mentioned factors must be taken into account when assessing
the probability of corrosion. Hence, the results of half-cell measurements must
always be calibrated on the basis of break-ups.
Make break-ups to confirm the first evaluation and to evaluate the reduction of
cross-sections. Note that the potential measurement is meant only for the detection of areas with corrosion activity. The reduction in cross sections cannot
be assessed by half-cell measurements.
Break-ups must be carried out for each group. As a rule of thumb, the breakups are placed in the most negative areas in each group. Breaks-up should
therefore be performed in groups 1, 2 and 3. Start making a break-up in group 1 and group 2. If the rebars are without corrosion in group 2 then no
break-up is necessary in group 1.
When the connection between the potential values and the actual corrosion
condition has been established through break-ups, the half-cell measurements
can be used to assess the size of the damaged areas as a basis for rehabilitation design.
If the first evaluation does not confirm the results (if e.g. severe corrosion is
found in group 2) limits must be changed for the three groups accordingly.
These new limits must be confirmed by new break-ups.
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Potential [mV]
4.0

1.0

Hjd [m]

2.0

Height [m]

3.0

0.3

10

11

0.0
12

Avstnd
fog [m]
Distance
totilljoint
[m]

100-150
50-100
0-50
-50-0
-100--50
-150--100
-200--150
-250--200
-300--250
-350--300
-400--350
-450--400
-500--450
-550--500
-600--550
-650--600
-700--650

Core, severe corrison

Break up, severe corrosion


Break up, corrosion has been initiated

> 0,10 % CL- at reinforcement

Core, corrosion has been initiated

Break up, surface corrosion

0,05 - 0,10 % CL- at reinforcemnt

Core, surface corrosion

Break up, no corrosion

< 0,05 % CL- at reinforcement

Core, no corrosion

The results of the half-cell measurements may be reported in terms of a surface graph as shown above. In the surface graph all relevant measurements of
the chloride concentration, observations from break-ups and cores may also
be given.

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9.
9.1

Economic analysis
General
When a bridge deteriorates very often rehabilitation work is necessary. It may not
obvious which repair methods to use, and at what time to carry out the works. In
other words, the optimum repair strategy is not obvious.
Many factors may influence the choice of repair strategy, such as:

The urgency of repair.


Possible repair under water (wet repairs).
Remove the water and repair in dry conditions (dry repairs).
The repair cost estimate.
The available funds.
The traffic hazards caused by damage to the bridges.
The inconvenience to the public in case of closure of the bridge (no trains passing the line, ).
The inconvenience during the repair works.
Other repair works on the same railway line.

An economic analysis can be carried out in addition to a level III inspection in order
to select the repair strategy which is economically optimum (most profitable) for the
bridge owner or for the society as a whole.
The economic analysis takes into account only those factors, which can be measured
in the 'unit' money. The analysis is carried out in order to determine which strategy
is the optimum for the underwater bridge component, given the premises at the time
of decision.
When a strategy is selected for the underwater bridge component (which includes
activities over a period of 20 to 30 years), it does not mean that the decision-makers
are stuck with this strategy for the next 20 or 30 years. Circumstances may change,
and another strategy may become more profitable. The development of traffic volume, the interest rate, the inflation may change, and the development of damage to
the substructure may not be as expected.
If the decision makers suspect that a chosen strategy is no longer the optimum, a
new level III inspection has to be carried out, including an economic analysis, in order to determine which strategy is the optimum given the new premises.
Obviously, if the chosen strategy implies a replacement or an exhaustive repair of a
bridge, there is not much room for a later change of strategy.
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9.2

Present Value Method


Economic analyses are normally carried out by the 'Present Value Method'.
The basic idea is that all amounts connected to a repair strategy are 'discounted' to
the same year in order to compare costs that occur at different times.
This section describes in more detail how to carry out economic analyses for underwater bridge repair strategies.
The analysis is carried out by performing the following steps:

Identify the relevant repair strategies.

Determine the size and distribution of costs (repair, maintenance) connected to


each strategy.

Calculate the present value of each strategy.

Choose the strategy with the lowest present value as the economical optimum
strategy.

In connection with a repair work it is often necessary to choose between various


strategies. Shall one choose an expensive repair with a long service life or a cheaper
repair with a short service life? Another problem is the time at which the repair
should be carried out. Should it be done as soon as possible, can it be deferred, or
can it wait until the structure is replaced? An economic calculation method that can
help in such decisions - the present value method - will be described in the following.
In the present value calculations, the costs for repairs, operation and maintenance
may be calculated year for year within a chosen time-horizon; the timing of each
cost is based on the service life of each repair. The annual amounts are then discounted back to the initial year using a given discount rate. In this way the present
value of each years expenditure is obtained.
By summing the present values, a value for the strategy in question is obtained that
can be compared with the corresponding value for other strategies. The strategy for
which the cumulative present value is lowest is the economic optimum for the structure considered in isolation.
The cumulative present value makes it possible to compare strategies in which the
costs are spread over varying periods, as all costs are converted to the initial year.
The further in the future a cost falls due, the lower is the present value of the cost.
This effect is proportional to the discount rate adopted.
To put it simply, the present value is the amount that must be deposited in the bank
today to cover a cost that will fall due at the time the repair is carried out.
The present value is calculated by:

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In = I
where:

1
(1 + r )n
In

is the present value of a cost I in year n

is the cost in year n calculated based on the chosen price level


(normally the current price)

is the number of years until the costs falls due

is the discount rate decided by the management authority

The present value calculation is thus carried out in fixed prices (those of the initial
year) with a chosen price level and a chosen discount rate.
By fixed prices is understood the initial years prices. Inflation and development of
wages, taxes, etc. should not be incorporated in the calculations.
For an economic evaluation of alternative solutions are the most important parameters:

9.2.1

Repair

Maintenance strategies equal content

The service life of the structural components

The time frame for the calculations

Time for repair and maintenance

Residual value

Discount rate

Repair Strategies
In order to cover the relevant range of strategies fundamentally different strategies
may be investigated in addition to a level III. The strategies normally fall within the
following groups:

Total replacement of the whole bridge or the bridge components in question.

Thorough (major) repair of the relevant bridge components.

Interim repair, and after some time a thorough repair/replacement.

Doing nothing.

Example:
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A slab/girder reinforced concrete bridge with a thin slab suffers from overload. Structural cracks and spalling of the lower concrete cover have developed in a few deck
panels. If nothing is done, one or more panels are expected to fail within 5 years.
Relevant strategies may be:
A:

Replacement of the slab, or possibly of the whole superstructure.

B:

Strengthening of the slab by pouring a new reinforced top layer on top of the
existing slab, with anchors into the existing concrete. Injection of coarse cracks
and local replacement of spalled concrete.

C:

Replacement of spalled concrete. After approximately 5 years the damage is


expected to have reoccurred to the same extent. At that time the repair is repeated. After additionally 5 years the damage is expected to be so serious that
the slab has to be replaced.

D:

Doing nothing. After 5 years the slab is expected to fail, and it is replaced or
repaired.

Strategy A and D may seem very close to each other. But in reality, they are not:
In A, a replacement of the slab is planned in advance, and it is possible to make the
replacement with very little disturbance to the railway line.
In D, we let the slab fail. When it has failed, the bridge must be closed to traffic while investigations and rehabilitation design is carried out. Thus, the bridge may be
closed for several months, causing very high inconvenience for the users of the railway. In reality, the bridge must be closed well in advance of any possible failure of
the bridge or bridge component. It is not acceptable to allow traffic on the bridge
when there is a known risk of failure. Therefore strategy D may require the bridge to
be closed well in advance of any possible failure which taken uncertainties into
account may be 5-10 years.
9.2.2

Service Life
The service life of the bridge components in question is estimated for each maintenance strategy. Service life estimations are based on experience of the different
maintenance methods used in the maintenance strategies.
Estimation of the service life should be based on considerations where ordinary preventive and corrective maintenance is carried out on the component.
Safety considerations can reduce the service life relative to that estimated on the
basis of the selected maintenance strategy due to outdated components.
Determination of the optimal repair time is associated with the evaluation of the development of damage and their influence on durability and safety of the components.
One has to evaluate how fast the component is deteriorating and when the function

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requirements are no longer fulfilled, i.e. the end of its service life. This evaluation is
often complex because it includes an evaluation of the continuing deterioration and
the damage time-dependent development.
When the possible damage development is evaluated it is important to describe the
most possible development. Additional safety factors applied when determining the
damage development on the safe side should not be used when the economic optimal time for repair should be found. It can be wrong (and costly) to repair too early
as it is too repair to late. However when there is a risk to the safety of the bridge
and railway users, the design codes safety limit should be used.
9.2.3

Time Frame
The time frame is laid down on the basis of the service life of the main repair work
necessary to carry out. The same time frame should always be used for the different
maintenance strategies to ensure that they are economic comparable.
The time frame should be chosen so long that cost that becomes due after the time
frame has only little or no influence on the accumulated present value.
Normally is chosen a time frame of 25 years but it may be longer if the discount rate
is low.

9.2.4

Time of Repair
Repair time for the different strategies is based on experience. By postponement of a
repair work normally the damage extent is increased and will consequently result in
an increase in repair costs later.
The repair time is therefore based on economic optimal service life of the different
components. In that way a minimum present value is reached for each repair strategy.
By stipulation of the repair time for each part of the maintenance strategy it should
be taken in consideration the general costs such as traffic management and by that
collect the different repair works in different time phases.
To help choosing the optimal time for execution of a repair service life models and
present value calculations may be used. General, where the optimal time for execution is found, the present value of the maintenance strategy will increase if the works
is carried out in advance or postponed considering the optimal repair time.
This means that the economic optimal time for repair may differ depending on the
discount rate used in the present value calculations.
Due to budgetary limitations it may be necessary to postpone the works. This means
that the present value of the maintenance strategy increases due to increases in the
extent of repair work (increases in damage etc.). The costs due to increase in repair
work should overdue the economic advantage by postponement.

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9.2.5

Residual Value
As consequence of using the same time frame for the different maintenance strategies it will often be a residual value of a repair work which service life is not reached
within the time frame. This residual value should be incorporated in the strategies.
The present accumulated value should contain the residual value with opposite sign.

9.2.6

Discount Rate
The discount rate should be determined by the management authority and be based
on the societys possibility for return of investments.
The societys return of investments is depended on the interest rate and the inflation
in the economy. The discount rate is normally the interest rate minus the inflation.
If the discount rate is high, the pay pack time of investments should be low (i.e.
throw away and buy new). Opposite if the discount rate is low it will pay back to
invest in components that will have long service life, which means durable components and carry out proper maintenance.
The above considerations points in the direction of using different discount rates
which may be exemplified by investment in computes (i.e. installations) where the
discount rate normally had to be high compared to concrete structures where it had
to be low (concrete structures is expected to last for a long period).
However to keep things simple normally one discount rate is used covering both installations and structural components.

9.2.7

Sensitivity Analysis
The sensitivity analysis should prove the changes in present value due to changes in
the different factors that are involved in the different maintenance strategies.
A sensitivity analyse should show the increase in the costs due to postponement of
the works.
Only the parameters that have a significant effect on the different strategies need to
be investigated. Parameters that have the same effect will increase or decrease the
present value of all the strategies by the same factor.
Be aware that it often pays to postpone a strategy if the damage costs develop with
a lower rate than the used discount rate.

9.2.8

Optimum solution
Within each strategy investigated an analysis is carried out in order to determine in
detail which works to carry out and at what times. This is called finding the optimum
'solution' within the individual strategy.
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The relevant repair methods must be considered incl. the extent of the repair. (In
the above example, should replacement of the slab include repair of girders?) The
repair works must be described in so much detail that the cost estimate can be sufficiently accurate.
When determining when to carry out repair works, the development of damage and
the discount rate are the dominating factors. If you postpone a repair, normally the
extent of damage and thus the repair cost will increase. However, if the annual increase in repair cost is less than the discount rate, it could be profitable to postpone
the repair. When performing an economic analysis the bridge owner has to provide
you with the value of the discount rate to take into account.
If you continue postponing a repair work, the extent of damage (and thus the cost)
will in most cases increase slowly and linearly until a point where the cost rises dramatically. This is because at some point the problem can not be solved by the proposed repair method, and a more extensive and expensive method has to be used.
(E.g. if damage to the superstructure is allowed to develop, it may at some point be
necessary to use interim supports when carrying out the repair). It is very often
profitable to postpone repair works until just before this kind of 'jumps' in the repair
costs.
The present value method is used to determine which solution is optimum within
each strategy. (The solution with the lowest present worth is the optimum).
When comparing strategies, it is important that all strategies cover the same components of the bridge. If for example strategy 1 comprises repair of the superstructure while strategy 2 is a replacement of the whole bridge, both strategies must include all costs regarding repair and maintenance of the whole bridge. Otherwise the
strategies are not comparable.

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10.
10.1

Reporting of Level I Inspection


General
In order to facilitate comparison of level I inspection reports made by different people, and in order not to forget important aspects of the inspection, the reporting is
made using a standardised table of contents.
The report of a level I inspection contains a text section, and appendices with the
detailed registrations made on site. This section gives a short summary of the content of the level I inspection report.

10.2

Text Section
In the following the chapters that the level I inspection report should include, are
described:

10.2.1

10.2.2

Cover Page
The cover page of the level I inspection report must comprise the following information:

Identification of the bridge owner (e.g. Central Railway)

Identification of the bridge (Bridge-ID according to the bridge management system if a management system is used - and bridge name).

'Underwater Inspection, Level I of ... (the components in question)', e.g. 'Underwater Inspection, Level I of Piers and Abutments'.

Date of the level I inspection.

Name of the company in charge of the level I inspection.

Front Page
The front page of the level I inspection report must comprise the following information:

Identification of the bridge owner (e.g. Central Railway)

Identification of the bridge (Bridge-ID according to the bridge management system if a management system is used - and bridge name).

'Underwater, Level I Inspection of ... (the components in question)', e.g. 'Underwater, Level I Inspection of Piers and Abutments'.

Date of the level I inspection.

Identification of the engineer(s) in charge of the inspection (name and company).


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10.2.3

Method and Extent of Investigation


This section describes the method of investigation and the extent of investigation.
E.g. A close visual examination or a tactile examination using large sweeping motions of the hands where visibility is limited has been performed of x piers and 2
abutments. The inspection has been conducted over the total exterior surface of
each pier and abutments.
In this section it is stated whether a clear water box has been used.
The inspection also comprises limited probing of the substructure and the adjacent
streambed.

10.2.4

Background Material
This section includes a description of the structural components investigated in the
underwater inspection. The background material that has been available for the inspection is listed in this section, such as:

Inventory report and previous underwater inspection reports.

Reports from previous underwater inspections from similar bridges with similar
damage.

'As built' drawings.

10.2.5

Registrations
This chapter describes the registrations from the inspection. The chapter includes
reference to the appendices with sketches, photos and video recordings of the observed damage of all the investigated underwater bridge components.

10.2.6

Evaluation of registrations
This chapter includes condition rating of the under water components investigated.
The condition rating is a number of 9 to 0 and is based on the following guidelines:
9:

Excellent condition.

8:

Very good condition. No problems noted.

7:

Good condition. Some minor problems.

6:

Satisfactory condition. Some minor problems.

5:

Fair condition. All primary structural components are sound but may have minor section loss, cracking, spalling or scour.

4:

Poor condition. Advanced section loss, deterioration, spalling or scour.

3:

Serious condition. Loss of section, deterioration, spalling or scour has seriously


affected primary structural components. Local failures are possible. Fatigue
cracks in steel or shear cracks in concrete may be present.

2:

Critical condition. Advanced deterioration of primary structural components.


Fatigue cracks in steel or shear cracks in concrete may be present or scour

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may have removed substructure support. Unless closely monitored it may be


necessary to close the bridge until corrective action is taken.
1:

Imminent failure condition. Major deterioration or section loss present in critical structural components or obvious vertical or horizontal movement affecting
structural stability. The bridge is closed to traffic but corrective action may put
it back in light service.

0:

Failed condition. Out of service beyond corrective action.

N:

Not applicable.

An example of reporting the condition rates of the structure is seen in the next page.

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UNIT REFERENCE NO.


UNIT DESCRIPTION

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Comments:

10-4

OTHER

PREVIOUS REPAIR OR MAINTENANCE

LOSS OF SECTION

CHANNEL

MASONRY

STEEL

CONCRETE

OVERALL CHANNEL & PROTECTION CONDITION

OTHER (DRIFT / DEBRIS)

SUBSTRUCTURE

EMBANKMENT PROTECTION

EMBANKMENT EROSION

SCOUR

OVERALL SUBSTRUCTURE
CONDITION CODE *

OTHER (BRACHING)

DISPLACEMENT

FOOTINGS

COLUMNS, SHAFTS OR
FACES

PILING

MAXIMUM DEPTH OF WATER


[m]

CONDITION RATING
GENERAL

Abutment 1
18

Pier 1

Pier 2

Pier 3

Pier 4

Pier 5

Pier 6

Pier 7

Pier 8

Abutment 2
* Under water portion only

10.2.7

General considerations regarding future maintenance activities


This chapter describes recommendation of future activities. The need for major rehabilitation jobs and further inspections is included in this chapter. The description
does not include budgets for the activities.
If there is any doubt of the carrying capacity of the bridge recommendation of calculations must be included in this chapter.

10.3

Appendices
The level I inspection report comprises those relevant of the following appendices.

10.3.1

A: Background Material
This appendix includes the inventory of the bridge components for the underwater
inspection and previous underwater inspection reports which are relevant for the
inspection.

10.3.2

B: Selected Drawings
This appendix includes selected drawings of the bridge components included in this
inspection.

10.3.3

C: Sketches and Registrations


This appendix includes sketches and detailed descriptions of the registrations of the
bridge components included in the underwater inspection. If water depth soundings
and scour registration have been carried out sketches of the results from these
inspections should be included in this appendix.

10.3.4

D: Photos and Video Recordings


This appendix includes photos and videos documenting the registrations.

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11.
11.1

Reporting of Level II Inspection


General
In order to facilitate comparison of level II inspection reports made by different people, and in order not to forget important aspects of the inspection, the reporting is
made using a standardised table of contents.
The report of a level II inspection contains a text section, and appendices with the
detailed registrations made on site. This section gives a short summary of the content of the level II inspection report.

11.2

Text Section
In the following the chapters that the level II inspection report should include are
described:

11.2.1

11.2.2

Cover Page
The cover page of the level II inspection report must comprise the following information:

Identification of the bridge owner (e.g. Central Railway)

Identification of the bridge (Bridge-ID according to the bridge management system if a management system is used - and bridge name).

'Underwater Inspection, Level II of ... (the components in question)', e.g. 'Underwater Inspection, Level II of Piers and Abutments'.

Date of the level II inspection.

Name of the company in charge of the level II inspection.

Front Page
The front page of the level II inspection report must comprise the following information:

Identification of the bridge owner (e.g. Central Railway)

Identification of the bridge (Bridge-ID according to the bridge management system if a management system is used - and bridge name).

'Underwater, Level II Inspection of ... (the components in question)', e.g. 'Underwater, Level II Inspection of Piers and Abutments'.

Date of the level II inspection.

Identification of the engineer(s) in charge of the inspection (name and company).


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11.2.3

Method and Extent of Investigation


This section describes the method of investigation and the extent of investigation.
E.g. A detailed visual inspection has been carried out in areas cleaned of marine
growth. In this section the equipment used for cleaning the surface is described (if
any e.g. water jet cleaning). The cleaning of the piers and abutments are performed in areas of app. 0.30 m x 0.30 m in 3 different levels on each face of the
element.
If a level I inspection is carried out as well the registrations from the level I inspection could be described in this report as well.

11.2.4

Background Material
The content of this section is similar to the content of section 10.2.4.

11.2.5

Registrations
This chapter describes the registrations from the inspection. The chapter includes
reference to the appendices with sketches, photos and video recordings of the observed damage of all the investigated underwater bridge components. Damaged areas should be measured and the extent and severity of the damage should be documented.

11.2.6

Evaluation of registrations
The content of this section is similar to the content of section 10.2.6.

11.2.7

General considerations regarding future maintenance activities


The content of this section is similar to the content of section 10.2.7.

11.3

Appendices
The level II inspection report comprises those relevant of the following appendices.

11.3.1

A: Background Material
The content of this appendix is similar to the content described in section 10.3.1.

11.3.2

B: Selected Drawings
The content of this appendix is similar to the content described in section 10.3.2.

11.3.3

C: Sketches and Registrations


This appendix includes sketches and detailed descriptions of the registrations of the
bridge components included in the underwater inspection. Specific sketches should
be made of the areas cleaned for the inspection.

11.3.4

D: Photos and Video Recordings


The content of this appendix is similar to the content described in section 10.3.4.

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12.
12.1

Reporting of Level III Inspection


General
When reporting a level III inspection a standardised table of contents is used. If a
level I inspection is carried out at the same time as the level III inspection, the two
inspections are reported together.
The level III inspection report contains a text section, and appendices with the detailed registrations made on site. This section gives a short summary of the content
of the level III inspection report.

12.2

Text Section
In the following, the chapters that the level III inspection report must include are
described:

12.2.1

12.2.2

Cover Page
The cover page of the Level III inspection report must comprise the following information:

Identification of the bridge owner (e.g. Central Railway)

Identification of the bridge (Bridge-ID according to the bridge management system if a management system is used - and bridge name).

'Underwater Inspection, Level III of ... (the components in question)', e.g. 'Underwater Inspection, Level III of Piers and Abutments'.

Date of the level III inspection.

Name of the company in charge of the level III inspection.

Front Page
The front page of the level III inspection report must comprise the following information:

Identification of the bridge owner (e.g. Central Railway)

Identification of the bridge (Bridge-ID according to the bridge management system if a management system is used - and bridge name).

'Underwater, Level III Inspection of ... (the components in question)', e.g. 'Underwater, Level III Inspection of Piers and Abutments'.

Date of the level III inspection.

Identification of the engineer(s) in charge of the inspection (name and company).


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12.2.3

Summary
The summary must contain all relevant information from the other chapters in a
short form. This chapter must include a comprehensive overview of the registrations
and conclusions on the damage to the bridge components investigated. It must comprise description of the extent of registrations, conclusions on cause and extent of
damage, and a summary of the general considerations regarding future maintenance
strategies. However, the summary should not be more than 2-3 pages in length.

12.2.4

Motivation of the level III inspection


This chapter describes why and by whom the inspection is initiated. It tells which
parts of the bridge components are the objects of the inspection and which visible
damage has been registered.

12.2.5

Background Material
The content of this section is similar to the content of section 10.2.4.

12.2.6

Registrations
This chapter describes the registrations. On the basis of the visual inspections (reports from level I and II inspections) and prior knowledge the structure may be divided into homogeneous areas. A homogenous area is defined as an area where the
parameters affecting the deterioration and the deterioration itself of the structure
exhibits only a random variation.
For each of the homogeneous areas a damage hypothesis is prepared. These hypotheses are described in this section.
For each of the test methods used, the extent and location is described, and a summary of the results is given.
The detailed record of all registrations is enclosed in the appendices.

12.2.7

Evaluation of registrations
This section includes an interpretation of the test results from the NDTinvestigations. E.g. for chloride-measurements of concrete structures: do the measurements show risk of chloride initiated corrosion of the reinforcement are the values of the chloride content larger than the critical chloride content in the depth of
reinforcement.
In this chapter the probable deterioration mechanisms and causes of damage is described based on the registrations. The chapter must include an estimate of the actual damage of the bridge components investigated. It should also include a description of the expected development of damage if no action is taken.
The damage mechanism should be described in detail. This means that in cases of
corrosion, 'saline soil' is not sufficient as explanation. You must also explain how the
chlorides have reached the reinforcement, etc.

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It is also important to explain the differences in damage appearance: Why are some
piers damaged while others are undamaged etc.
12.2.8

General Considerations Regarding Future Maintenance Activities


This chapter describes recommendation of future activities. The need for major rehabilitation jobs and further inspections is included in this chapter. The description
does not include budgets for the activities.
If there is any doubt of the carrying capacity of the bridge recommendation of calculations must be included in this chapter.

12.3

Appendices
The level III inspection report comprises those relevant of the following appendices.

12.3.1

A: Background Material
This appendix includes the inventory of the bridge components for the underwater
inspection and previous underwater inspection reports which are relevant for the
inspection e.g. level I and level II reports for the selected components.

12.3.2

B: Selected Drawings
This appendix includes selected drawings of the bridge components included in this
inspection.

12.3.3

C: Visual Inspection
This appendix includes the registrations from the visual inspection of the cleaned
areas of the bridge components included in the level III inspection. General orientation of the bridge and the bridge components under investigation, numbering of
components and damage pattern are most conveniently shown on sketches.
An overview sketch of the whole structure is often suited to register the extent of
damage (which piers have spalling of cover etc.).
The appendix should include photo pages for the photos taken during the visual inspection. Photos showing details of the registrations, e.g. exposed reinforcement,
deteriorated stone of masonry structures, etc. should be enclosed.

12.3.4

D: Photos and Video Recordings


This appendix includes photos and videos documenting the registrations.

12.3.5

E: NDT-method No. 1
Depending on the complexity of the NDT-method a general description of the principles of the method is described in this appendix.
This appendix includes the registrations from one of the NDT-methods used in the
level III inspection. The appendix should include sketches of the areas of measurements and of the measuring grid if used e.g. for HCP, Impact-Echo, Impulse Re12-3
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sponse (sMASH) etc. The appendix should also include relevant photos related to the
NDT-investigation (of break-ups etc.).
Mapping of HCP (Half Cell Potential measurements) readings is shown on sketches.
Mapping of sMASH (impulse response measurements) readings is shown on
sketches.
Mapping of Impact-Echo readings is shown on sketches.
12.3.6

F - ?: NDT-method No. 2 - ?
This appendix includes registrations from another NDT-method. The content of this
appendix is similar to the content mentioned in section 12.3.5.

12.3.7

G.. Other
In some cases it is appropriate to include other appendices than the 'standard' ones.
These are numbered 'H', 'I'.....

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13.

References
[1]

Collins Engineers, Inc.: Underwater Inspection of Bridges. Federal Highway


Administration, Report No. FHWA-DP-80-1, 1989.

[2]

CEB: Durable Concrete Structures. Design Guide. Second Edition, reprint


1997.

[3]

Geiker, M.: Durability of concrete chloride induced corrosion. Course 59203,


Danish Technical University, 2000.

[4]

Larsen, E. S.: Service Life Prediction of Cementitious Materials. SBI Report


221, 1992.

[5]

Larsen, E. S.: Inspection of Structures Special Inspection Compendium for


support and Inspiration (in Danish). VEJ-EU, 1997.

[6]

Mattsson, E.: Electro chemistry and corrosion (in Swedish). 2end edition, Corrosion Institute, Stockholm 1984.

[7]

Nielsen, A.; Eeg, R. and Sorensen, H.: Building Materials Metal (in Danish)
Polyteknisk Forlag 1998.

[8]

Sowden A.M. (1990). The Maintenance of Brick and Stone Masonry structures.
ISBN: 0-419-14930-9. E. & F.N. Spon. First Edition

[9]

Ron Grieve. Non-destructive Testing of Concrete and Masonry Buildings. The


construction Specifier, October 2005

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APPENDIX A
Handout of Slides from Classroom Training in UWI-Methods

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APPENDIX A1
Introduction to the Class Room Training in NDT and UWI

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Appendix A1, Page 1 of 28

UWI-Course

Non Destructive Testing and


Underwater Inspections

Concrete, Steel and Masonry Bridges

Agenda
0. Welcome by Central Railway, LTR and Ramboll
1. Presentation of the lecturers by AKN
2. Presentation of the participants by AKN
3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group by AKN
4. Lecture program for NDT and UWI by LTP
5. General introduction to deterioration mechanisms by LTP
6. General introduction to systematic operation and maintenance by LTP
7. Special inspection by LTP
8. Structural assessment Case by LTP
Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A1, Page 2 of 28

UWI-Course

1. Presentation of the lecturers

1. Presentation of the lecturers


Asger Knudsen:
Head of department of Bridge Management and Materials Technology
15 years of experience with bridge inspections, NDT-testing, condition assessment and bridge
management systems
Lene Torrnaes Helbo:
Project coordinator of the NDT & UWI pilot project.
Extended experience with inspections, NDT-testing, condition assessment, petrographic analysis,
deterioration evaluation and bridge management systems.
Peter H. Moeller:
NDT- and corrosion expert, cathodic protection expert
Extended experience with NDT-testing, inspections, condition assessment, deterioration evaluation,
rehabilitation
Morten Daroe Tranholm Jensen:
NDT-specialist
Extended experience with NDT-testing, inspection and condition assessment
Joergen Lenler
NDT-expert in Steel investigations especially ultra sonic testing
Extended experience with NDT-testing of steel structures

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A1, Page 3 of 28

UWI-Course

2. Presentation of the participants

2. Presentation of the participants

Position in Central Railway


Experience within the fields of NDT and UWI

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A1, Page 4 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

History of the Ramboll Group


Ramboll was established in
Copenhagen in 1945 as
Ramboll & Hannemann,
named after its founders:
B.J. Ramboll, D.techn.Sc.,
and I.G. Hannemann,
D.techn.Sc

In 2003 the company merged


with the publicly listed
Scandiaconsult AB originally
established in Stockholm as Orrje
& Co. AB in 1947 by five
engineers: Alfred Orrje, Bengt
Wrd, Hans Hilborn, Bjrn
Romson and Lars Berlin.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A1, Page 5 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

The Ramboll Group in brief


The Ramboll Group is a leading
Nordic provider of knowledge
services with a broad
specialisation, operating globally
in the main business segments of
buildings, infrastructure,
environment, energy, oil and gas,
IT and management.
Our customers have access to our
large network of specialists from
91 offices in the Nordic region and
another 50 permanent or project
offices around the world.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Our organisation

Ramboll
Gruppen A/S

Ramboll
Management A/S

Ramboll
Informatik A/S

Ramboll
Danmark A/S

Rambll AB
(Sweden)

Ramboll
Norge A/S

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Ramboll
Finland OY

Slide

10

Appendix A1, Page 6 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Our Nordic coverage


The Ramboll Group ranks among
Top 10 consultancies in Europe
and Top 25 globally, a ranking
primarily maintained by a strong
domestic market position.
With 91 offices covering the
Nordic region, being a local
partner is a key strategic focus of
the Group.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

11

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Our global coverage

The Ramboll Group reaches out to the


rest of the world with experience from
projects in more than 100 countries.

Ramboll offices abroad


Belgium (Bruxelles)
Germany (Hamburg, Munich)
Greenland (Nuuk, Sisimiut)
Estonia (Tallinn)
India (Chennai, Delhi,
Hyderabad)
Latvia (Riga)
Lithuania (Vilnius)
Laos (Vientiane)
Qatar (Doha)
Romania (Bucharest)
Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg)
Thailand (Bangkok)

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

12

Appendix A1, Page 7 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

The customers knowledge bank fields of specialisation


The specialisation of Ramboll is wide, covering almost any aspect of
engineering, IT and management. We have divided our skills into a number of
primary fields of specialisation, which can be accessed by customers through
any of our 105 permanent offices worldwide.
Constant research and development initiatives support our ability to provide
state-of-the-art solutions.

Infrastructure, transport and traffic

Buildings

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

13

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

The customers knowledge bank fields of specialisation


Water and environment

Energy, oil and gas

Telecommunications

Industry

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

14

Appendix A1, Page 8 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

The customers knowledge bank fields of specialisation


Waste

Health

International development projects

Facilities management

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

15

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

The customers knowledge bank fields of specialisation


Architecture & landscape architecture

Geotechnical and rock engineering

Management

Information technology

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

16

Appendix A1, Page 9 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Our value keywords


Trust
Honesty and integrity, openness and cooperation

Quality
Quality and value for the consumer

Innovation
Development, improvement, exploitation and sharing knowledge

Commitment:
Responsibility, focus, initiative and high motivation

Empowerment
Decentralisation and delegation of authority

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

17

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Our human resources


2004
Number of permanent employees

4.029

Engineers, %

54

Other graduate staff, %

13

Technicians, %

21

Other staff groups, %

12

Male/Female, %

70/30

Gender distribution among line managers

92/8

Average age, years

41,5

Employee facts in the Ramboll Group at 31 December 2004

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

18

Appendix A1, Page 10 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Bridge Management and Materials Technology


The department

The department comprises app. 30 persons.


21 have an engineering degree or other academic degrees of similar
level.
We cover all relevant fields of expertise in relation to operation and
maintenance of civil works such as:
minor and major bridges
tunnels
ports

We have theoretical as well as practical expertise on materials


technology for the relevant construction materials.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

19

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Bridge Management and Materials Technology


The department

Our competences cover areas like:


Routine inspections
Special inspections including laboratory and on site testing
Risk analysis for assessment of the importance of damage on safety
and durability
Rehabilitation projects and supervision
Monitoring
Maintenance management systems
Operation and maintenance contracts
Materials technology (concrete, surfacing, waterproofing, steel,
natural building stone, etc.)
Research and development
Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

20

Appendix A1, Page 11 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Bridge Management and Materials Technology


Material technology
Concrete:

A team of experts within the field of cement and concrete technology


offers individual services to companies in materials supply, production
and use of concrete and repairs on a worldwide basis. Among other
things, Ramboll's expertise covers specialized knowledge regarding:
Deterioration mechanisms
Curing design
Mix design optimisation or trouble-shooting
At Ramboll's laboratory, materials can be prepared for different tests.
The laboratory includes a chemical laboratory, a concrete mixing
laboratory as well as optical polarization microscopes, scanning electron
microscope and equipment for automatic air void analysis.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

21

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Bridge Management and Materials Technology


Material technology
Steel:
Ramboll evaluates deterioration mechanisms in steel structures.
Masonry:

Ramboll evaluates deterioration mechanisms in masonry structures.


Natural building stone:
Ramboll has extensive experience in the selection and evaluation of stone
and with the use of stone in buildings.
Roadway surfacing and waterproofing:
Ramboll has state of the art knowledge regarding road surfacing and
waterproofing.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

22

Appendix A1, Page 12 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Mobile concrete laboratory for onsite testing


Purpose with mobile
laboratory:
all planned test equipment are available
most unplanned test
equipment are available
all relevant practical
tools are available

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

23

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Selected references - inspection and maintenance of bridges


Great Belt connection (Denmark)
Oeresundsbron (Sweden and Denmark)
Tete bridge (Mozambique)
Large bridges & tunnels for the Danish Road Directorate (Denmark)
Several bridges for the Danish Railways (Denmark)
Hooghley bridge (India)
Victoria Falls Bridge (Zambia)
Steel bridges (Greece)
Riveted steel bridge (Denmark)
Soerstraumen bridge monitoring system (Norway)
Haicang suspension bridge (China)
Progreso pier (Mexico)

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

24

Appendix A1, Page 13 of 28

UWI-Course

Great belt (Denmark)

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Inspections / repair projects / life time evaluations of concrete structures

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

25

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Oeresundsbron (Sweden and Denmark)

Inspection of steel and concrete structures bridge and tunnel

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

26

Appendix A1, Page 14 of 28

UWI-Course

Tete bridge (Mozambique)

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Inspection of 5 span suspension bridge

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

27

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Danish Road Directorate

Management and maintenance of large bridges and tunnels

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

28

Appendix A1, Page 15 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Danish Road Directorate

Management and maintenance of large bridges and tunnels

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Danish Railways

Slide

29

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Maintenance and repair of several bridges

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

30

Appendix A1, Page 16 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

2nd. Hooghley River Bridge (India)

Maintenance manual and DANBROweb management system

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Victoria Falls Bridge

Slide

31

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Inspection and fatigue analysis/assessment

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India 2005/2006

Slide

32

Appendix A1, Page 17 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Inspection and evaluation of 2 steel bridges (Greece)

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

33

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Inspection / NDT test of rivet steel bridge


(Road and railway - Denmark)

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

34

Appendix A1, Page 18 of 28

UWI-Course

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Soerstraumen Bridge (Norway)


Monitoring system

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

35

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Haicang suspension bridge (China)


Maintenance manuals

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

36

Appendix A1, Page 19 of 28

UWI-Course

Progreso Pier (Mexico)

3. Presentation of the Ramboll Group

Inspection of a 65-yr. concrete pier with stainless steel

1937: Pier with stainless steel

1965: Pier with carbon steel

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

37

4. Non Destructive Testing and


Underwater Inspections

Lecture program

India 2005/2006

Appendix A1, Page 20 of 28

UWI-Course

4. Lecture program

Classroom training

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

39

4. Lecture program

Classroom training and field inspections

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

40

Appendix A1, Page 21 of 28

UWI-Course

4. Lecture program

Classroom training and field inspections

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

41

4. Lecture program

Classroom training and field inspections

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

42

Appendix A1, Page 22 of 28

UWI-Course

4 Lecture program

NDT-methods above water


NDT-method

Used for structures made of:

Crack measuring gauge

Concrete, steel and masonry

Crack detection microscope

Concrete, steel and masonry

Boroscope

Concrete, steel and masonry

Half cell potential measurements

Concrete

Corrosion rate meter

Concrete

Cover meter

Concrete

Spraying indicators (pH)

Concrete

Impact Echo equipment

Concrete

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

43

4 Lecture program

NDT-methods above water


NDT-method

Used for structures made of:

Impulse response equipment

Concrete

CAPO test

Concrete

Pull-off/Bond test

Concrete

Schmidt Hammer

Concrete and masonry

Ground Penetration Radar

Concrete and masonry

Chloride content

Concrete

Coring equipment

Concrete and masonry

Evaluation of concrete cores

Concrete

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44

Appendix A1, Page 23 of 28

UWI-Course

4 Lecture program

NDT-methods above water


NDT-method

Used for structures made of:

Acoustic emission monitoring

Steel

Structural testing system

Concrete, steel and masonry

Structural scan equipment

Concrete, steel and masonry

Ultrasonic Thickness gauge

Steel

Ultrasonic testing

Steel

Magnetic thickness gauge

Steel

Dye penetrant

Steel

Magnetic particle testing

Steel

Strain gauging

Steel

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45

4 Lecture program

NDT-methods under water


NDT-method

Used for structures made of:

Ultrasonic thickness gauge

Steel

Ultrasonic testing

Concrete and steel

Cover meter

Concrete

Schmidt Hammer

Concrete and masonry

Chloride content

Concrete

Coring equipment

Concrete and masonry

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46

Appendix A1, Page 24 of 28

UWI-Course

4 Lecture program

NDT-methods above and under water


Agenda:
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

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47

4 Lecture program

Field inspections
NDT-training - Overview

Bridge

Inspections and NDT

Thane Creek
Bridge

Visual, CAPO, Boroscope,


Schmidt Hammer, Spraying
indicators, Crack Detection
Microscope, Crack Measuring
Gauge, Chloride Content

No. 25/1
Sandhurst
No. 1/9

Photo

Visual, Boroscope, Crack


Detection Microscope, Crack
Measuring Gauge, Ultrasonic
Thickness Gauge, Ultrasonic
Testing, Magnetic Thickness
Gauge, Dye Penetrant

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48

Appendix A1, Page 25 of 28

UWI-Course

4 Lecture program

Field inspections
NDT-training - Overview

Bridge

Inspections and NDT

Diva-Panvel

Visual, Impact-Echo, HCP,


Cover Meter, Boroscope,
Schmidt Hammer, Spraying
indicators, Chloride Content

No. 49/2

KarjatLonavala
No. 107/2

Photo

Visual, Schmidt Hammer,


Boroscope, Crack Detection
Microscope, Crack Measuring
Gauge

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49

4 Lecture program

Field inspections
NDT-training - Overview

Bridge

Inspections and NDT

Neera Bridge

Visual, Schmidt Hammer,


Boroscope, Crack Detection
Microscope, Crack Measuring
Gauge

No. 149

Photo

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50

Appendix A1, Page 26 of 28

UWI-Course

4 Lecture program

Field inspections
UWI-training - Overview

Bridge

Inspections and NDT

Thane Creek
Bridge

Water soundings and scour.


Level I inspection.

Photo

No. 25/1

Mumbra
Creek Bridge

Water soundings and scour.


Level I inspection.

No. 38/2

Level III inspection including:


Schmidt hammer, Coring, Ultra
Sonic Testing of Concrete,
Cover Meter, Chloride Content.
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51

4 Lecture program

Field inspections
UWI-training - Overview

Bridge

Inspections and NDT

WardhaNagpur

Water soundings and scour.


Level I and level II
inspections.

Dham Bridge

Photo

No. 768/2
WardhaNagpur
Kistna Bridge

Water soundings and scour.


Level I and level II
inspections.

No. 807/1
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52

Appendix A1, Page 27 of 28

UWI-Course

4 Lecture program

Field inspections
UWI-training - Overview

Bridge

Inspections and NDT

Daud
Kurduwadi

Water soundings and scour.

Bheema
Bridge

Photo

Level I inspection.

No. 301/1

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53

Appendix A1, Page 28 of 28

APPENDIX A2
General Introduction to Deterioration Mechanism

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A2, Page 1 of 17

UWI-Course

5. General introduction to deterioration


mechanisms

5.A Concrete Bridges

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Selected deterioration mechanisms


Corrosion of reinforcement
Carbonation
Chloride ingress

Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR)


Initial defects (honey combing
etc.)
Chemical attack
Acid attack
Sulphate attack
Seawater attack

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55

Appendix A2, Page 2 of 17

UWI-Course

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Corrosion of reinforcement
Initiation:

Chloride ingress, carbonation.

Result:

Reduction of cross-section, surface cracks, spalling concrete.

Visual appearance: Wide cracks in a pattern, spalling concrete.


Growth:

Chloride: Very fast (pitting). Carbonation: slow.

Typical areas:

Splash zones on marine structures, areas with small


concrete cover.

NDT-methods:

HCP, corrosion rate, break-ups, crack detection, boroscope.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive:
Reduce moisture and chloride, cathodic protection.
- Corrective:

Replacement of reinforcement and concrete, replacement of


waterproofing on road carrying bridges.
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56

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Corrosion of reinforcement

Carbonation

Chlorides

Diffusion of oxygen

Moisture (H2O)

Deterioration of coating of ferric oxide

Possibility of corrosion

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57

Appendix A2, Page 3 of 17

UWI-Course

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Corrosion of reinforcement
Corrosion products (black) with
a small volume are created in
environments with high
humidity and limited access of
oxygen (lack of oxygen). This
is often observed by chloride
initiated corrosion.
In environments with plenty of
oxygen corrosion products with
more volume are created
(brown). This is often observed
at corrosion caused by
carbonation of the concrete
cover.

Black
Black
Brown
Brown - yellow

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58

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Corrosion of reinforcement
The ingress of chloride in concrete depends on e.g.:
How the ingress is happening:
Diffusion
Capillary suction (ascension)
Water pressure
Migration (electrical field)

And factors as:


Concrete cover (Concrete) quality (w/c-ratio, cement type and content,
pH-value of the cellular liquid, cellular system, appearance of pozzolanes,
defects (cracks, inhomogeneities), the air void system).
Thickness of concrete cover.
Chloride impact from the environment (concentration, exposure)

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Appendix A2, Page 4 of 17

UWI-Course

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Alkali silica reaction (ASR)


Initiation:

Reactive material, alkaline environment, moisture.

Result:

Reduction of concrete strength, surface cracks, spalling


concrete, pop-outs.

Visual appearance: Narrow cracks in a pattern, spalling concrete.


Growth:

Fast/slow depending of the reactive aggregate. Acceleration:


ingress of e.g. sodium-chlorides.

Typical areas:

Splash zones on marine structures, etc.

NDT-methods:

Concrete cores, Impact-Echo, Impulse Response,


Boroscope.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive: Reduce moisture/chloride ingress, surface treatment.
- Corrective: Replacement of concrete.

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60

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Alkali silica reaction (ASR)


4 components must be present to cause ASR:
Reactive Silica (e.g. SiO2H2O)

Ca(OH)2
ASR

Water (H2O)

Alkali (Na+, K+)

Harmless ASR interior cracking/solution of reactive grain


Damaging ASR cracking in concrete
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61

Appendix A2, Page 5 of 17

UWI-Course

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Alkali silica reaction (ASR)


To cause damage due to ASR a certain minimum
amount of alkali reactive grains has to be
contained in the concrete. The value of the
minimum amount depends on the type of
reactive material.
For ASR to cause expansion and cracking of the
concrete the alkali content of the concrete has to
exceed a certain value this value depends on
the type of reactive aggregate. It has to be
noted that alkalis from outside (e.g. sodium
from salt water) also contributes to the alkalis in
the reactions.

Reactive sand
aggregate

Alkali silica reaction in a sand aggregate.


Photo: 2.5x3.5 mm.

The relative humidity of the concrete typically


has to be > 80% RH.
Alkaline environment in the concrete is
necessary for the reactions (pH > 12) thus no
reactions will take place if the concrete is
carbonated.

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62

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Initial defects
Initiation:

Poor vibration, poor casting.

Result:

Honeycombing, spalling.

Visual appearance: Cracking, spalling concrete, stones in the concrete surface.


Growth:

Slow.

Typical areas:

Areas with poor conditions for casting/vibration e.g. areas


with heavy/close reinforcement and relatively low concrete
cover.

NDT-methods:

Break-ups, Impulse Response, boroscope.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive:
Good workmanship and QA while casting in critical areas.
- Corrective:

Replacement of concrete.
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63

Appendix A2, Page 6 of 17

UWI-Course

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Initial defects

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64

5.A Deterioration mechanisms in concrete bridges

Chemical attacks
Ca(OH)2 + SO42- CaSO4 + 2OH2Sulphate and acid attacks the mechanism:
Sulphates are found in sea water, sewage water etc.
A number of sulphate compounds can attack the concrete.
First the compounds convert Ca(OH)2 to gypsum.
Then the compounds react with the aluminate parts (C3A) of the cement paste
and form the chemical compound of ettringite.
The result of the chemical reactions is loss of concrete strength and expansion of
the cement paste which causes cracking and spalling in the outer layer of
concrete.

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65

Appendix A2, Page 7 of 17

UWI-Course

5. General introduction to deterioration


mechanisms

5.B Steel Bridges

5.B Deterioration mechanisms in steel bridges

Selected deterioration mechanisms


Corrosion of steel
Electrochemical corrosion
Chink corrosion
Galvanic corrosion
Atmospheric corrosion

Ageing of steel

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67

Appendix A2, Page 8 of 17

UWI-Course

5.B Deterioration mechanisms in steel bridges

Corrosion of steel Electrochemical Corrosion


The water drop dissolve O2 from the atmosphere.
Where the water layer is thin the oxygen reach the steel very fast and acts as an electron
acceptor according to the cathode process.
Inhomogeneities in the steel surface result in a certain area to become anode.
The circuit is working and the steel corrodes anodic in the centre.

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68

5.B Deterioration mechanisms in steel bridges

Corrosion of steel Chink Corrosion


Chink corrosion is a case of electrochemical corrosion.
Two plates overlap each other, and there is water in the overlaps (in the chink).
The free water surface absorbs oxygen and the metal surfaces in the marginal
zones become cathodes.
In the chink the oxygen have difficulties to penetrate and the metal surfaces
become anodes and is corroded. This corrosion is not visible from the outside
and it is therefore dangerous.

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69

Appendix A2, Page 9 of 17

UWI-Course

5.B Deterioration mechanisms in steel bridges

Corrosion of steel Galvanic Corrosion


Galvanic corrosion is initiated when electrical contact occurs between two metals
in a moist environment.
The more anodic metal releases ions and is corroded.
The smaller ratio between anode and cathode the more severe corrosion.

Prevention of galvanic corrosion:


Remove the moisture.
Disable electrical contact by:
greasing
inserts of plastic
coating

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70

5.B Deterioration mechanisms in steel bridges

Corrosion of steel Atmospheric Corrosion


Atmospheric corrosion is corrosion on un-protected steel surfaces
exposed to the atmosphere.
If the air humidity > 65 % relative humidity adsorption of connected
water film occurs and thereby electrochemical corrosion occurs.
Different factors influence the risk and velocity of the corrosion.
Temperature:
Increase of 10 oC double corrosion velocity.
Air pollution:
In an industrial environment the creation of soot is high. The
soot contains sulphur and carbon. The sulphur acid acts as
electrolyte and a strong corrosion cell is created between
carbon and steel.
In marine environment the large amount of salts in the air
may cause stronger corrosion than in the inner of the country.
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71

Appendix A2, Page 10 of 17

UWI-Course

5.B Deterioration mechanisms in steel bridges

Ageing of steel
Impact on steel at very low temperatures may result in fracture without any large
deformation as seen at normal temperatures.
The brittle fracture form may also be seen on very old steels at normal
temperatures: brittle fracture due to aging of steel.
Impact ductility according to Charpy-V test
Brittle

Transition

Ductile

Ageing

Transition temperature

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72

5. General introduction to deterioration


mechanisms

5.C Masonry Bridges

India 2005/2006

Appendix A2, Page 11 of 17

UWI-Course

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Selected deterioration mechanisms


Chemical/biological attack

Stress-related effects

Water and waterborne acids

movement of foundation

Sulphates

movement/consolidation/washout

Pollution

of infill
vibration

Erosion
Particles in flowing water and
wind
frost attack

overloading
moisture movement
thermal movement

salt crystallization
plant root action

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5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Chemical/biological attack (Water)


Initiation:

Water ingress.

Result:

Loose sandy or friable mortar, loss of mortar.

Visual appearance: Raked joints, loss of bricks, stains due to precipitation of


dissolved material.
Growth:

Usually slow

Typical areas:

Piers: Under water and in the splash zone. Abutments or


other structures partly covered by water/soil.

NDT-methods:

Cores, crack detection, boroscope.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive:
Channel water away, or use strong impermeable mortars
- Corrective:

Mechanical repointing using a waterproof or polymermodified mortar.

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Appendix A2, Page 12 of 17

UWI-Course

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Chemical/biological attack (Water)


Absolute pure water will have no
direct chemical effect but some of the
constituents of mortar are slightly
soluble and will leach away slowly.
Rainwater contains dissolved carbon
dioxide forming a very mild acid which
dissolves calcium carbonate by
production of soluble bicarbonate.
Lime mortars will eventually be
destroyed by percolating rainwater
because calcium carbonate is their
main binding agent.

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76

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Chemical/biological attack (Sulphate)


Initiation:

Reaction between sulphate ions in water solution and the tricalcium


aluminate (C3A) phase in mortars

Result:

Net expansion that causes both local disruption of the mortar bed
and stresses in the brickwork as a result of the expansion.

Visual appearance:

Small horizontal cracks are sometimes visible in the centre of each


bed joint. Rendered masonry may exhibit a network of cracks.

Typical areas:

Will only occur in wet or saturated conditions and where there is a


source of water-soluble sulphate compound.

NDT-methods:

Cores, crack detection.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive:

Keep the masonry dry, exclude sulphates, use mortars that are not
affected by sulphates.

- Corrective:

Correction of faults that are causing unintended wetting. In serious


cases it might be necessary to demolish and rebuild.

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Appendix A2, Page 13 of 17

UWI-Course

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Chemical/biological attack (Sulphate)


A sulphate attack will only occur
in a wet or saturated environment
where there is a source of watersoluble sulphate compound.
It will never take place in dry or
slight damp masonry.
Sulphates may be present in
groundwater and can affect
masonry below the waterproofing
membrane - and affect masonry
in contact with the ground such as
retaining walls, bridges and
tunnels

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78

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Erosion (frost)
Initiation:

Expansion of water freezing in the pore system of materials.

Result:

Spalling of material, softening and erosion of the mortar


(indistinguishable from chemical erosion)

Visual appearance: Spalling, loss of mortar


Typical areas:

Water-saturated or near-saturated conditions in porous


material.

NDT-methods:

Cores, sonic methods.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive: Eliminate saturation of construction.
- Corrective: Mechanical repointing with a mortar containing a waterproofing or
polymer additive.
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79

Appendix A2, Page 14 of 17

UWI-Course

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Erosion (Salt crystallization)


Initiation:

Expansion of hydrated salts in the pore structure

Result:

Spalling of material, softening and erosion of the mortar

Visual appearance: The spalling, softening and erosion of mortar will usually be
associated with salt crystals.
Typical areas:

Normally occurs in warm conditions where there is a rapid


drying of water causing the salts to crystallize.

NDT-methods:

Cores.

Rehabilitation methods:
- Preventive: Using appropriate materials and detailing

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80

5.C Deterioration mechanisms in masonry bridges

Erosion (Abrasion and Stress related effects)


Abrasion:
Abrasion by particles in wind and water
often acts in combination with other
processes.
The appearance will normally be a loss
of surface and change of colour and
texture
Stress-related effects:
Step cracking or splitting of the mortar
beds is common where movement or
tension/shear forces occur.
The most common source is invasion
by plant roots which then split the
porous mortar as they grow

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81

Appendix A2, Page 15 of 17

UWI-Course

5. General introduction to deterioration


mechanisms

5.D Underwater structures

5.D Deterioration mechanisms of underwater structures

Selected deterioration mechanisms - UWI


Basically the deterioration mechanisms of underwater structures include
the same mechanisms as for structures above water however the
degree of deterioration may differ from the ones above water.
Deterioration due to chloride ingress will
typically only be actual to a depth of app.
0.5 m from the minimum water line.
NOTE: Severe corrosion may occur in
this zone and the corrosion products will
be less voluminous.

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83

Appendix A2, Page 16 of 17

UWI-Course

5.D Deterioration mechanisms of underwater structures

Selected deterioration mechanisms - UWI


Scour
Erosive action of running water carrying away material.
Aggradation (long term changing of the conditions):
Deposition of material elevation the riverbed.
Reduction of the waterway the surface of water will rise.
Unintended horizontal forces to the piers/abutments during flood.
Failure of piers / abutments failure of bridge.

Degradation (long term changing of the conditions):


Lowering the river bed caused by erosion.
Undermining of foundation failure of piers / abutments failure of
bridge.

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84

5.D Deterioration mechanisms of underwater structures

Selected deterioration mechanisms - UWI


Scour
General scour:
Erosion / removal of material from the whole width of the waterway.
Takes place over a short period of time (due to increased water speed).
Due to obstructions of the waterway upstreams or downstream.

Local scour:
Erosion / removal of material from part of the waterway.
Occurs where obstructions (piers etc.) changes the flow of water creating
accelerations and vortex.
Depends on the shape of the obstruction (pier).

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Appendix A2, Page 17 of 17

APPENDIX A3
General Introduction to Systematic Operation and
Maintenance

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A3, Page 1 of 16

UWI-Course

6. General Introduction to Systematic


Operation and Maintenance

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Systematic Operation and Maintenance


Systematic maintenance and operation requires:

Overview of assets.

Overview of documentation.

Overview of condition.

Activity management.
- Planning.
- Budgeting.
- Optimization of resources.
- Follow-up on execution and economy.

Several approaches could be used the next slide shows one


approach.
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87

Appendix A3, Page 2 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Systematic Operation and Maintenance


Chain of activities

Activities

Output
Principal Inspection

Report
Rehabilitation needs

Extended Principal
Inspection

Report, General Considerations


of Rehabilitations
Rehabilitation needs

Economic Evaluation

Routine Inspection

No rehabilitation need

After 1- 6 years
Routine Maintenance

No rehabilitation need

Special Inspection

Optimization

Rehabilitation Design

Execution

Report, Strategies

Projects to Execute

Tender Documents

'As Built' Documentation

Updating of Principal
Inspection
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88

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Systematic Operation and Maintenance


Optimisation

The challenge:

The funds are often not sufficient for


maintaining all structures in perfect
condition.

Basic demands for safety and capacity


must be fulfilled.

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89

Appendix A3, Page 3 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Systematic Operation and Maintenance


Optimisation

Purpose
Finding a set of long-term rehabilitation strategies (one for each
structure) that meet the available funds and has the lowest total cost
for society.
Principle
Projects required for reasons of safety etc. will be carried out.
Projects with high cost increase over time will be carried out and
projects with low cost increase will be postponed.
Result
Budget for selected maintenance/repair work for each structure for e.g.
a 5-year period.
Penalty (the cost of not having sufficient means to carry out all work at
the optimum time).

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90

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Inspection types and frequencies

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91

Appendix A3, Page 4 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Inspection Types

Routine Inspection

Principal Inspection

Extended Principal Inspection

Special Inspection

Monitoring (online or ad-hoc)

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6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Routine Inspection
Purpose

Identify and register suddenly occurred damage and thereby ensuring safety
Register the need for and supervise the execution of routine maintenance and cleaning

Method

Superficial visual inspection

Frequency

Normal routine inspection usually calendar based (day/week)


Extended routine inspection usually calendar based ( year 1 year)

Reporting

Standard forms / check lists


Lists of standard works
Requisitions of maintenance works

Personnel

Usually limited needs for education (can be carried out by maintenance crew with some
training)

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93

Appendix A3, Page 5 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Principal Inspection
Purpose
Detect deterioration before it gets serious
Register the need for rehabilitation works
Register the need for special inspections
Keep track of the condition of the structure
Method
Detailed visual inspection of all visible parts at close range registering:

Condition rating
Description of damage
Need for rehabilitation, including year and cost estimate
Need for special inspection
Photos
Year for next principal inspection
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6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Principal Inspection
Condition rating of the bridge components:
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:

No damage. As new.
Insignificant damage. No action needed.
Minor damage. Repair when convenient.
Damage. Repair soon (or: evaluate more closely the need for repair).
Severe damage. Repair is urgent.
Extreme damage. Action must be taken immediately.

Frequency
Usually every 1-6 years depending on the condition of the structure

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Appendix A3, Page 6 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Principal Inspection
Reporting
Inspection report with registrations and
recommendations
Overview of condition rating for the structure
Description of the condition of the structural
elements (damages)
List of structural elements to be repaired
Running forecasts of budget needs 5-10 years ahead
List of structural elements that require special inspection
The time to the next principal inspection (for the various structural elements)
Personnel
Good knowledge of damage types, causes and consequences, a certain
knowledge of material technology and structural behaviour of bridges, good
knowledge of maintenance and repair methods (usually carried out by
engineers)
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96

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Extended Principal Inspection


Purpose

Detect deterioration before it gets serious


Register the need for general rehabilitation works
Keep track of the condition of the structure
Determine knowledge about the type and extent of
damage of selected bridge components

Frequency

Irregular intervals is performed instead of a principle inspection if


there is doubt about damage type and extent of some bridge
components

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97

Appendix A3, Page 7 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Extended Principal Inspection


Method
Detailed visual inspection of all visible parts at close range registering:

Condition rating (defined as in principal inspection)


Description of damage
General considerations of the need for rehabilitations
Need for special inspection
Photos
Year for next principal inspection

Non Destructive Testing of selected bridge components

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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98

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Extended Principal Inspection


Reporting

Inspection report with registrations and


recommendations
Overview of condition rating for the structure
Description of the condition of the structural
elements (damages)
General considerations of need for rehabilitation
The time to the next principal inspection (for the different structural
components)

Personnel

Good knowledge of damage types, causes and consequences, a certain


knowledge of material technology and structural behaviour of bridges, good
knowledge of maintenance and repair methods, experts with experience in on
site investigations, laboratory analysis, structural analysis etc. (usually carried
out by experienced engineers)
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99

Appendix A3, Page 8 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Purpose overall
To obtain detailed knowledge about
the type and extent of damage
resulting in the below benefits for the
owner of the structure:

Optimal use of budgets


Extended service lifetime of structures
Avoidance of unforeseen costs

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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100

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Purpose specific

Determine cause and extent of damage.

Assess probable future development of damage.

Set up and analyze alternative rehabilitation strategies (usually 1-3


strategies).

Make cost estimates.

Assess the technical and economical consequences of a (e.g. 5-year)


postponement of each strategy. This part analyse may be left out.

Establish basis for rehabilitation design.

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101

Appendix A3, Page 9 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Test methods Concrete Structures
Detailed investigation comprising combinations of:
On site NDT-investigations:

Laboratory analysis:

Half Cell Potential

Chloride content

Galvapulse (corrosion rate)

Moisture content

sMASH (Impulse Response)


Impact-Echo

Carbonation depth

Boroscope

Concrete quality
(microstructure, w/c ratio, air
void distribution etc.)

Break-ups to reinforcement

Alkali Silica Reactivity

Covermeter

Etc.

Ground Penetration Radar

Capo test
Etc.
Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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102

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Test methods Steel Structures
Detailed investigation comprising combinations of:
On site NDT-investigations:

Laboratory analysis:

Ultrasonic testing gauge

Fracture toughness

Ultrasonic testing

Chemical composition

Magnetic particle testing

Pressure testing

Dye penetrant

Etc.

Magnetic thickness gauge


Strain gauge
Boroscope
Etc.

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103

Appendix A3, Page 10 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Test methods Masonry structures
Detailed investigation comprising combinations of:
On site NDT-investigations:

Laboratory analysis:

Schmidt hammer

Evaluation of masonry cores

Ground penetration radar

Etc.

Coring
Etc.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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104

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Method:

Identify relevant strategies, typically


Thorough repair now that solves the problem permanently.
Interim repair now. Thorough repair later.
Do nothing now. When the structure is no longer safe, replace it.

For each strategy:


Estimate all direct over a long period (typically 50 years)
Calculate the net present value (NPV) of the costs

The optimum strategy is the one with the lowest net present value

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105

Appendix A3, Page 11 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Frequency
Special Inspections are carried out at irregular intervals when there
is doubt about:
Damage mechanism/interaction
Damage cause
Damage type and extent
Damage development/growth

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

Slide

106

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Special Inspection
Reporting
Inspection report on a scientific level
Description of the structure and the problem
Presentation of the test methods used
The registrations (measurements/test results)
Evaluation of the registrations (What is wrong? What will
happen if nothing is done? What should be done ?)
Recommendations for remedial actions

Personnel
Experts with experience in on site investigations, laboratory
analysis, structural analysis etc. (usually carried out by
experienced engineers with significant knowledge on the
required topics)

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107

Appendix A3, Page 12 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Monitoring
Monitoring of the condition and behavior of bridges is an integrated part
of bridge management.
Benefits:
Monitoring critical parts of the structure gives detailed information of
the actual condition.
Reduced direct costs by postponing and tailoring the need for
rehabilitation.
Reduced traffic interference and traffic regulations.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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108

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Monitoring
Economy:
The monitoring approach is often more economic than the traditional
approach in the field of rehabilitations.
Early-warning of damages or safety risks.
The basis for making decisions and prioritization regarding maintenance
and repair activities is improved
Fewer unexpected major costs and cost reductions as repairs may be
postponed by several years and/or tailored.

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109

Appendix A3, Page 13 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Monitoring
In-situ monitoring:
Frequent inspection with traditional methods (HCP etc.), providing a
picture of the development of the properties that are registered.
On-line-monitoring
Continuous (or very frequent) measuring of specific properties,
performed by sensors placed in the structure.
Possible to monitor areas where access is difficult or impossible.
Traffic interference is reduced.
The data can be collected directly from a data logger on site or be
downloaded using Internet or telephone line

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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110

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Monitoring
Management solution for monitoring
SMARTmonitoring an integrated module in the SMARTmanagement
system.

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111

Appendix A3, Page 14 of 16

UWI-Course

Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Under Water Inspections for Indian Railways are conducted according to:
FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges
US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
November 1989

Three levels of inspection are considered:

Level I: Purely visual inspection,


corresponding to Principal Inspection,
supplemented by water depth soundings
Level II: Level I supplemented by cleaning
selected areas for closer inspection,
corresponding to Extended Principal
Inspection
Level III: Detailed investigation of specific
elements, using Non-Destructive Testing,
corresponding to Special Inspection

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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112

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level I:
Visual, tactile inspection using large sweeping motions of the hands
where visibility is limited.
Major damage or deterioration due to over-stress or severe
deterioration (spalling) or corrosion should be detected.
The continuity of the full length of all members should be confirmed.
Undermining or exposure of normally buried elements should be
detected.
The inspection should be conducted over the total exterior surface of
each underwater structural element.

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113

Appendix A3, Page 15 of 16

UWI-Course

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level II:
Detailed inspection requiring parts of the structure to be cleaned of
marine growth.
The cleaning of piers and abutments are performed in areas of app.
0.30 m x 0.30 m in 3 different levels on each face of the element.
The thoroughness of cleaning should be governed by what is
necessary to identify and register the condition of the underlying
material.
Damaged areas should be measured and the extent and severity of
the damage should be documented.

Non Destructive Testing and Underwater Inspection - 21 February, 2006

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114

6 General introduction to operation and maintenance

Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level III:
Highly detailed inspection of a critical structures, structural
components, or members where extensive repair or possible
replacement is contemplated.
Hidden or interior damage must be detected.
Loss of cross sectional area must be detected.
The material homogeneity must be evaluated.
The level III inspection includes extensive cleaning, detailed
measurements and selected Non Destructive Tests.

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115

Appendix A3, Page 16 of 16

APPENDIX A4
Introduction to Underwater Inspections

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A4, Page 1 of 19

UWI-Course

Introduction

Under Water Inspection (UWI)

Introduction
1. Where and when is UWI required.
2. Structural components under water.
3. Relevant damage types.
4. References.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


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Slide

Appendix A4, Page 2 of 19

UWI-Course

1. Where and When is Under Water


Inspection needed

1. Where and when is UWI required

Where and when is


Under Water Inspection required

A majority of major railway bridges are built over waterways,


and most bridge failures occur because of underwater problems.
Serious damage can occur and develop without being detected
before it is too late if Under Water Inspection is not performed
regularly.
Under Water Inspection must comprise all structural components
under water, and the riverbed and possible river bed protection
around them.
The interval between routine inspection should never exceed 5
years, and in many cases it must be shorter.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

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Slide

Appendix A4, Page 3 of 19

UWI-Course

1. Where and when is UWI required

History
FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges
The presented material is, as agreed, based on the report:
FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges
By the:
Federal Highway Administration
U.S. Department of Transportation

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

1. Where and when is UWI required

History
FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges
Collapse of several bridges in the
U.S. during the 80s
All caused by underwater damage
Thruway Bridge over Schoharie
Creek, 1987 ten people died
A larger revision was made to the
National Bridge Inspection
Standards

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

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Slide

Appendix A4, Page 4 of 19

UWI-Course

1. Where and when is UWI required

History
FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges

Slide

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

1. Where and when is UWI required

When to perform Under Water Inspection


Intervals between routine (scheduled) inspections depend on:
The condition of the riverbed (hard rock / sand / mud)
The amount and speed of water flow
In general
At high flood

Possible prop wash (turbulence caused by the propellers of


passing ships) that can cause erosion/scour and a sandblasting
effect on piers
The aggressiveness of the water (steel structures or reinforced
concrete structures in salt water call for attention)
The condition and sturdiness of the structures

No fixed rules for intervals, only: should never exceed 5 years

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Slide

Appendix A4, Page 5 of 19

UWI-Course

1. Where and when is UWI required

Unscheduled Under Water Inspection


After unusual floods
After vessel impact (unless it is
obvious that no damage has
occurred)
After Ice floes (can damage piers
by impact or abrasion, and
accumulation of ice can cause
scour because the ice reduces the
cross section of the river)
irrelevant in most areas of India

Mexico after flooding

Slide

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

1. Where and when is UWI required

Unscheduled Under Water Inspection


Build-up of debris at piers and
abutments (horizontal forces on
the structures and scour because
of reduced cross section of the
river)
Unusual prop wash from vessels

Mexico

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A4, Page 6 of 19

UWI-Course

1. Where and when is UWI required

Unscheduled Under Water Inspection


Settlements or other evidence of
scour

Honduras after
hurricane Mitch

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 11

2. Structural Components Under Water

India 2005/2006

Appendix A4, Page 7 of 19

UWI-Course

2. Structural components under water

Types of structures under water

Illustrations from report FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges


Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

Slide 13

2. Structural components under water

Types of structures under water

Illustrations from report FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges


Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A4, Page 8 of 19

UWI-Course

2. Structural components under water

Types of structures under water

Illustrations from report FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges


Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

Slide 15

2. Structural components under water

Types of structures under water

Illustrations from report FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges


Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A4, Page 9 of 19

UWI-Course

2. Structural components under water

Types of structures under water

Illustrations from report FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges


Slide 17

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Relevant Damage Types

Under Water Components

India 2005/2006

Appendix A4, Page 10 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Structural Deficiencies
Settlements and displacements of piers and abutments because
of scour.
Structural damage to piles and piers caused
by overload, impact of debris, logs etc.
or by ship impact.

Compression
failure of
concrete pile

Structural damage because of


inadequate design or poor
workmanship.

Eccentricity in pile bent


Slide 19

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Relevant Damage Types

Structural Deficiencies, steel structures


Fatigue cracks at welded connections.
Brittleness due to ageing and cold
brittleness.
Buckling of compression members.
Eccentricities in connections.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

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Slide 20

Appendix A4, Page 11 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of concrete structures


Abrasion (erosion of concrete surface by physical matters)
caused by debris, logs, ice, etc. in the river
Scaling: Gradual and continuous loss of surface
mortar and aggregate, typically caused by
freeze/thaw action or chemical attack
Spalling: Loss of a layer of concrete,
often caused by expanding corrosion
products of corroding reinforcement

Slide 21

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of concrete structures


Cracking caused by shrinkage/temperature difference
Normally harmless from a
structural point of view,
but can cause problems
because of exposure of
the reinforcement

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

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Slide 22

Appendix A4, Page 12 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of concrete structures


Cracking caused by Alkali Aggregate Reactions (AAR)

Slide 23

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of concrete structures


Chemical attack
Acid Attack
Sulphate Attack
Seawater Attack

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A4, Page 13 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of concrete structures


Corrosion of reinforcement
Caused by carbonation of concrete (whereby it looses its protective
properties). Most common in the splash zone. Gives general
corrosion with expansive products that causes spalling of concrete
cover.
Caused by chlorides (e.g. from salt
water). Can occur far below water
surface. Gives local corrosion and
potentially fast loss of cross section.

Slide 25

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of concrete structures


1. Areas with the risk of local corrosion especially in constantly wet and chloride
contaminated concrete. In concrete exposed to alternating wetting and drying,
the corrosion product will expand causing cracks and spalling of the cover.
2. General corrosion, mainly caused by carbonation. The corrosion will develop
slowly, but visible damage will appear at an early stage.
3. Areas at risk of local corrosion. The
lack of oxygen does not prevent
corrosion as the cathodic process
will take place at the steel areas
above ground level. The corrosion
rate can be very high.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A4, Page 14 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Masonry structures
Damage of masonry structures

Stone cracking

Stone delamination

Pointing failure

Slide 27

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of masonry structures

Erosion of masonry structures is mainly caused by

Particles in flowing water


(and wind)

Wash out of the joints

Frost attacks

Salt crystallization

Plant root action

Increased earth or hydrostatic


pressure

Scouring at the base because of wave and current


actions

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A4, Page 15 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of steel structures


Abrasion
Exposure to wave actions in areas with
a sandy bottom.

Overloading
Impact / collision
Compression overloading damage.

Corrosion

Illustration from Underwater Inspection Criteria, Naval


Facilities Engineering Service Center, 1999.
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

Slide 29

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of steel structures


Corrosion is worst:
primary in the splash zone (ample
supply of water and oxygen),
secondary right below the mean
low water

Illustrations from report FHWA-DP-98-01, Underwater


evaluation and repair of bridge components and Underwater
Inspection Criteria, Naval Facilities Engineering Service
Center, 1999.
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A4, Page 16 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of steel structures


Corrosion is worst in the following conditions:
in salt water (is a better electrolyte than fresh water)
in warm water (chemical processes run faster in
warm environment)
in moving water (carries more oxygen to the steel,
removes passive layer)

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 31

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of steel structures

Stress Corrosion

Stress corrosion occurs in corrosive environment when the steel is


exposed to tension stresses. Often the attacks are not visible and
thereby very dangerous.

The stresses may be introduced when the steel melt is solidified,


or due to cold deformation of the steel, or due to outer static
forces.

The corrosion takes place where the stresses and thereby the
energy level is highest.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

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Slide 32

Appendix A4, Page 17 of 19

UWI-Course

3. Relevant Damage Types

Deterioration of steel structures

Corrosion and Fatigue

If the steel is exposed to alternating stresses there is a risk of


fatigue fracture of the steel. This risk is increased when corrosion
occurs together with the alternating stresses.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 33

4. References

India 2005/2006

Appendix A4, Page 18 of 19

UWI-Course

4. References

References

FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges, US


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
November 1989.
(Basis for the inspections to be performed for Indian Railways)

FHWA-DP-98-01, Underwater evaluation and repair of bridge


components, US Department of Transportation, Federal
Highway Administration, November 1995.

Shawn, K., Underwater Inspection Criteria, Naval Facilities


Engineering Service Center, 1999.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


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Slide 35

Appendix A4, Page 19 of 19

APPENDIX A5
Levels of Underwater Inspections

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A5, Page 1 of 18

UWI-Course

Levels of Under Water Inspection

Under Water Inspection

Introduction
Under Water Inspections for Indian Railways are conducted according to:
FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges
US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
November 1989
Three levels of inspection are considered:

Level I: Purely visual inspection,


corresponding to Principal Inspection,
supplemented by water depth soundings.

Level II: Level I supplemented by cleaning


selected areas for closer inspection,
corresponding to Extended Principal
Inspection.

Level III: Detailed investigation of specific


components, using Non Destructive
Testing, corresponding to Special
Inspection.
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A5, Page 2 of 18

UWI-Course

Introduction
Guidelines to the extent of under water inspections:
Level I:

100% of the underwater structural components


Carried out on a regular basis

Level II

10% of the underwater structural components


Carried out on a regular basis

Level III

Various extent depending on the damage to be investigated


Carried out when the regular inspection (visual inspections) is not conclusive
Is often executed prior to larger rehabilitations or replacement of members

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Planning Under Water Inspection.
2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation.
3. Level II Inspection.
4. Level III Inspection.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A5, Page 3 of 18

UWI-Course

1. Planning Under Water Inspection

Under Water Inspection

Planning
The following subjects should be considered while planning an under
water inspection:

Background material (as-built drawings,


previous reports), number and shape of
the piers, piles etc.

Inventory (how are the piers / piles etc.


identified).

Site visit to estimate the local conditions.

Critical areas of the structure.

Wave actions.

Water temperature range.

Atmospheric temperature range.


Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A5, Page 4 of 18

UWI-Course

Planning
The following subjects should be considered while planning an under
water inspection:

Water depths.

Tidal range.

Water visibility (need for clear water


box).

Pollution / sewage in the water.

Currents.

Amount of bio fouling growth on the


bridge component.

Seasonal flooding / (ice).

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

2. Level I Inspection and Scour


Investigation

Under Water Inspection

India 2005/2006

Appendix A5, Page 5 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level I:
Visual, tactile inspection using large sweeping motions of the hands
where visibility is limited.
Major damage or deterioration due to over-stress, severe
deterioration (spalling) or corrosion should be detected.
The continuity of the full length of all members should be confirmed.
Undermining or exposure of normally buried elements should be
detected.
The inspection should be conducted over the total exterior surface of
each underwater structural element.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Carrying out the visual inspection:
Inspection of a pile bent (in a spiral motion):

Illustration from report


FHWA-DP-80-01,
Underwater Inspection of
Bridges

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A5, Page 6 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Inspection of piers / abutments:

Schematic illustration of inspection pattern of a pier or abutment.

If the diver is not line tended or using equipment from above, the
piers must be inspected in a circular pattern.
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

Slide 11

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation
Three methods of detecting scour:
Level I Under Water Inspection
Water depth soundings
Visual evidence
(settlements or movements, SKOV-handrail)

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

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Slide 12

Appendix A5, Page 7 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation

If scour is registered, the investigation


must always include an assessment of the
causes of scouring:
General scour caused by contraction of river
flow, possibly because of the presence of the
bridge itself (approaches, abutments, piers),
possibly in combination with abnormal flood
Local scour caused by vortexes at piers, at
edges of river bed protection, or at other
obstacles like debris, timber logs etc. in the
river

The cause of the scour can be upstream or


downstream

Slide 13

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation

Upstream conditions
Stable/unstable banks?
Main channel clear and open, without debris, islands, etc.?
Main channel perpendicular to bridge?

Conditions at bridge site, substructure


Settlement, displacement or rotation of piers and abutments?
Damage to scour countermeasures
Changes in streambed elevation at
foundations (undermining)
Scour holes

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A5, Page 8 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation

Conditions at bridge site,


superstructure
Evidence of overtopping by
flood can superstructure resist
horizontal forces from high
floods?
Will the superstructure collect
debris or does it present a
large surface to the flow?

Saudi Arabia. Superstructure found


100 m from bridge site

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 15

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation

Conditions at bridge site, channel


protection
Riprap, gabions or stone pitching intact or
undermined?
Guide banks in place?
Are the existing scour countermeasures
adequate?

Downstream conditions
Stable/unstable banks?
Main channel clear and open, without
debris, islands, etc.?
Main channel perpendicular to bridge?

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A5, Page 9 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation, registrations of geometry of riverbed

Divers registrations (sketches of foundations with indication of


riverbeds location, registration of bottom condition
(mud/rock/riverbed protection)

Slide 17

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation, registrations of geometry of riverbed

Manual depth measuring (plumb line), single readings

Soundings/single readings

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A5, Page 10 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Scour Investigation, registrations of geometry of riverbed

Manual depth measuring (plumb line), single readings

Soundings/single
readings

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 19

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)

Soundings/area registrations
Soundings/area registrations
Automatic sounding from vessel, GPS positioning
Automatic sounding from vessel, GPS positioning
3-D presentation of results
3-D presentation of results

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A5, Page 11 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Level I inspection Reporting:
Condition rating:
9: Excellent condition.
8: Very good condition. No problems noted.
7: Good condition. Some minor problems.
6: Satisfactory condition. Some minor problems.
5: Fair condition. All primary structural components are sound but may have
minor section loss, cracking, spalling or scour.
4: Poor condition. Advanced section loss, deterioration, spalling or scour.

Slide 21

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Condition rating:
3: Serious condition. Loss of section, deterioration, spalling or scour has
seriously affected primary structural components. Local failures are possible.
Fatigue cracks in steel or shear cracks in concrete may be present.
2: Critical condition. Advanced deterioration of primary structural components.
Fatigue cracks in steel or shear cracks in concrete may be present or scour
may have removed substructure support. Unless closely monitored it may be
necessary to close the bridge until corrective action is taken.
1: Imminent failure condition. Major deterioration or section loss present in
critical structural components or obvious vertical or horizontal movement
affecting structural stability. The bridge is closed to traffic but corrective
action may put back in light service.
0: Failed condition. Out of service beyond corrective action.
N Not applicable.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A5, Page 12 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Reporting sheet:

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 23

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Level I inspection, reporting

Supplement the report form


with
Description of any significant
damage
Sketches of any significant
damage
Photos / video
If signs of deterioration is
observed a level II or a level
III inspection may be
required.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A5, Page 13 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Level I Inspection and Scour Investigation

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


Level I inspection, reporting

Slide 25

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Level II Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level II:
Detailed inspection requiring parts of the structure to be cleaned of
marine growth.
The cleaning of piers and abutments are performed in areas of app.
0.30 m x 0.30 m in 3 different levels on each face of the element.
The thoroughness of cleaning should be governed by what is
necessary to identify and register the condition of the underlying
material.
Damaged areas should be measured and the extent and severity of
the damage should be documented.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A5, Page 14 of 18

UWI-Course

3. Level II Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level II:
Where to clean surfaces for closer inspection
Piles:
25 cm high bands
of the perimeter
in 3 different levels
Splash zone (low waterline)
Mudline (bottom of river)
Midway between low waterline and mudline

Concentrate on damaged and suspicious


areas, but also include apparently
undamaged areas
Horizontal section in piles
Slide 27

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Level II Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level II:
Where to clean surfaces for closer inspection
Piers and abutments (solid elements):
Areas of app. 0.30 m x 0.30 m
In 3 different levels
Splash zone (low waterline)
Mudline (bottom of river)
At construction joints or other structural details. If no such exist, midway
between low waterline and mudline

On each face of the element.


Concentrate on damaged and suspicious areas, but also include
apparently undamaged areas

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A5, Page 15 of 18

UWI-Course

3. Level II Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level II Reporting:
As level I, supplemented by sketches showing where the surface of
structures has been cleaned for closer inspection.

Slide 29

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Level II Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level II Reporting:

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A5, Page 16 of 18

UWI-Course

4. Level III Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI - Level III:
Highly detailed inspection of critical structures, structural
components, or members where extensive repair or possible
replacement is contemplated.
Hidden or interior damage must be detected.
Loss of cross sectional area must be detected.
The material homogeneity must be evaluated.
The level III inspection includes extensive cleaning, detailed
measurements and selected Non Destructive Tests.

Slide 31

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

4. Level III Inspection

The Under Water Inspection (UWI)


UWI Level III Reporting

Inspection report on a scientific level


Description of the structure and the problem
Presentation of the test methods used
The registrations (measurements/test results)
Evaluation of the registrations (What is wrong? What will
happen if nothing is done? What should be done ?)
Recommendations for remedial actions

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A5, Page 17 of 18

UWI-Course

Levels of Under Water Inspection


References

FHWA-DP-80-01, Underwater Inspection of Bridges, US


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
November 1989
(Basis for the inspections to be performed for Indian Railways)

FHWA-DP-98-01, Underwater evaluation and repair of bridge


components, US Department of Transportation, Federal
Highway Administration, November 1995.

Shawn, K., Underwater Inspection Criteria, Naval Facilities


Engineering Service Center, 1999.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 33

Appendix A5, Page 18 of 18

APPENDIX A6
Practical Considerations on Underwater Work

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A6, Page 1 of 24

UWI-Course

Under Water Inspection


Conditions for Effective Inspection.
Diving Equipment & Safety.
Methodology Adapted.
Surface Cleaning Equipment.
Distress Features.
Pilot Project An Introduction.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 2 of 24

UWI-Course

CONDITIONS FOR DIVING.

Water Level, Current & Tides


Turbidity, Pollution & Visibility
Temperature & Accessibility
Divers Health Condition.
Vessel Movement (if any)

CONDITIONS FOR DIVING.


Water Level, Current & Tides.
Depth is inversely proportional to Effective Diving time.
Upto 30m Normal diving conditions apply.
Beyond 30m Saturation Diving with High precision.
High water currents also effect the diving time.
Would reduce the clarity of the picture.
Tidal variations effect the working time.
Tidal variations also bring lot of turbidity.
Tidal variations effect Divers movements.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 3 of 24

UWI-Course

CONDITIONS FOR DIVING.


Turbidity, Pollution & Visibility.
More Turbidity means less Visibility.

Less Visibility - Diver Unable to Assess Visually.


Most of the assessment through CCTV system
Needs to communicate with diver continously.
Clear Water Boxes might help the surface crew.
Most of the Inspection using Touch & Feel.
Calls for experience Divers.
Surface Crew needs to be Patient.

CONDITIONS FOR DIVING.


Temperature & Accessibility
More the temperature & Less would be diving time.

Efficiency would also gets reduced.


Protective Clothing may help a bit.
Accessibility to target is very important.
Common example is group of piles.
Inaccessible areas may be hazardous.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 4 of 24

UWI-Course

CONDITIONS FOR DIVING


DIVERS HEALTH
Frequent health check up of diver is needed.
Time gap between two dives should be maximum poss.
Certified Doctors are available to issue fitness certificate.
Avoid sending Divers showing Respiratory disorders.
Diving Supervisor educated in Common Health req.
Responsible for his teams health & Diet.

Diving Equipment
1. KMB Helmet.
2. Divers Radio.
3. Demand Valve.
4. Masks, Fins & Suits.
5. Surface Supplied Air.
6. LP Compressor.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 5 of 24

UWI-Course

DIVING EQUIPMENT
KMB HELMET

Light Weight and easily worn.


Robust & Rugged for rough handling.
Equipped with headphones & Microphone.
Allows to communicate while breathing.
Covers the complete face & hence safe.
Allows free movement to diver.
Highly safe at any water depths.

DIVING EQUIPMENT
DIVERS RADIO

Two way communication System.


Allows to be used as round robin or
simulcom systems.
Enables live inspection of work.
Enables ease of understanding.
Enables recording of communication.
Can also be used for deep sea diving.
Simple in operation.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 6 of 24

UWI-Course

DIVING EQUIPMENT
DEMAND VALVE

Held by the Diver between his jaws.


Enables supply of air to diver.
No means of communication.
Used either by stand by divers.
Or for small repair works.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Hard wired, two way communication.


Available for single or two divers.
Operates either two wire or 4 wire ( simulcom)
Two wire operation Single comm. Path.
Divers path is always open Preference.
A Push to Talk Button allows tender to spk. To diver.
Headphone with Mic can be used.
Simulcom is a dual communication path.
A Pair of wires for Up link & a pair for down link.
Common Example is the Telephone.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 7 of 24

UWI-Course

UNDERWATER VIDEO
I.

Hand held Digital Camera Encased in a Waterproof


case with fixed focus & recording arrangement.
9Proceedings recorded by the diver.
9 Shown to Engineers after reaching the surface.
9 Edited & Subtitles added for easy understanding.
9No chance of watching live proceedings .
9Diver needs to go back again to confirm distress.
9Measurement of distresses possible.

UNDERWATER VIDEO
I.

Hand held Digital Camera Encased in a Waterproof


case with fixed focus & recording arrangement.

Video Clip

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 8 of 24

UWI-Course

UNDERWATER VIDEO
II.

Hand held VHF / DIGITAL bullet camera Encased in


a Waterproof case with fixed focus & connected to
monitor at top.
9Proceedings watched live.
9Proceedings recorded in either VCR / DVR.
9Radio attached to Diver helps comm.
9Communications also are recorded.
9Personnel at shore can direct the diver
while watching live.
9Very helpful in areas where visibility is
zero.
9 Measurement of distress accurate.

UNDERWATER VIDEO
II.

Hand held VHF / DIGITAL bullet camera Encased in


a Waterproof case with fixed focus & connected to
monitor at top.

Video Clip

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 9 of 24

UWI-Course

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
COMPRESSOR

AIR FILTER

DIVERS RADIO

CCTV SYSTEM

DIVERS
KMB
HELMET
CONNECTED
TO DIVERS
HAND HELD
CAMERA

METHODOLOGY ADAPTED

Divide the periphery into equal intervals Chainage.


Give notations to the chainages.
Drop a Wire rope with weight as guide line.
Guide line shall be divided in equal levels RLs.
Entire surface is divided in equal grids.
Adapt a standard bench mark to report Relative levels.
Diver descends along the chainage covering each grid.
The same shall be recorded grid wise.
Distresses shall be located & measured.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 10 of 24

UWI-Course

METHODOLOGY ADAPTED
Proceedings can be watched live on CCTV system.
All communication done using Divers radio.
Zero visibility areas touch & Feel method.
Distress features are measured in three dimensions.
Features shall be located w.r.t. grid.
Diver needs to be briefed before every inspection.
Extract the information from diver.
Bed details near the periphery shall be reported.
Scour depth shall be recorded by sounding.

DISTRESS FEATURES IN STRUCTURES


MASONRY
PEELED JOINTS

SCOOPED BRICKS

POT HOLES

CAVITIES

India 2005/2006

CONCRETE
CRACKS
BARS EXPOSED

HONEY COMBING

CAVITIES

Appendix A6, Page 11 of 24

UWI-Course

JOINTS WITHOUT ANY DISTRESS

DISTRESSED JOINTS IN BR. 333

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 12 of 24

UWI-Course

DISTRESSED JOINTS

Bridge No. 215 Subarnareka.

JOINTS FOUND OPEN AT ALL PLACES.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 13 of 24

UWI-Course

Bridge No. 215 KGP Division.

CLOSER VIEW OF PEELED JOINTS.

Bridge No. 215- KGP Division

CAVITY IN PIER P11 OF 215 UP AT BED LEVEL.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 14 of 24

UWI-Course

Bridge No. 215 KGP Division

POT HOLES AT MANY LOCATIONS.

Bridge No. 57 KGP DIVISION.

JOINTS FOUND OPEN

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 15 of 24

UWI-Course

Bridge No. 57 Rupnarayan.

MORTAR LEECHED OUT OF THE JOINTS

PEELED JOINTS IN MASONRY

BR.13CCR

India 2005/2006

BR. 217

Br.333

Appendix A6, Page 16 of 24

UWI-Course

CAVITY FORMED IN MASONRY


DUE TO SCOOPING OF BRICKS

Video Clip

BRIDGE NO. 2A IN SDAH DIVISION.

CAVITIES FORMED IN MASONRY

CAVITY IN PIER P3
P2
OF TAWA BRIDGE

CAVITY IN PIERS OF TAWA BRIDGE

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 17 of 24

UWI-Course

CRACK FORMED IN CONCRETE


PIER

Video Clip

BRIDGE IN NORTH FRONTIER RAILWAY

EXPOSED REINFORCEMENT
DIAPHRAGM WALL OF JETTY AT KAKINADA
DEEP WATER PORT,
KAKINADA, ANDHRAPRADESH

Video Clip

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 18 of 24

UWI-Course

CAVITIES IN RCC DIAPHRAGM WALL


CAVITIES FORMED IN DIAPHRAGM WALL OF
JETTY AT KDWP
KAKINADA, ANDHRAPRADESH

Video Clip

PILOT PROJECT - SCOPE

Bridges Covered :

India 2005/2006

1.

Thane Creek Bridge Vashi.

2.

Kisna Bridge Nagpur

3.

Dham Bridge Nagpur.

4.

Bheema Bridge Daund.

5.

Mumbra Bridge Mumbra

Appendix A6, Page 19 of 24

UWI-Course

PILOT PROJECT - SCOPE


Thane Creek Bridge Vashi
9 Concrete piers with avg. 10m water depth
9Inspection of 10 piers using Level I(Swim by) method.
9 CCTV arrangement on Boat.
9 Visibility Poor to Nil.
9 Diver covers the entire pier area.
9 Concentrates on Distress locations If any.
9 Sort of Aerial survey.
9 Effect of Tides can be understood.
9 Scour depth measurement .

PILOT PROJECT - SCOPE


KISNA & DHAM BRIDGE
9 Masonry Piers Two from each bridge.
9 Visibility Satisfactory.
9 CCTV arrangement on shore / track refuge.
9 Level I as discussed above.
9 Level II Three locations of 1 x 1 on each face.
9 Each location Cleaned Manually.
9 Each location Shown on Video camera.
9 Scour Depth Measurement.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 20 of 24

UWI-Course

PILOT PROJECT - SCOPE


BHEEMA BRIDGE
9 Concrete Piers Five piers with Avg. 25m depth.
9 Visibility Clear.
9 Concrete Distresses if any can be seen clearly.
9 Distress Measurement.
9 CCTV arrangement on Boat / Pantoon.
9 Ideal site for training.
9 Level I as discussed above.
9 Scour Depth Measurement.

CLEANING METHODS
VERY IMPORTANT FOR EFFECTIVE BOND
HYDROJETTING - HIGH PRESSURE WATER JETS
SCRAPPING PNEUMATIC SCRABBLERS.
ABRADING PNEUMATIC ROTARY BRUSHES.
CHIPPING PNEUMATIC HAMMERS.

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 21 of 24

UWI-Course

CLEANING EQUIPMENT
HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET

CLEANING EQUIPMENT
PNEUMATIC SCRABBLER

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 22 of 24

UWI-Course

HYDROJETTING OF RCC
SURFACE

Video Clip

PREPARED SURFACE

Video Clip

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 23 of 24

UWI-Course

India 2005/2006

Appendix A6, Page 24 of 24

APPENDIX A7
Underwater Repair Methods

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A7, Page 1 of 28

UWI-Course

Under Water Repair

Agenda
General working conditions (repair under water or remove the
water)
Most relevant methods for
Remedy of undermining
Pier and abutment repairs
Concrete
Masonry

Pile repairs
Cathodic protection
Scour protection

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A7, Page 2 of 28

UWI-Course

Working conditions
Two general options for repairing under water structures:
Repair under water (wet repairs)
Remove the water and repair in dry conditions (dry repairs)

Most repairs can be performed wet, i.e. under water


Better quality can be achieved by creating dry conditions
Only the specific conditions at the individual projects can
determine which option is best

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide

Working conditions
Factors that influence the choice of wet/dry repair:
The type and duration of work to be performed:
Small jobs with a short duration cannot justify the costs of the
interim works needed to achieve dry conditions unless the works
can actually only be performed satisfactorily in dry conditions
Quality control/supervision:
In dry repairs normal repair techniques can be used, and the
supervisors can follow the work under normal conditions.
In wet repairs the supervising engineer is restricted to follow the
work by video and photos

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A7, Page 3 of 28

UWI-Course

Working conditions
Factors that influence the choice of wet/dry repair:
The depth:
Working at large depths reduces the effective working time for wet
methods, but it will also make the dry solution more expensive
because the interim structures must be able to resist the larger
water pressure
Environment protection:
If polluting methods are used in wet repair, pollution of the water
is difficult to avoid. In dry repairs the pollution can better be
controlled.
Availability of qualified contractors for under water work

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Working Conditions, Dry Repairs


Methods for establishing dry conditions:
Cofferdam
Partial Cofferdam
Portable dams
Dikes / diversion of the river

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A7, Page 4 of 28

UWI-Course

Cofferdam
The cofferdam is
expensive, but it provides
very good working
conditions
It is used for construction
as well as for repair works

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide

Cofferdam
Items to consider before deciding on a cofferdam:
Bottom materials (the possibility of driving the steel sheet piling,
and resistance against water ingress)
Existing foundations or other obstacles
Water level variation
Current
Waterway traffic (risk of ship impact, influence on traffic capacity)
Clearance under bridge deck (driving of sheet piling requires
headroom under the bridge)

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A7, Page 5 of 28

UWI-Course

Partial Cofferdam
Can be used for small repairs
Relatively easy to establish compared to the full cofferdam
Can be moved to allow step-by-step repairs of larger areas
Requires even surface of the pier / abutment

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide

Portable cofferdam
Portadam By Portadam Inc.

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A7, Page 6 of 28

UWI-Course

Dikes /diverting the river


For large construction works on moderate depths it may be
feasible to construct dikes and in some cases even diverting the
whole river to another alignment in the construction period.
Another option is to build an artificial island, excavate for the
construction site within the island, and finally remove the whole
island again
These options will normally be most relevant for new
construction works.
The influence on the river environment can be massive and must
be studied carefully before decision is taken
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

Pier and abutment repairs

India 2005/2006

Appendix A7, Page 7 of 28

UWI-Course

Pier and abutment repairs


Remedy of Undermining
Concrete
Hand patching
Concrete casting
Injection of cracks

Masonry
Mortar joints
Stone replacement
Concrete replacement for missing stones
Encasement with concrete
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

Undermining
Grouted stone
The scour hole is filled with
stones
The voids are grouted /
injected with cement mortar

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A7, Page 8 of 28

UWI-Course

Undermining
Cofferdam repair

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

Pier and abutment repairs


Hand patching of concrete (for minor repairs)
Materials:
Cement mortar
Hydraulic mortars, pre-packed including fibres and additives
Epoxy or polymer mortars

Application
Remove weak concrete
Mix the mortar
Apply with trowel or similar tools
Note that pot life can be short for the chemical types

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A7, Page 9 of 28

UWI-Course

Pier and abutment repairs


Concrete casting, e.g. encasement around deteriorated pier, procedure
(I):
Cleaning of concrete and exposed reinforcement / removal of weak existing
concrete
Hammer/chisel
Wire brush (on reinforcement)
Water jetting
Abrasive blasting

Establishment of anchors in existing concrete


Expansion anchors
Grouted anchors (cement or resin)

Possibly supplementary reinforcement


Placing of formwork

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

Pier and abutment repairs


Concrete casting, e.g.
encasement around deteriorated
pier, procedure (II):

Tremie

Placement of concrete
In dry (e.g. behind cofferdam,
casting as on land)
Pumped (as on land)
With Tremie
Pre-placed Aggregate

In any case, Anti-Washout


admixtures are used

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A7, page 10 of 28

UWI-Course

Pier and abutment repairs


Concrete casting, e.g.
encasement around deteriorated
pier, procedure (II):

Pump

Placement of concrete
In dry (e.g. behind cofferdam,
casting as on land)
Pumped (as on land)
With Tremie
Pre-placed Aggregate

In any case, Anti-Washout


admixtures are used

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

Pier and abutment repairs


Injection of cracks
A well performed injection will
seal the crack and restore the
strength across it
Injection material will
normally be epoxy resin

Crack

Sealant

Injection starts at the lowest


pipe
When the injection material
comes out of the next tube,
the first one is blocked and
injection proceeds from the
next one
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Injection pipe

Slide 20

Appendix A7, page 11 of 28

UWI-Course

Pier and abutment repairs


Masonry, mortar joints
Weak mortar is removed
water jetting
hand tools

New mortar is applied with pointing trowel

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

Pier and abutment repairs


Masonry, stone replacement
Remove all weak mortar
Position the replacement
stone with spacers
Grout all voids on all sides
of the stone with cement
based mortar

Cross section
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A7, Page 12 of 28

UWI-Course

Pier and abutment repairs


Masonry, concrete
replacement for missing
stones
Remove all weak
mortar

Vent

Fasten formwork
with injection tube and
vent tube securely

Concrete
pumped in

Pump concrete into the


injection tube until it
comes out of the vent
tube

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

Pier and abutment repairs


Masonry, encasement with concrete
Performed like jacket on concrete pier.

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A7, Page 13 of 28

UWI-Course

Pile Repairs

Pile Repairs
Replacement
Partial replacement
Pile wraps
Jackets (encasements)
Crack injection (as described under pier and abutment repairs)

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A7, Page 14 of 28

UWI-Course

Pile Repairs
Replacement
Will often consist in driving new piles
next to the damaged one.
The old piles will only be removed
(fully or partly) if they are in the way
for the new piles.
It will for practical reasons like
insufficient headroom under the
bridge normally be necessary to
place the new piles outside the
existing pile cap and often outside
the bridge. The static behaviour of
the revised pile group must be
considered carefully, and an
extension/strengthening of the pier
or pile cap will often be required

Existing
pier

Encasement
well
anchored in
pile

New pile

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

Pile Repairs
Partial replacement or
strengthening
In many cases the damage to
the piles is restricted to a small
part of the pile (splash zone)
In that case a partial
replacement can be considered
Partial replacement is mostly
used on steel piles.
Splices can be welded or bolted
Strengthening can be a better
alternative

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Strengthening of H-profile
by two channel sections
bolted to the web

Slide 28

Appendix A7, page 15 of 28

UWI-Course

Pile Repairs
Pile wraps
Corrosion of steel and scaling of concrete can be inhibited by
wrapping the pile in a tight fabric.
Various systems exist

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

Pile Repairs
Jackets (encasements)
A very common repair of deteriorated piles of steel and concrete is
applying a reinforced concrete jacket that will protect the
remaining pile and add strength
Procedure:
Remove all weak material
Arrange reinforcement of the jacket
Establish formwork (flexible and rigid standard forms are available)
Grout with concrete

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A7, Page 16 of 28

UWI-Course

Pile Repairs
Jackets (encasements)
A very common repair of deteriorated piles of steel and concrete is
applying a reinforced concrete jacket that will protect the
remaining pile and add strength
Procedure:
Remove all weak material
Arrange reinforcement of the jacket
Establish formwork (flexible and rigid standard forms are available)
Grout with concrete

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

Pile Repairs
Crack injection
A well performed injection
will seal the crack and
restore the strength across it
Injection material will
normally be epoxy resin

Crack

Sealant

Injection starts at the lowest


pipe
When the injection material
comes out of the next tube,
the first one is blocked and
injection proceeds from the
next one

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Injection pipe

Slide 32

Appendix A7, Page 17 of 28

UWI-Course

Cathodic Protection

Cathodic Protection
What is corrosion?

Corrosion is the process of iron ions leaving the steel surface because of en
electric field.
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A7, Page 18 of 28

UWI-Course

Cathodic Protection
What is corrosion?

The electric field that causes corrosion is due to different electrochemical


potentials.
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 35

Cathodic Protection

The current of iron ions can be stopped by applying an electric


potential of the opposide direction

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 36

Appendix A7, Page 19 of 28

UWI-Course

Cathodic Protection

The reversed current is created by establishing an electric field


between en external anode and the steel surface.
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 37

Cathodic Protection

Two types: Impressed current vs. sacrificial anodes

Impressed current

Sacrificial anodes

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 38

Appendix A7, Page 20 of 28

UWI-Course

Cathodic Protection

Impressed current vs. sacrificial anodes

Sacrificial Anodes

Anodes for impressed current for


sheet piling
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 39

Cathodic Protection

Impressed current for under water concrete


Large anodes for large structures
with little need for current

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 40

Appendix A7, Page 21 of 28

UWI-Course

Cathodic Protection
Sacrificial anodes for concrete above water

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 41

Cathodic Protection

Typical need for current (per square meter of steel surface)

Uncoated steel sheet piling in sea


water: 50-100 mA/m2
Reinforcement inconcrete:
1-10 mA/m2
above water
0,5 1,5 mA/m2 under water

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 42

Appendix A7, Page 22 of 28

UWI-Course

Cathodic Protection
Operation cost for 1 km of steel sheet piling
Impressed Current: 50.000 kWh/year
Sacrificial Anodes: 3300 kg Al/year

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 43

Great Belt Bridge

Major damage is repaired


Cracks in caisson under water will
not be repaired; instead, cathodic
protection is established
Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 44

Appendix A7, Page 23 of 28

UWI-Course

Great Belt Bridge, cathodic protection of


caisson
Sacrificial Anodes mounted on
racks connected to the
reinforcement

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 45

Great Belt Bridge


Control of sacrificial anodes under water

Simple potential mapping


= check of anodes

Verification of
protection:

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

- Anodes disconnected
- Anodes re-connected
Slide 46

Appendix A7, Page 24 of 28

UWI-Course

Great Belt Bridge


Control of sacrificial anodes under water

Anode consumption after 12 years:

15-35% for piers in 7-19 m water


50% for piers in 25 m water

Standard expected life (90% utilisation)

5 - 50 years

Average current produced

1-4A

Actual current produced

0.5 1.5 A = 20-30 years remaining service life

(1992-2004)

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 47

Scour Protection

India 2005/2006

Appendix A7, Page 25 of 28

UWI-Course

Scour Protection
Riprap
Sheet pile containment
Jet Grouted Underpinning
Bottom Paving

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 49

Scour Protection
Riprap
Consists in stones, large enough
not to be moved by the current
Can be used as prevention
Can be used for filling of scour
holes
Design formulas for dimensioning
are uncertain. Therefore, riprap
should be monitored

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 50

Appendix A7, Page 26 of 28

UWI-Course

Scour Protection
Sheet pile containment
Very efficient
Rather expensive
Reduces river cross section
and will thereby increase the
risk of scour

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 51

Scour Protection
Jet Grouted Underpinning:
Water/cement slurry is sprayed into the soil at high pressure
Thereby, the soil is converted into concrete
It is possible to drill through foundations and create columns
underneath

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 52

Appendix A7, Page 27 of 28

UWI-Course

Scour Protection
Bottom Paving, can be useful to prevent general scour
Types:
Gabions (stone filled wire baskets)
Riprap (stones large enough to not be moved by the current)
Grouted fabric mattresses
Cast-in-place concrete

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 53

Under Water Repair- 21 February, 2006

Slide 54

The End

India 2005/2006

Appendix A7, Page 28 of 28

APPENDIX A8
Case The Kalvebod Bridge

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A8, Page 1 of 27

UWI-Course

Case: Kalvebod Bridge

UWI - Concrete

Introduction
2005 A busy year at Kalvebod:
Principal Inspection
Level I and II Under Water
Investigation
Special inspection of chloride
ingress in piers
Repair of 3 fenders

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A8, Page 2 of 27

UWI-Course

Introduction
Two sets of twin bridges
Build in 1978 1982
Post tensioned concrete box girder bridge
Very good concrete quality

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Back Ground Material
2. Visual Survey
3. Under Water Inspection
4. Repair of Fender

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A8, Page 3 of 27

UWI-Course

1. Back Ground Material

UWI - Concrete

1. Back Ground Material

Plan

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A8, Page 4 of 27

UWI-Course

1. Back Ground Material

Reinforcement

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Back Ground Material

Concrete Cover

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A8, Page 5 of 27

UWI-Course

1. Back Ground Material

Drawing of Pier and seabed

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide

2. Visual Survey

UWI - Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A8, Page 6 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection


Zoom photos from afar
Principal inspection a very
thorough visual survey
All external faces of all piers
inspected from negative lift
All interior parts of the piers
inspected through hatch

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A8, Page 7 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A8, Page 8 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A8, Page 9 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Principal Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection


Special Inspection of corrosion
and chloride
Thorough visual inspection from
raft
Visual registration is included in
the interpretation of the Under
Water Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A8, Page 10 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A8, Page 11 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A8, Page 12 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

2. Visual Survey

Photos Special Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A8, Page 13 of 27

UWI-Course

2. Visual Survey

Sketches

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

3. Under Water Inspection

UWI - Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A8, Page 14 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey
2. Forecast of Results Creating a
Hypothesis
3. Selection of Test Areas
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

Visual all piers


Cleaning of selected areas
4 underwater cores

5. Practical Preparations

Experienced diving crew

6. To Bring (tools)

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Pier footing

A lot of marine growth

No spalling beneath the water

No sign of scour

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A8, Page 15 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Pier footing

A lot of marine growth

No spalling beneath the water

No sign of scour

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A8, Page 16 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Measurement of depth
Measurements at corners
Tide: app. 0.5 m in difference
No significant development
No scour

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Pier face:

Cracks

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A8, Page 17 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Pier face:

Cracks

Wires from
casting

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 33

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Pier face:

Cracks

Wires from
casting

Repair of
core

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A8, Page 18 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection
Larger hole in concrete footing?

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 35

3. Under Water Inspection

Measurement of depth
Measurements at corners
Scour ?
Is the footing visible?

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 36

Appendix A8, Page 19 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection
Visible footing?
Scour?
Sever Problem?

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 37

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 38

Appendix A8, Page 20 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 39

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection

Pier
shaft

Deadweight

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 40

Appendix A8, Page 21 of 27

UWI-Course

3. Under Water Inspection

Visual Inspection
Harmless hole from formwork in deadweight

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 41

3. Under Water Inspection

Measurement of depth
No scour
No problem!

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 42

Appendix A8, Page 22 of 27

UWI-Course

4. Repair of Fender

UWI - Concrete

4. Repair of Fender

10 meters of fender missing

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 44

Appendix A8, Page 23 of 27

UWI-Course

4. Repair of Fender

10 meters of fender missing


Anchor rod intact
Limited corrosion
No bolt
Corrosion of
bolts?
Rotting timber?
Theft?

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 45

4. Repair of Fender

10 meters of fender missing


Anchor rod
missing
Expansion part
intact
Stainless steel
Corrosion of
bolts?
Rotting timber?
Theft?

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 46

Appendix A8, Page 24 of 27

UWI-Course

4. Repair of Fender

10 meters of fender missing


Anchor rod
missing
Expansion part
intact
Stainless steel
Corrosion of
bolts?
Rotting timber?
Theft?

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 47

4. Repair of Fender

10 meters of fender missing


Rotting timber
Larger investigation in 2006

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 48

Appendix A8, Page 25 of 27

UWI-Course

4. Repair of Fender

New Fender Timber with resin

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

Slide 49

4. Repair of Fender

New Fender - Inspection


Inspection of repair with normal
digital camera in casing on stick
Fast investigation
Documentation

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 50

Appendix A8, Page 26 of 27

UWI-Course

4. Repair of Fender

New Fender - Inspection

Case - Kalvebod 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 51

Appendix A8, Page 27 of 27

APPENDIX A9
Case Power Plant: Asnaes

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A9, Page 1 of 21

UWI-Course

Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge

Case: Power Plant - Asnaes

Introduction

Power Plant
Asnaes

Inspection of
outlet channel

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A9, Page 2 of 21

UWI-Course

Introduction

The outlet channel is constructed in two phases:


1974: 500 m of the southern part (section B, C and part of section A).

1978: Section D, E and part of section A.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

Slide

Introduction

Outlet of warm water from the power plant

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A9, Page 3 of 21

UWI-Course

Introduction
Principal
Principal
Inspection
Inspection

Inventory
Inventory

Special
Special
Inspection
Inspection
Priority
Priority
Ranking
Ranking
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation
Design
Design
Execution
Execution of
of
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation

Severe corrosion of
large areas of the
steel sheet pilings
was observed.

A special inspection
was required to
estimate the extent
of damage and to
evaluate repair
strategies.

Routine
Routine
Inspection
Inspection

Routine
Routine
Maintenance
Maintenance

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

Slide

Introduction

Section D: Local corrosion

Section C: Severe corrosion

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A9, Page 4 of 21

UWI-Course

Introduction

Principal
Principal
Inspection
Inspection

Inventory
Inventory

Routine
Routine
Inspection
Inspection

Measurements of the
remaining thickness.

Special
Special
Inspection
Inspection
Priority
Priority
Ranking
Ranking
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation
Design
Design
Execution
Execution of
of
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation

Routine
Routine
Maintenance
Maintenance

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide

Slide

Introduction
1. Planning.
2. Structural Assessment.
3. Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge Measurements.
4. Evaluation.
5. General Considerations of Repair Methods.
6. Conclusion.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A9, Page 5 of 21

UWI-Course

1. Planning

Special Inspection

1. Planning

Planning phase
Visual Inspection from a raft
Homogeneous Areas (visual
damage, age, warm water
outlet)

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A9, Page 6 of 21

UWI-Course

1. Planning

Planning phase
Visual Inspection from a raft

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 11

1. Planning

Planning phase
Homogeneous Areas from visual
inspection:
The southern steel sheet piling
was in the worst condition.
Less laminating and corrosion
product below the normal water
level.
Warm water outlet in section A
and B.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A9, Page 7 of 21

UWI-Course

1. Planning

Planning phase
Test plan:
16 test location in
sections C and D

Slide 13

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

1. Planning

Planning phase
Test plan:
8 measurements were planned at
each test location along section C
Steel Sheet Piling

Anchoring of
bolts

Raft
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A9, Page 8 of 21

UWI-Course

1. Planning

Planning phase
2 test locations in
section A
Section I

LWL

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 15

2. Structural Assessment

Special Inspection

India 2005/2006

Appendix A9, Page 9 of 21

UWI-Course

2. Structural Assessment

Calculations
4 different sections represent the structure with regard to the structural
behaviour.
Calculations are carried out in the 4 sections.

Section 1 Section 1A
Section 2

Section 3

Slide 17

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

2. Structural Assessment

Calculations - Result
Moment [kN/m]

The general distribution of the


stress dimensioning forces is
determined.

Level

Anchor

Maximum moment

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A9, Page 10 of 21

UWI-Course

3. Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge

Measurements

3. Ultra Sonic Thickness Gauge

Preparations and measurements


Removal of loose corrosion
products and laminations at
the test locations by hammer.
Grinding for a plane surface.
Measurement of remaining
thickness.
Calibration of measurements
by drilling few small holes.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A9, Page 11 of 21

UWI-Course

3. Ultra Sonic Thickness Gauge

Preparations

Slide 21

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

3. Ultra Sonic Thickness Gauge

Results
Section C and D Level 0,4 0,7
Number of measurements

Number of measurements

Section C and D Level 1,6-1,7

Thickness [mm]

Thickness [mm]
Section C and D Level 0,2 0,3
Number of measurements

Number of measurements

Section C and D Level 0,9 1,1

Thickness [mm]
Thickness [mm]
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A9, Page 12 of 21

UWI-Course

3. Ultra Sonic Thickness Gauge

Results
Number of measurements

Section A - Web

Section A - Flange

Number of measurements

Thickness
Thickness

Thickness
Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,
2006

Slide 23

3. Ultra Sonic Thickness Gauge

Results - Variations
Section A:
In the level from the anchorage and downwards the thickness is
almost constant.
Above the level of anchorage the thickness is larger in location 18
compared to location 17.

Section C and D:
Northern part: Relative constant thickness in the different levels
along the steel sheet piling.
Southern part: Little variation in the thickness in two levels at the
top of the piling along the steel sheet piling. Relative constant
thickness in lower test locations along the steel sheet piling.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A9, Page 13 of 21

UWI-Course

4. Evaluation

Residual Thickness Measurements and Structural


Calculations

4. Evaluation

Evaluation of Measurements
Section A Conservative values for the residual thickness:
Level
[m]

Thickness Web [mm]

Thickness Flange [mm]

1,7-1,9

4,5

6,0

1,2-1,4

5,5

5,0

0,7-0,9

5,0

5,0

0,2-0,4

7,5

7,5

-0,1-0,1

8,5

8,5

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A9, Page 14 of 21

UWI-Course

4. Evaluation

Evaluation of Measurements
Section C and D Conservative values for the residual thickness:
Level
[m]

Thickness
Thickness
Section D [mm] Section C [mm]

1,6-1,7

9,0

6,5

0,9-1,1

8,0

5,5

0,4-0,7

7,0

6,5

0,2-0,3

7,5

7,5

This corresponds to the division in homogeneous areas based on the visual inspection as
section C is the southern steel sheet piling and section D is the northern part.
Slide 27

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

4. Evaluation

Evaluation - Calculations
Moment [kN/m]

Based on the distribution of the


forces and the measurements
of the residual thickness the
safety level of the structure is
evaluated in 4 levels:

Level

Anchor

Anchorage level.
Level -0,2 m
Level -0,9 m

Maximum moment

Level of maximum moment

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A9, Page 15 of 21

UWI-Course

4. Evaluation

Calculations
Section 1
(south)

Section 1A
(south)

Section 2
(south)

Section 2
(north)

Section 3
(south)

Section 3
(north)

tresidual [mm]

8,7 / 5,5

trequired [mm]

4,9 / 1,7

2,1

1,7

1,4

1,1

1,6

Utilization

40 %

30 %

25 %

20 %

15 %

25 %

Utilization, anchor

103 %

93 %

57 %

Not
documented

69 %

Not
documented

Utilization, strk

38 %

Not
documented

33 %

Not
documented

60 %

Not
documented

Utilization, bolt

~100 %

Not
documented

~100 %

Not
documented

~100 %

Not
documented

tresidual [mm]

13,2 / 10

9,5

9,5

9,5

9,5

9,5

trequired [mm]

10,5 / 7,3

3,3

2,7

2,7

1,2

1,5

Utilization

67 %

30 %

25 %

25 %

11 %

15 %

Above WL, corroded piling

Below WL, intact piling

Slide 29

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

4. Evaluation

Calculations - Conclusion
1. Construction of anchorage structure in section D is unknown
the structure must be further investigated.
2. Evaluation of steel sheet pilings below water (below level 0,9m) is based on assumption of no corrosion of the pilings.
This should be verified with under water measurements
especially in the section of maximum moment.
3. As the anchors are constructed using high strength steel the
condition of the anchors (hidden behind the steel sheet piling)
is suggested for further inspection.
4. Further investigation of the bolts is suggested based on the
severe corrosion.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A9, Page 16 of 21

UWI-Course

5. Repair Methods

General Considerations of Repair Methods

5. General Considerations of Repair Methods

Repair Strategies Steel Sheet Piling


1. Further investigations to refine the basis material for the
calculations:

Under water measurements of the residual thickness at critical


locations.

Measurements of ground water level behind the steel sheet piling.

More detailed registrations of the water level in the channel.

The constituent of the filling material behind the steel sheet piling
should be investigated (e.g. ground penetration measurements
combined with break ups).

Detailed evaluations of the load from vehicles on the area behind


the steel sheet piling.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A9, Page 17 of 21

UWI-Course

5. General Considerations of Repair Methods

Repair Strategies Steel Sheet Piling


2. Detailed calculations:

Three dimensional models can be used to refine the calculations


at critical parts.

3. Strengthening of the corroded zone:

Concrete shell

Slide 33

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

5. General Considerations of Repair Methods

Repair Strategies Steel Sheet Piling


3. Strengthening of the corroded zone:

Steel plate repair welding of steel plates to the steel sheet


piling in critical areas. E.g. combined with filling with concrete.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A9, Page 18 of 21

UWI-Course

5. General Considerations of Repair Methods

Repair Strategies Steel Sheet Piling


4. Replacement

The typical service life time for steel sheet pilings is 30-40 years.

5. Load reduction of the area behind the steel sheet piling

Restrictions for heavy vehicles

Reduction of the pressure from the ground water (drainage)

Reduction of the earth pressure behind the steel sheet piling


(changing the type of earth to one with a lower density)

Slide 35

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

5. General Considerations of Repair Methods

Repair Strategies Anchorage


1. Further investigations

Mapping of the anchors e.g. by using ground penetration radar.

Condition of the anchors by break ups.

2. Strengthening

Repair or strengthening of deteriorated anchors.

3. Replacement
4. Load reduction of the area behind the steel sheet piling

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 36

Appendix A9, Page 19 of 21

UWI-Course

5. General Considerations of Repair Methods

Repair Strategies Bolts


1. Further investigations

Assessment of the degree of


corrosion.

2. Detailed calculations

Refined calculation models.

3. Replacement
4. Load reduction of the area
behind the steel sheet piling

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

Slide 37

6. Conclusion

Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge Measurements and Structural


Assessment

India 2005/2006

Appendix A9, Page 20 of 21

UWI-Course

6. Conclusion

Conclusion
The client has not decided yet to carry out further inspections or
rehabilitation jobs.

Introduction to Under Water Inspection - 21 February,


2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 39

Appendix A9, Page 21 of 21

APPENDIX A10
Case The Great Belt Link

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A10, Page 1 of 21

UWI-Course

Rambll

Case: Great Belt link


Underwater inspection of concrete piers

Underwater Inspection

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

The task:
- Level 2 inspection
- Residual lifetime of
cathodic protection
- Cores

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

Appendix A10, Page 2 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Piles inspected:
Level 2 inspection: 12
Cathodic protection,
anode inspection: 12
Cathodic protection,
Potentials: 6
Cores: 4 (19 cores)

1 collision
Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

Slide

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Level 2 inspection:
- General inspection program
- Inspection of scaling in the splash zone
- Inspection of repairs

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Appendix A10, Page 3 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Corrosion in cracks formed


during construction was
prevented with cathodic protection
Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Cathodic protection:
8 16 sacrificial aluminum anodes
(20 kg each), placed on holders
connected to the reinforcement

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

Appendix A10, Page 4 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

The reaction of the current from cathodic protection:


4 e- + 2 H2O + O2

4 OH-

Oxygen is consumed

Oxygen diffusion through water saturated concrete is minimal and


current requirement should be reduced significantly when the initial
oxygen is consumed
Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Inspections at cores:
- Risk of freeze/thaw attack
- Risk of sulfate attack
- Water saturation
- Chloride profiles
Moisture content [U%]
0 .0

2 .0

4 .0

6 .0

8 .0

0 -2 0

Depth from surface [mm]

2 0 -4 0
4 0 -6 0
6 0 -8 0
8 0 -1 0 0

K e rn e 2

1 0 0 -1 2 0
1 2 0 -1 4 0
1 4 0 -1 6 0
1 6 0 -1 8 0
1 8 0 -2 0 0
2 0 0 -2 2 0
2 2 0 -2 3 0

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

Appendix A10, Page 5 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Systematic update on chloride ingress

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Chloride profiles, used for:
- Estimation of corrosion initiation
- Evaluation of lifetime modeling (Duracrete)

Fick II

Measured

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 10

Appendix A10, Page 6 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


The diving vessel:
65 ton
1 captain
2 divers
1 chef
Compressor
Welding and torch sticks
Hydraulic drive
High pressure water pump
Decompression tank
Crane
Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 11

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Tender Hj 3 months at The Great Belt


Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 12

Appendix A10, Page 7 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


The diver:
Wetsuit with heating
Camera + light + communication
Glasses for welding
2 layers of latex gloves when
welding
Weight in the water: approx 10 kg

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 13

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


The diver, security:
Air from:
- Compressor
- 300 liters reserve tanks
- Reserve tank a the back
- Air hose: > 500 kg tension

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 14

Appendix A10, Page 8 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


The sea:
Temperature: 16 C
Current 1-2 knots
Waves 1 m

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 15

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Holding the vessel in place:
4 anchors, each approx 250 kg

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 16

Appendix A10, Page 9 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Placing the anchors

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 17

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Returning from placing the anchors

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 18

Appendix A10, Page 10 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Level 2 inspection:
Cleaning the surface with high
pressure water jet

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 19

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Visual registration, cracks:
Corrosion has been detected earlier

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 20

Appendix A10, Page 11 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Level 2 inspection: scaling

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 21

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Main problem from
scaling:
Degradation of concrete
cover = corrosion

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 22

Appendix A10, Page 12 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Anodeconsuption after 12 years:

15-35% for piles at depth 7-15 m


approx. 50% for piles at depth 20 m

Direct estimated residual life time: 5-50 years


Average current output: 1000 3500 mA

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 23

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Simple potential measurements


= anode inspection
Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

Protection measurement requires


disconnection of the anodes
15. Feb. 2006

Slide 24

Appendix A10, Page 13 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

The anode holders were


disconnected from the
reinforcement using a
torch flame.
The anode holders were
afterwards reconnected
to the reinforcement by
welding

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 25

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Measuring
instrument

By connecting the anodes through the


measuring instrument:
The current output of the anodes can
be measured
The residual lifetime of the anodes can
be calculated
(1 Amp = 3,6 kg aluminum anode/year)
Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 26

Appendix A10, Page 14 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Placing the diver from a crane

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 27

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Measurement of half cell potential

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 28

Appendix A10, Page 15 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Measurement from rope and boat

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 29

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Pille 16, instant-off

Pille 16, 16 h depolarisering

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Results:
- Full protection
(<-850 mV)
below water level
- Inconclusive results
from the splash
zone
- Low risk of corrosion
above level +2 m

Slide 30

Appendix A10, Page 16 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of


piers
Additional results from
inspection of the cathodic
protection system:
Residual lifetime of
cathodic protection 20-30
years
Anode range >100 m
Anode consumption:
3 kg/year/pillar

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 31

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Marking of cores

Air driven core drilling creates a lot of bubbles


Hydraulic core drilling is free of bubbles.

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 32

Appendix A10, Page 17 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


After removal of the core,
the hole is photographed
using a usual digital
camera in a underwater
housing

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 33

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Repair:
Holes from
core drilling

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 34

Appendix A10, Page 18 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Grouting of holes after


core drilling

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 35

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 36

Appendix A10, Page 19 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

Problem zone

Pressure

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 37

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers

After removing the formwork

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 38

Appendix A10, Page 20 of 21

UWI-Course

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Results from inspection of cores:
Corrosion in cracks
Corrosion initiation at the splash zone 100 years
Corrosion initiation above the splash zone 200-400 years
Models calculation of corrosion initiation time are relatively
consistent
Scaling in the surface at the splash zone will not influence the
time of corrosion initiation significantly

Rambll Underwater Inspection

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 39

The Great Belt link, Underwater inspection of piers


Cathodic protection of:
1 pillar
approx. 20 $/year
or
1 AA battery/day

Rambll Underwater Inspection

India 2005/2006

15. Feb. 2006

Slide 40

Appendix A10, Page 21 of 21

APPENDIX A11
Ultrasonic Testing - Concrete

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A11, Page 1 of 17

UWI-Course

Ultrasonic testing

Under Water Inspection - Concrete

Introduction
Ultrasonic testing of concrete - Measuring Concept
Measure the transit time of a sound wave through concrete with known
thickness and thereby the speed of sound.
The speed of sound is closely related to the stiffness of the concrete and
thereby to the strength and general quality
When the speed of sound is determined, the transit time of sound waves
can indicate internal flaws

Typical Applications
Assessment of general concrete quality and strength
Assessment of uniformity of concrete properties
Detection of internal flaws and cracks
NOTE: Water filled cracks will not be detected

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A11, Page 2 of 17

UWI-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Fast and completely nondestructive way of assessing
quality and uniformity of concrete

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A11, Page 3 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Ultrasonic testing of concrete

Agenda
Theory base: correlation of strength and pulse velocity
More correct correlation between stiffness and pulse velocity

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A11, Page 4 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


Ultrasound Unit
Transmitter
(piezoelectric transducer)
Receiver
(piezoelectric transducer)
Couplant (gel to provide good
contact between transducers and
concrete)
For under water use, transducers and
cables must be waterproof.

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Speed of Sound = distance / time
Speed of Sound ~ stiffness
Stiffness ~ strength ~ quality
First detected signal with
amplitude above set value is
measured.

Correct

Attenuated

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A11, Page 5 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Speed of Sound = distance / time
Speed of Sound ~ stiffness
Stiffness ~ strength ~ quality
Velocity in reinforcement 1.2
1.9 times velocity in concrete

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Estimation of concrete strength
from 1-side measurements:
Longer transmit time indicates
flaws (the sound wave must
travel a longer path to get
around the crack)

Transducer arrangement to reduce


influence from reinforcement
Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A11, Page 6 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


When Speed of Sound is known:
Longer transmit time indicates
flaws (the sound wave must
travel a longer path to get around
the crack)

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Ultrasonic measurements (UPV)


Measurement principle:
Methodical detection of cracks

L
Transmitter

Receiver
X

h
Crack

Transmission time (s)


500
480
460
440
420
400
380
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

T2

T1
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900 1000 1100 1200

Transmitter distance (mm)


T 500 198 127
LT
h 2 1 =

= 230 mm
2 T1 T 2
2 127 198
Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A11, Page 7 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


The presence of reinforcement
bars, in which the speed of sound
is higher, can give misleading
results
If the cracks are water filled, they
may not be detected, i.e. the
method is not reliable for finding
cracks in under water concrete.
Stiffness of aggregate affects the
measurements

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

2. Applications and Limitations

Accuracy
Detection of concrete strength
within approx. 20% (transverse
method)

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A11, Page 8 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications Damage Types


Assessment of general concrete
quality and strength
Assessment of uniformity of
concrete properties
Detection of major internal flaws
and cracks

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A11, Page 9 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Under water:
All concrete elements

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Possible Applications
Under water:
condition of masonry
Condition of timber
Determination of
grouting quality in
joints

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A11, Page 10 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - limitations


Under water:
Surface deterioration reduces
measured velocities
Cracks are not detected
Water filled voids are poorly
detected
Water saturation reduces
measured velocities
Good surface contact must be
established

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Identifying good and damaged
areas, assessing the extent of
damage.
Parameters for structural
analysis

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A11, Page 11 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey: Reports
from Level I and Level II
inspections

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis:
What is the most probable cause
of damage?
and can it be detected by
ultrasonic testing?

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A11, Page 12 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas: Where
on the structures do we expect
to find the damage, and where
do we expect not to find it?
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity: How many tests do we
need to confirm the hypothesis
on damage cause, and to
determine the extent of
damage?

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning

Practical Preparations:

Diver incl. all equipment

Cleaning of the concrete


surfaces to be tested

To Bring (tools)

Ultrasonic device

Transducers and cables

Metal detector

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A11, Page 13 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


5. Conduct Measurements

Clean the surface.

Locate reinforcement

Perform measurements

Adjust density of measure


points dynamically according to
the results

6. Calibrate Measurements:
Measure speed of sound on an
undamaged section.
Correlate the readings with the
visual appearance of the
concrete.

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration
8. Registration / Reporting

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A11, Page 14 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

5. Conduct Measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

6. Calibrate Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

7. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
8. Registration / Reporting

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A11, Page 15 of 17

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable
/ accurate the measurements are:

Calibration of instrument:
Special metal cylinder

How good is the correlation


between measurements and
calibration?

Calibration of strength determination:

Are the measured areas


representative for the whole
element / structure?

Strength evaluation on cores:


- Direct testing
- Optical strength evaluation

In any case the interpretation of


the results should be performed
with care, and by an experienced
inspector

From form of signal (displayed on


advanced instruments) risk of false
readings can be evaluated.

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
The conclusions of the measurements should
be summarized
Overall condition, damage type and extent
Consequences of the damage to the safety and
durability of the structure
Possible repair methods
Are further measurements needed?
(describe benefits).

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A11, Page 16 of 17

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
The results will normally be presented in a table
and indicated on a sketch of the structure

Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 31

Appendix A11, Page 17 of 17

APPENDIX A12
Ultrasonic Testing - Steel

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A12, Page 1 of 17

UWI-Course

Ultrasonic testing

Under Water Inspection - Steel

Introduction
Ultrasonic testing of steel - Measuring Concept
Measure the transit time of a sound wave through steel with known
thickness and thereby the speed of sound.
When the speed of sound is determined, the transit time of sound
waves can indicate internal flaws

Typical Applications
Thickness measurement (separate lesson)
Detection of lamination (surface parallel cracks)
Detection of internal flaws and cracks
Examination of welds
OBS: Water filled cracks will not be detected
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A12, Page 2 of 17

UWI-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Fast and completely nondestructive way of detecting
cracks and internal laminations

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A12, Page 3 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Ultrasonic testing of steel

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


Through Transmission (2 transducers)
Ultrasound Unit
Transmitter
(piezoelectric transducer)
Receiver
(piezoelectric transducer)
Couplant (gel to provide good contact
between transducers and steel)

For under water use, transducers and


cables must be waterproof. Couplant
gel will often not be necessary
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A12, Page 4 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Through Transmission (2 transducers)

Velocity of Sound = distance /


time (v=d/t ~3-6,000 m/s
depending of steel type and
quality)

Calibration: Find velocity from the


measured transmission time on
an object with known thickness
After calibration, thicknesses can
be determined on similar steel:
d=v x t
d
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Through Transmission (2 transducers)

If there is a defect inside the


steel, only some of the signal will
reach the receiver, and the
response will be weaker (a
smaller peak)

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A12, Page 5 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Through Transmission (2 transducers)

If there is a large defect inside


the steel (lamination), no signal
will reach the receiver, and there
will be no response

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


One transducer
The signal is registered after
passing two times through the
steel reflected from the opposite
side:

2xd=vxt
or
d = v x t
Because of repeated reflections a
new, but weaker, peak will appear
corresponding to 4 x d, 8 x d, etc.
d
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A12, Page 6 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


One transducer
If there is a small defect inside
the steel, some of the signal will
be reflected from the defect, and
some from the opposite surface

d
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


One transducer
If there is a large defect inside
the steel (lamination), all the
signal will be reflected from the
defect, and nothing from the
opposite surface

d
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A12, Page 7 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Rivets:
If there are no cracks, only one
clear echo is received,
corresponding to the full length of
the rivet.

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Rivets:
If there are cracks, echoes can be
received from the crack and from
the opposite end of the rivet

Crack

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Full length

Slide 14

Appendix A12, Page 8 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Welds, angle transducer:
If there is an air gap at the edge
of the weld, a reflected signal will
be detected corresponding to the
distance d
The angle transducer emits the
ultrasonic waves at an angle.

Weld
Angle transducer

d
Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


If there is a crack, a reflected
signal will be detected
corresponding to the distance d
The angle transducer emits the
ultrasonic waves at an angle.

Crack

Angle transducer

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A12, Page 9 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Reflections from other faces of the
steel specimen can blur the image
of the reflections
If the cracks are water filled, they
may not be detected, i.e. the
method is not reliable for finding
cracks in under water structures
The generally difficult working
conditions under water make it
difficult to obtain good results

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A12, Page 10 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications Damage Types


Assessment of general steel
quality
Detection of internal flaws and
cracks
Quality check of welds

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Checking for cracks in rivets
Checking for cracks in other
connections
Checking for laminations in plates
and rolled bars

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A12, Page 11 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


The presence of cracks will often indicate high stresses and
possibly a short remaining life.
It will, however, often be required to perform a structural
analysis to assess the severity
The test results can provide valuable input to the structural
assessment

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A12, Page 12 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey: Level I and
Level II inspections
Forecast of Results Creating a
Hypothesis:
What is the most probable cause
of damage?
and can it be detected by
ultrasonic testing

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas: Where
on the structures do we expect
to find the damage, and where
do we expect not to find it?
A structural analysis can often
pinpoint the details where failure
is most likely, and where it is
most important to check
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity: How many tests do we
need to confirm the hypothesis
on damage cause, and to
determine the extent of
damage?

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A12, Page 13 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
Practical Preparations:

Diver incl. all equipment

Cleaning and possibly grinding


of the steel surfaces to be
tested

To Bring (tools)

Ultrasonic device

Transducers and cables

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


5. Conduct Measurements
6. Calibrate Measurements:
Measure speed of sound on an
undamaged section.
Make measurements to
determine at what distance from
the transducer to expect echoes.
Correlate the readings with the
visual appearance of the steel
7. Measurements are calibrated on
samples tested in the laboratory

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A12, Page 14 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration, i.e. write the
conclusion on the damage
detected
8. Registration / Reporting

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey (level I and
II inspections)
2. Forecast of Results Creating a
Hypothesis
3. Selection of Test Areas
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

Execution
5. Conduct Measurements
6. Calibrate Measurements
7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration
8. Registration / Reporting

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A12, Page 15 of 17

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Method

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable
/ accurate the measurements are:
How good is the correlation
between measurements and
calibration?
Are the measured areas
representative for the whole
element / structure?

In any case the interpretation of


the results should be performed
with care, and by an experienced
inspector

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A12, Page 16 of 17

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
The conclusions of the measurements should be
summarized
Overall condition, damage type and extent
Consequences of the damage to the safety and durability of
the structure
Possible repair methods
Are further measurements needed?
(describe benefits)

Avoid inserting detailed data of the measurements


The technical presentation of the measurements should be
constricted to the appendix

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:

Indicate the location of each test accurately


on sketches of the structure, supplemented
by photos

The damage that has been detected is often


best described by making small sketches

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A12, Page 17 of 17

APPENDIX A13
Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A13, Page 1 of 17

UWI-Course

Ultrasonic thickness gauge

Under Water Inspection - Steel

Introduction
Ultrasonic testing of steel - Measuring Concept
Measure the transit time of a sound wave through steel with known
thickness and thereby the speed of sound.
When the speed of sound is determined, the transit time of sound
waves through a similar steel will indicate the thickness

Typical Applications
Thickness measurement when only one side of the steel part is
accessible. Particularly to register steel loss caused by corrosion
Detection of laminations

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A13, Page 2 of 17

UWI-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Fast and non-destructive
Accurate measuring of remaining
thickness of intact steel
Detection of internal laminations

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A13, Page 3 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Ultrasonic testing of steel

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Basis of method:
Velocity in steel is constant
When sound waves reaches a
material with other acoustic
parameters a reflective wave
is created

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A13, Page 4 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


The transducer emits an
ultrasonic sound wave
The signal is registered after
passing two times through the
steel reflected from the opposite
side:

2xd=vxt
or
d = v x t
Because of repeated reflections a
new, but weaker, peak will appear
corresponding to 4 x d, 8 x d, etc.
d
Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Corrosion of the steel surface
If the steel is corroded, the sound
wave is reflected from the
interface between firm steel and
corrosion products; so, it is the
thickness of sound steel that is
measured

d
Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A13, Page 5 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?

If there is a large defect inside


the steel (lamination), all the
signal will be reflected from the
defect, and nothing from the
opposite surface

d
Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


If the steel is coated, the signal will
first pass through coating and steel,
but then it will be reflected repeatedly
between the two surfaces of the steel.
Therefore, the distance between the
emitted signal and the first reflection
will correspond to the combined
thickness of coating and steel, while
the distances between the following
reflections will correspond to the
thickness of the steel only.
Modern thickness gauges discard the
first reflection, and thereby they
actually measure the steel thickness
even if it is coated.
d
Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A13, Page 6 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


Thickness gauges interpret the
signals and present the thickness
directly on a digital display
Advanced models also used for
ultrasonic testing displays a
graphical image of the signals for
interpretation by the experienced
user.

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Reflections from other faces of the
steel specimen or from internal
defects can blur the image of the
reflections

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A13, Page 7 of 17

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
Measurement of thickness:
+ 0,1 mm
Typical measuring range 5-25 mm

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

2. Applications and Limitations

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A13, Page 8 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications Damage Types


Assessment of general steel
quality
Detection of internal flaws and
cracks
Quality check of welds
Validation of drawings

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

Common Applications Damage Types


Detection of laminations:

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A13, Page 9 of 17

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Measuring thickness where access
is only possible to one side of the
steel structure (typical example:
steel sheet piles)
Measuring remaining thickness
after corrosion attack

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Basis of in structural analysis
Lifetime of the structure
Onset of preventive precautions

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A13, Page 10 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Method

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey: Level I and
Level II inspections

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A13, Page 11 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning

Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis:
Where is it most likely to find
reduced thickness

Corrosion rate is controlled by:


-

Oxygen access

Conductivity of the water

Temperature

Water velocity

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning

Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis:
Where is it most likely to find
reduced thickness

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A13, Page 12 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas: Where
on the structures do we expect
to find the damage, and where
do we expect not to find it?
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity: How many tests do we
need to confirm the hypothesis
on damage cause, and to
determine the extent of
damage?

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning

Practical Preparations:

Diver incl. all equipment

Cleaning of the steel surfaces


to be tested

To Bring (tools)

Ultrasonic device

Transducers and cables

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A13, Page 13 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


5. Conduct Measurements
6. Calibrate Measurements:
Measure speed of sound on an
undamaged section.
Make measurements to
determine at what distance from
the transducer to expect echoes.
Correlate the readings with the
visual appearance of the steel

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration, i.e. write the
conclusion on the damage
detected
8. Registration / Reporting

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A13, Page 14 of 17

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey (level I and
II inspections)
2. Forecast of Results Creating a
Hypothesis
3. Selection of Test Areas
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

Execution
5. Conduct Measurements
6. Calibrate Measurements
7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration
8. Registration / Reporting

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A13, Page 15 of 17

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable
/ accurate the measurements are:
How good is the correlation
between measurements and
calibration?
Are the measured areas
representative for the whole
element / structure?
Calibration plates
Drilling of holes (back-side
corrosion)

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:

South

North

4
3
2
1

Possible repair methods

10,5-11,0

9,5-10,0

10,0-10,5

8,5-9,0

9,0-9,5

8,0-8,5

7,5-8,0

10,5-11,0

10,0-10,5

9,5-10,0

8,5-9,0

9,0-9,5

8,0-8,5

7,5-8,0

7,0-7,5

6,5-7,0

6,0-6,5

5,0-5,5

5,5-6,0

4,5-5,0

4,0-4,5

South
North

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

7,0-7,5

Section C and D - Depth point 1,6-1,7


8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

3,5-4,0

The technical presentation of the


measurements should be constricted to
the appendix

Number of observations

Avoid inserting detailed data of the


measurements

Thickness

3,0-3,5

Are further measurements needed?


(describe benefits)

6,5-7,0

6,0-6,5

5,0-5,5

5,5-6,0

4,0-4,5

4,5-5,0

0
3,5-4,0

Consequences of the damage to the


safety and durability of the structure

Number of observations

Overall condition, damage type and


extent

3,0-3,5

The conclusions of the measurements


should be summarized

Section C and D - Depth point 0,4 - 0,7


7

Thickness

Slide 30

Appendix A13, Page 16 of 17

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:

Indicate the location of each test accurately


on sketches of the structure, supplemented
by photos

The damage that has been detected is often


best described by making sketches

Ultrasonic Steel Thickness Gauge- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 31

Appendix A13, Page 17 of 17

APPENDIX A14
Covermeter

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A14, Page 1 of 18

UWI-Course

Cover meter

Under Water Inspections - Concrete

Introduction
Cover meter - Measuring Concept
The equipment consists of sensor and a recording instrument
Advanced metal-detector
Measurement of concrete cover and rebar size
Fast (very fast) overview

The under water application is similar to above-water application,


except for waterproof transducer and cables. Illustrations are
from above-water use

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A14, Page 2 of 18

UWI-Course

Introduction
Advanced metal detector:
Fast screening of a large areas
Estimation of extent of repair
Estimation of where repair is
needed
Locating of vital reinforcement
Validation of drawings

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A14, Page 3 of 18

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Under Water Inspections - Concrete

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument

Principle (electrical Conductivity):


AC-current (pulse) is run through the
coils in the sensor head, and the
resulting current is measured.

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A14, Page 4 of 18

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument

Rebar size:
Signal strength
from 2 positions is
measured and
compared.

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
Cover meter investigations are reliable and easy to reproduce
The deeper a rebar is located, the harder it is to detect
Typical Accuracy:

+ 1 mm (cover 10-30 mm)


+ 2 mm (cover 30-65 mm)
+ 5% (cover > 65 mm)

Typical max. cover depth: 130 mm ( 8 mm), 180 mm ( 32 mm)

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A14, Page 5 of 18

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Rebar orientation

Rebar spacing

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide

2. Applications and Limitations

Under Water Inspections - Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A14, Page 6 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damage


Corrosion from chloride ingress

Spalling caused by carbonation

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


All reinforced concrete

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A14, Page 7 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Cover meter can be used on all non-metallic materials (concrete,
masonry, wood, stone etc.)
Special metal detectors can locate steel at depth of -1 meter
With proper equipment, underwater measurements are possible
Very rough surfaces will reduce accuracy
Go / no-go factors
Expected concrete cover
Expected rebar spacing
Expected other metallic objects

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Soderledstunnel
1.5 km concrete
tunnel in Stockholm,
Sweden
Spalling due to
carbonation and
small concrete cover
Corrosion due to
chloride ingress and
moderate concrete
cover

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A14, Page 8 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Soderledstunnel
Very small concrete cover

Deep carbonatisation

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Bernstorffstunnel, facade


Problem: Spalling due to
carbonation of concrete

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A14, Page 9 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Bernstorffstunnel, facade


Non-uniform concrete quality causes variations in carbonation depth
Break-up no. 1: Carbonation approx 10 mm

Break-up no. 2: Carbonation approx. 25 mm

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Sorterende Bridge


A 300 m long concrete bridge
in Denmark
Deep chloride ingress in
concrete piers during 25
years lifetime. Concrete
cover is important when
evaluating the time to
corrosion initiation.

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A14, Page 10 of 18

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Sorterende Bridge


Determination of chloride content at the
reinforcement level

S2.2- , Kote -0,5 m


Reinforcement level

0,500

0,400

0,300

0,200

0,100

0,336

0,235

0,121

0,061

0,021

0-10

10-20

20-30

30-50

50-70

0,000

Concrete cover

D yb de b a g o ve rfla de [mm]

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Fast screening of large areas
Identifying good and damaged areas
Estimating the extent of needed repair
Locating of areas to be repaired

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A14, Page 11 of 18

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field


Tests

Under Water Inspections - Concrete

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey (Under water:
Level I and Level II inspections)

Focus on visible damage and signs of


small concrete cover

Accessibility

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A14, Page 12 of 18

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
2 Selection of Test Areas

Risk of damage (reinforcement


drawings)

Identification of critical areas

Identification of critical elements

Include apparently intact and


damaged areas in each test-grid

3 Estimating the Appropriate Test Quantity

Rebar size, etc.

Dynamic test planning

4 Rebar size and direction (drawings)

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


5. Conduct Measurements

Make a superficial visual survey


in order to confirm the
feasibility of the planned tests

Mark up test grid

Under water: Clean test areas


for fouling etc.

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A14, Page 13 of 18

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


6

Conduct Measurements

Position of 2 rebars from


outer rebar net is located

Position of 1 rebar from


outer rebar net is marked
for approx. 2 m

Cover of rebars in the


inner rebar net is
measured between outer
rebars

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration

Verify concrete cover

Examine rebar size

Does the results match with the


hypothesis?!

Decide whether additional steps


must be taken (e.g. extra cores
or break-ups)

8. Registration

Make a thorough visual


registration, geometry, breakups etc.

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A14, Page 14 of 18

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

4. Control rebar size

2. Selection of Test Areas

5. Calibrate Instrument

3. Estimating the Appropriate Test


Quantity

6. Conduct Measurements
7. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration
8. Registration

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Under Water inspection - Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A14, Page 15 of 18

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable
/ accurate the measurements are:

Error:

How good is the correlation


between measurements and
calibration?

2 rebars

Are the measured areas


representative for the whole
element / structure?

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification
The areas which are found to be damaged are pointed out

Spalling

Height

Distance from joint

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Cover (mm)

Slide 30

Appendix A14, Page 16 of 18

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
The conclusions of the measurements should
be summarized
Overall condition, damage type and extent
Possible repair methods
Are further measurements needed?
(describe benefits)

Avoid inserting plots of the measurements


The technical presentation of the measurements
should be constricted to the appendix

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Registration of position and geometry in a table
Graphical representation
Is used as a tool for interpretation
Gives the reader an overview of exactly where there measurements have been made
If successive measurements are expected thorough registrations are necessary for
comparison of results

Height

Distance from joint

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Cover (mm)

Slide 32

Appendix A14, Page 17 of 18

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
Measurements and Calibration
These are equally important and should be
presented accordingly

Focus on rehabilitation strategy


Good and bad areas
Degree of damage and repair methods
Description of relevant uncertainties

Covermeter - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 33

Appendix A14, Page 18 of 18

APPENDIX A15
Schmidt Hammer

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A15, Page 1 of 16

UWI-Course

Surface Hardness Schmidt hammer

UWI - Concrete

Introduction
Schmidt hammer - Measuring Concept
One instrument the Schmidt Hammer
Principle: Push and measurer
On-site measurements

Typical Applications
Concrete hardness
Concrete strength
Inhomogeneities

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A15, Page 2 of 16

UWI-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Fast screening of a large area
Easy to use
On-site estimate of concrete
strength

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A15, Page 3 of 16

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Schmidt hammer

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


The components:
Outer body
Plunger
Hammer mass
The main spring
Indicator

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A15, Page 4 of 16

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


The hammer mass hits the plunder and the rebound is measured.

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
Above water:
The Schmidt hammer measure
the stiffness of the concrete.
There is no theoretical
relationship between the
stiffness and the concrete
strength
Empirical correlations between
the concrete strength and the
rebound number

Under water
Less accuracy due to marine
growth

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A15, Page 5 of 16

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
In laboratory the accuracy is 15 %
In the field the accuracy is 25% or
less
The accuracy can deviate even more
if great care when selecting test
points is not taken

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Smoothness of test surface
Size, shape, and rigidity of the
specimens
Surface and internal moisture
conditions of the concrete
Type of coarse aggregate
Type of cement
Type of mould
Carbonation of the concrete surface

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A15, Page 6 of 16

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Schmidt hammer

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damages


Carbonation
Frost
ASR
Casting defects
Location of use of different
concrete types (strength)
Deteriorated mortar

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A15, Page 7 of 16

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Thane Creek Bridge

Piers
Abutments
Wing walls
Mortar between masonry bricks

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Any structural element where the surface stiffness can be used
for evaluating the condition
If the Schmidt hammer is used for detecting differences only - its
usefulness increases significantly
One measurement is never accurate! - But:
Even few measurements may indicate the order of
magnitude of the strength ( 5 vs. 50 MPa)

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A15, Page 8 of 16

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Englandsvej
Bridge under Airport runway at
Copenhagen Airport
Larger loading due to larger plains
The carrying capacity could be
fulfilled if a certain concrete
strength could be documented
Before making Capo test and
drilling of cores the Schmidt
hammer was used to evaluate the
order of magnitude of the
concrete strength

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Estimating the concrete strength
Identifying good and damaged areas
Locating heterogeneous areas

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A15, Page 9 of 16

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Schmidt hammer

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
Diva-Panvel Bridge

1. Initial Visual Survey (Level I/II)

Identify the general condition

Locate potential critical areas

Find surfaces suitable for


inspection can it be found?

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

Estimation of concrete strength


and the correlated value
expected for the Schmidt
hammer

Evaluate if it is sufficient to find


the order of magnitude of the
strength

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A15, Page 10 of 16

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas
Select test areas from the hypothesis
The exact location of each measuring point must be found on site
by the diver! Ask for photo documentation!

4. Estimating the Appropriate Test Quantity


If more accurate measurements are wanted the quantity must be
decided from the dispersion of the result on site
If less accuracy is sufficient 3-7 measurements within each
assumed homogeneous areas will do in most cases

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

3. 3. Test Planning and Execution of Field


Tests

Test Planning
5. Practical Preparations

Create sketch sheets for visual


registrations

Make a time plan

Create a list of the planned


investigation

Dive briefing

Make background material for


the diver

Diva-Panvel Bridge

6. To Bring (tools - diver)

A normal hammer

Chalk for marking

Measuring tape and folding rule

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A15, Page 11 of 16

UWI-Course

3. 3. Test Planning and Execution of Field


Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Conduct Measurements

Make a sketch (table) with


indication of each or groups
test points

Conduct measurements

Evaluate dispersion of results

Make additional measurements

Nira Bridge

8. Calibrate Measurements

Calibration can be made by


drilling cores or making Capotests

It is always a good idea to use


a normal hammer as a second
opinion

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

3. 3. Test Planning and Execution of Field


Tests

Execution of Field Tests


9. Evaluate Measurements and Calibration

For more accurate measurements it may be necessary to make a statistical analysis


on site to confirm that the wanted reliability of the measurements has been achieved
Calibration can be made by concrete cores

10.Registration

The diver should make a thorough visual registration


A photo of the surface of all measuring points to use for successive evaluation

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A15, Page 12 of 16

UWI-Course

3. 3. Test Planning and Execution of Field


Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey (Level I/II)

7. Conduct Measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

8. Calibrate Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

9. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
10.Registration

5. Practical Preparations
6. To Bring (Tools)

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Schmidt hammer

India 2005/2006

Appendix A15, Page 13 of 16

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It is essential to decide the level of reliability before conducting
the measurements
Statistics should always be used to evaluate the results
For less accurate measurements calculating the mean value and
the standard deviation is mostly sufficient
For more accurate measurements to use for e.g. carrying
capacity calculations the used design code will decide which
parameters should be calculated
Calibration with a concrete core and successive analysis

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification
Make an overview of all registrations this will often give a
good idea of the deterioration pattern
A direct damage identification is not possible but in
combination with:
Analysis of a core
Spraying indicators
Chloride measurements
etc.

Schmidt hammer measurements is able of locating damaged


areas

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A15, Page 14 of 16

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
Background for making the investigation including the wanted
reliability / accuracy
Extend and position of the investigation
Summary of the results
Result evaluation/evaluation of hypothesis note if it some areas
was inaccessible

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
Sketch of all investigations and a result of each measurement or
group of measurements
Field sketches and all results
Photo documentation

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A15, Page 15 of 16

UWI-Course

5. Application Summary

Schmidt hammer

5. Application Summary

(x) (x)

(x)

Initial defects

ASR

(x)

(x)

(Freeze-thaw)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Schmidt hammer - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Structural problems

Ground penetration radar

Impulse response

Bond-test/Pull-off

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Chloride penetration

Corrosion

Cores

Damage

Break up

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Carbonation

Schmidt hammer

Spraying indicators

Cover meter

CAPO-test

Crack detection

Boroscope

NDTMethod

Slide 30

Appendix A15, Page 16 of 16

APPENDIX A16
Coring Equipment

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A16, Page 1 of 15

UWI-Course

Core Drilling

Concrete and Masonry

Introduction
Core Drilling Concept
(Non) destructive testing.
Damaging small area of the
structure.

Typical Applications
Piers
Abutments

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A16, Page 2 of 15

UWI-Course

Introduction
Core Drilling Equipment
Usually a portable drill
powered by either
compressed air or
hydraulics
The size of the core
varies depending on the
actual conditions. For
laboratory evaluation
cores with a diameter of
app. 100 mm and at
least 250 mm in length
are preferable.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Introduction
Benefits:
On-site evaluation
A piece of the actual structure
Relatively mobile
Possibility of laboratory evaluation
and thus large information of the
concrete.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A16, Page 3 of 15

UWI-Course

Agenda
1. Applications and Limitations
2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
3. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
4. Application Summary

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Applications and Limitations

Core Drilling

India 2005/2006

Appendix A16, Page 4 of 15

UWI-Course

1. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications
Chloride content
Verification of structural drawings:
Rebar, concrete cover, filling of
masonry structures etc.
First step in a macro/micro analysis.
First step in laboratory testing of the
concrete compression strength.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damage


Cracks
Delaminations
Alkali Aggregate Reactivity
Carbonation
Freeze/Thaw
Corrosion of reinforcement
Thickness of masonry
Filling behind masonry

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A16, Page 5 of 15

UWI-Course

1. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


A core can be drilled where ever it
is possible to anchor the
equipment the limitations are
mostly the diving conditions
All concrete structures.
All masonry structures.
Concrete or masonry can be so
deteriorated that anchoring is
impossible.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod Bridge


Twin concrete prestressed bridge
Build in 1980
Six piers in salt water

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A16, Page 6 of 15

UWI-Course

1. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod Bridge


Cores drilled above and beneath
the waterline

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod Bridge

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A16, Page 7 of 15

UWI-Course

1. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod Bridge

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

1. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod Bridge

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A16, Page 8 of 15

UWI-Course

1. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


The drilling of cores itself seldom gives direct input to strategies.
The core gives valuable information for calibration of other Non
Destructive Testing that has been carried out prior to the core
drilling.
Drilling out cores gives the basis of fast screening tests if it is
followed up by laboratory analysis. E.g. fast screening of
potential risk of alkali aggregate reactivity, freeze-thaw damage
etc. This can usually be done by drilling 1-2 concrete cores from
a bridge component.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Core Drilling

India 2005/2006

Appendix A16, Page 9 of 15

UWI-Course

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey Level I/II inspection
Both diver and engineer conducts a survey
Input from the diver on local conditions is used during planning

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
2. Forecast of results

If the cores are drilled out as a calibration of other NDT-measurements an


on-site comparison of actual condition of the core and the expected
condition of the core is made.

The expected extent of laboratory analysis is estimated this may


influence the number of cores needed. And it also influence the size of the
cores needed.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A16, Page 10 of 15

UWI-Course

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas

The right place to take out the cores depends on


the structure geometry
the condition of the concrete
The information needed from the core.

Cores of bad and good areas must be


represented. If cracking occurs in the bridge
component place at least one core on top of the
cracking.

Unless the condition of the reinforcement is


needed you should avoid drilling out cores in the
positions of reinforcement. If reinforcement is to
be included in the core make sure to include the
whole rebar to avoid problems when carrying out
the drilling.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas
Never drill out cores at the
location of prestressed cables.
The majority of the cores should
be taken in areas where the
results from the previous
measurements are inconclusive.
Keep in mind that the cores
should represent all types of
areas in the structure, which
influence the repair strategy.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A16, Page 11 of 15

UWI-Course

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

For a fast screening for e.g. the


concrete composition, the risk
of AAR, the risk of freeze-thaw
damage etc. usually only 1-2
cores are needed in each
homogeneous area.

The number of cores needed is


also influenced of the need for
laboratory evaluation. Enough
material for the needed tests
must be present.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning

Practical Preparations

Make a dive briefing

To Bring (tools)

As-built drawings for the diver

Coring equipment.

Cover meter.

Common hand tools.

Folding ruler.

Saran wrap, tape and plastic bag (if the


moisture content is to be determined).

Chalk or a pen to write on the core


before it is bagged.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A16, Page 12 of 15

UWI-Course

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Work


5. Conduct the core drilling

Locate the reinforcement including prestressed


cables using cover meter and as-built drawings.

Mark the location of the core.

Mount the coring equipment.

Be sure that the equipment cannot move when


drilling out the core.

Mark the length of the core need on the coring


equipment (add 1-2 cms to the length wanted).

Do the drilling.

Carefully break off the core.

When breaking off the core you should be careful


not to do any damage to the core. If you have
trouble getting out the core it has to be noted as
you may have caused some defect / cracking to
the core.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


6. Registration

Before drilling out the core


take a photo of the core
location and note if there are
any damage (cracking etc.)

On the core the direction to the


surface is marked.

If the core is broken make sure


to mark every piece (if
possible).

Take photos of the core and the


hole in the structure.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A16, Page 13 of 15

UWI-Course

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


6. Registration

Right after taking out the core


look for pop-outs (and note if
any pop-outs are registered).

Note if you had problems


getting out the cores if you
could have damaged the core
during this procedure.

Note the depth of the


laminations in the hole of the
core if any.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

2. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey (Level I/II)

5. Conduct the core drilling

2. Forecast of Results

6. Registration

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A16, Page 14 of 15

UWI-Course

3. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Core Drilling

3. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
No written report is usually needed
separately for the core drilling
procedure only your registrations
from the field is needed. Usually the
evaluation and the reporting is
carried out as part of reporting
other non destructive
measurements or as part of the
laboratory evaluation.

Core Drilling - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A16, Page 15 of 15

APPENDIX A17
Chloride Content

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A17, Page 1 of 25

UWI-Course

Chloride content

UWI - Concrete

Introduction
Chloride content - Measuring Concept (the RCT principle)
A core is drilled
In the laboratory it is divided in small pieces and crushed
Dust can also be collected by drilling at low tide
The dust and thereby the chlorides are dissolved in a solution
The Chloride content can be found by measuring the potential of
the solution

Typical Applications
Concrete piers in salt water
Submerged concrete structures

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A17, Page 2 of 25

UWI-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Estimate the risk of for initiation
of corrosion
Prediction of initiation of corrosion
via Fichs II law
Estimate the risk of accelerated
ASR damage

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A17, Page 3 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Chloride content of hardened concrete

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle Dust Collection


The collection of dust can be done
with a normal drill and some
plastic bags
Customized equipment reduces
errors and uncertainties
Standard rules for collecting dust
has been made also to reduce
uncertainties
Dust is collected from at least
three holes within a square of
15x15 cm

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A17, Page 4 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle Dust Collection


The collection of dust can be done
with a normal drill and some
plastic bags
Customized equipment reduces
errors and uncertainties
Standard rules for collecting dust
has been made also to reduce
uncertainties
Dust is collected from at least
three holes within a square of
15x15 cm

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle Dust Collection


The chloride content varies the
most near the surface
Selection of drilling intervals for
dust collection should reflect this
The Danish standard is as shown
on the graph
These intervals are sufficient for
making ingress analysis using
Fichs II law

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A17, Page 5 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is measured?


Estmation of chloride content and
chloride profiles.
Total Cl- ions
Water soluble Cl- ions dangerous to
corrosion

Chloride content is determined on a


powder of concrete.
Crushed samples single measurements
and large scale profiles
Grinding (cores) detailed profiles
Drilling sampling in the field

Two methods of determination


Titration method Precise estimations
RCT (Rapid Chloride Test) Quick
estimations

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Total chloride content by the RCT method


Extraction of chlorides:
1.5 g of fine powder is poured
into an RCT ampoule
Chloride phases is dissolved in
the ampoule:
Quick measurements: Shake
the ampoule in 5 min
More precise measurements:
Shake the ampoules and let
the dissolution take place over
12-24 hours.

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A17, Page 6 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Total chloride content by the RCT method


Preparations of the RCT
electrode:
Electrode is filled with an
electrode wetting agent
Air entrapped within the
wetting agent is carefully
avoided
Connect the electrode to the
to the electrometer
Electrode is calibrated by four
calibration liquids of known Clconcentration.
0,005%
0,020%
0,050%
0,500%

ClClClCl-

:
:
:
:

ca.
ca.
ca.
ca.

100 mV
72 mV
49 mV
5 mV

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Total chloride content by the RCT method


Measurements:
The tip of the electrode is
lowered into the RCT ampoule
Record the mV reading when
the value becomes stable (stir
the electrode a couple of
times)
The reading of mV are
transformed to Clconcentration by a logarithmic
scale.

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A17, Page 7 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Total chloride content by the titration method


The Principle:
12 g of fine powder is
dispersed in water
Chloride bearing phases is
dissolved by concentrated
nitric acid and water.
The solution is filtered
The solution is treated with
silver nitrate in excess, which
cause the Cl- ions to
precipitate as silver chloride
The silver nitrate in excess is
back titrated with an
ammonium thiocyenate
solution

The amount of precipitated


silver chloride is proportional
to the chloride content of the
concrete and is calculated by
Cl- = 3,545(V1N1-V2N2)/m
V1: total amount of
silvernitrate
V2: titrated ammonium
cyenate solution
m: Weight of powder sample
N1, N2: Normalisation factors

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
Practical limitations of the accuracy:
Thoroughness collecting dust samples
The number of holes which has been drilled
The natural variation in chloride content

Current measuring method are sufficiently accurate to predict the


risk of chloride initiated corrosion within at least 5 10 years
For totally submerged members the accuracy is even better

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A17, Page 8 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
The RCT method
Based on linear interpolation
between 4 predetermined
concentrations
The accuracy at very low or very
high concentrations is less but
is also less relevant !!!
An on- site measurement is less
accurate than a measurement
after 24 hours

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
The titration method is slightly
more accurate than the RCT but
RCT is faster, less costly and
require less drilling dust
Total Cl- ions is measured but
Only Water soluble Cl- ions are
dangerous in terms of corrosion
(can be estimated by RCTW)
The theory of chloride ingress and
chloride initiated corrosion is still
debated

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A17, Page 9 of 25

UWI-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Max aggregate size larger aggregates decreases accuracy
Fe-Ions in the dust sample these ions will ruin the measurements
Cracks in the surface
Carbonation pushes the chloride ions away, presence of chloride rules out
carbonation and presence of carbonation rules out chloride

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Chloride content

India 2005/2006

Appendix A17, Page 10 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damages


Chloride initiated corrosion on reinforcement
in concrete
Alkali Aggregate Reactions in concrete

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

Map of Natural Aggregates Commonly Used in


India
Schematic map not in scale.
The common rock types
present in India are reactive
to varying degrees.

From Mullick, A.K., Alkalisilica reaction Indian


Experience in The AlkaliSilica Reaction in Concrete,
edited by Swamy, R.N., 1992.

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A17, Page 11 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Bridge:
Piers
Abutments

Marine structures
Harbours
Houses
Wind mill foundations

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Concrete structure subjected to salt
Including submerged areas Chloride content can be meassured
from cores
Measurements are only possible if dust ca be collected or if a
core can be drilled

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A17, Page 12 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Two sets of twin bridges
Build in 1978 1982
Post tensioned concrete box girder bridge
Very good concrete quality

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Part of the great coastal bridge
project conducted from 1996 to
2000 including over 20 coastal
bridges
An investigation was conducted in
1996
The successive investigation was
conducted in 2005:
Chloride content
Half Cell potential, resistance
Corrosion rate measurements
Drilling of core above and sub
surface

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A17, Page 13 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Test plan
Chloride content above and
under the water
Half Cell potential, resistance
Corrosion rate measurements
Drilling of core above and sub
surface
Carbonation
Concrete cover

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Test plan

Chloride content
Half Cell potential, resistance
Corrosion rate measurements
Drilling of core above and sub surface
Carbonation
Concrete cover

The variation with the height was


investigated
Chloride ingress under water was
meassured
Measurements with half cell potential
was conducted at identical levels

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A17, Page 14 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Results:
Chloride at low levels
Little chloride near
rebars (40 mm)

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Level 0 m

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A17, Page 15 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Level 0,3 m

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Development:
1996 - 2005

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A17, Page 16 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Forecast of chloride ingress

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Chloride ingress - RCT

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A17, Page 17 of 25

UWI-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case: Kalvebod
Chloride ingress - RCTW

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 33

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Locating areas with critical chloride content in the depth of the
reinforcement hence the areas where a removal of concrete is
necessary can be identified
Estimating the time of which chloride initiated corrosion on the
reinforcement in the concrete will start Precautions can be
initiated before the reinforcement starts to corrode

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A17, Page 18 of 25

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Method

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey (Level I or II)

Locate accessible areas

Overview of damages

2. Forecast of Results Creating a Hypothesis

Thorough investigation of background material

Expected variation of chloride exposure / content

Expected concrete cover

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 36

Appendix A17, Page 19 of 25

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas

Areas without significant


damage

Use a covermeter to avoid


reinforcement

4. Estimating the Appropriate Test


Quantity

Expected variations

Aim of the investigation


estimation of repair need or
estimation of initiation of
corrosion

The wanted reliability

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 37

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
5. Practical Preparations

Create sketches to register the


position of the measurements

Investigate drawings of the


reinforcement

Make material for the diver

Brief the diver

6. To Bring (tools)

Drilling equipment

Plastic bags for dust collection

Dust blower for cleaning holes

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 38

Appendix A17, Page 20 of 25

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Conduct Measurements

Drill and collect dust

Field RCT

RCT after 24 hours for


verification

8. Calibration

Break ups to detect corrosion


on the reinforcement

The electrode is calibrated prior


to making the RCT
measurements

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 39

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


9. Evaluate Measurements

Amount of dust which has been


collected

Is the measured profile as


expected (Fe pollution)

10.Registration

Make a thorough visual


registration

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 40

Appendix A17, Page 21 of 25

UWI-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey (Level I/II)

7. Calibration

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

8. Conduct Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

9. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
10.Registration

5. Practical Preparations
6. To Bring (tools)

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 41

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A17, Page 22 of 25

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


The reliability the RCT measurements itself is seldom calibrated
Finding the critical chloride content by break ups is only possible
in rare cases
In general values for the critical chloride content above water is
between 0.05 % and 0.1 % weight compared to dry concrete
For submerged members the critical chloride content may exceed
0.15 %

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 43

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification
Corrosion is found in the break ups:
The critical chloride content in the depth of the reinforcement
has been reached
The depth of carbonation may be found inderectly

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 44

Appendix A17, Page 23 of 25

UWI-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
Background for making the measurements also including a
result summary of earlier measurements if any are available
Result summary
Description of variations and development

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

Slide 45

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
All results
Sketches and photos of positions where measurements has been
conducted
Comparison of measurements

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 46

Appendix A17, Page 24 of 25

UWI-Course

5. Application Summary

Method

5. Application Summary Concrete Bridges

(x) (x)

(x)

Chloride penetration

Structural problems

Initial defects

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Chloride content- 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Carbonation

Ground penetration radar

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Impulse response

Corrosion

Cores

Damage

Break up

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Bond-test/Pull-off

Cover meter

CAPO-test

Schmidt hammer

Crack detection

Boroscope

NDTMethod

Slide 48

Appendix A17, Page 25 of 25

APPENDIX A18
Evaluation of Concrete Cores (from NDT-course)

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A18, Page 1 of 32

NDT-Course

Evaluation of concrete cores

NDT - Concrete

Introduction
Evaluation of concrete cores - Concept

Macro analysis on cores and plane sections


Carbonation depth measurements
Crack detection on impregnated plane sections
Micro analysis on thin sections
Air void analysis on plane sections
Chloride content determination
Moisture analysis
Residual reactivity (ASR Alkali Silica Reactivity)
SEM-analysis (SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy)

Typical Applications
All types of concrete structures: Evaluation of concrete quality
Damaged / deteriorated concrete: Evaluation of damage cause and further
development of damage
Calibration of other NDT-methods such as Impact-Echo and Impulse Response

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India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A18, Page 2 of 32

NDT-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Obtaining an overall view of the
concrete quality
Investigation of damage of the
concrete
Necessity of repair based on the
conclusions from the two above
mentioned investigations
Results are input to deterioration
models
Tool in a fast screening of structures
(e.g. risk of AAR or not)

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

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India 2005/2006

Appendix A18, Page 3 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Evaluation of concrete cores

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Evaluation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.

Technique
What is evaluated?
Macro analysis on cores and plane sections - overview
Impregnated Plane Sections
Air void analysis on plane sections
Chloride Content
Micro Analysis - overview
Optical Determination of Compression Strength
Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF)
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Moisture Content and Moisture Profile
Residual Reactivity (ASR)
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India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A18, Page 4 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

A. Evaluation Principle Technique


Vacuum-impregnation of full core with fluorescent epoxy resin
Cracks, voids and porous paste connected to
the core surface will be filled with
fluorescent epoxy resin

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

A. Evaluation Principle Technique


Fluorescence impregnated plane section
Cracks, voids and porous paste near the cut surface will be filled
with fluorescent epoxy resin

Core from bridge deck,


core length 170 mm
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Slide

Appendix A18, Page 5 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

A. Evaluation Principle Technique


Fluorescence impregnated thin section
The thin section is a 20-micron thick
slice of concrete, which has been
impregnated with a fluorescent epoxy
resin. The thin section is typically
35mm x 45mm in size.
The semi-transparency of the concrete
slice allows the examination of the
concrete by transmitted light
microscopy.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

B. Evaluation Principle What is Evaluated?


Concrete quality
Aggregates
Cracks
Carbonation
W/c-ratio
Homogeneity

Damage causes
AAR
Carbonation
Freeze-thaw
Moisture content
DEF

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Slide 10

Appendix A18, Page 6 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

C. Evaluation Macro analysis on cores, overview


Evaluation and determination of:
- aggregate type
- aggregate content
- cracks (coarse and fine)
- encapsulated air voids
- carbonation
- casting defects, segregation
- condition of joints

Phenolphthalein
pH-indicator
red colour: not carbonated

- condition of reinforcement
- signs of attack

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

D. Evaluation Impregnated plane sections


Crack detection on impregnated plane sections, under UV-light
Evaluation and determination of
- extent and distribution of cracks
(fine, coarse)
(crack width > 0,01 mm)
- possible causes
(ASR, freeze-thaw etc.)

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India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A18, Page 7 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

D. Evaluation Impregnated plane sections


Crack detection on impregnated plane sections:

Core from bridge deck


Plane section through
impregnated core
Fluorescence impregnated
plane section under UV-light

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 13

1. Theory Technical Method Description

D. Evaluation Impregnated plane sections


Fluorescence impregnated plane sections:

Varying capillary porosity in small samples for thin section preparation


Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A18, Page 8 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

E. Evaluation Air void analysis on plane sections


Evaluation and determination of the
air void structure
(ASTM C 457, linear traverse):
- air void content A (vol. %)
- specific surface , mm-1
- spacing factor, L, mm

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 15

1. Theory Technical Method Description

F. Evaluation Chloride content


Evaluation and determination of
- Chloride content
- Chloride profiles

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Slide 16

Appendix A18, Page 9 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

G. Evaluation Micro analysis, overview


Evaluation and determination of
- concrete composition
- cement type and content
- aggregate type and mineralogy
- w/c-ratio
- air void content and void structure
- defects (cracks and inhomogeneities)
- aggressive environment (e.g. acid)
- moisture conditions and effects
- signs of deterioration (e.g. AAR)
- strength level
- initial defects (casting, curing etc.)

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 17

1. Theory Technical Method Description

H. Evaluation Optical determination of compressive strength


Point counting of thin section paste, air
voids and w/c-ratio

Compressive strength, fc, MN/m2

Application of Ferets formula for


calculation of strength level.

Cr = Vol% cement
V = Vol% water
L = Vol% air
Density of cement paste, T
Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 18

Appendix A18, Page 10 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

I. Evaluation Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF)


Typical crack pattern for a
concrete suffering from DEF

pt
Em
y

bs
ga
Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 19

1. Theory Technical Method Description

J. Evaluation Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)


Evaluation and determination of
- phases in the cement or concrete
- depositions (compositions)
- chemical composition - profiles
BS-image

Ca

Si

Mg
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Slide 20

Appendix A18, Page 11 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

J. Evaluation Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)


Ordinary

Combination of Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM)
and Optical Microscopy:

Crossed

Ettringite deposits in air


void
Back Scatter

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 21

1. Theory Technical Method Description

K. Evaluation Moisture Content and Moisture Profiles


Evaluation and determination of
moisture content and profiles:
- water content (U %)
- degree of capillary saturation (Scap)
- degree of pressure saturation (Spressure)
- relative humidity (RH %)
Moisture content [U%]
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

0-20

Depth from surface [mm]

20-40
40-60
60-80
80-100

Kerne 2

100-120
120-140
140-160
160-180
180-200
200-220
220-230

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Slide 22

Appendix A18, Page 12 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

K. Evaluation Moisture Content and Moisture Profiles


Moisture content and moisture profiles:
Moisture content [U%]

U%

Dry

Semi dry

Wet

0.0

Very wet

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

0-20
20-40

5
70

Scap %

60

90

Spressure %

60

65

80

RH %

60

70

80

95

Depth from surface [mm]

Condition
Moisture

40-60
60-80
80-100

Kerne 2

100-120
120-140
140-160
160-180
180-200
200-220
220-230

NOTE: The values of U depend on the w/c-ratio. The larger the w/cratio the larger value of U before the concrete condition is wet. The
values in the table are according to a w/c ratio of 0,50.
Scap < 90%: No risk of freeze-thaw damage
90% < Scap < 95%: Small risk of freeze-thaw damage
Scap > 95%: Large risk of freeze-thaw damage
Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 23

1. Theory Technical Method Description

L. Evaluation Residual Activity (ASR)


Evaluation and determination of the potential risk of development of damage due to Alkali
Aggregate Reactions (AAR) and estimation of the residual potential for further reactions
under the following conditions:
- unlimited access for moisture
- unlimited access for moisture and sodium chloride

1 expansion

Expansion [0/00]

Limit:

Small risk of future


harmful cracking due to
AAR

Storing at 50oC in sodium chloride solution and at 100%


relative humidity

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 24

Appendix A18, Page 13 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Evaluation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.

Technique
What is evaluated?
Macro analysis on cores and plane sections - overview
Impregnated Plane Sections
Air void analysis on plane sections
Chloride Content
Micro Analysis - overview
Optical Determination of Compression Strength
Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF)
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Moisture Content and Moisture Profile
Residual Reactivity (AAR)
Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 25

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Precision
In general the precision of evaluation of concrete
cores depends on the experience of the investigator
the evaluation is assumed to be carried out by an
experienced investigator.
It is very important for the general precision of the
evaluation that the cores as well as the thin sections
etc. represents the structure test planning!
Aggregate, carbonation, homogeneity & cement type
These parameters can be determined with a high
precision within the test sample.

Cracks
High precision within the test sample - it is assumed
that the cores are handled correct before entering the
laboratory.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 26

Appendix A18, Page 14 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Precision
ASR
Reactive sand aggregate: Good precision (e.g. one sample for testing the residual
reactivity is usually enough).
Reactive stone aggregate: Poor precision (e.g. three samples for testing the residual
reactivity is usually required). Note that the representation of the stone aggregate in
the test sample is poorer that the representation of the sand aggregate.
Residual reactivity test: A European research project, PARTNER, has shown that the
residual reactivity test will expose whether the concrete is reactive or not. E.g. the
project has shown that chlorides from outside the concrete will accelerate all kinds of
alkali silica reactions.

Air void analysis


The precision is within 5% of the test result.
The influence of the sample preparations is essential.
The position of the test sample can be essential especially for in situ concrete
columns etc. where the air content can likely differ from top to bottom of the column.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 27

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Precision
Moisture
The precision of the test results is approximately
10%.
The influence of sealing and storage of the cores
is essential.

Optical strength analysis


The precision of the test results of the samples is
app. 10%. E.g. the analysis may tell whether
the strength is 25MPa or 30MPa, etc.
The precision of the results is larger with lower
values of the w/c-ratio. For w/c-ratios above
0,70 determination of w/c is more uncertain.
Initial cracks will influence the result of the
optical strength analysis. The analysis are to be
carried out on intact concrete for the best result.
Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A18, Page 15 of 32

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Handling the cores before they
enter the laboratory:
Note if the core was stuck and
forced out of the structure (not
initial damages).
Be sure to seal the core if
moisture analysis are to be
made.

Preparation of the test samples


e.g. for thin sections, plane
sections for automatically rapid
air analysis.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 29

2. Applications and Limitations

Evaluation of concrete cores

India 2005/2006

Appendix A18, Page 16 of 32

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damage


Laminations
Caused by ASR, freeze-thaw, initial
defects, etc.

Cracks in general
Caused by ASR, freeze-thaw, initial
defects, etc.

Carbonation
Structural problems
Estimation of concrete strength.

Chloride penetration
The density of the concrete influence
the velocity of chloride ingress.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 31

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Concrete Bridges
Deck, girder, columns,
abutments, etc.

Railway sleeper.
Concrete Floor Slabs and Walls.
Cylindrical Concrete Structures
Silos, Tanks, Chimneys.

Underground Parking Structures.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A18, Page 17 of 32

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


In general the evaluation can be used on
all types of concrete structures.
Limitations evaluation is not necessary:
Structures where the cause of damage is
obvious e.g. corroded reinforcement due
to carbonation of a very small concrete
cover.
Structures where the budget of
rehabilitation is less than the costs of an
evaluation.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 33

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck

Bridge from 1935


Cores from bridge deck

Concrete:
Ordinary Portland cement
W/C-ratio 0.4-0.5
Granite and flint in coarse aggregate
Sand with alkali-silica reactive, porous flint

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 34

Appendix A18, Page 18 of 32

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Soffit of bridge deck:
Right: Map cracking and transversal
cracks with dry white deposits.
Below: Fine parallel longitudinal cracks
with dry white deposits.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 35

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Core No. 16:
Protective layer at top (left)
Waterproofing
Structural concrete with cracks

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Slide 36

Appendix A18, Page 19 of 32

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Plane section of structural concrete
Cracks are mainly surface parallel

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 37

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Thin section:
Massive ettringite
formation in cracks show
long time moisture
exposure of the concrete,
indicating that the
waterproofing is not
protecting against water.
Size: 0,4 mm x 0,6 mm.
Arrow = Crack width
Needles in crack: Ettringite

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Slide 38

Appendix A18, Page 20 of 32

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Thin section:
Porous flint particle with
high number of cracks
in right part of photo.
Micro cracks and fine
cracks in the paste, left
part of photo.
W/c-ratio: ~0.40
Size: 2,7 mm x 4,2 mm.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 39

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Petrographic evaluation:
Main cause of surface parallel cracking is water saturation of the concrete
and freeze-thaw damage.
A secondary cause is alkali silica reaction from reactive aggregate.
The full depth of the core is affected (> 170 mm).
The concrete has not been protected from water for a long time, e.g. the
waterproofing is not effective.
If protected from water the concrete is expected to be of an overall high
quality as regards to strength, with low w/c-ratio.
If not protected from water and possible de-icing chemicals (sodium
chloride) freeze-thaw damage as well as alkali silica reactions will
deteriorate the concrete due to 1) lack of an entrained air void system
and 2) a critical content of reactive particles in the fine and coarse
aggregate.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 40

Appendix A18, Page 21 of 32

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case - Concrete cores from bridge deck


Petrographic evaluation input to repair strategy in inspection report:
Cause of damage is primary freeze-thaw and secondary ASR.
The full depth of the core is affected (> 170 mm).
The waterproofing has not been intact for some years in the position of the core.
If a new waterproofing is not established more damage will occur due to freezethaw and ASR.
Conclusion of the inspection (utilizing results from the petrographic analyse
and Impulse-Response measurements):
A new waterproofing is needed in 5 years from the inspection time.
At the time of repair approximately 10% of the road area will need concrete repairs
to a depth of 40-70 mm from the surface. Locally concrete repairs to a depth of
175-200 mm is needed.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 41

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Identifying the cause of damage.
Evaluation of the concrete quality and identifying parameters
that influence the future development of damages.
Input to evaluation of the optimal time of rehabilitation.

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Slide 42

Appendix A18, Page 22 of 32

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Evaluation of concrete cores

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey

Gathering knowledge of the structure photos


of the structure before and after drilling out
the core.

Macroscopic analysis of all cores from the


same structure.

2. Forecast of Results Creating a Hypothesis

Do the cores represent the same quality of


concrete?

Expected cause of damage (ASR, etc.).

Expected signs of damage (cracks, etc.).

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 44

Appendix A18, Page 23 of 32

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Sample Areas

If the cores include cracks make a fluorescence


impregnated plane section of a representative
core. The crack pattern can give information
regarding the cause and extent (depth from
surface) of damage.

Make test samples for the relevant tests such as


carbonation, residual reactivity (ASR), rapid air
(air content).

Select area(s) of thin sections if needed (concrete


composition), ASR, etc. Selection of the area(s)
should be based on evaluation of the plane
section. The damaged area should be
represented.

Cut for plane


section

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 45

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
4. Estimating the Appropriate Sample Quantity

Depending on the hypothesis the amount of test samples is determined.


E.g. in case of ASR caused by reactive stone aggregate: 3 samples for
residual reactivity test in case of ASR caused by reactive sand
aggregate: 1 sample for residual reactivity test.

Depending on the homogeneity the amount of test samples is chosen.


Note:
Thin section

The selection of the area for


thin sections is very
important
Sand aggregate
with possible ASR

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 46

Appendix A18, Page 24 of 32

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Evaluation
5. Conduct Evaluation

The macro analysis is carried out.

Areas of test samples (plane sections,


etc.) are marked on the cores or on
sketches.

The samples are prepared by a


laboratory technician.

The samples are evaluated by an


experienced engineer. All observations
are registered.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 47

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Evaluation
6. Evaluate the observations

The observations are evaluated with


regard to the cause of damage and
future development of damage.

Does the observations match with


the hypothesis?!

Decide whether additional steps


must be taken (e.g. extra thin
sections, laboratory tests etc.)

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

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Slide 48

Appendix A18, Page 25 of 32

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

5. Conduct Evaluation

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

6. Evaluate the observations

3. Selection of Sample Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate
Sample Quantity

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 49

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Evaluation of concrete cores

India 2005/2006

Appendix A18, Page 26 of 32

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable / accurate
the evaluations are:
How good is the correlation between
evaluation and registrations of the structure?
Was it possible to detect the cause of
damage?

Error: Not
deteriorated
concrete but two
construction joints

Are the evaluated cores representative for


the whole element / structure?

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 51

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification

Based on the cause of damage


identified by the evaluation of
the concrete cores the necessity
of rehabilitation is estimated.

The evaluations of the concrete


cores are often used as a
supplementary investigation or
calibration to other NDTmethods. In these cases the
input from the evaluation is
compared with the results from
the NDT-method.

Carbonated concrete at the surface

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Slide 52

Appendix A18, Page 27 of 32

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report overall conclusions:
The conclusions of the evaluation should be summarized answering the
questions made by the inspector delivering the core(s) to the laboratory
Overall condition of the concrete, damage type and depth
Possible repair methods
Are further tests needed?
(describe benefits)

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 53

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report detailed input to inspection report:
The extent of the analysis should be summarised often more cores are
evaluated in different levels (typically a macro analyse is preformed on all cores.
Based on the results from this specific cores are chosen for further analysis).
The conclusions of the evaluations should be summarized for every structural
element or concrete type (e.g. bridge deck, column, etc.)

Damage type and depth


Moisture content (if measured)
Potential risk of ASR
Possible repair methods
Are further investigations needed?
(describe benefits)

Avoid inserting photos from the micro analysis


The technical presentation of the evaluation should be constricted to the appendix

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Slide 54

Appendix A18, Page 28 of 32

NDT-Course

Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 55

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
We are dealing with a complex method an introduction to the
laboratory analysis performed should therefore always be made.
Detailed description of observations from the different analysis.
Evaluation of the observations.
Summary of the concrete quality and condition.
Evaluation of the risk of future development of damages.

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Slide 56

Appendix A18, Page 29 of 32

NDT-Course

Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix example of
observations from a micro
analyse.
In the micro-description
qualitative evaluations are
made in a scale from 0-3:
Degree
0
1
2
3

Content
None / little
Some
Many
A lot

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 57

5. Application Summary

Evaluation of concrete cores

India 2005/2006

Appendix A18, Page 30 of 32

NDT-Course

5. Application Summary Concrete Bridges

(Freeze-thaw)

(Air void)

ASR

ASR reactivity

X
X

(x)

(x)

(X)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Macro/Micro analyses

Cores

Initial defects

Break up

Damage

Ground penetration radar

Structural problems

Spraying indicators

Chloride penetration

Impulse response

(x) (x)

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Carbonation

Bond-test/Pull-off

Cover meter

Corrosion

CAPO-test

Schmitt hammer

Boroscope

Crack detection

NDTMethod

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

Slide 59

5. Application Summary Concrete Bridges

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

(x)

(X)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Initial defects

Spraying indicators

Structural problems

Cores
(x)

Break up

(x) (x)

Damage

Ground penetration radar

Chloride penetration

Impulse response

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Carbonation

Bond-test/Pull-off

Cover meter

Corrosion

CAPO-test

Schmidt hammer

Boroscope

Crack detection

NDTMethod

Slide 60

Appendix A18, Page 31 of 32

NDT-Course

6. References
Thaulow, A. et. al. : Estimation of the compressive strength of concrete
samples by means of fluorescence microscopy, Nordisk Betong, 1982.
Mullick, A.K.: Alkali-silica reaction Indian Experience, The AlkaliSilica Reaction in Concrete, Edited by R.N. Swamy, 1992.
Visvesvaraya, H.C. et. al.: Analysis of Distress Due to Alkali-Aggregate
Reaction in Gallery Structures of a Concrete Dam, Concrete AlkaliAggregate Reactions, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference
1986, Ottawa, Canada.
Mullick, A.K., et. al.: Evaluation of Quartzite and Granite Aggregates
Containing Strained Quartz, Concrete Alkali-Aggregate Reactions,
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference 1986, Ottawa, Canada.

Evaluation of concrete cores - 14 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 61

Appendix A18, Page 32 of 32

APPENDIX A19
Crack Measuring Gauge (from NDT-course)

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A19, Page 1 of 16

NDT-Course

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope

NDT Concrete, Steel and Masonry

Introduction
Crack measuring gauge and Crack detection microscope Measuring Concept
Visual measurement of crack widths
Light weight and portable

Typical Applications
Measurements of cracks induced by load or deterioration
Concrete, masonry or steel structures
Identification of crack width and development in crack width

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A19, Page 2 of 16

NDT-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Low costs
Great accuracy
Fast measuring
Easy to use
Light weight and portable

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A19, Page 3 of 16

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


Crack Measuring Gauge
Comparison of visible crack with
predefined accurate scale

Crack Detection Microscope


Optical magnification
Build in light and measuring
scale

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A19, Page 4 of 16

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


The crack width opening at the
surface is measured
It is a visual comparison between
a predefined scale and the
appearance of the crack at the
surface
Often several points along a crack
are measured in order to gain
more accuracy

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
For a general determination of
cracks in a structure a crack
measuring gauge is used
Several cracks are measured and
often a hand sketch is made
Often the cracks are marked with
chalk
If the exact width of a crack is
wanted a crack detection
microscope is used
The crack is measured in several
points
Crack Measuring Gauge
Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A19, Page 5 of 16

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
In general an accuracy of 0,01
mm is possible
Cracks smaller than 0,05 mm are
hard to see for an un aided eye
a crack detection microscope is
needed
The complex nature of crack
propagation causes the crack
width to deviate substantially
along the crack mouth opening
The accuracy is in general limited
by the number of measurements

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Diva-Panvel Bridge

Broken edges near the surface


will often make a crack seem
larger than it is this effect
becomes more and more
dominant in time
Temperature and load has great
influence on the crack width

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A19, Page 6 of 16

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damage


Cracks in concrete caused by:
Overloading
Shrinkage and temperature
ASR, Frost, corrosion

Cracks in masonry caused by:


Overloading
Settling of the foundation
Loss of strength (aging)

Cracks in steel caused by:

Overloading
Fatigue
Hydrogen brittleness
Corrosion (loss of capacity)

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A19, Page 7 of 16

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Bridge decks, edge beams and
wing walls
Concrete in general crack free
concrete has yet to be invented!!!
Masonry arches and walls
All steel members subjected to
tension and shear

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Obviously any cracked structure can be measured if it is visible
Measurements must be performed hands-on hence internal
or other inaccessible areas cannot be measured

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A19, Page 8 of 16

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


There are almost infinite application possibilities of the crack
measuring gauge and the crack detection microscope regarding
input to rehabilitation strategies
The main output for any survey including crack measurements
will in general be to estimate:
The cracks influence on the structural integrity
Crack propagation / development
Need of rehabilitation
Feasible rehabilitation techniques

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope

India 2005/2006

Appendix A19, Page 9 of 16

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
Diva-Panvel Bridge

1. Initial Visual Survey

Identify the general crack


pattern

Find areas suitable for making


measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

Cause of cracking

Expected size and deviation of


crack widths

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas

Choose representative areas for


coarse measurements

Choose the critical areas for


accurate measurements

Diva-Panvel Bridge

4. Estimating the Appropriate Test


Quantity

Often it will be optimal to make


a larger set of coarse
measurements combined with a
smaller set of accurate
measurements

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A19, Page 10 of 16

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
5. Practical Preparations

Create sketch sheets for visual


registrations

Make a time plan

Create a list of the planned


investigation

Diva-Panvel Bridge

6. To Bring (tools)

A normal hammer

Camera

Chalk for marking

Measuring tape and folding rule


for measuring crack lengths

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Conduct Measurements

Make a sketch (table) with the cracks to be measured

Conduct measurements

A relative precise indication of the measuring point is


needed for successive measurements

8. Calibrate Measurements

Take out concrete/masonry cores in selected cracks to


calibrate the measurements for different crack widths

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A19, Page 11 of 16

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


9. Evaluate Measurements and Calibration

Consider whether additional measurements are necessary


based on current results

10.Registration

Make a thorough visual registration

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

7. Conduct Measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

8. Calibrate Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

9. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
10.Registration

5. Practical Preparations
6. To Bring (Tools)

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A19, Page 12 of 16

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


The reliability of the measurements is mainly dependent on:
The correct areas and number of measurements has been chosen
The inspector has been thorough doing the measurements

A calibration by drilling cores or making break ups may identify


correlations between:
Crack width and crack depth
Crack width and corrosion extent of rebars
Crack width and concrete condition/quality
(Petrographical analysis)

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A19, Page 13 of 16

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
Description of measuring strategy and equipment
Results - including variations
Cause of cracking (if known)
Developments in different positions

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
Sketch of the general crack pattern
Field sketches and all results
Photo documentation

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A19, Page 14 of 16

NDT-Course

5. Application Summary

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope

5. Application Summary Concrete Bridges

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Ground penetration radar

Initial defects

Impulse response

Structural problems

(Air void)

(x)

ASR reactivity

(x) (x)

Cores

Chloride penetration

Damage

Break up

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Carbonation

Bond-test/Pull-off

Cover meter

Corrosion

Schmidt hammer

CAPO-test

Crack detection

Boroscope

NDTMethod

Slide 28

Appendix A19, Page 15 of 16

NDT-Course

5. Application Summary
Always bring your Crack Measuring Gauge !!!
It is useful anywhere - anytime

Crack Measuring Gauge


Crack Detection Microscope - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 29

Appendix A19, Page 16 of 16

APPENDIX A20
Impulse Response (sMASH) (from NDT-course)

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A20, Page 1 of 31

NDT-Course

Impulse Response

NDT - Concrete

Introduction
Impulse Response - Measuring Concept
The equipment consist of an instrumented hammer, a geophone
and a laptop
Principle: Hit and measure
On-site measurements and analysis

Typical Applications
Delamination and deterioration of concrete
Bridge decks, beams and piers

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A20, Page 2 of 31

NDT-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Fast screening of a large areas
Identification of good and bad
areas
Estimation of where repair is
needed
Estimation of what kind of repair
is needed

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A20, Page 3 of 31

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

NDT - Concrete

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


A low-strain impact with an instrumented rubber tipped hammer sends stress waves through
the tested element.
The element acts in bending mode and a velocity transducer (geophone), placed adjacent to
the impact point, receives this response. Response to the impact is logged in the time
domain
Both the hammer and the velocity transducer are linked to a portable field computer with
sMASH software for data acquisition, processing and storage.

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A20, Page 4 of 31

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


The time trace of the hammer force
and the velocity transducer are
processed into frequencies using the
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
algorithm.
Dividing the resultant velocity
spectrum by the force spectrum then
derives the mobility and stiffness
of the structural element tested.
Mobility

Areas which react differently in


bending mode can be identified. The
difference may be due to voids,
honeycombing, deteriorated concrete,
etc.

Vo
Fo

Soft
Base

Vo
Fo m
Q

Rigid
Base

fm

Frequency

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
The aim of an Impulse Response investigation is in general to make a fast
screening of a large area and locate damages
The measurements are performed within a predefined grid
Results are exported to an Excel-file where the graphs of mobility vs. frequency
are subjected to a standard analysis which is presented in five surface plots

Average Mobility
0-10

10-20

20-30
S5

S4

S3 Row

S2

S1
14

13

12

11

10

Column

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A20, Page 5 of 31

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
Average Mobility
A parameter found by calculating
the average value of the mobility
for frequencies between 100 and
800 Hz (red line)

Average Mobility

Stiffness
Dynamic stiffness in MN/mm
derived from the mobility slope
between 0-50 Hz

Stiffness

Is in fact the inverse slope of the


initial part of the mobility curve

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
Mobility Slope
Parameter defined as the slope
of the mobility curve within the
range of 100 to 800 Hz

Voids Index
Parameter found by dividing the
peak mobility with the average
mobility

Mobility x Slope
Average Mobility multiplied with
the Mobility Slope

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A20, Page 6 of 31

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
Correlation between calculated parameters and actual damages
Void in
concrete

Honeycomb
in concrete

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
Average Mobility
Average mobility from 100 to
800 Hz

Stiffness
Inverse slope from 0 to 50 Hz

Mobility Slope
Slope from 100 to 800 Hz

Voids Index
Peak divided by average mobility

Mobility x Slope

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A20, Page 7 of 31

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
Impulse Response investigations are reliable and easy to reproduce
The deeper a damage is located, the harder it is to detect
Flaws smaller than 0.25 m times 0.25 m cannot be found
The instrument is very accurate and factors such as how the hammer hits the surface or
flaws in the surface makes the uncertainties of the instrument insignificant
The greatest source of uncertainty is the blow with the hammer

Concrete Bridge Deck

Undetectable flaw
Detectable flaws

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

0.5 m

Slide 13

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
It is always necessary to make an on-site calibration of the measurements
The calibration establishes the connection between the measured relative differences and the
actual variation of the condition
Hence the precision of an investigation is found and documented by the calibration
Test experience increases the precision considerably

Average Mobility
0-10

10-20

20-30
S5

S4

Core 3

Core 1

Core 2
S3 Row

S2

S1
14

13

12

11

10

Column

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A20, Page 8 of 31

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Stiffness, geometry and support
conditions
Example:
Systematic variation of stiffness
Caused by support conditions
and geometry
Wing

s1

s2

s3

s4

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Part of
box
girder

s5

Slide 15

2. Applications and Limitations

NDT - Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A20, Page 9 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damages


Delaminations
Caused by ASR, Corrosion etc.

Voids
Often seen beneath
reinforcement with too little
spacing

Honeycombs and Poor


Consolidation of concrete
E.g. near reinforcement

Damages due to Overloading


Could be from accidents such as
a derailed train or a ship collision

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Concrete Bridges
Deck, girder , etc.

Pavement on Bridges
Floor Slabs and Walls
Pile Integrity
Cylindrical Structures
Silos, Tanks, Chimneys

Cladding on Buildings

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A20, Page 10 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Concrete Bridges
Deck, girder , etc.

Pavement on Bridges
Floor Slabs and Walls
Pile Integrity
Cylindrical Structures
Silos, Tanks, Chimneys

Cladding on Buildings

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Concrete Bridges
Deck, girder , etc.

Pavement on Bridges
Floor Slabs and Walls
Pile Integrity
Cylindrical Structures
Silos, Tanks, Chimneys

Cladding on Buildings

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A20, Page 11 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Concrete Bridges
Deck, girder , etc.

Pavement on Bridges
Floor Slabs and Walls
Pile Integrity
Cylindrical Structures
Silos, Tanks, Chimneys

Cladding on Buildings

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Any part of a structure where a correlation between damage and
response to an impact is thinkable can be tested
A sound way of estimating such a correlation is by looking at
changes in stiffness caused by the damages
Very rough surfaces cannot be tested the surface must be
smooth enough for the hammer to make reproducible impacts
Go / no-go factors
Expected flaw size
Expected flaw depth
Expected dynamical performance

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A20, Page 12 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg
5 Span Prestressed Concrete
Bridge
Butterfly Cross Section
Prestressed in the Longitudinal
Direction
Severe Deterioration due to ASR
Set to Demolition in September
2005 because the Underpass is to
be widened

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg
5 Span Prestressed Concrete
Bridge
Butterfly Cross Section
Prestressed in the Longitudinal
Direction
Severe Deterioration due to ASR
Set to Demolition in September
2005 because the Underpass is to
be widened

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A20, Page 13 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg
Photo taken on a rainy day
Water is coming through the
bridge deck
Coarse cracks are also present
where the concrete is wet on the
under side

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A20, Page 14 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg
Visible damages due to ASR:
Extensive cracking
White precipitation and stalactites
Water is coming through the deck
Damages are limited to the wing
only

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A20, Page 15 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg
Results
Measurements conducted
every 4 m along the entire
bridge
8 measurements across
Average Mobility inserted
on sketch

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A20, Page 16 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Aalborg
Delaminated Concrete

Intact Concrete

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Local Damage

Slide 31

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link


East Bridge, a 6,790 m long
suspension bridge
West bridge, a 6,611 m long
combined rail and road bridge
An 8,000 m long immersed rail
tunnel

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A20, Page 17 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link


Ship collision on the West Bridge
Upper picture: Ship prior to
collision
Lower picture: Ship after the
collision
The front crane is broken

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 33

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link


The front crane of the ship
collided with the southern
cantilever wing
The impact was in an upward
direction as indicated
The damage was visible both on
soffit and top side

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A20, Page 18 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 35

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 36

Appendix A20, Page 19 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link


Investigations were conducted both on the under and the top side of the
cantilever wing
Impulse Response was used to identify the extend of the damage
Cores were drilled for calibration

Average Mobility
0-10 10-20 20-30
S5

S4

Core 3

Core 1

Core 2
S3 Row

S2

S1
14

13

12

11

10

Column

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 37

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link

S5

S4

Core 3

Core 1

Core 2
S3 Row

S2

S1
14

13

12

11

10

Column
Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 38

Appendix A20, Page 20 of 31

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: The Great Belt Link


Impulse Response and visual
inspections was used to create a
damage assessment
The assessment was used to
make a calculation of the capacity
A repair project was made and
has been executed

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 39

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Fast screening of large areas
Identifying good and damaged areas
Estimating the extent of needed repair

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 40

Appendix A20, Page 21 of 31

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

NDT - Concrete

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey

Focus on visible damages and

Practical hindrances

Accessibility

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

Thorough investigation of
background material

Identification of critical areas

Identification of critical
elements

Expected damages

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 42

Appendix A20, Page 22 of 31

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas

Include intact and damaged


areas in each test-grid

Choose representative grids

Consider possible
uncertainties/errors from
geometry etc.

4. Estimating the Appropriate Test


Quantity

Flaw size

Dynamic test planning

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 43

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
5. Practical Preparations

Create sketch sheets for visual


registrations

Make a time plan

Create a list of the planned


investigation

6. To Bring (tools)

A normal hammer

Camera

Chalk for marking the grids

Measuring tape and folding rule

Equipment for core drilling

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 44

Appendix A20, Page 23 of 31

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
5. Practical Preparations

Create sketch sheets for visual


registrations

Make a time plan

Create a list of the planned


investigation

6. To Bring (tools)

A normal hammer

Camera

Chalk for marking the grids

Measuring tape and folding rule

Equipment for core drilling

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 45

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Conduct Measurements

Make a superficial visual survey


in order to confirm the
feasibility of the planned tests

Mark up test grid

Measure

8. Calibrate Measurements

Create Excel-plots and view the


results

Make a swift visual registration


/ survey of the test grid, use
also a normal hammer

Mark up where cores should be


drilled for on-site calibration

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 46

Appendix A20, Page 24 of 31

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


9. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration

Examine cores and core holes

Evaluate actual vs. expected


condition of the cores

Does the results match with the


hypothesis?!

Decide whether additional steps


must be taken (e.g. extra
cores)

10.Registration

Make a thorough visual


registration, geometry, cores
etc.

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 47

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

7. Conduct Measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

8. Calibrate Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

9. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
10.Registration

5. Practical Preparations
6. To Bring (tools)

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 48

Appendix A20, Page 25 of 31

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

NDT - Concrete

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable
/ accurate the measurements are:
Establish correlation between
measurements and calibration
Selection of parameters to be
used for interpretation: Average
Mobility, Voids Index etc.

Error: Not
deteriorated
concrete but two
construction joints

Find out whether the degree of


damage is detectable
Estimate how representative the
measurements are for the whole
element / structure

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 50

Appendix A20, Page 26 of 31

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification

The areas which are found to be


damaged are pointed out

If possible the damaged areas


are subdivided by the type of
repair which is found to be
necessary, e.g.:

Damaged
Areas

1. Shallow removal and repair of


concrete cover (cheap)
2. Removal and repair of concrete
to a depth behind the
reinforcement (expensive)

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 51

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
Background for making the investigation
Extend and position of the investigation
Summary of the results
Result evaluation/evaluation of hypothesis
Estimate of the reliability of the investigation
Description of needed rehabilitation

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 52

Appendix A20, Page 27 of 31

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
We are dealing with a complex method an
introduction to the method should therefore
always be made
Registration of position and geometry
Is used as a tool for interpretation
Gives the reader an overview of exactly where
there measurements has been made
If successive measurements are expected
thorough registrations are necessary for
comparison of results

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 53

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
We are dealing with a complex method an
introduction to the method should therefore
always be made
Registration of position and geometry
Is used as a tool for interpretation
Gives the reader an overview of exactly where
there measurements has been made
If successive measurements are expected
thorough registrations are necessary for
comparison of results

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 54

Appendix A20, Page 28 of 31

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
Measurements and Calibration
These are equally important and should be
presented accordingly
Often it is a good idea to make a separate
appendix with registration of concrete cores

Focus on rehabilitation strategy


Good and bad areas
Degree of damage and repair methods
Description of relevant uncertainties

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 55

Application Summary

NDT - Concrete

India 2005/2006

Appendix A20, Page 29 of 31

NDT-Course

Application Summary Concrete bridges

(x) (x)

Structural problems

Initial defects

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Cores

Chloride penetration

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Macro/Micro analyses

X
X

Break up

Damage

Ground penetration radar

Impact Echo

Carbonation

Impulse response

Chloride contents

Corrosion

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Cover meter

Bond-test/Pull-off

CAPO-test

Boroscope

Schmidt hammer

Crack detection

NDTMethod

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

Slide 57

Application Summary Concrete bridges

Structural problems

Initial defects

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Chloride penetration

(x) (x)

X
X

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Cores

X
X

Break up

Damage

Ground penetration radar

Impulse response

Carbonation

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Corrosion

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Cover meter

Bond-test/Pull-off

CAPO-test

Boroscope

Schmidt hammer

Crack detection

NDTMethod

Slide 58

Appendix A20, Page 30 of 31

NDT-Course

References
Davis, A.G. : The non-destructive impulse response test in
North America: 1985-2001, NDT & E International 36 (2003),
185-193, Elsevier Science Ltd.
Ottosen, N.S, Ristinmaa, M & Davis, A.G, : Theoretical
interpretation of impulse response test of embedded concrete
structures, Div. of Solid Mechanics, Lund University, Lund,
Sweden (to be published in ASCE).

Impulse Response - 21 February, 2006

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Slide 59

Appendix A20, Page 31 of 31

APPENDIX A21
Impact-Echo (from NDT-course)

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A21, Page 1 of 24

NDT-Course

Impact Echo

NDT - Concrete

Introduction
Impact Echo - Measuring Concept
The equipment consist of a Transducer (Receiver), a steel ball
(Impactor) and a laptop
Principle: hit and measure
On-site measurements and analysis

Typical Applications
Delamination and deterioration of concrete
Bridge decks, beams and piers

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A21, Page 2 of 24

NDT-Course

Introduction
Benefits:
Fast screening of a large areas
Qualitative measurements
Estimation of where repair is
needed
Estimation of what kind of repair
is needed

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A21, Page 3 of 24

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Impact Echo

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


The Impact Echo equipment
consist of:
Displacement transducers for
measuring surface movements
Arrangement with different sizes
of steel balls (impactors) for
making the impact
A laptop with custom made
signal amplifier and software

The transducer is linked to the


laptop with Impact-Echo software
for data acquisition, processing
and storage.

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

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Slide

Appendix A21, Page 4 of 24

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


A short-duration stress pulse is introduced into
the test element by mechanical impact
Three types of stress waves are generated:
P-wave (spherical wavefront waves)
S-wave (spherical wavefront waves)
R-wave (surface wave)

The P-wave will, when reaching a material with


another acoustic impedance be reflected and
return to the surface.
A sensitive displacement transducer picks up
the successive arrival of the P-wave to the
surface.

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle What is Measured?


A. Mechanical impulse on the surface
B. Measuring of the surface movement

C. Frequency analysis of surface movement


D. Evaluation

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

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Slide

Appendix A21, Page 5 of 24

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
The aim of an Impact-Echo
investigation is in general to make
a fast screening of a large area
and locate position and depth of
flaws and damages
The measurements are performed
within a predefined grid
Results are stored, analyzed and
presented on the laptop.

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
The red cursor/line indicate the
peak frequency from which a
depth is calculated
The blue cursor indicate a
predefined depth (used for fast
overview of location of the flaw /
defect)

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 10

Appendix A21, Page 6 of 24

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
Two reflections

One reflection

No reflection the distance


between surface and flaw is
to small

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
The deeper a damage is located, the larger it must be to be detected
The surface of the tested media must be fairly smooth in order to avoid distortion
of the waves
The instrument is very accurate and factors such as how the steel ball hits the
surface or flaws in the surface makes the uncertainties of the instrument
insignificant
Concrete Bridge Deck

Undetectable flaw
Detectable flaws

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

0.5 m

Slide 12

Appendix A21, Page 7 of 24

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
The limits of depth and size of flaws which can be detected are given by the
wavelength of the impact wave
The wavelength is primarily governed by the size of the steel ball used for the
impact
A relation between flaw size/depth and size of the steel ball has been
established:

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
It is always necessary to make an on-site calibration
of the measurements
The calibration should validate the used wave speed
and interpretation of the signal
Hence the accuracy of an investigation is found and
documented by the calibration
Test experience increases the accuracy

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

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Slide 14

Appendix A21, Page 8 of 24

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


Heterogeneous materials can
cause strongly distorted signals
Humidity will often alter the wave
speed in the material

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

2. Applications and Limitations

Impact Echo

India 2005/2006

Appendix A21, Page 9 of 24

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damages


Delaminations
Caused by ASR, Corrosion etc.

Voids
Often seen beneath
reinforcement with too little
spacing

Honeycombs and Poor


Consolidation of concrete
E.g. near reinforcement

Geometry

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


Concrete Bridges
Deck, girder, pier etc.

Pavement on Bridges
Floor Slabs and Walls
Cylindrical Structures
Silos, Tanks, Chimney

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A21, Page 10 of 24

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Any part of a structure which has a sizeable flaw of defect
parallel to the surface
Very rough surfaces cannot be tested the surface must be
smooth enough for the steel ball to make reproducible impacts
Go / no-go factors
Surface roughness
Expected flaw size
Expected flaw depth

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Road surface/Water proofing


Concrete bridge: Special
inspection of pavement and water
proofing.
Large area - 18.000 m2
Much traffic - 50.000 cars pr.
day.
Time restriction Traffic
restriction only allowed between
hours 9 am and 3 pm

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 20

Appendix A21, Page 11 of 24

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Road surface/Water proofing


Determinations of the velocity of
propagation in the road surface.
Velocity found to be
~ 3400 m/s

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Road surface/Water proofing


Assessments of:
- delaminations
- internal voids
- crushed layers
- slip
from the Impact-Echo signal
Concrete cores to calibrate the
measurements

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A21, Page 12 of 24

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Delaminations in concrete


Concrete bridge from 1917.
Railway bridge.
Any delaminations will cause
problems with stability in the
middle section of the arch

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Delaminations in concrete


The top part of the intrados of the
arc was selected as test area
0,5 m between points in the
length
5 concrete cores to calibrate the
measurements in good and bad
areas

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A21, Page 13 of 24

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Delaminations in concrete


A 9 mm steel ball was used this
enabled detection of flaws in
depths between 70 and 600 mm
The arc thickness in the top is 400
mm and in the bottom 1000 mm
In the top the measurements
showed a thickness of 400 mm
The wave speed is set to 3500
m/s

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Delaminations in concrete


In the lower sections
measurements showed a
delamination in a depth
of 150 mm
This was validated by a concrete
core
Note that smaller cracks and
delamination create noise

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A21, Page 14 of 24

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2: Delaminations in concrete


The measurement shows
delaminating in 1 - 1,5 m from
north and south arch face.
In the middle 8 m the
measurements showed no
delaminations

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

2. Applications and Limitations

Input to Rehabilitation Strategies


Fast screening of large areas
Qualitative investigation of flaws / geometry
Identifying good and damaged areas
Estimating the extent of needed repair

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 28

Appendix A21, Page 15 of 24

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Impact Echo

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey

Focus on visible damages and

Practical hindrances

Accessibility

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

Thorough investigation of
background material

Identification of critical areas

Identification of critical elements

Expected damages

type

size and depth

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A21, Page 16 of 24

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas

Include non-damaged and


damaged areas in each testgrid

Choose representative grids

Consider possible
uncertainties/errors from edges
or surface conditions

4. Estimating the Appropriate Test


Quantity

Expected extend of flaws

Expected variation

Dynamic test planning

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
5. Practical Preparations

Create sketch sheets for visual


registrations

Make a time plan

Create a list of the planned


investigation

6. To Bring (tools)

A normal hammer

Camera

Chalk for marking the grids

Measuring tape and folding rule

Equipment for core drilling

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 32

Appendix A21, Page 17 of 24

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Conduct Measurements

Make a superficial visual survey


in order to confirm the
feasibility of the planned tests

Mark up the test grid

Conduct measurements

8. Calibrate Measurements

View all the results and find


signals indicating damage

Make a swift visual registration


/ survey of the test grid, use
also a normal hammer

Mark up where cores should be


drilled for on-site calibration

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 33

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


9. Evaluate Measurements and
Calibration

Examine cores and core holes

Evaluate actual vs. expected


condition of the cores

Do the results match with the


hypothesis?!

Decide whether additional steps


must be taken (e.g. extra
cores)

10.Registration

Make a thorough visual


registration, geometry, cores
etc.

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A21, Page 18 of 24

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

7. Conduct Measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

8. Calibrate Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

9. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
10.Registration

5. Practical Preparations
6. To Bring (tools)

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 35

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Impact Echo

India 2005/2006

Appendix A21, Page 19 of 24

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


It must be evaluated how reliable
/ accurate the measurements are:
Establish correlation between
measurements and calibration
Wave speed, depths etc.

Identify signals from geometry


and flaws
Estimate how representative the
measurements are for the whole
element / structure. This is
essential as we are dealing with
a point test

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 37

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification

The areas which are found to be


damaged are pointed out

If possible the damaged areas


are subdivided by the type of
repair which is found to be
necessary, e.g.:
1. Shallow removal and repair of
concrete cover (cheap)
2. Removal and repair of concrete
to a depth behind the
reinforcement (expensive)

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 38

Appendix A21, Page 20 of 24

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
Background for making the investigation
Extend and position of the investigation
Summary of the results
Result evaluation/evaluation of hypothesis
Estimate of the reliability of the investigation
Description of needed rehabilitation

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 39

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
We are dealing with a complex method an introduction
to the method should therefore always be made
Registration of position and geometry
Is used as a tool for interpretation
Gives the reader an overview of exactly where the
measurements has been made
If successive measurements are expected thorough
registrations are necessary for comparison of results

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 40

Appendix A21, Page 21 of 24

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
Measurements and Calibration
These are equally important and should be presented
accordingly
Often it is a good idea to make a separate appendix with
registration of concrete cores

Focus on rehabilitation strategy


Good and bad areas
Degree of damage and repair methods
Description of relevant uncertainties

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 41

Application Summary

Impact Echo

India 2005/2006

Appendix A21, Page 22 of 24

NDT-Course

Application Summary Concrete bridges

Structural problems

Initial defects

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Chloride penetration

(x) (x)

X
X

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Macro/Micro analyses

Cores

X
X

Break up

Damage

Ground penetration radar

Impulse response

Carbonation

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Corrosion

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Cover meter

Bond-test/Pull-off

CAPO-test

Boroscope

Schmidt hammer

Crack detection

NDTMethod

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

Slide 43

Application Summary Concrete bridges

Structural problems

Initial defects

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Chloride penetration

(x) (x)

X
X

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Cores

X
X

Break up

Damage

Ground penetration radar

Impulse response

Carbonation

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Corrosion

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Cover meter

Bond-test/Pull-off

CAPO-test

Boroscope

Schmidt hammer

Crack detection

NDTMethod

Slide 44

Appendix A21, Page 23 of 24

NDT-Course

References

Impact Echo - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 45

Appendix A21, Page 24 of 24

APPENDIX A22
Half Cell Potential Measurements (from NDT-course)

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

Appendix A22, Page 1 of 26

NDT-Course

Half-cell potential
NDT - Concrete

Introduction
Overview of recent corrosion activity

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A22, Page 2 of 26

NDT-Course

Introduction
Typical application:
Pitting corrosion
Uniform corrosion

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide

Slide

Agenda
1. Theory Technical Method Description
2. Applications and Limitations
3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests
4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results
5. Application Summary
6. References

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Appendix A22, Page 3 of 26

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Method

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measuring Principle The Instrument


Instrument:
Half cell (Copper rod in a container
filled with Copper sulphate and
having a porous plug)
Voltmeter
Reinforcement contact

Measuremet:
Voltage between reinforcement and
electrode
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide

Appendix A22, Page 4 of 26

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Potential measurement, theory


A steel rod placed in water will start to dissolve. The process will be
reduced by the increasing electrical difference, and eventually stop.

Fe

Fe++ + 2e-

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Potential measurement, theory


A less noble metal like zinc will also dissolve in Water, but the process will
continue much longer than for the steel rod, and much stronger electrical
differences will be created.

Fe

Fe++ + 2e-

Zn

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Zn++ + 2e-

Slide

Appendix A22, Page 5 of 26

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Potential measurement, theory

If the 2 metal rods are connected an electrical voltage can be


measured. This is the difference in potential between the 2 metals.

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Measurements
Metal in stable
solution will have a
stable potential

Concrete environment surrounding


the reinforcements affects the
potential

Reinforcement in concrete

Porous plug

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Half cell (Zn-cell)


Slide 10

Appendix A22, Page 6 of 26

NDT-Course

Corrosion potentials, EKP-measurement


Potential criterion: quality of passive layer on the reinforcement surface

Potential

+ (Noble)

Less noble -

Potential: quality of passive layer on the reinforcement surface

Au

Ag

Reinforcement in
good concrete
(passivation)

Cu

Pb

Fe

Zn

Al

Reinforcement in
poor concrete
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 11

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Simple interpretation of results


Potential evaluation (ASTM
C876)

If the potential is more


positive then -200 mV
the risk of corrosion is
less than 10%.

If the potential is more


negative then -350 mV
the risk of corrosion is
more than 90%.

Conclusion:
Poor correlation
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 12

Appendix A22, Page 7 of 26

NDT-Course

Half-cell potential, theory


Refined interpretation of results
2

Oxygen access affects critical


potential level, and oxygen
access must be evaluated.
This is done from concrete
resistance.

Conclusion:
Resistance must be evaluated

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 13

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Corrosion evaluation, resistance

Corrosion involves current through concrete

Long vs. Short distance through concrete

Corrosion form is mainly controlled by concrete resistance:


- Very high resistance prevents corrosion
- Low resistance increases risk of macro cell corrosion
- Low resistance reduces potentials in general

Conclusion: Resistance must be evaluated


Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 14

Appendix A22, Page 8 of 26

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Corrosion evaluation, resistance


Principe: Potential gradient from fixed current
Pros: Independent of contact resistance
Cons: Errors from reinforcement, time consuming

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 15

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Corrosion evaluation, resistance


Practice: AC-resistance
between reference cell and
reinforcement, parallel to
potential measurement.
Pros: Fast and direct connected
to potential mapping
Cons: Errors from contact
resistance

Conclusion:
Potential and resistance is
measured simultaneously.
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 16

Appendix A22, Page 9 of 26

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Aim of measurements
Measurements of potential and resistance is used for:
- Determination of actual condition
- Determination of future condition development
- Estimation of corrosion cause
- Estimation of corrosion problems (structural
damage, spalling)
These results are used for:
- Evaluation of recent and future need for
repair/corrosion prevention
- Estimation of cost and methods for repair/corrosion
prevention.
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 17

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Accuracy
Accuracy:
- Location of corroding area approx. 10-20 cm
- Potentials, approx. 20 mV from measurement, much more from seasonal
changes.
- Resistance, approx. 50%
Note:
On areas with very sharp gradients, small changes in the location of the
measuring point can have high influence on the results.

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 18

Appendix A22, Page 10 of 26

NDT-Course

1. Theory Technical Method Description

Factors of General Influence


The potentials are greatly
influenced by:
- Moisture content
- Concrete resistance
- Concrete cover
- Chloride content
The potentials are to a much
smaller degree influenced by
carbonation.

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 19

2. Applications and Limitations

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A22, Page 11 of 26

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Damages


The results are used for evaluation
of corrosion from:
Deep carbonation
General chloride ingress
Local chloride ingress (cracks, pile
base)
Water leaks through cracks

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 21

2. Applications and Limitations

Common Applications - Structural Elements


The method is usually used for
evaluation of corrosion problems in:
Bridges: decks, columns, facades
Tunnels: Inside surface
Parking decks
Housing: facades, balconies

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 22

Appendix A22, Page 12 of 26

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


Apart from the usual applications the method can to some degree
be used for evaluation of corrosion problems in:
- Masonry and stone constructions
- Underwater constructions
- Constructions covered with soil
Further more the method can be used for evaluation of cathodic
protection in constructions surrounded by air, water and soil.
The method can be used for evaluation of problems from stray
current.
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 23

2. Applications and Limitations

Theoretical Possible Applications/Limitations


The method has several limitations:
- Reinforcement should have electrical continuity
- The surface should be free of electrical isolating surface
treatment
- Potentials will only come from the reinforcement close to the
electrode
- Corroding areas with small concrete cover are often not detected
- Corroding areas without contact to the concrete will not be
detected.
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 24

Appendix A22, Page 13 of 26

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Soderledstunnel, Stockholm, Sweden


1.5 km concrete tunnel
Spalling due to
carbonation and small
concrete cover
Corrosion due to
chloride ingress and
moderate concrete cover

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 25

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 1: Soderledstunnel, Stockholm, Sweden

Carbonation

Chloride

No corrosion
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 26

Appendix A22, Page 14 of 26

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 2, Shell Parking house, Denmark


- Optimal location for breake ups
- Evaluation of overall area of damage

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 27

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 3, access balcony, Copenhagen, Denmark


Evaluation of the effect of stopping water leakage

Before

1 year after

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

3 years after
Slide 28

Appendix A22, Page 15 of 26

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 4, Great Belt Bridge, Denmark


Inspection of
cathodic
protection from
water anodes

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 29

2. Applications and Limitations

Case 4, Great Belt Bridge, Denmark


Protection criteria: Potential lower than -850 mV
All underwater areas protected.

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 30

Appendix A22, Page 16 of 26

NDT-Course

2. Applications and Limitations

Expected input to maintenance strategies


Were is the corrosion
How much corrosion there is
Size of the areas with corrosion
What type of damage (structural damage, spalling)
Is a repair necessary
What type of repair
Time before the repair must be done
Area of the repair
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 31

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Half cell potential

India 2005/2006

Appendix A22, Page 17 of 26

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
1. Initial Visual Survey
-

General environmental impact


General concrete quality
Corrosion signs
Deviant environmental impact
Deviant concrete quality

2. Forecast of Results
Creating a Hypothesis

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 33

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
3. Selection of Test Areas
- How critical are the damage
(safety, economical)
- Magnitude of variations

4. Estimating the Appropriate


Test Quantity
- Sharp gradients
- Low resistance

Close spacing
Close spacing

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 34

Appendix A22, Page 18 of 26

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
Practical Preparations
-

Mark measuring grid


Make 2 reinforcement contact
points
Calibration brake-ups
Access of water and electrode

To Bring (tools)

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 35

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Test Planning
To Bring (tools)

Measurement unit
Measurement device
Cables
Contact to reinforcement
Jack hammer
Repairer equipment and
material
Generator
Cover meter (metal detector)

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 36

Appendix A22, Page 19 of 26

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


5. Conduct Measurements
-

Visual registration of corrosion signs


2 reinforcement contact points
Measure the resistance between the 2
points
Mark measuring grid with sufficient
accuracy
Calibrate instrument
Wetting the measure points
Conduct measurement
Control results during execution
Dynamic adjustment of measure-point
spacing (gradients, resistance)
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 37

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


5. Calibrate Measurements:
-

Brake-ups
Chlorides
Carbonation
Concrete cover

Select calibration points at:


-

Most corroding areas (serious


damage?)
Typical areas (general condition)
Not corroding areas (control of
Hypothesis

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 38

Appendix A22, Page 20 of 26

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Potential measurement, calibration


Remember:
Check the
apparently
undamaged
areas

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 39

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Execution of Field Tests


7. Evaluate Measurements and Calibration
Direct

Colured
plot
(potential)
Calculated
corrosion
risk
(potential
and
gradient)
Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 40

Appendix A22, Page 21 of 26

NDT-Course

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Interpretation of results
Potentials
Potential
gradients
Resistance

Calibrating
brake-ups
Experience

Supplementary
measurements
chlorides,
carbonation

Visual
damange

Experience

Interpretation

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 41

3. Test Planning and Execution of Field Tests

Summary Planning and Execution


Planning

Execution

1. Initial Visual Survey

5. Conduct Measurements

2. Forecast of Results Creating a


Hypothesis

6. Calibrate Measurements

3. Selection of Test Areas


4. Estimating the Appropriate Test
Quantity

7. Evaluate Measurements and


Calibration
8. Interpretation

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 42

Appendix A22, Page 22 of 26

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Method

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Calibration and Reliability


Potentials have no direct
connection to corrosion rate
Potentials have no direct
connection to corrosion history
Numerous factors influence the
potentials and the influence can
only be estimated.

Calibration by direct inspection is


vital and experience is necessary

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 44

Appendix A22, Page 23 of 26

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Damage Identification
Sharp gradients, low resistance:
chloride initiated corrosion, risk of
cross-section reduction

General:
Damage identification is
difficult and supplementary
measurements are usually
necessary.
Low gradients, high
resistance: carbonation
initiated corrosion, risk
of spalling

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 45

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Report:
General conclusions
Eventually illustrative plots

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Slide 46

Appendix A22, Page 24 of 26

NDT-Course

4. Interpretation and Reporting of Results

Reporting of Results
Appendix:
-

Measured potentials and resistance


Measuring grid
Calibrating brake-ups
Relevant metrological data

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

Slide 47

5. Application Summary

Method

India 2005/2006

Appendix A22, Page 25 of 26

NDT-Course

5. Application Summary Concrete Bridges

(x) (x)

(x)

Carbonation

Chloride penetration

Structural problems

Initial defects

ASR

(Freeze-thaw)

(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

X
X

Half-cell potential - 21 February, 2006

India 2005/2006

Macro/Micro analyses

Ground penetration radar

(Air void)

ASR reactivity

Impulse response

Corrosion

Cores

Damage

Break up

Impact Echo

Chloride contents

Half cell potential &


corrosion rate

Spraying indicators

Bond-test/Pull-off

Cover meter

CAPO-test

Schmidt hammer

Crack detection

Boroscope

NDTMethod

Slide 49

Appendix A22, Page 26 of 26

APPENDIX B
Underwater Inspection of Bridges, Federal Highway
Administration, (FHWA-DP-80-1)

5721063-07_L014-VerA_UWI_manual_App_frontpages.doc

UNDERWATER
INSPECTION OF
BRIDGES
t3c/
U.S. Depadment
of Transportation

Federal Highway
Administration

MMONSTRATlON
Dlvlsloc(

PROJECTS

FEDERAL
HIGHWAY
AWlNlSTRATiON
400 TrH STRER,
SW.
WASHINGTON,
D.C. 20590
REPORT
NO.
FHWA-DP-8&1
FINAL REPORT
NOVEMBER,
1989

Underwater

Inspection

Report No. FHWA-DP-80-1

Prepared by
Collins Engineers, Inc.
165 N. Canal St.
Chicago, Illinois 60606

Prepared for
Federal Highway Administration
U.S. Department of Transportation
Washington, D.C. 20590

November, 1989

of Bridges

Underwater

A,.k-0

Inspection

of Bridges

( 6.

Thomas J. Collins, Richard J. Jarmakowicz,


9

Pc*iornrn9

O,jon~rpt~on

Name

12

Sponsor,ng

Apcncy

Name

10.

Work

11.

Contract

13

and Address

and Addr*r*

Federal Highway Administration


Demonstration Projects Division
400 7th Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20590
;

;.

15

5upplemenlpry

16.

198s

organ~ration

Code

14.

Un!t

No.

ITRAIS)

oc Gfon* No.
DTFH71-68-C-0023
YP~

of

Report

and Parsod

Cpv.r.d

Final Repon
November, 1989
-

S~onror~~9

HHO-40

Apency

Code

NO~CS

Project Manager:

PWfOrm~ng

FHWA-DP-80

Michael J. Ganich

Collins Engineers, Inc.


165 N. Canal Street
Chicago, IL 60606

I
/
I

November,

Dennis Decker (HHO-43)

Abstract

To ensure public safety and to protect the capital investment in bridges over water, underwater members
must be inspected to the extent necessary to determine their structural condition with certainty. Underwater
inspections must also include the streambed.
In shallow water, underwater
inspections
may be
accomplished visually or tactilely from above the water surface; in deep water, however, inspections will
generally require diving or other appropriate techniques to determine conditions.
Underwater diving,
inspection, and documentation
equipment has improved in quality in recent years, and the underwater
inspector has a wide range of equipment and techniques available to him.

The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines for underwater bridge inspection; acquaint those
responsible for bridge safety with underwater inspection techniques and equipment: and briefly present
methods of repair for commonly found defects.
It should be of interest to bridge and maintenance
engineers, technicians and inspectors. This manual is a stand alone supplement to the Bridge Inspectors
Training Manual and was prepared in accordance with its procedures and rating systems.

II

17.

K .y Words

18.

Bridge inspection,
inspection scour

19.

Security

Ciors,f.

(of

th,r

Unclassified
form DOT F 1700.7

D,rtr~button

(a-72)

Stptwneot

This document is avai:dble to the U.S.


public through the National Technical
Information Service; Springfield,
Virginia 22161

underwater

report)

10.

.:

Reproduction

Sm~t~t~

Clo,saf.

Unclassified
of

complotod

(of

thtr

peg.)

pop0

outhoritod

21. No.

of Ppje8

22.

Prtc*

PREFACE

The bridge structures of today reflect technological advances in design, and construction that have evolved
over the years. Nevenheless, these advances havenot precluded unfortunate and, in some instances, tragic
occurrences.
The collapse ofthe Silver 8ridge in 1967, aroused increased interest in the inspection and
maintenance of bridges and prompted the United States Congress to add a section to the Federal-Aid
Highway Act of 1968 requiring the Secretary of Transportation to establish a national bridge inspection
standard and to develop a program to train bridge inspectors.
In April 1985, the collapse of the U.S. Route 43 Bridge over Chickasawbogue
Creek near Mobile, Alabama
prompted the Chief of the Bridge Division of the Federal Highway Administration
(FHWA) to issue a
memorandum
to FHWA regional offices stressing the importance of underwater inspection, and ordering
steps to ensure that each state has a well-founded underwater inspection program.
The tragic collapse of the New York State Thruway Bridge over Schoharie Creek in April, 1987 in which ten
persons died and the U.S. Route51 Bridge over the Hatchie River near Covington, Tennessee in April, 1989
in which eight persons died again illustrate the critical importance not only of underwater investigations but
also appropriate correction of deficiencies discovered.
In October 1988, revisions to the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS) became effective which,
among other stipulations, mandate that a master list be developed of all bridges which require underwater
inspection; that procedures be determined for the underwater inspections, and that the frequency of
inspection for each bridge, not to exceed five years, be determined.
In 1988, to assist bridge owners in
complying with these new requirements, FHWA issued two Technical Advisories, Revisions to the National
Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS) and Scour at Bridges, which included guidelines for underwater
inspections and scour investigations. The procedures in the FHWA Technical Advisories are not regulatory
or policy but rather the best FHWA technical advice.
This manual was prepared as part of the FHWAs Demonstration Project 80, Bridge Inspection Techniques
and Equipment, which included presentation
of a 2-l/2 day course for state highway organizations
throughout the country. Many organizations and individuals have contributed photographs, slides, and other
graphic materials which have been used in the class presentation and this manual; many others have-offered
suggestions for both the course and the manual. Their assistance is acknowledged
and appreciated.
Although it is intended that this manual reflect current NBIS requirements at the time of its publication, it may
not in all instances reflect current FHWA interpretation of underwater inspection requirements.
Readers are
urged.to refer to the NBIS and the American Association of State Highway Transportation (AASHTO) Manual
for the Maintenance Inspection of Bridges.
To facilitate use of this manual and in the interest of clarity and brevity, single-gender
He is to be read as he or she and so on.

pronouns

are used.

..

METRIC (SI*) CONVERSION


APPROXIMATE

CONVERSIONS
Yul6ply

WhmYouKnow

ey

FACTORS

TO SI UNITS

lo

Fhd

APPROXIMATE
Whw

SY-

You

CONVERSIONS
Yultlply

Know

LENGTH
In
fl

Inchmr
1001
yMl0
mller

Yd
ml

2.54
0.3048
0.914
1.61

quaro
square
qimre
quart
acre0

H
Y@

ml
ac

5.

Inches
1001
yardr
ml100

mllllmolrer
metros
metrsr
kll~Olf0~

mm
m
m
km

ouncw
pounds
whorl Ions

lb
1

mllllmatres
rquarad
melrer
squared
metror
squared
kllometreo
o&red
hectare8

845.2
0.0928
0.636
2.58
0.395

(2000

mm
m8
rn*
km*
ha

28.35
0.454
lb) 0.907

gr8ma
kIlograma
megagramr

0
kQ
MO

VOLUME
28.57
3.785
0.0328
0.0705

fluld ouncoo
gallono
cubic
foot
cubic
yardr
NOTE:

Vdumor

than

grealu

loo0

mlllllllrer
Illres
malroo
cubed
mstrea, cubed

L shall

be rhown

TEMPERATURE
-F

Fahronhell
temperature
St la the symbol

for tho

S/S (after
subtracllng
Internallonal

To Find

mm
m
m
km

mllllmetrss
metros
metros
kllometres

0 039
3 28
1.09
0.821

lnchse
Ieel
yards
mllss

AREA

MASS (welcrht)
02

By

LENGTH

AREA
II-P

TO SI UNITS

32)
Syrtem

mL
L
rn
rn

mm
ml
km
ha

mllllmstrer
squared
metros
squared
kllometres
squared
hectoras
(10 Ooo rn9

0.0016
10.764
0.39
2.53

square
square
square
acres

Inches
toot
mller

MASS (weight)
Qrams
kllwrrms
magagramr

0
kg
WJ

(1 Ooo kQ)

0.0353
2.205
1.103

our8co5
pounds
short tons

01

lb
T

VOLUME
mL
L
m*
m*

mlllllltres
ll1res
melros
cubed
melrea
cubed

0.034
0264
35.315
1.308

TEMPERATURE
oc

In rn.

celalul
temper&us

915 (then
add 32)

fluld ounces
gallons
cubic
feet
cubic
yard8

(exact)
Fahrenhell
lemperature

(exact)
celrlur
lemperaturo
ot Mearurementr

oc

Theso

faclora

conlorm

to Ihe requlremont

of FHWA

Order

5tW

IA

CHAPTER I
Section 1.
Section 2.

ESTABLISHINbAN
UNDERWATER INSPECTION PROGRAM .......
identification of Bridges For Underwater Inspections.. ................
Underwater inspection.. ......................................................................

CHAPTER II
Section 1.
Section 2.
Section 3.

THE UNDERWATER INSPECTOR .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. ..


Introduction .........................................................................................
Safety.. .................................................................................................
Management of Diving Personnel.. ....................................................

7
7
9
10

CHAPTER III
Section I.
Section 2.
Section 3.

IDENTIFICATION OF UNDERWATER STRUCTURAL DEFECTS ....


Introduction .... 1.....................................................................................
Types of Substructures Located in Water.. .......................................
Deterioration of Structural Materials.. ................................................

1.1

CHAPTER IV
Section 1.
Section 2.
Section 3.
Section 4.
Section 5.

UNDERWATER INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.. .....................................


The Divers Environment.. ...................................................................
Modes of Diving.. ................................................................................
Divers Equipment.. ..............................................................................
inspection Tools.. ...............................................................................
Underwater Photography and Video Equipment.. ............................

27
27
28
30
.33
34

CHAPTER V
Section I.
Section 2.
Section 3.
Section 4.

UNDERWATER INSPECTION TECHNIQUES.. .................................


Preparation and Safety.. .....................................................................
Inspection.. ..........................................................................................
Special Testing, Level III Examination.. .............................................
Documentation.. ..................................................................................

41
41
42
43
46

CHAPTER VI
Section 1.
Section 2.
Section 3.
Section 4.
Section 5.
Section 6.
Section 7.

SCOUR INVESTIGATIONS.. ................................................................


Background.. .......................................................................................
Baisc Concepts and Definitions of Scour.. .......................................
Evaluating the Vulnerability of Existing Bridges to Scour.. ..............
Scour Inspections.. ..........................................................
.:. ................
Soundings.. ......................... .................................................................
Diver inspection.. ............................................
, ...................................
Geophysical inspection.. ..................................................
..................

49
49
49
53
55
59
61
62

CHAPTER VII
Section 1.
Section 2. ~
Section 3.
Section 4.

REPAIR OF UNDERWATER MEMBERS ............................................


Introduction.. .......................................................................................
Concrete.. ............................................................................................
Steel.. ...................................................................................................
Timber.. .............................................
...................................................

67
67
67
70
72

CHAPTER Vlll
Section 1.
Section 2.
Section 3.
Section 4.
Section 5.
Section
Sectior

MANAGEMENT OF UNDERWATER CONTRACTS.. .........................


Introduction.. .......................................................................................
Scope of Work ....................................................................................
Qualifications of Inspection Personnel.. ............................................
Insurance Requirements.. ...................................................................
Scheduling. ............................................................................................
Report Forms.. .....................................................................................
Requirements for Proposal Submittal ..:. ............................................

73
73

vii

1
1
3

11
11

16

5;
77
78
79
79

TABLE

Section
sec:;on
Secticn
Section

8.
9.
10.
1 1.

CHAPTER IX
Section 1.
Section 2.

OF CONTENTS

(Continued)

Special Requirements.. .......................................................................


Quality Control of Underwater Inspections.. .....................................
Contractor Monitoring and Coordination ..........................................

73
81
82
83

INSPECTION REPORTS.. ...................................................................


.I ..........................
Introduction.. ...........................................................
Recording Jnspection Notes.. ............................................................

85
85
85

Contractor

Selection.. ..........................................................................

Appendix
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Diving Standards...... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . ... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . ..

91

Sample Scope of Work .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .

97

Bibliography .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ..

101

Glossary.. ............................................................................................

103

Index ....................................................................................................

113

.. .
VIII

CHAPTER

~. ESTABldSHlNG
AN
UNDERWATER INSPECTION PROGRAM

SECTION

l-l.1

1. IDENTIFICATION
OF BRIDGES FOR
UNDERWATER INSPECTIONS

Need for Underwater

may include visual and tactile inspections during


periods of low water by wading, diving inspections,
remotely operated vehicles and underwater cameras,
radar and sonar, sounding equipment,
sampling
equipment, and other specialized inspection equipment
as needed to determine underwater structural and
streambed conditions.

Inspections

Approximately 86 percent of the bridges in the National


Bridge Inventory (NBI) are built over waterways and
most bridge failures occur because of underwater
problems. Underwater members must be inspected to
the extent necessary to determine with certainty that
their condition has not compromised
the structural
safety of the bridge. To achieve that certainty, bridge
owners may have to employ one or more specialized
underwater inspection techniques. These techniques

Figure l-l

Bridges that cross waterways often have foundation


elements located in water to provide the most
economical tbtal design. Where these elements are
continuously submerged, underwater inspection and
management techniques must be used to establish
their condition so that failures can be avoided.
(Figs. l-1 and 112).

Bridge failure.
1

ilncerha:ar

rs;ec:!On

dxziucing

:ne

streamoed,

ic)

is only

first step in the investigation of a bridge.


The
inspection results must be evaluated by qualified
engineers. In many cases. a bridge located over water
must be evaluated
by a multi-disciplinary
team
including
structural,
hydraulic,
and geotechnical
engineers.
the

(4
I;)

Bridge

Selection

Criteria

The National Bridge Inspection


Standards (NBIS)
require that all bridges with substructures located in
water receive periodic inspections of the submerged
elements. A comprehensive review must bemade of
all bridges contained
in an agencys inventory to
determlne which bridges require underwater inspection.
Many combina!ions of waterway condi?ions and bridge
substructures
exist.
For any given bridge, the
combination of environmental conditions and structure
configuration can significantly affect the requirements
of the inspection.
Those bridges which require
underwater inspection must be noted on individual
inspection and inventory records as well as be
compiled in a master list. For each bridge requiring
underwater inspection, the following information should
be included as a minimum:
(a) Type and location of the bridge.
(b) Type and frequency of required inspection.

of

memters

to

Ge

Water depth, clarity and current influence the selection


of methods of inspection.
In waterways with slow
currents and maximum depths of a few feet, an
undewater inspection might be conducted by wading
and probing provided that the structural condition of
the underwater elements can be determined with
certainty. .Wading inspections can often be performed
by regular bridge inspection teams with waders and a
life preserver.
For greater depths, diving or other
specialized
methods
or equipment
are typically
required.
In determining whether a bridge can be
inspected by wading or whether it requires the use of
diving equipment, water depth can not be the sole
criteria. Channel bottom ,conditions such as softness,
mud, quick conditions and slippery rocks; current;
debris; watervisibility; and structureconfiguration
affect
the ability of a wading inspector to determine structural
safety with certainty. Even in water less than three feet
deep, it may not be safe for an inspector in waders to
inspect a structurai element below water.
Bridge
owners should have a written rationale and criteria for
determining
which
bridges
require
underwater
inspection; the inspection procedures to be employed
for various situations; and the maximum inspection
frequency for each specific .bridge.

Figure 1-2 Bridge failure.


1-1.2

Location

inspected.
Inspection procedures to be used
Dates of previous inspections.
Special equipment requirements.
Findings of the last inspection.
Follow-up actions taken on findings of the last
inspection.

a. Scheduled Inseections.
Routine inspections of
substructures in water must be conducted at least
every five years. Five years is a maximum interval
which is only appropriate for a strlidture in excellent
condition.
Structures having undewater
members
which are partially deteriorated or which are in unstable
channels require shorter inspection inten/als. The
American
Association
of State Highway
and
Transportation
Officials
(AASHTO)
Manual
for
Maintenance inspection of Bridges requires that steel
substructure
elements
located
in
corrosive
environments be inspected at least once every two
years.
b. Non-scheduled InsDections. Certain conditions and
. events affecting a bridge may require more frequent
2

inspections.
following:

These include, but are not limited to the

(5) Build-Up of Debris at Piers or Abutments.


This
material build-up effectively widens the element and
may cause scouring currents or increase the depth of
scour.

(1) Unusual Floods.


Bridge ,elements located in
streams, rivers, and other waterways. with known or
suspected scour potential should be inspected after
every major runoff event to the extent necessary to
ensure bridge foundation integrity.

(6) Evidence of Deterioration or Movement.


Many
underwater deficiencies only become apparent above
water when the distress extends above the waterline
or is manifested by lateral movement or settlement.
Bridges should also be inspected underwater foilowing
significant earthquakes.

(2) Vessel Impact.


Bridges should be inspected
underwater if there is visible damage above water. This
should be done in order to determine the extent of
damage and to establish the extent of liability of the
vessel owner for damages (Fig. l-3). It is especially
important to inspect vessel damage in busy channels
in a timely manner so that damage can be attributed to
the proper vessel.

(7) Adverse Environmental Conditions. Brackish water,


polluted water, and water with high concentrations of
chemicals may cause rapid and severe deterioration of
materials.

(8) Critical Location in Highway System. Structures


whose loss would cause significant economic damage
to the community
may warrant more frequent
inspections even though the structure is generally in
gocd condition.

SECTION 2. UNDERWATER
l-2.1

INSPECTION

Levels of Inspection

Underwater inspection practices developed by offshore


certification agencies, such as Lloyds of London, and
the U.S. Naval Facilities E.ngineering Command have
led to widespread acceptance of standard levels of
inspection. The levels of inspection, as defined below,
are indicative of the level of effort required for various
inspections and provide a system for standardization
of inspection terminology.
Three levels of inspection
have been adopted
by the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA). These levels, as defined more
fully below, may be summarized as:

Figure 1-3 Bridge pier struck by a ship.


..,

(3) Unusual

Ice Floes.
Ice floes can damage
elements, and accumulations
of ice on
the elements
can cause scouring
currents
or
increase the depth of scour.
substructure

Level I: Visual, tactile inspection


Level II: Detailed inspection with partial cleaning
Level Ill: Highly detailed inspection with
Non-Destructive Testing (NOT)

(4) Prop Wash From Vessels.


Prop wash, i.e.,
turbulence
caused .by the propellers
of marine
vessels, can cause scouring currents and may propel
coarse-grained bottom materials against substructure
elements in a manner similar to that of blast cleaning
operations.

a. Level I Insoection. A Level I inspection includes a


close visual examination, or a tactile examination using
large sweeping motions of the hands where visibility is
limited. Although the Level I inspection is often referred
J

to as a swim-by inspection, it must be detailed


enough
to detect
obvious . major
damage
or
deterioration due to over-stress, or severe deterioration
or corrosion. It should confirm the continuity of the full
length of all members, and detect undermining
or
A Level I
exposure of normally buried elements:
inspection is normally conducted over the total exterior
surface of each undewater structure element, whether
it be a pier, abutment, retaining wall, bulkhead, or pile
bent. A Level I inspection may also include limited
probing of the substructure and adjacent streambed.

on an H-p@ at least the outside faces of the flanges


and one side of the web.
On large solid faced
elements such as piers and abutments, 1 foot by 1 foot
areas should be cleaned at three levels on each face
of the element.
The selection of the locations for
cleaning should be made so as to minimize the
potential for damage to the structure. damaged areas
should be measured, and the extent and severity of the
damage documented.
The Level Ii inspection is intended to detect and identify
damaged and deteriorated areas which may be hidden
by surface biofouling. The thoroughness
of cleaning
should be governed by what is necessav to discern
the condition of the undertying material. Removal of all
biofouiing staining is generally not needed.

The results of the Level I inspection provide a general


overview of the substructure condition and verification
of the as-built drawings.
The Level I inspection can
also indicate the need for Level Ii or Level III
inspections, and aid in determining the extent and
selecting the location of more detailed inspections.

c. Level III Insbection. A Level ill inspection is a highly


detailed inspection of a critical structure or structural
element, or a member where extensive repair or
possible replacement is contemplated.
The purpose of
this type of inspection is to detect hidden or interior
damage, or loss in cross-sectional area, and to

(.

.t

Figure

1-4 Level II cleaning of a pile.


;
.c

6. Level II lnsoection. A Level II inspection is a detailed


inspection which requires that ponions of the structure
be cleaned of marine growth.
Cleaning is timeconsuming and should be restricted to critical areas of
the structure. For pile type structures, a lo-inch high
band should be cleaned at designated
locations,
generally near the low waterline, near the mudline and
midway between the low waterline and the mudline.
On a rectangular pile, the cleaning should include at
least three sides: on an octagon pile, at least six sides:
on a round pile, at least three-fourths of the,perimeter;

.?.-

Figure

l-5

Level III inspection. Ultrasonic


measurement of steel thickness.

evaluate material homogeneity.


This level of inspection
includes extensive cleaning, detailed measurements,
and selected non-destructive and partially destructive ^
testing techniques such as ultrasonics, sample coring
or boring, physical material sampling and in-situ
hardness testing.
The use of testing techniques is
4

generally limited to key structural areas, areas which


are suspect, or areas which may be representative of
the underwater structure.
1-2.2

Frequency

A basic scour investigation should include probing the


channel
bottom
adjacent
to the structure,
and
determining channel cross sections in the area of the
bridge.

and Types of Irkpection

c. In-Death lnsoection.
One or more of the following
conditions
may dictate the need for an indepth
inspection:

a. General Various factors influence the selection of


the frequency, type, and level of inspection for a
particular structure. As a minimum, all structures must
receive routine underwater inspections at intervals not
to exceed 5 years, This is the maximum interval
permitted between underwater inspections for bridges
which are both in excellent condition underwater and
which are located
in passive,
non-threatening
environments.
More frequent routine and in-depth
inspections may be desirable for many structures and
necessary for critical structures.
The bridge owner
must determine
the inspection
interval that is
appropriate
for each individual bridge.
Factors to
consider in establishing the inspection frequency and
levels of inspection include:

(1)
(2)

Inconclusive results from a routine inspection.


Critical structures,
whose loss would have
significant impact on life or property.
(3) Unique structures whose structural performance
is uncertain.
(4) Prior evidence of distress.
(5) Consideration of reuse of an existing substructure
to support a new superstructure,
or planned
major rehabilitation of the superstructure.
The in-depth inspection typically includes Level II
inspection over extensive areas and Level Ill inspection
of limited areas. Nondestructive
testing is normally
performed and the inspection may include partially
destructive testing methods such as extracting kmples
for laboratory analysis and testing, and boring and
probing.

(1)
I

Age.
(2) Type of construction materials.
(3) Configuration of the substructure.
(4) Adjacent waterway features such as dams,
dikes, or marinas.
_
(5) Susceptibility of streambed materials
to scour.
(6) Maintenance history.
(7) Saltwater environment.
03) Waterway pollution.
(9) Damage due to waterborne traffic,
debris, or ice.

SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES
FOR
ROUTINE UNDERWATER INSPECTION

,.,

100% of all
underwater elements.

(Limited measurements

underwater

Scour investigation:

Cross sections of channel.


Probe bottom near underwater elements.

Frequency:

Maximum

41

b. Routine Insoection.
As a minimum,
routine
inspections, which must be conducted at maximum
interdais of 5 years or less, should include a Level I
inspection of the complete underwater structure: a
Level II inspection of at least ten percent of the
substructure elements; and a basic scour investigation.
The Level II inspection should be conducted
on
representative areas of the structure and in areas of
apparent
distress as determined
by the Level I
inspection. The initial routine inspection may indicate
that additional Level II or Level III inspections must be
performed in some areas to confirm the Level I and
Level II findihgs, or to gain additional data so that the
structural conditions can be evaluated with certainty.

elements.

of every 5 years.

Figure l-6

5
.. .

Level I inspection:
(Visual, tactile,
swim-by oven/iew)

Summary of minimum routine underwater


inspection procedures.

The distinction
between
routine
and
in-depth
inspections is not always cleariy defined.
For some
bridges, such as steel pile supported structures in an
actively corrosive environment, it may be necessav to
include Level III, nondestructive
testing, inspection
techniques as part of routine inspections.

CHAPTER
THE UNDERWATER

SECTION
2-1.1

INSPECTOR

inspection
the
judgment
to expend
effort
commensurate
with the indicators of defects he
and the technical
competence
and
perceives;
vocabulary to relate his findings to someone on the

1. INTRODUCTION

General

surface.

The person in charge 9 a state bridge inspection


program is respons LE for establishing minimum
qualifications
for the diver-inspectors
who will be
This
conducting
underwater
bridge inspections.
chapter suggests attributes desirable in the underwater
inspector and discusses the environmental conditions
under which he must operate. The undetwater bridge
inspector not only needs to have a thorough knowledge
of bridges and inspection techniques, but must apply
these skills while working in an unnatural and often
adverse underwater environment.
2-1.2

II

The underwater inspector must also be an experienced


and accomplished diver. Diving conditions are usually
adverse at bridge sites. Bridges are often built at the
narrowest point in a channel where velocity is greatest,
and in areas where water may be dark and polluted.
Marine traffic, floating logs, and construction debris
are among commonly found underwater hazards.
b. Technical Comoetence
and Exoerience.
The
cc--oetence and experience required by the inspectordiver depends on the bridge complexity, substructure
and superstructure interaction, water depth, current,
and other site conditions. All underwater inspections
should be conducted under the direct supervision of a
fully qualified bridge inspection team leader. Some
bridges are of such complexity that they require the
actual diving inspection to be conducted by a fully
qualified team leader. In fact, in some cases, only a
professional engineer experienced in underwater bridge
inspections would be considered qualified. In other
cases, a diver fully trained and experienced in the
t inspection
and evaluation
of substructure
and
streambed conditions will meet inspection and safety
requirements.

Qua.iifications

a. General. The success of any inspection program


depends on the training and dedication of those
persons charged with the actual inspection, whether
for an underwater or an above-water inspection. An
appreciation of the importance of the work to the safety
of lives and property, and dedication to do a good job
are essential prerequisites.
Good intentions alone, however, are not sufficient
qualifications for the underwater inspector. He must be
trained both as a diver and a bridge inspector. Training
in only one of these areas will not suffice.
Comprehensive training of underwater inspectors is
even more important than training of above-water
inspectors since the underwater inspector is often the
only person who can or will see a structure underwater.
He must have the ability to recognize the structural
significance of conditions he encounters underwater;

A diver not fully qualified as a bridge inspector or


bridge inspection team leader must be used cnly with
care and under close supervision. His work should be
limited to tasks such as simple measurements, verbal
descriptions, underwater photography, etc., which can
provide conclusive evidence for evaluation by an onsite, fully qualified bridge inspection team leader.
7

c. rh; sjcal Soca.:ion.


The underwater inspector is
subjected to hyperbaric conditions and must be in
good physical and psychological
condition.
Divers
are required to have an annual medical examination
to comply with Occupational
Safety and Health
Administration
(OSHA) Standards, atid a copy of the
examination
findings must be kept on fife by the
divers employer.
Refer to the OSHA regulations in
the Appendix for details of the medical examination
requirements.
Because of the polluted waters in
which some inspections
must be made, all divers
immunizations
should be current.

evaluatrng
the credentials
of a alving-:nsaector
working under a team leader include technician
certifications,
associate
degrees
in
related
technologies, engineering degrees. bridge inspection
training
courses,
and
experience
in bridge
inspection.
Because bridge inspectors, including inspectorldivers,
must have a basic knowledge
of how loads are
distributed throughout the bridge. the importance of the
various components of bridges to safety, and a general
understanding of the effects of deterioration upon the
safe load capacity, each bridge inspector should
participate in a continuing training program including
a comprehensive
bridge inspection training course
with a minimum course duration of two weeks for
engineers not experienced in bridge inspection and
three weeks for technicians.
All bridge inspectors
training should besupptemented
periodically, preferabty
annually, by a short refresher course or updated
training sessions.

d. Attitude. A determined diver with a resilient spirit


is essential, since the inspector often is isolated
under adverse conditions.
He must realize the
importance
of his work and his responsibility
in
ensuring overall bridge safety.

2-1.3

Training

a. Bridae Insoection.

The National Bridge Inspection


Standards
(NBIS) recognize
four avenues
for
achieving certification as a bridge, inspection team
leader. These are:
(1)

Registration

(2)

Eligibility
engineer

(3)

Completion
of a comprehensive
course in
bridge inspection
(generalfy, a two to three
week course depending
on the educational
background
of the inspector): and a minimum
of 5 years of bridge inspection experience

(4)

as a professional
for

registration

b. Diving. At present, there is no single, nationally


recognized dive certification agency. Three types of
formal diving training
are commonly
available:
certification from a nationally recognized diver training
program,
(e.g.; YMCA; PADI, i.e., Professional
Association of Diving Instructors; and NAUI, i.e., the
National
Association
of Underwater
Instructors),
certification
from a commercial diving school, and
military training. In addition, organizations specializing
in marine studies, such as NOAA, the National
Oceanographic and Aeronautical Administration, offer
diving training.
Many divers atso receive initial or
advanced training on the job.

engineer

as a professional

Programs conducted
by organizations such as the
YMCA, PADI, and NAUI are oriented toward the
recreational diver. General!y, these organizations offer
a basic type of certification; and may offer advanced
training and certifications such as Deep Diver, Wreck
Diver, Rescue
Diver, Underwater
Photography,
Divemaster and others. These courses alone, however,
may not prepare an individual for diving in the severe
conditions encountered
at bridges (poor visibility,
strong current, and underwater obstructions): nor do
they teach the use of surface supplied air equipment,
or the use of testing.equipment.
A recieational diver
having advanced through a number of certification
levels or having dived for a number of years can gain,
but may not necessarily have gained, the diving

Level Ii/ or Level IV certification


under the
National Society of Professional
Engineers
National InstituteforCertificationofEngineering
Technologies
(NICET) program.

The N6lS do not specify minimum


requirements
necessary for a diver to be considered fully trained
and experienced
in the inspection and evaluation of
substructure
and streambed
condition
so that he
meet
FHWA
inspection
and
ssfety
would
requirements.
These minimum requirements must be
established
by the person in charge of the state
bridge inspection program.
Factors to consider in
8

s c.:

competence necessary to cope with the condi%%L


commonly encountered during bridge inspections.

, ;:*;.

Graduates of commercial diving schools are generally


better prepared initially for the diving conditions
encountered
in underwater inspectibns.
They are
taught various types of diving methods, equipment
maintenance, and how to perform mechanical tasks
underwater.
Some schools also provide specialty
When
courses in Nondestructive
Testing (NDT).
students graduate from a commercial diving school,
they often join a diving company as a tender or tenderdiver gaining experience before they are considered
fully qualified commercial divers.

Many of the provisions of the standard are described


in following sections of this manual. Some of the key
provisions are:
Personnel Reauirements:

Military divers complete extensive courses in various


types of diving systems, and normally receive extensive
on-the-job training and experience in diving operations.

(1) Ail divers must be trained in their duties,


including dive physiology, first aid and
cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR).

None of the training alternatives described above fully


prepares
a diver for the conditions
typically
encountered
during underwater bridge inspections,
either from..a diving or a technical perspective.
A
novice bridge inspector-diver, regardless of type of dive
training he has received, should receive additional onthe-job
training
under thi
supervision
of an
experienced bridge inspect&diver.
Additional training
can include familiarization with diving under bridge site
conditions,
recognition
of structural
distress,
underwater photography and video, and NDT.

General and Soecific Oberatina

Diver training, like bridge inspection training, should be


supplemented periodically by refresher training. Divers
can only maintain their competency through continued
practice. Divers who have not had regular and recent
in-water experience can pose a threat to themselves
and others if placed in a hazardous situation without
sufficient time to acclimate themselves.

SECTION 2. SAFETY
2-2.1

Occupational
Administration

Safety and Health


(OSHA)

Procedures:

(1)

Ail employers
must develop a safe diving
practices manual for their diving operations.

(2)

An employer designated person-in-charge of the


operation, who is qualified by training and
experience, must conduct predive and post-dive
briefings.

(3)

The use of scuba diving is not allowed at


depths greater than 130 feet sea water
(fsw).

(4)

The use of scuba is not allowed in currents


exceeding 1 knot unless the diver is line tended.

tf4

The use of surface-supplied


air is not allowed at
depths greater than 220 fsw.

(6)

For dives to depths deeper than 100 fsw


or for dives outside the no-decompression
limits, a. recompression chamber must be
on-site ready for use.

Eauipment

Procedures:

The standard specifies minimum equipment


requirements for the diver aho diving
operations; and equipment testing and
maintenance requirements.

In 1976, the revised Occupational Safety and Health


Administration established Subpart T - Commercial
Diving Standards for diving and related operations
conducted in connection with ail types of work and
9

.,

,.>,.

employments.
All divers, regardless of their tralnina. if
receiving renumeration for their diving services are
considered commercial divers. A copy of the OSHA
Commercial
Diving Standards is included in the
Appendix. The standard delineates minimum personnel
requirements, general operations procedures, specific
operations procedures, equipment procedures and
requirements, and recordkeeping requirements.

Recordkeepinq:

taken. These may include additional imnr;;nlzat!cnS


and the empioyment
of special diving equipment to
provide complete diver encapsulation.
In some cases
it may be necessary to obtain water samples and have
the samples tested prior to diving. Diving managers
must ensure that proper precautions are observed (Fig.
2-l). The long term effects on the diver of these and
other occupational
hazards may result in future
liabilities.

Records of all dives and ail diving accidents


must be maintained.
In general. the OSHA standards provide a good basis
for ensuring
safe diving operations
during
an
underwater bridge inspection but compliance with the
standards, in themselves, may not be sufficient.
A
company or agency diving safety program, coupled
with competent, experienced divers and dive managers,
is essential to preventing serious diving accidents.
Many commercial
organizations
and governmental
agencies. have developed comprehensive
policies to
govern their specific diving operations.
The U.S. Navy, for example, conducts operations in
accordance with the U.S. Navy Dive Manual, and the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Safety Manual contains
a chapter on diving. Both these manuals were written
for specific situations,
They are more restrictive in
some instances than OSHA standards, and what is
commonly referred to as Commercial Practice.
If
applied to all underwater bridge inspections, the Navy
and Corps of Engineers guidelines may be too
restrictive. Specifying these or other standards without
being fully cognizant of their individual provisions may
result in unnecessary expense.

Figure 2-1 Conducting


SECTION 3. MANAGEMENT
PERSONNEL

OF DIVING

The management
of diving personnel, whether by a
governmental
agency, a contractor or a consultant,
poses special problems because of the hazardous
nature of the work.
Diving work is very strenuous. As a result, divers
generally
cannot
spend an entire day working
underwater.
A great amount bf time and energy is
often expended
in preparation for a dive of short
duration.
It must be remembered that this is not lost
time, but rather part of the total work effort.
Bridge inspectordivers
must move from dive site to
dive site. Often divers must enter waters of unknown
quality. Local water quality monitoring agencies should
be contacted to determine the degree of hazard the
water presents, and appropriate precautions must be
10

a pre-dive briefing.

.-

.,

il

1. INTRODUCTION

III

DEFECTS

Scour of streambeds has been a major cause of bridge


failure, primarily, because there are usually no early
warning signs visible above water. Problems of ioss of
lateral support and undermining
normally are not
detected until they are extremely serious or disastrous.
Even if scour does not reach catastrophic proportions,
it can manifest itself in less spectacular, but still costly,
symptoms such as settlement of piers, misalignment of
joints and bearings, and binding of movable spans.
There are, however, several ways to check the
condition of the streambed.
The most common
methods
are taking soundings
and underwater
inspections.
More
sophisticated
geophysical
equipment and techniques, as described in Chapter VI,
are also available-which, although not commonly in use
at this time, are gaining wider acceptance as a pan of
comprehensive bridge safety programs.

3-1 .l General
In order to completely inspect and evaluate the
condition of bridges located in the water, the inspector
must be able to recognize various types of substructure
configurations, materials, types of defects commonly
encountered, likely locations of defects, and causes of
deterioration.
The principal causes of underwater
bridge distress are deterioration
of the structural
material, vessel damage, and undermining and loss of
lateral and vertical soil support due to scour.
Deterioration of the structural material is caused by
environmental factors and the quality of the material
itself. For example, timber piles in water will eventually
decay or be attacked by marine borers. How quickly
this will happen depends on how well the pile has been
protected with preservative or other measures, and the
environmental conditions in which it is located. The
type of deterioration that will occur in a structure is
dependent upon the properties and characteristics of
the material, and the location of the material within the
structure.
There are, however, indicators of the
condition of the material which the diver-inspector can
look for in any pa? of a structure and which can be
used to evaluate the structural condition.

SECTION 2. TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES


LOCATED IN WATER
3-2.1 Pile Bents
Pile bents are structural supports consisting of piles
and pile caps. Superstructure loads are distributed to
the piles by the pile cap. Pile bents, which can be
constructed of timber, concrete, steel, or a combination
of these, are used both as intermediate supports and
abutments
(Fig. 3-l).
Often, bracing is used to
increase lateral stability (Fig. 3-2):

On navigable waterways, bridges are also subject to


damage by marine vessel impact. When damage is
caused by marine traffic, the damage may be visible
above watAn underwater inspection, however, is
often the r
#Nayto determine the overall condition of
the strucL
and evaluate i* -; structural adequacy.

Piles can also be used as supports for piers and


abutments where soil conditions are such that the piers
11

OF UNDERWATER

STRUCTURAL

SECTION

I
.I_,.

CHAPTER
IDENTIFICATION

Figure 3-l

Types of piles.

and abutments cannot be supported by spread footings


on the upper soil strata.

normally added within the concrete, especially near the


top of the pile, where it may be subject to lateral loads.

Timber piles may be untreated or may be pressure


treated with preservatives such as creosote, creosotecoal tar, pentachlorophenof
or arsenate solutions.
Timber piles generally have butt diameters in the range
of 12 to 18 inches, and maximum lengths of about 40
to 50 feet, although longer piles are sometimes used.

Uncased,
cast-in-place
concrete
piles can be
constructed by driving a casing into the soil, and
removing the casing as the concrete is placed. In very
firm soils, concrete may also be placed in augered
holes without any casing.
Large diameter, cast-in-place concrete piles, called
drilled shafts, may be used to support massive bridge
elements.
These shafts may also support formed
columns from the channel bottom to the
underside of the bridge.deck (Fig. 3-3).

Concrete piles can be cast-in-place, with or without a


permanent shell; precast concrete; or prestressed
concrete.
Cast-in-place
concrete piles can be
constructed by driving a metal casing into the ground
and using the casing as a form for the concrete. There
are many types of proprietary shell piles available.

Precast and prestressed concrete piles, which may be


solid or hollow, are generally square, rectangular, or
octagonal shafts with a tapered end for driving. They
commonly range in size from about 8 inches to 30

Usually the shell is thin and not considered to add to


the structural capacity of the pile. Reinforcing, steel is
steei 3ent cap

concrete sent cap


1

yT==L

PlLF 3ENT

CONCRETE PILE BENT

Figure 3-2 Pile bents.


12

,..

#llH SOIID WFR WAU,


DN SPRFAD FOOULG

DRMED
COIUMNS AND
D!?ll LEO SHAFT?
Figure 3-3 Representative

pier types.

inches wide. Some of these piles have longitudinal


holes to assist in jetting them into place and reduce
weight for handling.

3-2.2 Piers
Piers are transverse, intermediate supports constructed
of concrete, masonry, timber.or steel. A pier consists
of three basic elements: a footing, a shaft, and a pier
cap (Fig. 3-3).

Steel piles may be pipe piles, concrete-filled pipe piles,


or H-piles. Steel sheet piles areoften used also as
stay-in-place forms for foundations
of piers and
abutments.

Footings can be founded on driven piles, drilled shafts,


caissons, or directly on soil or rock, i.e., on spread
footings. The pier shaft may be a solid wall or may
consist of a number of columns, with or without a
solid diaphragm wall between columns. The pier may
be a separate member, or integral with the shaft.

Piles which are a combination of materials are called


composite piles. Often, timber and steel piles are
partially or totally encased in concrete for protection
and repair.
13

STUB

ABUTMENT

OPEN

ABUTMENT

FiguFe 3-4 Types of abutmehts.


3-2.3 Abutments

rivers, a floating caisson (closed-end caisson) may be


used. Once in place, the caisson acts as the piers
footing.

The term abutment


is usually applied to the
substructure units at the ends of bridges. An abutment
provides end support for a bridge and retains the
approach embankment.

Caissons are constructed


of timber, reinforced
concrete, steel plates, or a combination of materials.
The structure is towed to the construction site and
sunk. Soil below a caisson is removed through
openings in its bottom which are sometimes referred
to as dredging wells. Once the caisson is in place, it
is filled, generally with concrete, and the bridge pier is
built on it (Fig.3-5).

Abutments, classified according to their locations, are


<full height (closed), stub, or open (spill-through) (Fig.
3-4).
Pile bents are also used as abutments.
Wingwalls are abutment extensions on the sides of an
abutment which enclose the approach fill.
3-2.4

3-2.5 Protection

Caissons

A caisson is an enclosure used to build a piers


foundation and carry a load through poor soil and
water to sound soil or rock. In bridges designed over

Dolphins, fenders, and shear fences are placed around


substructures to protect them from .vessels. These
devices are designed to absorb the energy of physical
14

..

Devices

Figure, 3-5 Floating caisson.

Figure 3-6 Timber dolphins.

. ...
.- _..
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.

1
3
9
.
3

-.
.

-___
-.

L-l-

.---i,

-&

-_

.- -*

Figure 3-7 Steel sheet pile dolphins.

Figure 3-6 Fenders attached to a pier.

contact with a vessel, and may be able to protect the


. bridge from serious damage by redirecting an errant
vessel. Some of these devices, or portions of them,
are designed to absorb very large forces, while others
are designed to absorb only smaller vessel impacts.

stone or sand, and capped with a concrete slab (Fig.


3-7).
A fender system usually consists of timber or steel
members attached directly to the substructure unit, or
to piles driven adjacent to the substructure unit. (Fig.
3-8).

Dolphins are generally constructed of a group of timber


piles. The piles are driven into the channel bottom and
the tops are pulled together and wrapped tightly with
steel cables or chains (Fig. 3-6). Steel piles may also
be used. Dolphins are also constructed of steel sheet
piling driven to form a large cylinder that.is filled with

A shear fence is generaky an extension of a fender


system consisting of a series of timber piles supporting
timber walers (Fig. 3-9). Steel piles are sometimes
used instead of timber.
1.5

.I

..

..:-.

SECTION

3.

DETERIORATICN
MATERIALS

OF STRUCTURAL

3-3.1 Concrete
There are basically three types of concrete structures:
plain, reinforced and prestressed.
Although current
AASHTO specifications require that shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement be placed near exposed
surfacesof walls not otherwise reinforced. older bridges
may have piers constructed
of plain concrete.
Prestressed concrete is used to obtain high bending
strength and is generally used in bridge beams. Piles
are also often constructed of prestressed concrete and
it is in this form that prestressed concrete will most
commonly be encountered underwater. Because the
prestressing forces tend to close cracks and limit
intrusion of water, prestressed concrete piles are widely
used in marine construction.
Concrete itself is a compressive material with little
tensile strength. The compressive strength of concrete
commonly used in bridges varies from 3 to 11 ksi. The
addition of reinforcing steel or prestressing steel gives
the member tensile or flexural strength.

Figure 3-9 Shear fence.

a. Crackinq. Almost all concrete cracks. Cracks are


common in both new and oid concrete.
Because
concrete has little tensile strength cracks occur due to
volume changes as temperatures vary and a concrete
member contracts or expands. Cracks may also be an
indication of overloading, corrosion of the reinforcing
steel, or settlement of the structure. Even when the
cracks themselves are not structurally significant, they
are often the early stages of more serious deterioration
and they are an avenue through which water and
deleterious substances can enter the concrete.

312.6 Culverts
A culvert is a small bridge normally constructed
entirely below the elevation of the roadway surface
and having no part or portion integral with the
roadway. Structures over 20 feet in span, parallel to
the roadway, are usually called bridges, rather than
culverts; and structures less than 20 feet in span are
called culverts even though
they may directly
support
traffic loads, and may be constructed
similarly to larger structures.
Refer to the FHWAs
Culvert lnsoection Manual for an in-depth discussion
of culvert inspection.

Cracks can occur at any location on a substructure


element. When reporting cracks, the length, width,
location and orientation (horizontal, vertical, diagonal,
etc.) should be noted, and the presence of rust stains,
efflorescence, or evidence of differential movement on
either side of the crack should be indicated.
.\
Cracking can also occur 3uring the fabrication or
installation of precast concrete members. Overdriving,
for example, can cause cracking of concrete piles (Fig.
3-10).

Culverts which cannot be inspected in thedry should


-be inspected
by diving or some other means as

necessary to determine their structural condition with


certainty. The inspection of dry culverts having poor
air quality may be facilitated
by use of diving
equipment. The underwater inspection of culverts by
diving
presents
special
safety considerations
because of their confining nature.

16

(4) Severe Scaie. Loss of coerse aggregate


particles as well as surface mortar and the
mortar
surrounding
the
aggregates.
Penetration of the loss exceeds 1 inch.
When reporting scaling, the inspector should note the
location of the defect, the size of the area, and the
depth of penetration of the defect. To avoid confusion
in reporting
defects,
a standard
format and
nomenclature shouid be used consistently.
Location
should be reported by horizontal distance from a
known point such as a corner of an abutment and
vertical distance by depth below water surface. The
extent of the defect should be reported as height and
width, with height referring to a vertical distance and
width referring to a horizontal distance. The extent of
intrusian of the defect into the member should be
referred to as penetration, rather than depth, since
depth could also refer tp the distance below water.
.

Figure 3-10 Cracked concrete pile below water.


b. Scalinq. Scaling is a gradual and continuous loss
of surface mortar and aggregate from an area. This
condition is commonly found at the waterline on
piers and piles (Fig. 3-l 1). It is caused by freezethaw action and, therefore,
is found in colder
&mates.
Pores and minor surface defects allow
water to penetrate and saturate the concrete. When
the temperature
drops, the water freezes and
expands causing the surface of the concrete to popoff or appear to disintegrate.
At the waterline,
conditions are ideal for scaling to occur.
The Bridae Insoectors
scaling in the following

Trainina Manual
categories:

i.,

-.

;
. .

.-a

.
-\.

classifies

(1) Light Scale. Loss of surface mortar; up to


l/4 inch penetration, with surface exposure
of coarse aggregates.

Figure 3-l 1 Scaled concrete on a pier at the waterline.

(2) Medium Scale. Loss of surface mortar; l/4


inch to l/2 inch penetration,
with some
added mortar loss between aggregates.

c. Soallinq. Spalling is a depression in the surface of


concrete which exposes corroded reinforcing steel
(Fig. 3-12).
It is primarily the result of jnternal
pressures within the concrete caused by corrosion of
the steel. Extensive research has been conducted into
the spalliog process in bridge decks. Much of this
information can be transferred directly to the waterfine
environment.

(3) Heavy Scale.,


Loss of surface mortar
surrounding aggregate particles; l/2 inch
to 1 inch penetration.
Aggregates
are
clearly exposed and stand out from the
concrete.
17

generally
produced

can be detected
by the hoilow sound
by striking the surface with a hammer.

Reinforcing steel placed with insufficient cover is


subject to corrosion, and it is not uncommon to find
pieces of reinforcing steel protruding from concrete
structures below water. It is also common to find steel
rods used to tie form work together on piers steel
beams used to brace cofferdams, and wire rope lifting
loops on concrete piles. Over
a period of time, this
steel can also corrode,
causing spalling of the
concrete.

Figure 3-12

When inspecting concrete substructure units, the diverinspector should especially look for visual signs of
spalling above and in the area of the waterline. These
areas should also be struck with a hammer to
determine if there are fracture planes hidden below the
surface of the concrete.. Particuiar attention should be
paid to areas that are intermittently wet and dry. Below
the water surface, the areas adjacent to construction
accessories should be closely examined.

Spaliing concrete at the waterline.

d. Chemical Attack. Substructures located in water are


often subjected to chemicals which attack the concrete.
The forms of chemicals vary widely and may be
present naturally or due to man-made poilution.

Cracks in concrete over bars near the surface, due to


shrinkage, cracks due to external damaging forces, and
pores that occur naturally in concrete allow moisture
and air (oxygen) to reach reinforcing steel near the
surface.
When the steel corrodes, the products of
corrosion occupy up to ten times the volume of the
parent material and can produce forces in excess of
5.000 psi. This expansive force cracks the concrete
and pops-off areas on the surface of the concrete
member
exposing
the reinforcing
steel to the
environment.
The process then accelerates until large
areas are spa/led.

The penetration of chlorides into concrete can cause


corrosion of the reinforcing steel. Chlorides may enter
the concrete
from deicing agents, saltwater, or
admixtures.
Spalling and cracking of the concrete is
likely to occur when chlorides are present.
Sulfates are present in seawater and are common in
ground waters, especially when high proportions of
certain clays are present. Structures in seawater can
suffer sulfate attack in the tidal zone. Sulfate attack is
usually detected as a softening of the surface of the
concrete. With further deterioration, the surface ravels
as material is easily chipped away, and the newly
exposed surface is often white in color. When sulfate
damage is far advanced, there may also be swelling
and cracking of the concrete.
Sulfate attack is more
common in older structures and those constructed of
Type I cement.

The environment
at the waterline of bridges is
especially conducive
to spalling.
Abrasion and
constant wet-dry cycles can provide the initial paths
for moisture and oxygen to reach the steel. Salt water
or water with acidic pollutanis
make excellent
eiectrctytes for the corrosion process, and wave and
tidal action regularly remove the film of corrosion that
develops to provide a new s&ace for rapid corrosion.
In colder climates, water freezing in small cracks also
expands and accelerates the spalling process.

Pollutsd water can cause various defects depending


upon the type of pollution present, but where chemical
attack is suspected, it is common to find uniform
scaling on the submerged portions of a structure.

At times, spalling can occur over a large area, hidden


by the surface concrete. Internal fracture planes may
develop below the surface of the concrete.
These
18

e. Abrasion. Abrasion damage is due to external forces


acting on the surface of the concrete member. Minor
abra+on damage resembles scaling, and major
abrasion damage may cause gouges, cracks and
voids. Ice can cause severe scaling and abrasion at
the waterline. In some rivers, scalingnear the mudline
is also found due to the abrasive action of bottom
material being carried along in a swift current.

cathodic areas become more massive and the anodic


H-pile becomes smaller.. Rapid and severe corrosion
of H-piles has been noted below the concrete
encasement (Fig. 3-13).

Cracks, voids, and chipped corners can be caused by


vessel impact. Marine traffic or cables used to fasten
vessels to structures can also cause abrasive damage.
Ferry vesseis, which repeatedly and rapidly start and
reverse their propellers, and tugs maneuvering close to
bridges can effectively sand-blast underwater elements,
causing severe damage over the long term.
3-3.2

Steel

Steel is used as a structural material and as external


protective cladding on concrete foundation elements.
The primary cause of damage to steel is corrosion.
Corrosion is most prevalent in the splash and tidal
zones, but can occur both above and below water.

Figure 3-13

H-Pile corroded
encasement.

below concrete

Steel foundation elements located in water, commonly


H-piles, pipe piles, or sheet piling, can suffer distress
in the form of corrosion.
The corrosion can be
especially severe when the bridge is located in salt
water or brackish water. The most important factors
influencing and producing corrosion are the presence
of oxygen, moisture, chemicals,
pollution, stray
electrical currents, and water velocity.

Corrosion is the conversion of the metallic ion, through


electrochemical reactions, into a compound form (rust).
In the electrochemical process, there must be a current
flow. This current flow can be caused by external
forces, or as the result of differences in potential
between different metals. Bridges in industrial areas,
where there may be many stray electrical currents, may
experience severe corrosion problems.

a. Corrosion. Corrosion of steal H-piles in saltwater


and brackish water can be severe. In a typical bridge
configuration, relatively lightweight piles driven into a
massive soil c.hannel bottom support a massive
concrete deck system.
These two massive end
conditions act as cathodes and the exposed slender
metal pile acts as an anode, giving up electrons which
go into solution.
Often the most severe corrosion
occurs near the waterline.

For bridge elements located in water and not protected


from the water, the water acts as an electrolyte. Salt
water or those waters that contain significant amounts
of sulfur or chlorides are more acidic and make better
electrolytes so that the corrosion rate is much greater
than in fresh water. In the splash zone, caused by
waves and tides, and in areas of high velocity flow, the
corrosion rate is also much greater than in still waters.
The moving water provides more wetdry cycles
carries more oxygen to the metal, and tends to remove
the initial film of corrosion which would normally retard
further deterioration.
If there are abrasive materials in
the water, these can also remove the: initial film of
corrosion and increase the rate of corrosion. Corrosion
rate is also generally greater in warm waters than in
cold waters.

A common remedial action is to encase the H-pile with


concrete from the underside of the deck to a few feet
beiow mean low water. In many cases, this is only
temporarily successful because the loss of metal is
shifted to just below the concrete encasement.
This
repair may, in fact, make the situation worse, as the
19

aactenal corrosion is sometimes found below the


waterfine in fresh waters.
This corrosion forms
brownish orange nodules, which can be removed with
a hand scraper. The metal under the nodule is usually
shiny and pitting is normally found.

bulkheads.
ConnectIons are also of-ten
splash zone for bracing members.

iout:c

in

ihe

COnneCtiOnS
are potential sites of corrosion because
their composition may be dissimilar from the structures
main material, causing the formation of corrosion ceils
at these discontinuities.

Heavy marine growth,


found. in seawater,
can
sometimes
inhibit corrosion,
but it can also hide
severe distress or loss of section.
During an
inspection, areas of heavy growth should be spotcleaned to check for loss of section.

Bolts and rivets should be cleaned and examined for


corrosion and fit. Nuts should be examined for tight
fit. Even the bolts used to connect timber bracing can
corrode. Dissimilarities between materials of nuts and
bolts can cause significant losses to either the nut or
the bolt.

b. Coatinas. Coatings are used to prevent corrosion.


Steel structures should be checked for breaks, or
holidays, in the coating because these are areas of
potential deterioration.
Small breaks in the coatings
can concentrate
corrosion in a small area.

Connections
such as H-piles splices should be
examined at the welds. The dissimilarities between
weld metal and the base metal can be corrosion
producers. If backup bars for the weld have not been
removed, these are highly suspect since their material
composition may differ greatly from the base material.
The configuration of the weld, if it has not been ground
smooth, can also cause a local corrosion cell to
develop. In coated structures, the area at welds should
be closely examined since coatings are usually thinnest
and tend to break at irregularities such as welds.

Care must be used in cleaning steel structures so as


not to damage any coating which is present. Marine
growth may adhere more tightly to the coating than
the coating does to the steel member.
Damage to
the coating caused by inspection methods could be
more injurious to the long term condition
of the
structure than present damage to the steel itself, and
detailed examinations of the coating should be made
with care.

The interlocks on sheet piling shduld be examined for


cracks, corrosion, and gaps between sheets. Cracks
can develop during driving of the sheets or from vessel
impact.
Gaps between sheets may occur during
construction causing loss of fill material from behind the
sheeting.

c. Cathodic Protection. Cathodic protection systems


are used in some areas to protect reinforcing steel
in bridge decks, and they have been used to protect
harbor facilities, but they are not commonly found on
bridge
substructures.
In the future,
cathodic
protection
systems will probably
become
more
common on bridge substructures.

3-3.3

Cathodic
protection
systems can be active or
passive.
In an active system a small impressed
current is used to counter the electron flow found in
the corrosion cell. Passive systems use sacrificial
anodes. Sacrificial anodes are made from elements,
such as manganese, which are more active than the
base metal of the structure.

Masonry

Masonry is not now commonly


used in bridge
construction,
although it is sometimes used as an
ornamental facing. Many older bridges, however, have
piers and abutments constructed of masonry.
The
types of stone commonly found are granite, limestone,
and sandstone (Fig. 3-14). Problems commonly found
in masonry structures include cracking, scaling and
deteriorated pointing.

d. Connections.
Connections,
such as bolts, welds,
and interlocks on sheet piling, are potential areas of
corrosion. While bridge substructures are generally
constructed without connections below water, there
: are some instances where underwater connections
may be encountered,
such as at splices in piles and
at bracing connections,
and on wales of sheet pile

Masonry is a naturally porous material and although it


is generally mere durable
than concrete,
it is
susceptible to deterioration by freezing and thawing.
The stone may fracture and break off in small pieces
(Fig. 3-15) and the man-made mortar deteriorates like
20

Figure 3-14

Masonry pier.

Figure 3-15 Severely deteriorated

concrete. More rapid deterioration, such as cracking


along bedding planes, may also occur in stone of lower
quality.

masonry.

protection devices are constructed of timber, and many


piers and abutments are supported on timber piles.
Deterioration in timber members results from a variety
of sources, including the decaying action of bacteria,
fungus, marine infestations, abrasion, and collisions.

Masonry mortar joints near the waterline are usually


most susceptibie to freeze-thaw damage.
It ndt.
uncommon for the stone masonry to be in good
condition, and for the mortar to be completely missing
from several courses of stone near the waterline.
The abrasive action of sand in water may cause the
masonry below water to experience lo&es in both the
masonry and the pointing. The areas of deterioration
should be measured, noting the length, width, and
penetration of the defect.
Older masonry structures may have been repaired
using masonry or concrete.
The condition
of the
_1
re@irsshould also be noted.
3-3.4

Timber

Timber pile bents are common in smaller and shorter


span bridges (Fig. 3-16). On larger bridges, many

Figure 3-16
21

Bridge supported

by timber piles.

Other damage may result from careless construction


practices and faulty or missing connectors.

include sufficient moisture, oxygen, and warmth Near


the waterline of timber elements, these conditions are
at least present intermittently. These micro-organisms

a. Presematives.
Preservatives are used to protect
timber from freshwater infestations of fungi and insects.
In coastal waters, preservatives- m&t also protect
against infestations from marine borers.
Creosote,
coal-tar creosote and arsenate solutions are common
preservatives.
Creosote, like other preservatives, is applied to the
timber under pressure in a tank.
Because the
preservative does not completely penetrate the wood
(Fig. 3-l 7) it is desirable that the timber be precut and
all holes be predrilled so that the maximum surface
area can be treated during the fabrication of the
members.

Figure 3-18

Figure 3-17

Marine borer
brace.

Section cut from treated timber pile.


Note penetration of the preservative
is limited to the outer portion of the
timber.

Where timber members must be cut or drilled in the


field. preservative must be applied in the field to protect
the exposed surfaces. Penetration of this preservative,
however, wiil be less than in pressure treated areas.
Timber treated with creosote is deep dark brown or
black in appearance.
An inspector should look for the
presence or absence of creosote and should pay
especially close attention to holes and the cut ends of
cross bracing (Fig. 3-18).
b. Funaal Processes.
Fungi thrive on the organic
matter in wood cells. ideal conditions for their growth

. Figure 3-19 Decayed pile.


22

damage to end of cross

can easily penetrate untreated timber or dder timber


where the preservative has become in&e&e.
In early
stages, decaying members appear slightly discdored.

It is possible for some spec@s to grow up to six feet


length. The hole made by the teredo varies from I /4
1/2 inch in diameter (Fig. 3-21), with some species
bankia growing to 3/4 inch in diameter and four feet
length.

In advance stages of rot, the wood becomes spongy,


stringy, crumbly, and splintered Me&rs
with internal
decay may appear slightly splintered and produce a
+dlow sound when struck with a hammer 01 metal bar
(Fig. 3-l 9). Vegetation growing from a pile is usually an
indicator that decay is ocdurring on the interior of the pile
(Fig. 3-20).

Figure S21

Section cut from a pile damaged by the


teredo.

Figure 3-20 Vegetation growing on a decayed pile.


c. Marine Borers. Two types of marine borers are most
common to the saltwater environment: mdluscan borers

and crustacean

borers.

Because of their destructive

capabilities. the teredo and the banki, which have similar


characteristics. are the most important m&scan
borers,
and the limnoria is the most important crustacean borer.
Both infest wood that is untreated or whose preservative
has become ine&ctiv&
Additionally, any holes drilled
during construction or other defects invite the infestation
of these creatures.

The teredo, or bankia, enters the timber at an early stage


of life and remains there for the rest of its Me. While the
organism bores to the inner core of the timber it leaves
its tail in the opening to obtain nourishment from the
water.

~ Fiiure
23

3-22 Limnoria attack at the watertine.

in

to
of
in

Since the damage caused by these shipworms is


hidden within thetimber, it is often difficuit to detect. A
Close visual inspection for the entrance hole is one
method of detection.
Suspect areas may require
destructive testing to confirm the teredos presence.

d. Caddisfly.
The caddisfly, an Insect which is
generally found
in freshwater,
but can tolerate
brackish water, can also damage timber piles.
The caddisflies are an order of insects closely related
to moths and butterflies.
In water, during the larva
and pupa stages of their life cycle, they can dig small
holes into the timber for protection.
The homes
consist of a silken retreat portion which shelter the
larva that is fixed to the substrate after the larva
chews out a small depression to reduce its profile.
In addition,
an anterior net of some type which
strains food from the flowing water is attached to the
shelter. At the end of the larval stage. all species
construct some sort of shelter for the ensuing pupa.
At this time the shelter is enlarged, deepened and
strengthened.
After completion of the pupal period,
the pupa cuts its way out of the shelter, swims to the
surface, crawls out of the water and onto solid
substrate.
The pupas skin splits and the adult
emerges and flies away, thus beginning the cycle

Unlike the teredo, the limnoria (also called the wood


louse or gribble) is a surface boring crustacean. The
iimnoria, which is about l/8 inch long, bores only a
short way into the wood surface and as water action
breaks down the thin layer of wood protecting it, the
crustacean bores deeper, eventually producing the
hour glass shape commonly found in wood piles in the
splash zone (Fig: 3-22).
Damage from marine borers can occur anywhere
between the mudline and the waterline (Fig. 3-23).
Creosote presen/atives have proven effective against
teredo attack and arsenate preservatives have been
effective against limnoria.
A combination of both of
these preservatives can be used to protect against both
borers.

MAX.

again.

HIGH

MEAN
.,.

r-l

TIDE

TIDE

POINTS
OF
MAXIMUM

MUD

TYPICAL

TIERED0
.L

DAMAGE
..a

LINE

TYPICAL

Figure 3-23 Drawing of typical borer damage.


24

LIMNORIA

..

DAMAGE

..I

The next generation of latvae may inhabit the same


hole and perhaps several larvae live in the same retreat,
enlarging the hole until retreats intersect, and create
large irregular depressions.
While most species have
a single life cycle annually, research has documented
as many as two or three generatibns per year. The
high density of caddisflies on a timber pile can create
so many pits that pieces of timber have been
characterized as having the appearance of a person
scarred by smallpox.
After being attacked for
numerous years the number of pits within a given area
may not be distinguishable.
Over. the last approximately
twenty years, several instances have been reported in
which dontinuously submerged timber structures have
undergone considerable strength reductions over long
periods of time. This degradation
is the result of
bacteria which can live in totally submerged piling.
e Bacterial Dearadation.

,u

_.. I

2.

; t _;.
.

overdriving, scars caused by machines used to place


the timbers, and holes drilled into the wood which
render its preservative
ineffective
and make it
vulnerable to borer attack.
h. Damaaed Connectors.
Damage to bolts and drift
pins which connect elements of timber structures can
also weaken the facility. The inspector should note
missing, bent, or corroded connectors, as well as any
loss of .section in the connector due to corrosion.
Dissimilarities between material properties of nuts and
bolts can cause significant losses to either the nut of
the bolt. It may be necessary to remove bdts to
inspect for hidden corrosion (Fig. 3-24).

Bacterial attack is a slow process promoted by wet


conditions. The attack may be classified as tunneling,
:. ;. .) in which the bacteria penetrate the wood cell walls and
thus produce channels within the walls; erosion, in
which the layers of the wood cells are attacked; and
cavitation, in which the bacteria form cavities within
the cell walls. All three can significantly reduce the
strength and other properties of the timber. While little
quantitative
data is available on these effects,
degradation appears to be greatest near the outer are&
of the pile and decreases toward the center.
f. Abrasion.
The abrasive action of waterborne
materials. such as ice and sand, can also damage
timber members.
Damaged areas appear worn and
smooth.
Abrasive damage typically occurs at the
waterline and mudline. There are indications that the
bacterial action in acidic waters may soften the surface
of timber piles so that they are vulnerable to abrasion.
A gradual and general reduction in diameter can occur
along the entire length of the pile between
the waterline
and the mudline. Detection of this general reduction in
diameter may only be possible by measuring pile
diameter.
The freeze-thaw action of surface ice can
also break down the surface of timber piles.

Figure 3-24 Timber bolt with slight loss of section on


threads.

g Qnstruction
Defects.
Damage to timbers that
occurs during construction
often leads to serious
deterioration later. Common problems include splits or
cracks in piles caused
by rough handling
or
25

CHAPTER
UNDERWATER

IV

INSPECTION

SECTION 1. THE DIVERS ENVIRONMENT

EQUlhUlENT

Divers are particularly and uniquely exposed to


physiological
hazards such as pressure, oxygen
deficiency and nitrogen narcosis.

The divers work environment is inherently hostile. He


often works in dark, cold isolation and is exposed to a
variety of pressuredecompression
relatedillnesses and
injuries (Fig. 4-l).
Divers must rely completely on
external life support systems while working under
severe limitations such as diminished sensory and
perceptual capabilities; and interference with cognitive
processes and psychomotor skills. Reduced physical
working capacity, and physiological and psychoiogical
stress limit his effectiveness.

When air is breathed under pressure, as in diving


situations, inert nitrogen diffuses into the tissues of the
Depth
m

NO-DECOMPRESSION
LIMITS
No-Decompression
Limit (minutes1

30
40
50
60

70
00
90
100
110

120
130

140
150-190

310
200

100
60

50
40
30
25
20
15

10
10
5

Figure 4-2 No-Decompression


Limits
(From the U.S. Navy Dive Manual)

Figure 4-l

body. The amount of nitrogen absorbed increases


with depth and duration of the dive. When the diver
ascends, the nitrogen comes out of solution. If the
ascent rate is too rapid, the nitrogen will not be
dissipated and gas bubbies can form in the divers
tissues and blood. These hubbies tend to form at the
bodys joints resulting in what is commonfy known as
the bends or more correctly as decompression

Diver working in a hostile environment.

To work effectively, the diver must adapt to his


environment, be familiar with his equipment, and select
methods appropriate to the task. He cannot properly
conduct an inspection if he must concern himself solely
with his survival.

This tabie is not structured


27

for repetitive dives.

sickness. For this reason, a divers time in the water


must be carefully monitored. Combinations of deeper
dives and dives of long duration may require the diver
to decompress in stages by slowly ascending and
spending time at intermediate depths. The majority of
bridge inspection dives are of short-duration
or at
shallow depth, therefore decompression is not needed.
Such dives are referred to as no-decompression
dives.
Figure 4-2 indicates the nodecompression
time limits
for various depths of diving.

Because of the potential for nitrogen narcosis and


oxygen poisbning when breathing air under high
pressure, mixed gas, generally a helium-oxygen
mixture, is used for deep dives, generally 190 feet or
greater. Mixed-gas dive stations are costly to set up
and operate, and they require specially trained dive
personnel. Most bridge inspections are conducted at
depths where air can be used. For this reason, air
diving is the only type discussed in detail in the
fdlowing sections.

Even though decompression is not required within the


limits shown in Figure 4-2, an amount of nitrogen
remains in the divers tissues after every dive. If he
dives again, the diver must consider this residual
nitrogen.

SECTION 2. MODES OF DIVING


4-2.1

Breathing air under pressure can cause nitrogen


narcosis, a feeling of euphoria sometimes referred to
as rapture of the deep. At depths bdow about 100
feet, most divers feel the early lightheaded effects
associated with nitrogen narcosis. Beyond 200 feet
few divers can work effectively while breathing air.

General

Within air diving, two principal modes are used: scuba,


in which the diver carries his air supply with him in a
tank, and surface-supplied diving in which the divers
air source is in a boat or on shore. While some
organizations may be predisposed to one mode over
the other, both modes are permitted by OSHA
standards and both have a @ace in bridge inspections.
in some situations, one mode may have significant
economic benefiis over the other, while providing all
the inspection information required without in any way
compromising safety. Their appropriateness for any
specific diving situation depends on a number of
factors including depth, bottom time, inspection tasks,
waterw;dy, environment,
and the experience and
capability of the diver.
Each mode has unique
operational advantages and disadvantages.

The divers greatest threat is loss of his air supply, but


inadequate ventilation of the divers mask or helmet can
cause carbon dioxide poisoning.
Because exhaust
fumes from internal combustion engines in a divers air
supply can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, special
care must be taken when locating a compressors air
intake.
Breathing air under high partial pressures can cause
oxygen poisoning.
Partial pressures of oxygen in
excess of that encountered
at normal atmospheric
conditions
may be toxic to the body.
Oxygen
toxicity is dependent upon both the partial pressure
and the exposure time. In the range of 0.2 to 0.6
atmospheres
(atm) of oxygen
no toxicity
is
detectable.
From approximately
0.6 to 1.6 atm of
oxygen, with exposure times from hours to days,
lung toxicity may occur. At pressures greater than
1.6 atm of oxygen, central newous system oxygen
toxicity
occurs
before lung toxicity
produces
symptomatic
damage.
The air diver seldom
encounters oxygen partial pressures greater than 1.6
atm since it represents,a depth of over 200 f.s.w. ,His
greatest opportunity
for being exposed to the
potential
of oxygen
poisoning
is during
recompression treatment or surface decompression
using oxygen.

a. SCUBA. Scuba is an acronym for Self-Contained


Undenrvater Breathing Apparatus. Scuba is generally
air is
recognized today in the open-circuit form:
inhaled from a supply tank and the exhaust is vented
directly to the surrounding water. The first efficient
and safe open-circuit scuba was developed in France
during World War II by Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau
and Emile Gagnan by combining an improved regulator
with high pressure air tanks. Through further years of
research and testing, Cousteau and others have
brought scuba to its current level of development
where it is used militarily, commercially,
and
.
.
recreationally.
.
Scuba utilizes high pressure steel or aluminum air
cylinders (Fig.4-3) with two-stage regulators to deliver
28

. than one sustained dive. Scuba equipment weiahs


about 75 pounds and requires no elaborate support
operation.
It has the advantage that the diver does
not have to drag an air hose behind him. The use of
scuba is limited by OSHA to depths of 130 feet and
the bottom time is limited by the amount of air the
diver can carry with him. The depth and bottom time
requirements
of most bridge inspections are well
within the limitations of scuba diving as shown in
Figure 4-5.
Surface to diver communication
is possible using
scuba with either hard wire or wireless systems.
Communication
may be desirable in deep water or
for complicated structures.
120

Figure 4-3 Small high pressure comprtissor


used to fill scuba tank.

\I\

60,

1
j

1 DURATION
OF SINGLE
ALUMINUM
SCUBA
CYLINDER
L-

t
f

,3B

60

40

20
0

10

20

30
40
50
bation.
minms

60

70

6;

WI

Figure e-5 Typical dive duration for scuba diver with


one 80 cf. tank.
Note: Dive duration varies
significantly-for
different
divers and different levels
of exertion. locations are required rather

Scuba is well suited for inspection work because of its


portability and ease of maneuverability in the water
where many dives of short duration at different

Diver with scuba equipment.

I
L

100

air 10 the diver. The first stage of the regulator is


attached directly to the valve on the high pressure
bottle. This first stage reduces the high pressure air
(up to 3,500 psi) in the tank to an intermediate pressure
(110 lo 150 bsi above,ambient).
The second stage of
the regulator reduces the intermediate pressure air to
ambient pressure and delivers it to the diver on
demand (Fig. 4-4). As the diver inhales, he activates a
valve which- allbws the aii to flow tohlti.

Figure 4-4

I\

b. Surface-Sypolied
Air. There are two types of
surface-supplied equipment: deep-sea (hard-hat) and
lightweight.
Deep-sea equipment
consists of a
helmet and breastplate, diving dress and weighted
shoes (Fig. 4-6). The equipment worn by the diver
alone can weigh more than 200 pounds. Add to this
the air compressor,
hoses, lines and possibly a
diving launch to work from, and the problems of
mobility and transportation
become significant. This
equipment is cumbersome,
not well suited for bridge
inspections,
and
generally
not
considered
economical for most modern diving operations since
the development
of lightweight
equipinent.
The
deep-sea hard-hat has changed little in the last 150
years.

29

decompression
schedules
are used.
Dives in
accordance with OSHA standards can be conducted
to depths of 190 feet or, if bottom times are less than
thirty minutes, to depths of 220 feet. The major
disadvantage
of surface-supplied
diving is the lack
of mobility. Inspection work generally requires the
diver to constantly change depth or travel around
structures or obstacles. In doing so, the diver using
surface-supplied
equipment may become entangled
in his umbilical.
As a minimum, he has the added
effort of dragging it after him.
Additional support equipment,
for both scuba and
surface
supplied
gear,
could
include
a
decompression
chamber.
A chamber is required
when dives exceed 100 fsw or the no-decompression
limits.
Figure 46

Diver in deep-sea equipment.

Lightweight equipment usually consists of a full face


mask or helmet, safety harness, weight belt; boots or
fins, back-up air supply, and an exposure suit (a wet
or dry suit). Early helmets were free-flow air hats in
which a constant stream of air is supplied to the
diver. Today, demand regulators similar to those
used in the second stage of scuba equipment have
been incorporated
in helmets and full face masks
(Fig. 4-7).
in a surface-supplied
system, air is supplied by a
high volume, low pressure compressor
or from a
bank of high pressure cylinders equipped withs
regulator
to reduce the high pressure.
The
compressed air is sent through a filtering system into
a volume tank at about 150-200 psi. From the
volume tank, the air goes to a manifold which has
the divers umbilical connected to it.

Figure

SECTION

The divers umbilical is a combination


air hose,
safety
line,
communication
cable,
and
pneumofathometer
hose. The pneumofathometer
allows the divers depth to be monitored by a tender
at the surface. With a surface supplied system, a
tender must monitor the divers air supply and depth,
and communicate
with him.

4-3.1

Diver wearing

4-7

3. DIVERS

lightweight

helmet.

EQUIPMENT

Scuba

a. gxoosure Suits. Water is one of the most effective


cooling agents known. A diver immersed in water at
a temperature
less than body, temperature
rapidly
loses body heat. Even in relatively warm water, the
diver will become chilled after proionged exposure.
To protect and insulate the diver, an exposure suit is
usually necessary. There are two kinds of exposure
suits commonly in use; the wet suit and the dry suit.

The primary advantage of surface-supplied


air diving
is the unlimited air supply.
Longer bottom times
can be obtained
on surface-supplied
dives if
30

In warm wa!ers. generally above 50 degre&?!ahrenh&%: --. having to tread water. Proper use of tne BC re;ces
a wet suit wiil provide adequate thermal, protection.
the effort Of vertical movement. There are three ways
The suit is tight fitting and constructed of neoprene.
of inflating the BC: 1) through an oral inflator, 2) wrth
The wet suit allows a thin layer of water between the
air from the scuba tank or 3) in an emergency with a
suit and the divers skin. This layer gf water, which is
CO, (carbon dioxide) cartridge attached to the BC.
warmed by body heat, acts as insulation to keep the
diver warm. A full suit consists of a jacket, pants,
A diver uses a weight belt to help control buoyancy.
boots, gloves, and hood.
The most popular weights are molded lead which frt
onto .a nylon web belt buckled with a quick-release
The variable volume dry suit is an extremely effective
mechanism. The amount of weight worn by the diver
suit in cold water. pry suits are also used in polluted
depends on his natural buoyancy and the buoyancy
waters. The more pop&r
suits are constructed of
of the equipment he is wearing.
For a scuba diver

either closed cell neoprene with nylon backing on both


sides, nylon, or vulcanized rubber. Boots are normally
integrated with the suit; hoods may be attiiched or
separate; and gloves are usually separate. .The suits

wearing a
commonly
pounds of
negatively

exhausted

Swim fins increase the propulsive force generated by


the legs while swimtiing
underwater.
Swimming
efficiency is greatly increased with the proper pair of
fins.

have a waterproof and pressure-proof zipper for entry.


The suits are designed to use a layer of air as
insulation and can normtilly be inflated from a low
pressure air supply.
Air inside the suit can be

through a separate valve on the suit. The

suits are designed to be worn with thermal underwear


which provide excellent protection against cold both in

and out of water.

The divers knife is used primarily as a tool and is


available for emergencies.
There are many styles of
knives available.
Typically the knife is made of
corrosioh-resistant
metal, usually stainless steel, and
has a serrated edge for sawing through larger and
stronger lines:

The dry suit normally requires the

diver to wear more weight than he would with a


standard wet suit, due to the volume of air in the suit.
b. Scuba Eouioment.
In addition to an exposure suit,
the diver generally has a siandard
list of dive
equipment. Essential equipment, other than the scuba
regulator and tank, includes:
Face mask
(2) Buoyancy compensator
(3) Weight belt
(4) Swim fins
(1)

Each item is discussed

below.

The face mask protects a


the water. ihe air pocket
eye to focus on underwater
corrective lenses are also

A watch. or bottom-timer is very important.


A diver
uses one of these.to stay within the nodecompression
limits or to control decompression dives. The unit must
be waterproof,.
pressure-proof,
accurate,
and
dependable:

(5) Knife
(6) Wristwatch
(7) Depth gauge
(8) Submersible
pressure gauge

The depth gauge measures the pressure created by


the column of water above the diver and is calibrated
to indicate a direct reading of depth in feet of sea
water. Accurate depth readings are essential when
diving in order to stay within nodecompression
limits
or to locate decompression
stops if outside the nodecompression limits.

divers nose and eyes from


within the mask allows the
images. Masks which have
available.

The submersible cylinder pressure gauge provides the


diver with a continuous indication of the air remaining
in the air cylinder.

b* OSHA requires the use of an inflatable flotation device

capable of maintaining

the diver at .the surface in a


The
buoyancy compensator, or Bc, is a system of one or
two rubberized air bags protected by an outer shell. It
allows the diver to maintain neutral buoyancy at depth
or to maintain a face-up position on the surface without
face-up

wet suit, ten to twenty pounds of weight is


worn. With a dry suit as much as fifty
weight may be required in order to become
buoyant.

position when using scuba equipment.

Additionally, dive lights and portable decompression


meters (dive computers) may be used. The dive light
is a waterproof, pressure-proof, underwater flashlight.
It can be very useful where natural light does not
31

4-3.2

Lightweight

SurfaceGupplied

Diving

a. &sic EauiDment.
Lightweight surface-supplied
divers share a few basic items with scuba divers,
namely: an exposure suit, a weight belt, and a knife.
Swim fins or boots are worn depending upon the work
requirements.
A wristwatch is generally not worn by
surface-supplied
divers because
the tender is
responsibie for accurate timekeeping.
For lightweight
diving, a diver is required to wear a safety harness with
the umbilical attached to it to prevent any strain on the
mask and to provide a lifting point to assist pulling a
diver out of the water in an emergency.
b. Breathina ADDaratus.
There are two types of
surface-supplied breathing equipment:
free-flow and
demand. Both types allow the diver to breathe through
his mouth or his nose.

Figure 4-8 Scuba diver using full face


mask with communications.
penetrate, but it is of limited usefulness in muddy or
dirty water where there are suspended particles.

With a free-flow system, air is delivered to helmet, or


mask, continuously and exhausted through an open
valve to the surroundingwater. The diver has to adjust
the exhaust for different working depths or levejs of
physical exertion. Each helmet has a purge button
which the diver can use if necessary to reduce air
pressure quickly. The Navys MK12 (Fig. 4-9) is a good
example of a modern free-flow air hat. With this type
of helmet, a jacking harness is worn to keep the helmet
. secure and relatively stable on the diver bt?cause, with
a continuous air flow, the helmet has a tendency to
float.

A recent invention, the dive computer, monitors bottom


time and depth. Some computers will determine a
decompression schedule, if required. When the diver
descends and ascends, the computer continually
updates and recalculates the dive profile taking into
consideration the times spent at different depths on the
way to the surface. The advantage of this method of
-^ calculatiqn is that the diver can stay in the water for
longer periods of time than if his dive profile were
computed just once based on the deepest depth
reached. This device is especially useful in inspection
work because the diver does not spend long periods
of time at any one depth, but it should not be used
without a full understanding
of its capabilities and
limitations.
c. Communication.
In general, there are two types of
diver-to-surface communication
systems available to
the scuba diver. In a hard wire system, the diver has
a microphone and speaker connected by cable to a
surface transmitter-recliver.
This is used regularly in
surface-supplied diving and can be used when a scuba
diver is tethered with a safety/communication
line (Fig.
4-8).

7.
,

. ..
.-.
-1
,.

Wireless systems are aCso available for use with SCUBA


equipment. There area variety of units on the market.
The advantage of a wireless system is that it allows the
diver greater mobility.

Figure 4-S Navy MK12 helmet, a modem free-flow


helmet.
32

Demand masks and heimets essentially combine a


regulator, similar to the scuba regulators second stage,
with a face mask in one unit. The masks, referred to
as band
masks, have a large face plate and a
regulator
The band mask generally has a neoprene
hood and a rubber strap, called a spider, to secure
the mask to the divers head, making a seal around his
face. Air is supplied to the regulator via a sideblock, a
one-way valve attached to the mask or safety harness,
which is connected to a primary and backup air source
(Fig. 4- 10)

limits, OSHA requires

that a diver carry a reser;e

breathing gas supply. Many organizations also require


this resewe for shallower dives. This is typically a
scuba tank, with appropriate fittings, connected to the
helmet, for free-flow apparatuses, or to the sideblock
of a demand mask or helmet.

Demand helmets are basically free-flow hats to which


a regulator has been added.
The helmet has a
sideblock and regulator assembly similar to a band
mask. Both the helmet and the band mask generally
have a movable nose pad to assist the diver in clearing
his ears and sinuses. More weight will be required by
a diver in a helmet because of the volume of air inside
it. Jacking harnesses are not necessary with the
demand masks.

Figure 411

Surface-supplied divers control


console with communication and
pneumofathometer.

d. Tenders. Each diver must be continually tended


while in the water.
lenders are responsible for
ensuring the dive profile is followed and maintaining
the dive station. All dive systems, i.e., communications,
compressors, pressure gauges, backup systems, as
well as the diver, are to be monitored. As a minimum,
a tender should be trained in the topside requirements
of surface-supplied diving.

SECTION 4. INSPECTION
d-4.1

General

To work effectively underwater, the diver must have


the proper tools and equipment.
Much of the
underwater work in inspection diving involves cleaning
of structural eiements. Sampling and testing may also
have to be accomplished.
The use of specialized tools
may be necessary-for testing. Both power and hand
toos are used under water.

Figure 4-10 Diver wearing a band mask.


All lightweight diving helmets and masks can be
The divers
outfitted for two-way communication.
umbilical has a communication
line which connects the
helmets
or masks earphone
and microphone
:assembly to a surface radio (Fig. 4-l 1).

. *

In deciding whether to. use power toots or hand tools.


the dive manager must weigh the advantages gained
in conserving the divers energy versus the mobilization

c. Backup Air Source. When a dive is conducted


deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression
33

TOOLS

costs and the loss of mobility.


For underwater
inspection work, unless the biofouling is especially
severe, extremely difficult to remove, and the areas to
be cleaned are extensive, hand tools are usually more
economical.
Power tools, if selected, must be used
with care so that the structural ma&M-is not damaged
after the biofouling is removed.

required tasks. Pneumatic drills, chippers, hammers,


scalers, and saws are available. Use d pneumatic power
is limited to practical depths of 100 to 150 feet and is
costly to operate and maintain. Pneumatic tools also
produce streams of bubbles that can block the divers
Vision.
Underwater hydraulic tools are modified versions of
hydraulic tools us& on land. Providing a hydraulic power
source can be costly, and the tools them&ves are often
fatiguing to use because they produce torque or
vibratbns which may be hard for the diver to counteract
unless he Is heavily weighted or secured to something at
the work site. .%I hoses add to the divers difficulty. The
biggest advantage of hydraulic tads is that they do not
create the bubbles that pneumatic tools do.

For underwater repair work, where extensive cleaning


is required, use of power tools would normally be
warranted.
4-4.2 Tools
a. Hand Tools. Almost all standard hand tools can be
used underwater, but they require better care and
maintenance. Typical tools used during an inspection
include screwdrivers, scrapers, ice picks,

Power to& have also been developed which, use sea


water rather that hydraulic oil or air. A pump located on
the surface pumps water to the tfxls, and the water is
expelled underwater by the tools.
A water blaster can also be a useful piece of equipment
for cleaning a structure. Popular commercial models
have gas powered engines, am relatbely compact, and
can dekver pressures between 3000 and 4000 psi, which
Is enough to remove deteriorated concrete and cwrosion.

SECTION 5. UNDERWATER
PHOTOGRAPHY
VIDEO EQUIPMENT
45.1

AND

General

Improvements in underwater documenMon


equipment
and techniques have b
significant in the last few years,
inpart,becausedworkonMshoreoiipfatforms,and
, because d improvements in 3Smm underwater cameras
and video equipment
in the consumer market.
Underwater documentation
in the form of cdor
photography or video can be provided at an economical
cost under almost all water conditions.

Figure 4-12 Typical hand cleaning tools.


hammers, axes, hand drills, wire brushes, pry bars,
and hand saws (Fig. 4-12) Divers routinely drop tools,
so it is usually best to secure the tools to the diver with
a lanyard to save time searching for lost tods in soft
silt. Work with hand tools underwater can be slow and
arduous, making their use impractical for larger jobs.

4-5.2

b. Power Tools. Both pneumatic and hydraulic tools


are used underwater.
Although pneumatic tools are
not usually designed specifically for undemater use,
they can usually be readily adapted to perform the

Photography

Black and white, and color 35mm photographs can be


made of. underwater conditions relatively easily. Most
popular above water cameras from the instamatic
34

4-5.3

Lighting

The lighting for underwater photography is especially


important because of the alluvial material suspended
in the water. Suspended material reduces the light
that actually reaches the subject, and it can reflect
light back into the camera lens. To minimize this
problem, the electronic flash unit must be placed to
one side so that light does not reflect directly into
the lens. It is usually best to use two light sources
of lower intensity located far to each side of the
To reduce the localized intensity of the
camera.
flash, a diffuser should be used when photographing
reflective objects such as bright steel, or when there
is considerable sediment in the water.
a

Figure 4-13 Waterproof

*-

.1-

camera housing.

type to sophisticated
35mm units can be used
which
are
underwater
in waterproof
cases,
: II commonly called housings.
Most cases today are
made of clear acrylic plastic and sealed with rubber
gaskets. (Fig. 4-l 3)
There are also waterproof 35mn-i cameras designed
specifically for use underwater.
These cameras can
be equi;ped with a variety of lenses and electronic.,
flash units for underwater photography.
Some of
these cameras, when used with a compatible flash
unit, will control the amount of light delivered on the
subject by the flash (Fig. 4-14).

Figure 4-14 Underwater


4-5.4

In underwater
photography,
selecting the proper
combinatton
of camera lens and light is very
important.
Photographs
must be taken from much
closer distances
to maintain clarity since most
bridges are not located in clean, clear water.
In
. some .wateis. like the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers,
visibility is only a few inches.
In many rivers,
however, there is one or two feet of visibility. The
to photograph
a reasonably
sized area in one
picture. It should b,e noted that because of the
refractive
property
of the water, the apparent
distances are about three-fourths
of actual distances

.It is usually best to document


conditions
with
underwater
photography
as the
inspection
progresses, rather than waiting until the end of the
project to take pictures. This permits review of the

appear larger than they actually are.


cameras are generally
calibrated
in

Underwater
apparent distances.

35

Film

Almost any film that can also be used above water


with artificial light can be used below water. Where
low intensity light sources must be used to reduce
reflection
problems,
higher
speed
films can
compensate for this. Generally, it may be best to
use one particular speed film, such as ASA 100,
maintaining the light source at the same distance
from the subject, and compensating
by using various
aperture openings.
In this way, only one variable is
changed, and it is only necessary to have one type
of film on hand.

camera-subject distance must be minimized, and a


wide angle lens, such as a 1Smm lens, must be used

and objects

camera and flash unit

photograph to provide a standard against which the


processing technician can adjust the color (Fig. 4-15).
44.5

C&mater

Box

When the water is extremely turbid, visibility may be


reduced to a few inches, making normal photographic
techniques useless. In such cases, a clearwater box
may be used. A clearwater box is a box constructed
of clear ac@ic plastic that can be filled with clean
water through which the camera can be aimed. The
box of clean water, when pressed against the subject,
displaces the dirty water. Various sizes and shapes of
boxes can be constructed, depending on the objects
to be photographed.

initial photographs and adjustment in the technique


before all photography is completed.
It is better to
find out that the first few shots have to be taken again
rather than finding out that all the photographs must be
retaken. Usually, color print film is the easiest to have
processed before leaving the job site because of the
one-hour shops that are readily accessible.
Even in relatively clear water where natural light
penetrates to the depth at which photo-documentation
is to take place, artificial light sources should be used
to obtain true color reproduction.
As natural light
penetrates water, the water filters and absorbs colors
in the natural light spectrum.
Some red is lost just
below the surface, and at about 30 feet all objects
appear blue-green.
Thus, without artificial light, key
details and contrast can be lost.
In reviewing photographs
of underwater objects, it is
often difficult to determine the size of objects and their
true color or tint without some standard of reference.
There is also no frame of reference for locating the
picture because underwater photographs
often look
similar.
Technicians
processing
film exposed
0 underwater also often have difficulty in determining the
correct tint. One processing technician may make an
object blue, while another might make the same object
brown. To provide a basis for reference, a scale, and
the location of the picture should be indicated 2nd a
patch of known color should be included
the

Figure 416

Clearwater box.

A typical clearwater
box for general purpose
underwater photography is fiied with handles to make
control easier, brackets for mounting the camera and
flash units, and caps for filling (Fig. 4-16). The box is
designed to be filled with clean water while it is in water
so that there is no great difference in pressure between
the inside and outside of the box (Fig. 4-17). The box
is slightly negatively buoyant when filled completely
with water. An air gap may be left inside the box to
%
make it positively buoyant, a
The face of the box shown in Figure 4-16 is about 20
inches high by 30 inches wide, and the distance from
the front of the box to the back is 20 inches. A wide
36

and the other strobe functions as a slave unit tnat fires


automatically when it senses the other strobe firing
Use of the clearwater box normally requires two diversone to operate the camera and one to control the box
In stronger currents, it may require three divers, and in
extremely strong currents it may not be possible to
effectively use the device.

angle lens ;s mounted on the back face of the box and


the camera is connected to the back of the lens. A
scale that is mounted on the front of the box will
appear in all ptctures. At the time of publication of this
manual. clea.rvvater boxes were not commercially
avaiiaole. but must be custom made.

Electronic strobes are mounted on each side of the


box.
The strobes are aimed so that there is no
reflection into the lens off the front face of the box.
One strobe is connected to the camera by a cable,

Refer to Figures 4-18 and 4-19 for two photographs


taken with a clearwater box.

P.
I

Figure 4-19 View of severely corroded


through clearwater box.

9rA
k -.

Figure 4-17 Divers filling clearwater box.

ste&l H-pile

4-5.6 Video
Just as consumer

video cameras and recorders have


improved dramatically in the last few years, undewater
Highly
video equipment
has likewise improved.
sophisticated,
compact underwater
cameras were
developed in recent years for underwater inspection of
offshore oil platforms. In the past few years, consumer
equipment has developed at a similar pace and is
Commercial
available at a relatively low price.
underwater
cameras and above-water
consumer
cameras in waterproof housings can be used with an
umbilical cable to the surface for real-time viewing on
a monitor, or for recording. Smaller camera-.reaorder
systems in underwater housings of acryiic plastic or
metal are avaiiabie which can be used with or without
the umbilical to the surface (Figs. 4-20 and 4-21).
Figure 4-18

View of damaged
clearwater box.

concrete pile through

These video systems can be configured to provide onscreen titles and clock, and also include narration by
37

vehicles were designed for extremely deep diving


and to provide video inspection in places that were
inaccessible
or too hazardous
for conventional
diving, such as polluted., contaminated,
or extremely
cold water.

1 _-..-L
--.- .,-7s-*. *

ir

Figure

4-21 Camera-recorder
housing..

Figure

U-22 Remotely operated


control console.

Figure 4-20 Video camera with umbilical to surface.


the diver and the surface observer.
In underwater
video work, there is often a large portion of the tape
which is of no value to the inspection record, such
as when the diver is adjusting equipment and getting
into position to operate the camera.
In addition,
there are often large portions of tape which illustrate
only good conditions.
If the tape is to be reviewed
by high level personnel, it is usually cost-effective
to
edit the tape to reduce viewing and review time.
One of the most popular types pf video units for
which housings are made is the 8mm camerarecorder. The camera and recorder are combined in
one unit. These units are compact, easy to use and,
take very good pictures. Housings for the units are
made by a number of manufacturers
and can be
modified so a surface monitor can be used.
4-5.7

Remote

Operated

Vehicle

in underwater

(NV)

A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is a tethered


underwater
video camera
platform,
sometimes
equipped with manipulator systems, and an electric
or electro-hydraulic
propulsion systems. An ROV is
controlled from the surface by means of a video
system, for operator observation; and joystick type
propulsion and manipulator controls. Originally the

vehicle with

Although the dependability


of the ROV has steadily
increased, some problems still remain. The ROV can
only supply a two-dimensional
view of a problem; the
full extent of any defects generally
cannot be
38

obtained
from a picture.
In murky water, the
effectiveness of an ROV is extremely limited; a diver
can at least conduct a tactile inspection. It is difficult
to know the exact orientation
or position of the
vehicle to accurately identify the area,being observed
and the operator may also encounter problems with
controlling
the vehicle in a current or tangling its
umbilical.
4-5.8

Dive Platforms

in bridge inspections,
the primary dive platform is
typically a small boat. There are many different sizes
and types available.
Hulls are made of aluminum,
wood. and fiberglass. There are also inflatable boats
that work well as ,dive platforms.
A key criterion
when choosing a boat is adequate space for all dive
equipment and personnel.
Working conditions must
be safe for both the above-water crew and the diver.
Generally. the boat should be equipped
with an
engine, the size dictated by waterway conditions,
degree of portability
desired, and boat size. All
Coast Guard and local government
rules and
regulations must be followed, and appropriate
dive
flags should be displayed.
The international code flag A, a blue and white flag,
must be displayed to comply with 3SHA.
Some
states also require display of the red and white sport
diver flag.
Since recreational
boaters may not
recognize
the code flag A, both flags should
generally be flown for safety.

,
[I(:.

A I have a diver down; keep well clear at


slow speed.

Sport Diver

Figure

(White stripe on blue).

(White stripe on red).

4-23 Dive Flags.

CHAPTER
UNDERWATER

SECTION
51.1

1.

PREPARATION

Site Reconnaissance

INSPECTION

AND SAFETY,
and Data Collection

11.3

can reduce the cost by leading to

Drawings

and Previous

For many bridge inspections, scuba equipment is the


most efficient.
It requires less set-up time and
generally
allows greater mobility than surfacesupplied equipment.
If communications
are desired,
a full face mask with wired communication
and
scuba may suffice. This combination eliminates the
need for hoses, mixing consoles, volume tanks. .and
other apparatus
needed
with surface-suppiied
equipment.
Wireless communication
devices are
also available.

Reports

The diver should be given drawings of the structure,


preferably
as-built drawings, to prepare for an
inspection
By previewing the bridge drawings, the
inspector can learn what he may encounter during the
dive
It will also make communication
between the
diver and note-taker easier.
Previous reports provide additional information.
If the
diver reviews a report prior to the inspection, during

the dive he can check the condition of previously found


defects and report any new ones.
Soundings
contained in previous reports provide a baseline for
checking

scour activity.

from site reconnaissance and


a dive team to prepare for an
in the selection of the most
equipment.

As discussed
in Chapter II, commercial
diving
operations must be conducted according to OSHA
standards. Scuba can be used to a maximum depth
of 130 feet. In currents exceeding 1 knot and when
entering confined- spaces a diver must be line tended.
Surface-supplied diving equipment can be used to a
maximum depth of 220 feet. For full details, refer to the
OSHA standards in the Appendix.

During the site reconnaissance,


the dive manager
should: 1) Determine the number of substructure units
in water. 2) estimate those units which can be
inspected by wading and those which require diving,
3) determine the approximate water depth from the
drawings or using a lead-line, and 4) determine the
approximate
velocity of the water, by timing some.
floa?ing object as it passes under the bridge or in tidal
areas. consulting tide tables.

As-Built

Plan and Procedures

Information obtained
previous reports help
inspection by aiding
efficient methods and

selection of equipment and methods best suited to the


work and staffing with appropriate personnel.

S-l.2

TECHNIQUES

The inspector should be told of any repairs made since


the last inspection to allow him to check the condition
of the repairs.

Underwater bridge inspections, especially the initial


inspections, require careful planning to ensure that the
work is performed
effectiveiy and economically.
Undemater inspections can be expensive, but prior site

reconnaissance

.
41

Communications
are also used for deep dives
because they eliminate the need for the diver to
surface to report findings. During shallow dives in
swift current, where mobility is limited ancl when the
diver is line tended, communications
can expedite
the work by allowing the diver to direct the tender
and report conditions.

Safety or other considerations may dictate the use of


surface-supplied diving equipment in some inspection
situations.

underwater light is also useful at times, depending


water,clarity.

Water clarity often limits the divers ability to visually


inspect the structure. In such cases, he must use his
tactile senses to supplement
or replace the visual
inspections.
Usually it is most effective if the diver
examines the underwater elements by moving his
hands and arms in large sweeping motions to cover all

Access to many small bridges canbe from the adjacent


shore: for larger waterways, a boat will be necessary.
Aluminum or inflatable boats in the 14 ft. range will be
adequate for many bridges. They are small enough to
be carried, can be transported on the roof of a vehicle,
can be launched without a boat ramp, and can carry
the diving equipment for a small operation.

areas of each underwater

for most
larger rivers. It is big enough to support a small
surface-supplied operation. Boats used for underwater
bridge inspection can easily be damaged by bumping
against bridge piers so it is important that all sides be
protected with resilient fenders.
Boats should be
securely anchored or tied to the structure before diving
operations are started.

however, hand scrapers or power tools may be


needed. Refer to Article 44.2 for additional discussion
of these tools.

Scour is the removal of channel bottom material by


the erosive action of running water. Stone, concrete
blocks or similar material, referred to as riprap, is
commonly
placed around piers to retain bottom
material. The inspector should note the type of bottom
material, and the presence and size of riprap. This
information can help determine how vulnerable a bridge
is to being damaged by scour.
Divers can obtain
bottom samples using unbreakable sample jars or
mechanical sampling buckets. Divers can also probe
the channel bottom to obtain a measure of the relative
density of the bottom material.

At a few sites, such as when river banks are steep and


there are no boat ramps nearby, it may be necessary
to use special equipment
such as a crane to lower
either the boat or divers into the water.

If there is a history of debris collection at the site,


arrangements
should be made for its removal, or
-additional time should be allowed for the underwater
inspection team to remove it.
The type of equipment needed for cleaning areas to
do a Level II inspection needs to be determined.
Most
cleaning can be done with hand tools such as
scrapers, hammers, or pry bars, but unusually heavy
growth may require power tools such as chipping
hammers and water blasters.

5-2.2

Piers and Abutment;

Divers should inspect piers in a circular pattern, if


possible, using visual and tactile methods.
The
inspection should be started by making a circular path
around the base of the pier; then moving up a uniform
increment, such as an arms length and circling the pier
again.
This pattern should be repeated until the
inspection is complete.

2. INSPECTION

When the inspector is line tended or using surfacesupplied equipment, he cannot circle the pier without
tangling the lines. In this case, the diver should inspect
one side of the pier in a back and forth motion starting
at the bottom (Fig. 5-l). The diver can then repeat the
path on the other side of the pier.

S-2. t General
Cenain aspects of inspection procedures are common
to structures requiring underwater inspections.
Standard equipment for an inspection should include
a hammer or scraper. These tools can be used for
Level II inspections, and for probing and sounding
defective areas to determine the extent of distress. An

element.

Likewise, marine growth can obscure the condition of


substructure elements.
In fresh water, growth is
generally light and can often be removed by rubbing
with a gloved hand.
In salt water environments,

A boat in the 18 ft. range will be adequate

SECTION

on

_ Abutments should be inspected using the same back


and forth method described above.
42

Figure 5-l

Schematic representation
inspecting a pier

of a diver

Figure 5-2

The inspector should report if the footing is exposed,


any defects within the material, and any evidence of
scour.

SECTION

5-3.1

S-2.3 Piles
.*
Piles should be inspected in a spiral motion. The diver
begins at the top of one pile and inspects it while
descending; then moves to the next pile and inspects
it while ascending (Fig. S-2). If water visibility is poor
the inspector may have to ascend and descend on the
same pile.
When the inspector
is without
communication to the surface and a defectis found
he should surface immediately, report it, and then
return to the point of the defect to continue the
inspection.
When the inspector is line tended or using surfacesupplied equipment, he must move from side to side
to keep the lines free. Other aspects of the pier
inspection procedure are the same as when using
scuba.
S-2.4 Cells, Cofferdams

Schematic representation.
inspecting a pile bent,
3. SPECIAL
TESTING,
EXAMINATION

of a diver

LEVEL

111

General

The types of testing described in this section are


among those which may also be used for Level III
examinations.
Level Ill examinations are employed
when Level I and Level II examinations
cannot
conclusivelydetermine
the structural condition of the
underwater items. Findings of previous inspections
or the age of the structure may also dictate the level
of examination needed.
A Level Ill examination is
not required for all inspections.
5-3.2

and Bulkhead

The inspection procedure for cells, cofferdams, and


bulkhead is similar as for piers, The inspector should
also note the presence, size and condition of any riprap
placed at the base of these units,
and any indication of
.
scour.

Steel

In steel structures, the inspector is often concerned


with measuring the remaining thickness of corroded
members. This can be done with a graduated scale,
caliper and ultrasonic thickness measuring devices.
Weld testing methods, although not commonly used
for underwater bridge inspection, include magnetic
particle testing and radiography.
a. Graduated Scales. For measuring the exposed
edges of flanges, a rule, or graduated scale is the
most basic tool. It is not very precise, however, and
should be used. only for approximate measurements.
Its a&racy
is limited by the divers vision and its

43

Figure S-3 Calipers


use is limited to exposed
edges.

Figure 5-4 Waterproof


member

surfaces

D-Meter

and

b. Calioers.
Another simple method of thickness
measuring is to use a set of calipers (Fig. 5-3).
Calipers are compact and easy to use under most
conditions.
A disadvantage,
however, is that they
cannot take direct measurements of sheet piling or
webs of H-piles. To obtain direct measurements of
(. :. *,
cheet piles. holes could be drilled in the member. The
same drilled hole method could be used to measure
the web of H-piles, or a special large set of calipers
could be fabricated that would provide clearance
around the H-pile flanges.
c. Ultrasonic Measurina Devices. Ultrasonic devices
are also available for measuring remaining steel
thickness. The device sends a sound wave through the
member. It then measures the travel time of the sound
wave and calculates the thickness of the steel. An
advantage to this device is that it only needs a
transducer to be placed on one side of the member.
The thickness of the steel is displayed on an LED
display. To use the ultrasonic thickness measuring
device underwater, the diver must clean a small area
of the steel of marine growth and any loose protective
coatings or scale. If the steel is very rough or badly
pitted, it may be difficult to obtain accurate
measurements.
* There are, however,
special
transducers that can be used to overcome this
problem.

figure

5-5

Waterproof transducer for an ultrasonic


thickness measuring device.

can also be placed inside a waterproof


completely submerged.

housing.and

be

d. Maanetic Particle Testing. Magnetic particle testing


detects flaws in steel and welds. The process involves
inducing a magnetic field in the object to be tested. A
liquid suspension containing a fluorescent dye and
ferro-magnetic particles is appiied to the area. If a flaw
is present, the particles flow along the flaw.
Underwater magnetic particle testing is most commonly 1
used during inspections of shore structures. This test
method is not commonly used for bridge inspections
because it is difficult to implement in flowing water and
because off -the-shelf underwater testing devices are not
available.
The area to be examined must also be
carefully cleaned to obtain good results.

There are two types of devices ultrasonic thickness


measuring devices available.
One type is totally
submersible and the diver must record or relay the
measurements to the surface (Fig. 5-4). The second
type has a waterproof transducer and cable which are
carried below water.while the electronics and display
remain on the surface (Fig. 5-5). These units, however,

e. Radioaraohy.
Radiography is the use of X-rays to
photograph the interior of a member. A film cassette
is placed on one side of a member and a radiographic
44

I ,:

+?z$;#~ .~'i."&p;~> ! ! j /
,.

Tne ilim IS developed and


This
interpreted
bj8 a technician at the surface
technique Is expensive and not commonly used in
bridges
jCJ,r"2 ..-

27

:?,e

The V-meter measures the time II takes a sound Nave


t0 PaSS through a material. Location of discontinuities
in the material, such as cracks and voids are
determined by abnormal velocities.
Data has to be
interpreted by a trained technician.

i;tf-er

.
t1

b. Schmidt Hammer
The Schmidt Hammer is a
mechanical device which measures the compressive
strength of in-place concrete. For underwater use the
hammer is placed within a housing and the equipment
modified somewhat, including a special scale (Fig 5-6)

To use the hammer, the diver piaces it on the concrete


surface and presses against the spring loaded plunger
until a mass within the hammer is released causing an
impact.
The inspector estimates the concretes
strength with the data from this test.
Figure 5-6 V-meter with waterproof

Figure 5-7 2ositioning


5-3.3

of transducers

c. R-Meter. The R-meter can determine


the location
of reinforcing steel within concrete and measure its

cables

for V-meter
depth. of cover and size. The meter accomplishes this
by inducrng a magnetic field within the concrete.
R-Meters must be modified for underwater use (Fig. 5
9). This method of testing is of limited use for heavily
reinforced structures where it is difficult to obtain depth
readings of individual bars.

Concrete

Se,,,era! : 3 -A,e&uc!ive
tests can be performed on
C=inCrg:+
n;;\e~er.
the
nondestructive
testing
;l;j:-;-=~~
-bst be modified for undewater use.
I j

a V-t,Ae?er. The V-meter is an ultrasonic testing device.


Usng clitrasonics to check the condition of materials
such as concrete requires two transducers (Fig. 5-6).
When taking measurements,
the transducers can be
arranged in three different positions (Fig. S-7). The
direct transmission method provides the most accurate
data. The semi-direct and indirect methods require
correction factors to interpret the data.

d. COlinQ. Coring is a partially destructive test method.


It can be used alone or to verify and correlate data
from nondestructive
test methods.
Pneumatic and
hydraulic coring equipment
can be adapted for
underwater use. Cores obtained underwater can be
tested in a laboratory in accordance
with standard
procedures.
45

.. .

Figure S-8 Waterproof

Schmidt Hammer

Figure 5-9 Modified R-Meter

S-3.4 Timber

Partially destructive testing of timber by coring and


boring can be accomplished with hand, pneumatic,
and hydraulic tools. Samples of the pile material can
be obtained by coring, but the process is rather slow
and costly. Boring a hole in the timber and probing
the inside of the pile with a thin, hooked rod to
determine if there are voids due to decay or marine
borers is usually more cost-effective.
After taking the
core or drilling, the hole should be plugged with a
treated hardwood dowel.

Until recently testing of timber underwater has generally


been limited to visual inspections, sounding with a
hammer and using an ice pick to probethe timber. An
ultrasonic method, which is now a proprietary product
of one company for in-place testing of timber, was
developed
in the 1950s by British Columbia
Laboratories and has also been used.
in about 1979, following the partial failure of timber
piles supporting a bridge that had previously been
visually inspect&, the University of Maryland developed
a non-destructive ultrasonic wave propagation method
of determining the in-situ residual strength of timber
piling.
The, testing equipment
consists of a
commerciallyavailableultrasonicnondestructivedigital
tester and two transducers,
each mounted in 3
waterproof case, with an operating frequency of 54
kHz. It provides a means of producing ultrasonic
pulses in a timber pile and measuring the time for
passage of the sound across the pile. From tests
made on numerous timber pile sampies, both in the
laboratory and the field, the study developed empirical
formulas to estimate the residual strength of timber
piles. The empirical formulas were developed from a
band of data, and engineering judgment must be used
when evaluating a particular structure to select average
*strength values consistent
with the engineers
confidence in the data obtained. Care must also be
used in evaluating the data when internal marine borer
attack is present. The cost of an ultrasonic meter and
transducers are in the range of $5,000 to $7,000. For
further information, refer to the FHWAs lnsoection of
Bridae Timber Piling, Publication FHWA-iP-89-017.

Every underwater inspection of timber


include representative
measurements
diameter. Losses of timber section due
decay, or insect or marine borer attack
readily detected by visual means alone.

SECTION
5-4.1

4. DOCUMENTATION

Communication

The methods a diver uses to communicate


his
findings depends on diving conditions. The majority
of bridge inspections, that is, those in shallow water
with little damage, can be conducted with the diver
reporting notes at the surface. In deep water, swift
current or where there are extensive notes to report
it may be desirable
tc have diver-to-&face
communication.
This allow; :cle diver to concentrate
his efforts on obtaining ins ?tion data, and results
of the condition of the
in a more accurate descripstructure.
46

piles should
of the pile
to abrasion,
may not be

ohs can be of great value since they can


heip an inspector
his findings.
communicate
in~to~g~pns of defects are useful in preparing repair
plans can be used as part of the repair bid documents,
and may assist in obtaining funding for repair work
Still pho!Ggra

Certa!n conditions
will limit or prevent use of
photography.
Dark water may require the use of a
clearaater box although strong river currents may
preclude its use. Refer to Chapter 4 for a discussion
of various types of photography equipment.
S-4.3 Video
Underbarer video can provide documentation
for an
entire inspection or for selected areas. Video systems
with a surface monitor can facilitate communication
bePveen inspector and note-taker.
Self-contained
systems also provide good documentation
at low cost.
A monitor
on the surface is necessary
if an
inexperienced or unqualified inspector is performing
the di,ding ,work This allows an engineer on the surface
* to see the same area as the diver and to view what the
d!,,er is describing
Tne use of wdeo can be cumbersome.
It requires a
larger seaport operation and has limited use in strong
curren!s. if tne di\er must fight to maintain position,
hold a camera. and describe a defect.
Refer to
Cnap!er 4 for a discussion of various types of video
equipment

47

,CHAPTER Vi
SCOUR INVESTIGATIONS.

banks of str&ms. Different materals scour ai cYer??t


rates. Loose granular soils are tapidly &c&c
seer
water action while cohesive or cemented so~is-are -xre
scour resistant. Ultimate scour in cohesive or cemented
soils. however, can be as deep, or deeper than scour ;n
sand bed streams. Scour will reach its maxmum se$n
in sand and grave/ bed materials in hours. cohes:.exc
materiils in days: glacial tills, sandstones and sMes ;I:
months; limestones in years and dense granites in
centuries.
Massive rock formations
wnh few
discontinuities can be highly resistant to scour and
erosion during the lifetime of a typical bndge

SECTION 1. BACKGROUND
The most common cause of bridge failures stems from
Roods. and scouring of bottom material around bridge
foix!a!cns
IS the most common cause of damage to
bridges during flocds. During the Spring floods of 1987.
I 7 bridges in New York and New England were damaged
In i 385. 73 bridges were
or destroyed by scour.
destroyed by flocds in Pennsylvania. Virginia, and West
Virgina. A I 973 study for the FHWA of 383 bridge failures
caused by catastrophtc floods showed that 25 Percent
involved pier damage and 72 percent invdved abutment
damage A second, more extensive. study made In 1978
tnd,ca!ed locai scour at bridge piers to be a problem
problems.
a3cR eoual to abc;?ment scour

Inspectors need to carefully study site-specific information


in evaluating scour potential at bridges.
62.2

5~cge scour evaii;a!rons should be conducted for each


zje l:- cetarmne whether rt is scour critical. A scour
cr.xa bncge is one w$h abutment or pier foundations
,n?ch are :a!& as unstable due to (1) observed scour
a: :he brdge sfie or (21 a scour potentral as determrned
km a scoiir evaluation study.

bri~2

SECTICN 2.
62. l

Total S,cour

Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of :?ree


components: aggradation and degradation. contraction
scour and local scour. These components are descrxx!
in detail below. *
Aaaradation 3nd Dearadation.
These are long !ern
streambed er.ation
changes due to natural or Iran
induced causes within the reach of the jver on which !?e
brdge is located. Aggradation involves the deposition of
mar--al eroded from other sections of a stream v+heras
degradation invdves the lowering or scouring of the xd
of a stream.

aASlC COt$XPTS
AND
DEFlNlTlONS OF SCOUR

General

Scour .s :+e result of the erosive action of running water,


ex~~ai.~g. and carrying away material from the bed and

Long term bed elevation changes may be the na?ura


trend of the stream or may be the result of some
modification to stream or watershed conditions. The
streambed may be aggrading, degrading or not changing
(i.e.. in equilibrium) ,in the bridge crossing reach The
state of change of the streambed, i.e.. aggradation.
degradation, or equilibrium, is consdered in terms of iOn2

Ti-xs rnapter !s based primarily on FHWA Technical


Advsoq. Scour at Bridae$ and publication RD7,8-162.
Countermeakures
for Hydraulic Problems at Bridges.
?onionsof these pubiications are reproduced
here with
I
Xe or no change.
49

general scour is called contrac:ion sCobr 7-e dxc:ease


in flow area or channel width may be natil~ity xc2mng
or may be Caused by the bridge. General scour can also
be caused by short term (daily, weekly, yearty or
seasonal) changes in the downstream water surface
ekvation that controls the backwater and hence the
velocity through the bridge opening. Because thts scour
is reversible, it is induded in general scour rather than in
long term scour. If the bridge is located on or dose to a
bend, the comxntratior\ of the flow on the outer pan of
the channei can erode the bed.

:erm trercs. as opposed :o :he cutting at-d filling of the


bed of the stream that might occur during a runoff event
(general scour).
A stream may cut and fill during a runoff
event as well as have a long term trend of an increase or
decrease in bed devation.
Factors that affect long term bed elevation changes
indude: dams and reservoirs (upstream or downstream
of the bridge), changes in watershed
land use
(urbanization. deforestation, etc.), channefization, cutoffs
of meander bends (natural or man-made), changes in the
downstream base level (contrd) of the bridge reach.
gravel mining from the stream&d, diversion of water into
or out of the stream, natural lowering c4 the total system,
movement of a bend, bridge location in reference to
stream platform and stream movement in relation to the
crossing.
General Scour and Contraction Scour. This type of scour
involves the removal of material from the bed and banks
across all or most of the width of a channel. General
scour can result from a contraction of the flow, a change
in downstream control of the water surface elevation, of
the lOCation of the bridge in relation to a bend. In each
case. the scour is caused by increased velocities and
The most
resulting increased bed shear stresses.
common form of general scour at a bridge is caused by
the approach embankments to the bridge encroaching
onto the floodplain or into the main channel with resulting
contractlon of the flow. This type of general scour is
commonly known as contraction scour (Fig. 6-l).

I Figure 62 Contraction scour.


General scour can be cydic. During a runoff event. the
bed scours with the rise in stage (increasing discharge)
and fills on the falling stage (deposition).
Figure Ql

General scour from a contraction occurs when the flow


area d a stream is decreased from the normal either by
a natural constrfctiin orby a bridge. With the decrease
In flow area there is an increase in average vdocity and
bed shear stress. Hence, there is an increase in stream

General scour.

General scour at a bridge can be caused by a decrease


in flow area or an increase in velocity. This form of

50

pwer

3 Ye :Y:3Scn

and more bed material IS


:r.rzlign ?he contracted
reach than is
i:ans;?cced
into the reach. The increase in ttinSfXXt of
!xd -.a:erdl lowers the bed eWation.
As the bed
eeiat,-r:
s :swered. the flow area increases and the
~docq
arC sheaf stress decrease until equilibrium
beween the bed marerial that is transported into the
reach IS equal to that which IS transported out of the
fa;?C?.

to a minor ;;art of ;he tic: of 3 z-.ar.,r+ -- 5 =:,occursaround peers. abutments. Stuf arc a~=-. -+-:s
and is mused by the accderatlor, of :?e 43.~ a~ :-e
development
of vortex systems inCtic=
c! r-2
obstructions to the flow (Fig. 63).

transwrec!

The basic mechanism causing local scour at a oIsr or


abutment is the formation of vortices at their 3asz 7%
formation of these vonices resufts from the piiecg of tiater
on the upstream face and the subsequent acc&eraitor sf
the flow around the nose c4 the pier or embankment
The
action of the vortex removes bed ,rrMeMls from the base
region If the transport rate of sediment away horn tr,e
local region is greater than the transport rate 1nr3 the
region, a scour hde develops. As the depth of scour s
increased, the strength of the vortex or vortices IS
reduced; the tmnspon mate is reduced and an eou~libr~;n
is reestabished and scouring ceases.

The conrziction of Row at ?he bridge Can be caused by


a decrease in flow area of the stream channel by the
abutments projecting into the channd, or the piers taking
up a large portion of the flow area (Fig. 82). Also, the
contraction can be caus.& by the apprwches to the
brdge Wting off the overland flow that normally goes
ac:oss the 4c&plain during high flow. This latter case
causes clear-aster scour at the bridge Section because
the overland Row norrr@lly does not transport any bed
matenat sediments. This clear water picks up additional
sediment from the bed when it returns to the bridge
crossing. In addition. if it returns to the stream channel
at an abutment, n increases the local scour there. A
guise bank at that abutment decreases the risk from
scour to that abutment from this returning over-bank flow
Also. relief brtdges in the approaches: by decreasing the
amount of flow returning to the natural channel. decrease
!?e scour probiem at the bridge cross section.
Cther factors that can cause scour are: (1) a natural
stream cons:nc:ron:
(2) long approaches over the
flocddain to the bridge: (3) ice formation or jams: (4)
berms formed along the banks by sediment deposits: (5).
isiand or bdr formations upstream or downstream of the
trld~e opening
(6) debris: and (7) the growth of
;ege:ation In the chantW or floodplain.

Figure 93

Local scour.

With a pier, in addition to the vortex around the &se


which is called the horseshoe vonex. there is a vertic~i
vortex downstream of the pier, which is tailed !ne ..a-~
vortex. (Fig. 6-4).

Ge?eral sc,?tir of the bridge owning may be concentrated


in one area !f the bridge is located on or dose to a bend
:he scour Ail! be concentrated on the outer part of the
rn a::. there may be deposition on the inner
bed.
POCiOC
zf :CS bend. further concentrating the flow. which
increases !he sc: ;t at the outer part cd the bend. Also
at bends the tha~.eg (the part of the stream where the
flow or ~velccity is largest) wiii shift toward the center of
the stream as the flow increases. This can increase scour
and the non- uniform. distributii
of tnq scour in the
I _
bridge opening.

Both vonices
remove. material around the ;;isr
Immediately downstream of a long pier, hov&er. :r%
is often deposition of material (Fig. 6-5).
There
are two conditions of local scour: clear-water scour
. 1~,.l-.i
and livebed s&r:- b&%&r
scour occurs when there
is no movement of the bed r&ate&i of the s:?am
upstream of the crossing, but the accderation of the tf~~
and vortices created by the piers or abutments causes :V

Local Scour This type of scour invdves removal of


materal from the channel bed or banks and is restricted
51

length of the Pier: (4) depth of fiow (,j! keicc,:,

;f ::e

approach flow: (6) size of the bed material. (7) anS;e of


attack of the approach flow to the pier or abutmen: ;,zr
shape of the pier or abutment;

(10) ice

formation

(9) bed configl;ra:,on

or jams. and (1 1) debris.

The width of a pier has a direct effect on the decth of


scour. For example, an increase in pier width causes

an increase in scour depth.

Withan increase in the projected length of an abutment


into the flow there is an increase in scour There IS.
however, a limit on the increase in scour depth with an
increase in length. This limit is reached when the ratio
of the projected iength into the stream to the depth of
the approaching flow is 25.

Figure 6-4 Schematic representation


cylindrical pier.

Pier length has no appreciable effect on scour depth as


long as the pier is lined up with the fiow. If the pier IS
at an angle to the Row, however, the length has a very
large effect. At the same angle of attack, doubling the
length of the pier increases scour depth 33 percent.
Flow depth has a direct effect on scour depth. An
increase in flow depth can increase scour depth by a
factor of 2 or larger for piers. With abutments the
increase is from 1.1 to 2.15 depending on the shape of
the abutment.

of scour at a

Velocity of the approach flow increases


The greater the velocity the deeper the
There is also a high probability that the
i.e., whetiler the flow is tranquil or rapid
supercritical). will affect ttie scour depth.

Figure 65

Scour hole and downstream


of material shown in dry.

scour death.
scour depth.
state of flow,
(subcritical or

deposition

material at their base to move. Live-bed scour occurs


*hen the bed material upstream of the crossing is also

moving.

local scour are: (1) width of the pier:


length of the abutment into the flow; (3)

Factors affecting

(2) project&

. figure
52

6-6 Debris increasing

width of pier.

tee -aterlar h :he sand sze ,<,.


range has
no effect o r scour deo!h
Larger size bed material if
fi wiil oe mob& by the approaching
flow or by the
vonices ard turbulence
created by !he pter or
abutmen?. WI; not affect the ultimate or maximum scour
bu! onlj ihe :lme it takes to reach it. Very iarge
panicles in tne bed material. cobbles or boulders. may
armor piate !he scour hole
The size of the bed
ma!enal aiso determines whether the scour at a pier
or abutmen: is clear-water or live-bed scour.

Tie

j,zs

;i

:-5

Fi.he bed material (sits and ciays) will have scour


desms as deep or deeper than sand bed streams This
IStrue even if bonded together by cohesion The effect
0 cohesion is to determine the time rt takes to reach
the maximum scour
With sand bed material. the
maximum depth of scour IS measured in hours With
cohesive bed material. it may take days, months. or
ever: years to reach the maximum scour depth
Angle of attack of the flow to the abutment or pier has
a large effect on local scour as was pointed out In the
dscusston of the effect of pier length above.
Wl!h
abi;:ments.
the depth of scour is reduced
for
embankments angled downstream and is increased if
the embankments are angled upstream. The maximum
depth of scour at an embankment inclined 45 degrees
downstream is reduced by 20 percent, whereas the
scour at an embankment inclined 45
upstream is increased about 10 percent.
Ges'?eS

end of prers rmuces :ne strengty oi :-e .*.a.+ , :y 525


A square-nose pier WIII have Y&!-L
jcc,- csc:-s
about 20 percent greater than a sharz-.ncse c a* a-c . :
percent greater
than a Cyilndrlcai or o,-C.*>se
c aAbutments with vemcal walls on the ~;*?a- s :a 3-2
upstream side will have scour depths abol;t :c~o,e :-x
of sp~li slope abutments.
Bed configuration affects the magnitlico of ;ocal scoir
In streams wtth sand bed material the shaoe of :re
bed (bed configuratron) may be rooies dues
oNaTe
bed and antidunes. The bed configuratton ~cebehcs cp
the size distribution of the sand oed matera!
7%
conditions, and fluid viscosity The bed co?! ;,:a: cr
may change from dunes to plane bed or a%:;-es
during an increase in flow. It may change bacK )ri:f: a
decrease in flow. The bed configurarioh
-a? also
change with a change in water temperature cr 2:ar;e
T7.e .z;e,j
In concentration
of silts and clays
configuration and any change in bed configs:a::on ,w~,l
affect flow velocity, sediment transport and scour
Ice and debris, by increasing the wdth of piers
changing the shape of peers and abutmerts
incieas8rg
the projected length of an abutment or causing the flow
to plunge downward against the bed can Increase oath
local and contraction
scour. The mar;?!tuce of !ne
increase is still largely undetermined
but can be as
much as IO or 20 feet (Fig. 6-6).
. In addition to the types of scour mentioned above,
lateral movenient or shifting of the stream may a&c
erode the approach roadway to the bridge or change
the total scour by changing the angle of the flow in the
waterway at the bridge crossing (Fig. 6-7). Factors !hat
affect lateral movement and the stability of a brioge are
the geomorphoiogy
of the stream, location of !he
crossing on the stream. flood characteristics. and the
characteristics of the bed and bank materials

SECTION 3. EVALUATlrjG THE VULNERABILIN


OF EXISTING @RIDGES ~0 scouR

Figure

57

Lateral scour.

The pier
scour
reduces
reduces

or abutment shape has a significant effect on


With a pier, streamlining the upstream nose
the strength of the horseshoe vortex which
scour depth.
Streamlining the downstream

63.1

General

Bridges over streams subject to scour should be


evaluated to determine their vulnerability to floods and
Th,s
to determine whether they are scour Crlfcal
assessment or evaluatCon should be conducted bf 3

a. Bridges currently exoerlenclng scoLr 3;


that have a history of scour proolems

interdsc.sc,nary team of orofessionai engineers who


can make :he necessary engineering judgments
to
decide:
making

bridge

past floods as identif;ec !rDm


records and exoerlence
inspection records. souro~ngs

maintenance

bridge
etc.

priorities for
evaluations

the scope of the scour evaluations to


be performed in the office and in the
field;

whether or not a bridge is vulnerable to

SCOW

1. piers and abutments

which alternattie scour countermeasures

2. superstructures with simple spans or


non-redundant support systems that

b. Bridges over streams with ercdible beds


or design features that make
vulnerabie to scour including

scour damage: i.e., whether the bridge


is a scour critical bridge;

may

sepve to make

vulnerable

a bridge

or invulnerable;

which countermeasure
is most suitable
and cost-effective for a given bridge;

priorities
for
countermeasures;

monitoring

installing

and

and inspection
for scour critical bridges.

the scour

evaluation

spread
footings
foundations;

less

or

them

designed
shoR

with
pile

render them vulnerable to collapse II-I


the event of foundation movement.

and

scour

schedules

The factors to be considered in a scour evaluation


require.a broader scope of study and effort than those
consdered in a bridge inspection. Whereas the major
purpose of the bridge inspection is to identify changed
conditions which may reflect an existing or potential

problem.

during

3. bridges with inadequate waterway


openings
or with designs that
collect ice and debris.
Particular
attention
should
be given to
structures where there are no relief
or
embankments
for
bridges
overtopping,
and where all water
must pass through or over the
structure.
c. Bridges on aggressive streams
waterways including those with,

is an engineering

and

assessment of what might possibly happen in the future


and what steps can be taken now to eliminate or
minimize future damage.

1. active degradation or aggradation


the streambed;
2. significant
lateral movement
erosion of stream banks;

69.2

3.

The Evaluation

Process

Compile a list of those bridges with actual


or potential
problems
with
scour.
Structures that are candidates for this

categov

in the

5. histories of having been damaged


during past floods.

scour:

STEP 1:

or

steep slopes or high velocities;

4. gravel or mining operations


vicinity of the bridge; and

The following approach is recommended


regarding
tne development
and implementation
of a program
to assess the vulnerability
of existing bridges to

of

d. Bridges located on stream reaches


with adverse
flow characteristics
including:

include:

54

ZTZSSipgS near stream confluences,


escec:ally
bridge
crossngs
of
tributary
near
their
streams
cz:f!uer;ce
with iarger streams:

2 crossings
on sharp
stream and
3

ccations

bends

evaluations.
established
following:

a.

in a

on alluvial fans.

P: or::.ze?he list compiled in Step 1, using


the following factors as a guide:

The ultimate
program are:

classification
of the
k The functional
h,gkway
on which the bridge
is
located. and the effect of a bridge
collapse on the safety of the travelling
public and on the operation
of the
c.erall transponation
system for the
area or region

;nstallation

P_ _I-:e9eas;;res.

of

scour

SECTION

:: = Z?S for inspecting


scour critical
zrdges during and after flood events
and for blocking traffic if necessary
;intil scour
countermeasures
are
ins?alled.

6-4.1

scour

evaluation

to review all bridges over scourable


streams in theNational Bridge lnventoq:

to determine those foundations


NW?
arestablefor estimated scour condrt!ons
and those which are not;

to provide for frequent lnsoectlons of


scour critical bridges during and a!!e!
Hood events until adequate
scl;:
countermeasures
are instailed

to install scour countermeasures


timely manner

4.

SCOUR

in a

INSPECTIONS

General

- to accurately record
condition

55

of this

There are two main objectives to be acc2m;);;shed


in inspecting bridges for scour:

A4er completing the scour evaluations for


the iist of bridges compiled in Step 1, the
:e,ma:nlng waterway bridges included in
the brdge inventory should be evaluated.
in order to provide a logical sequence for
accompilshing the remaining bridge scour

I.

objectives

;cr bridges identified as scour critical.


IStep 3). de!ermine a plan of action for
,monitoring
and correcting
the scour
;r:::;r?
including,
a T-s{

Bridges.
based
On. the fc;nC!iOral
classification of the highway on wn~cn
the bridge is located, Wh hlgr,es:
priorities assigned to anerial hlgh-aays
and lOWeSt priornies to local roads and
streets.

b. Bridges that serve as vital links n :ne


transportatron networkand whcsefalige
could adversely affect area or :eg!3nal
traffic operations.

(,

a The potential for bridge collapse or for


damage to the bridge in the event of
a major flood.

Conduc! field and office scour evaluations


of the bridges on the prioritized
list
deveioped
in Step
2. using
an
l~!erd:scI$inary
team
of structural,
b,,rauiic. a,nd seotechnical
engineers.

another bridge :!s: SroLic ce


glvlng pnonty stat;s to :r;e

the oresent
of the bridge and the stream

to identify conditions

that are indicat:;,e


with scour and
stream stability for further review a-d
evaluation by othek

of potent%1 problems

tnese objectives
the
in oroer :o accornplsh
inspector needs to recognize and understand
the
interrelationship
between the bridge, the stream. and
the flooc!piain.
Typically, a bridge spans the main
chanhel of a stream and perhaps a ponron of the
floodp!aln
The roadway approaches
to the bridge
&en
are constructed
on embankments
which
obstruc! flows on the floodplaln.
This over-bank or
fioodslaln flow must, :herefore, return to the stream
at the bridge or overtop the approach
roadways.
Where over-bank flow is forced to return to the main
channel at the bridge, zones of turbulence
are
es:ablished and scour is likely to occur at the bridge
abutments.
Further, piers and abutments
may
present obstacles to flood flows in the main channel,
creating conditions for local scour because of the
turbulence
around the foundations.
After flowing
through the bridge. the floodwaters will expand back
to the floodplain,
creating
additional
zones of
turbulence and scour.
The following
sections present guidance
for the
bridge
inspectors
use
in developing
an
understandlng
of the overall flood flow patterns at
each bridge inspected;
and in rating the present
condition of the bridge and the potential for damage
from scour.
When an actual or potential scour
problem is identified
by a bridge inspector,
the
bridge
should be funher
evaluated
by an
inierdisciplinary
team using the approach discussed
aaoie.

6-4.2

Office

Review

It is desirable to make an office review of bridge


pians and previous
inspection
reports
prior to
making the mdge inspection.
information
obtained
from the office review provides a better basis for
inspec?ing the bridge and the stream.
items for
ccnsideration
in the office review include:
.

Has an engineering
study been made?
scour critical?

6-4.3

What do compar;sons
of streamoeo
cross-sections iaken during successive
inspections
reveal
about
the
streambed?
is it stable? Degrading?
Aggrading?
Moving laterally7
Are
there scour holes around piers arid
abutments?

What equipment
is needed to obtain
streambed cross-sections (Rods, poles.
sounding lines, depth sounders. etc )3

Are
there
sketches
and
aerial
photographs
to indicate the plan form
location of the stream and whether the
main channel is changing dir.ection at
the bridge?

What type of bridge foundation


was
constructed
(Spread footings. piles.
drilled
shafts,
etc.)?
Do
the
foundations appear to be vulnerable to
scour?

Do special conditions exist requiring


particular methods and equipment for
underwater inspections (Divers. boats.
electronic gear for measuring stream
bottom and infilling, etc.)

Are there special items that should be


inspected?
Examples might include
damaged riprap, stream channel at
adverse angle of flow, and problems
with debris.

Field inspection

During the bridge inspection, the condition of the


bridge waterway
opening,
substructure.
channel
protection,
and scour countermeasures
should be
evaluated along with the condition
of the stream.
The inspector must observe and record conditions
at the bridge,
upstream
of the bridge,
and
downstream
of the bridge.
.

scour evaluation
If so, is the bridge

- I if the bridge is scour critical. has a


plan
of action
been
made
for
monitoring
the bridge and installing
scour countermeasures?
56

Upstream

Conditions

Upstream

conditions

to be observed

include:

a.

Banks

1. Stable

2. Unstable

b.

Natural vegetation, trees,


ban& staMization measures
sucly as riprap, paving,
,gabions,
channel
stabilization measures such
as dikes and groins.
Bank
sloughing,
undermining, evidence of
lateral movement, damage
to stream
stabilfzation
installations, etc.

3. Aggrading or degrading streambed; and


4. Evidence of movement of channel with
respect to bridge (make sketches, take
pictures).
Floodplain

of

significant

flow

on

Conditions

at bm

Extent

of debris

in upstream

Substructurg
of movement

of piers and

rotational movement
plumb line).

(check

with

settlement
(check
lines
of
substructure
and superstructure,
bridge rail, etc. for discontinuities;
check for structural cracking or
spalling).

check bridge seats and bearings for


excessive movement.

2. damage
to, scour countermeasures
protecting
the foundations
(riprap,
guidebanks (spur dikes), sheet piling,
sills, etc.):

2. Floodplain flow patterns


(Does flow
overtop road and/or return to main
channel?);

3. changes in streambed
foundations (undermining
exposure of piles); and

3. Existence and adequacy of waterway


opening of relief bridges (If relief bridges
are obstructed,
they will affect flow
paftems at the main channel bridge):

elevation at
of footings.

4. changes in streambed cross section at


bridge including location and depth of
scour holes.

4. Extent of fioodplain development and


any obstruction to flows approaching
the bridge and its approaches: and

In order to note the conditions of the foundations, the


inspector should take cross sections of the stream,
noting location and condition of stream banks. Careful
measurements should be made of scour holes at piers
and abutments including probing soft material in scour
holes to determine the location of firm bottom.

5.. Evidence of overtopping approach roads


(debris, erosion of embankment slopes,
damage to riprap or pavement, etc).
57

Other Feature8
Existence of upstream
tributaries, bridges dams, or other features,
that may affect flow COnditiOns
at bridge.

1. evidence
abutment;

2. Existence of islands, bars, debris, cattle


guards, fences that may affect flow;

floodplain;

8.

a.

Main Channel
__I ,,-. ;:

1. Evidence

Debriq
channel.

The following items should be considered in inspecting


the present condition of bridge foundations
and
adjacent conditions.

1. Clear and open with good approach


flow conditions,
or meandering
or
braided with main channel at an angle
to the orientation of the bridge;

C.

d.

b.

Suoerstructure

approach roads regularly overtopped7


If
Waterway opening i9 inadequate, does this
augment the scour potential at bridge
foundations?.

of- overtopping
by
Evidence
floodwaters
(Is
superstructure
a?chored to substructure to prevent
displacement durjng,f!oods?);
Obstruction
to flood flows
collect debris or present
surface to the flow?); and

(Does it
a large

Channel
Protection
Counrermeasures

and

Conditiorq

Downstream

conditions

a.

Design (ts superstructure vulnerable to


coilapse in the event of foundation
movement as are simple spans and
non-redundant
designs
for load
transfer?).
c.

mwnstream

b.

2. Guidebanks
(spur
dikes).
(Are
guidebanks in place? Have they been
damaged by scour and erosion?); and
3.. Stream and Streambed (Is main current
striking the piers and abutments at an
angle; is there evidence of scour and
erosion of streambed
and, banks,
especially
adjacent
to piers and
abutments?
Has stream cross section
chang& since last measurement?
If
so, in what wafl).
d.

Natural vegetation, trees, bank


stabilization measures such as
riprap, paving, gabions, channel
stabilization measures such as
dikes and groins.

2. Unstable

I. Riprap (Is riprap adequately toed-in or


is it being undermined
and washed
away? Is riprap pier protection intact,
or has riprap been removed and
replaced by bed load material? Can
displaced riprap be s&n in streambed
below bridge?);

include:

Banks
1. Stab4e

Scour

to be obser&

Bank sloughing, undermining,


evidemeof lateral mwement,
damage
to. stream
stabilization installations, etc.

Main Channej
1. Clear and
coixfitians
with bends,
and fences

open with good getaway


or meandering or braided
islands, bars. cattle guards,
that retard and obstruct flow.

2. Aggrading

or degrading

streambed.

3. Evidence of downstream movement of


channel with respect to the bridge (make
sketches and take pictures.)
c

Fiooddain
1. Clear and open so that contracted flow
at bridge will return smoothly
to
floodpiain, or restricted and Mocked by
dikes, developments, trees, debris, or
other obstructions;

Watelwav Area
Does waterway area.
appear small in relation to stream and its
floodplain?
Is there evidence of scour
across a large portion of the streambed at
the bridge? Do bars, islands, vegetation.
and debris constrict flow and concentrate
it in. one section of the bridge or causeit to
Do the
attack piers and abutments?
superstructure,
piers, abutments, fences,
etc. collect debris and constrict flow? Are

2. Evidence of scour and erosion dueto


downstream turbulence. .
d

58

gther Feature
Downstream dams or
confluences with larger stream which may

cause variable tailwater depths. (This may


create conditions for high veMty flow
through bridge)

is SUsPended in the water. a sendingirececving device.


and a recording chart whit! displays the depth on
paper (Fig. 6-9). High frequency sound waves

Perhaps the single most Important aspect of inspecting


the bridge for actual of potential damage from scour is
the taking and plotting of measurements of stream
bottom elevations in relation to the bridge foundations.

SECTION 5. SOUNDINGS
65.1

Equipment

The most common equipment used to make soundings


are black and white recording type chart fathometers
(depth sounders), sounding poles, and lead lines. In
small, slow moving streams lead lines can be used to
take soundings from the bridge deck, but generally,
soundings are taken from a boat to permit making
measurements
under the bridge and at distances
upstream and downstream of the bridge. In addiIion,
soundings are difficult to take in fast moving streams
with lines and poles, and may not reflect bottom
conditions if not taken at very close intervals.

Figure b9

Fathometer
transducer

in a small boat. Note


mounted on gunnel.

3. B!ack a.?d White Fathometer.


A black and white
recording fathometer is the most efficient way of
recording depths (Fig. 6-8). The units are compact
and easy to use. They consist of a transducer, which

Figure &8

Fathometer

(Depth sounder).

Figure 610

Typical fathometer

record.

generally in the range of 200 kHt, emitted from the


transducer travel throughthe water until they strike
the channel bottom and are reflected back tO the
transducer.
The fathometer
measures
the time it
takes the sound waves to return to-the transducer
and converts that time to depths of Mter which are
displayed on a graphic recorder in the form of a
continuous plot of the channel bottom (Fig. 6-10).
Most fathometers are readily portable, weighing 5 to
10 pounds including the transducer
and hardware.
They will operate from a boats battery, lantern
batteries, or a self-contained battery pack. They can
be used in large boats, or are easily attached and
detached from small boats.
Most devices have
controls to mark the paper so depths at particular
locations can be designated.
When using one of these devices it is common
practice to verify its operation with a lead line or by
suspending
a calibration
target
beneath
the
transducer prior to sounding the entire bridge.
Although the best time
scour is during a flood,
of the danger involved.
after a flood is also very
can make this difficult.

Figure

6-l 1 Color fathometer.

One of the drawbacks of the color fathometer is that


hard copy
cannot be obtained.
The data can,
however, be stored on video tape and, some models
have direct connections for this purpose.

to obtain the true depth of


this is rarely done because
Data obtained immediately
helpful. Logistics, however,

64.2

The fathometer
provides a profile of the channel
bottom.
It also gives a good indication of scour
activity at piers and abutments.
While it does not
indicate the nature of sub-bottom
material it is
helpful in the interpretation
of data from devices
which do provide sub-bottom
data..

Data Presentation

A common way of performing


and presenting
soundings is in a grid format (Fig. 6-12). Soundings
are taken on lines parallel to the faces of then bridge
and along both sides of the biridge piers. This pattern

Sy using transducers
with different beam angles,
either a small or large area can be monitored at one
time. These units also can locate large submerged
objects, such as barges and trees, which could
influence scour.
b. Color Fathometer.
Color fathometers
are also
available which provide a good representation
of the
channel bottom, and some penetration
into the
substrata (Fig. 6-?l). Materials of diffgrent
densities are displayed as different corers. Studies
by the U.S. Geological
Survey and the Federal
Highway Administration
show that in some soils a
color fathometer candetect
infilling of scour holes,
data impossible
to get with a black and white
fathometer.

Figure 612
60

Sounding

plan showing typical grid.

on the channel upstream a&i


of the bridge, and around each pier. It
provides enough information to plot spot elevations
and contours of the channel bottom at each pier.
Soundings should be taken continuously along these

must be carefully interpreted.


Stepped footings
which extend from the face of the snaft. or jecris
piled against the pier, may suggest that :he channel
bottom is much higher than it really is.

will provide information

downstream

lines.

,.

The soundings can also be presented as char;nel


bottom profiles with the foundation plotted on them
(Fig. 6-13). These provide graphic evidence for

To take soundings on the lines transverse to the


channei, a target system should be established on
shore and used to align the boat. With two targets on
the same shore, the boatman can position the boat so
that the targets are in line. This is usually easier than
trying to stay in position between targets on opposite
banks. If key bridge dimensions are determined before
the soundings are begun, transverse reference with the
bridge can be maintained by siting on floorbeams and
truss panel points.

reports.

SECTION

bb. 1 Visurl
During an underwater
inspection, the diver should
note bottom conditions
adjacent to submerged
foundation elements.
Local scour can generally be
identified by the presence of scour holes near the
upstream end of the unit and a build-up of soil at the
downstream end. He should also note the presence
of debris which can cause local scour.

A much more precise method of locating the soundings


is by use of a transit reading stadia or an electronic
distance
measuring
(EDM) device each time a
This method is, however,
sounding is to be made.
significantly more costly, and the precision obtained is
generally not warranted for this type of work.

The diver should note the type of bottom material


and the presence, location, and size of riprap. The
height of the exposed footing and any undermining
should also be reported. If piles under a footing are
exposed; Ahey should be examined.

In making soundings around the piers, the ends of the


piers and the floorbeams above are used as reference
points. When working close to the piers, the soundings

64.2
rConslruction

6. DIVER INSPECTION

Join?

Tools

The diver may be able to determine if riprap has


been covered over by bottom material by probing
1.he bottom with a steel rod, such as a piece of
reinforcing steel.
The presence of buried riprap and subsoil conditions
can be checked by removing overlying soil. This
may most easily be done with an airlift, a steel or
plastic,pipe,
usually 3 to 8 inches in diameter, with
a !-inch air hose cbnnected near the bottom of the
pipe.
Compressed
air introduced
into the pipe
reduces the density of water as, the air expands. The
rising air and water creates .suction at the bottom of
the pipe which removes the soil; Thee:pense
of the
equipment and manpower required may, however,
make it impractical for most situations.

Figure 613 Profile showing channel bottom relative to


the foundation.
61

SECTIOPJ 7. GEOPHYSlCAL

The color fathometer


has been described above.
Soil borings, gfOund penetrating
radar, and tuned
transducer are described below. A matrix comparing
the geophysical equipment and the black and white
fathometer is shown in Figure 6- 17.

INSPECTION

Scour is most prevalent during a flood, which is the


time when monitoring is most. difficult.
Obtaining
scour measurements
from the .bridge or by boat
during peak flood flows is not recommended
because of the hazardous conditions, complex flow
patterns, presence of drift and debris, and problems
getting personnel to the bridge site.

67.1

Borings

Soil borings can help identify the effects of long-term


scour, the extent of aggradation, degradation, stress
shifting, and contraction scour. Borings also provide
samples which may be tested,
Borings can be
obtained from a barge or, in some cases, the bridge
deck.

After a flood, the stream velocity decreases resulting


in the sediment being redeposited in the scour hole.
The redisposition
is also referred to as infilling.
Since infill material often has a different density than
the adjacent unscoured channel bottom material, the
true ex:snt of scour can be measured by determining
the interface where the density change occurs.
Methods for determining
this include soil borings
with standard testing, cone penetrometerexploration,
and geophysical techniques.
While soil borings can
be accurate they are expensive, time consuming and
do not provide a continuous profile. Less expensive
geophysical methods are available, however, which
,will provide continuous subsurface profiles.

6-7.2

Ground

Penetrating

Radar

Ground penetrating
radar (GPR) can be used to
obtain high resolution,
continuous,
subsurface
profiles on land or in relatively shallow water (less
than 25 feet). This device transmits short, 80 to 1000
MHz, electromagnetic
pulses into thesubsufiace
and
measures the two way travel time for the signal to
return to the receiver.
When the electromagnetic
energy reaches an interface between two materials
with differing physical properties. a portion of the
energy is reflected back to the surface, while some
of it is attenuated and a portion is transmitted to
deeper layers.
The penetration
depth of GPR is
dependent
upon the electrical properties of the
material through which the signal is transmitted and
the frequency of the signal transmitted.

Three geophysical
tools which can be used to
measure scour after infilling occurs are: ground
penetrating radar; tuned transducer or low frequency
sonar: and color fathometer.
Each of these methods
has advantages and limitations.

Highly conductive (low resistivity) materials such as


day materials severely attenuate
radar signals,
Similarly, sediments saturated with or overlain by salt
water will yield poor radar results. Fresh water also
, attenuates the radar signal and limits the use of radar
to sites with less than 25 feet of water. The lower
frequency
signals yield better penetration
but
reducecfresolution,whereashigherfrequencysignals
yield higher resolution and less penetration.
Ground
penetrating
radar
systems
which
include
a
transmitter, receiver, high density tape recorder and
player for storage of records. and antenr,; cost
between $50,000 and S60,oOO (Fig. 6-14).
Figure

6-14

Ground

penetrating

radar equipment.

Figure 6-15 shows a cross section generated by a


. ground penetrating radar signal upstream of a bridge
62

I
ElOBItOYtAL

Figure 615

Typical ground
record.

penetrating

DISTANCI,

Tuned

IN lttt

(A,?BOXIMATX)

of sub-bottom material and when there is a change


in accoustical impedance between two layers. The
major difference
between this device and the
fathometer is frequency. the tuned .transducer uses
lower frequency,signals
(3.5-14 kHt) which yield
better penetration at the expense of resolution (Fig.
6-16). High frequency fathometers
(200 kHz) have
good resolution with little or no penetration.
In fine
grained materials up to 100 feet of penetration can

Transducer

The tuned transducer, or low frequency sonar, is a


seismic
system
which
operates
through
the
transmission and reception of acoustic waves. The
low frequency sonar system consists of a transmitter,
a transducer tewed alongside the boat, a receiver,
and a graphic recorder. The transmitter produces a
sound wave which is directed toward the channel
bottom by the transducer.
A port&: Jf the sound
wave will be reflected back to the transducer by the
channel bottom surface: and a portion of that signal
will penetrate into the sub-bottom material. Portions
of the signal will also be reflected by various layers

1 f

radar

pier.
A scour hole located
at the pier is
approximately
7 feet deeper than the river bottom
base level and 60 to 70 feet wide. Two different
infilled layers can be observed at this location. The
apparent thickness of the infiiled material at the
center of the hole is 3 feet to the first interface and
6 feet to the second interface. Thus, the total depth
of the scour hole, at least at one time, was about 16
feet, not 7 feet as soundings would have indicated.
6-7.3

Figure

6-16 Tuned transducer


receiver. .

transmitter

and

. 8
:
5:
.
.--.m

0
L

be
I

8011~011AL

Figure 617

Typical tuned transducer record

VC~TICAL

10

I@@
I
Dll?A.l(Ct.

I
18

ttlt

srraotartlow x8

,be obtained with a 3 to 7 kHz transducer, while in more


coarse material subsurface penetration may be limited to
a few feet. The tuned transducersystem costs between
S20,OOOand SO,OOO.
Figure
above shcws a cross section record provided
by a
kHz tuned transducer. Thai is the same lo&ion
as the GPR record in Figure 6-15. This record shcws 6
feet of infikd material. The two layers which could be
seen on the radar record are not evident on the tuned
transducer record.
s-17

14

Figure 6-16, fdlowing this page, summarizes the


ctwacteristics and capabilities d the types d scour
investigation equipmentdiscus&
in thii chapter.

64

METHOD:

COl.OR
F---JHO~EJtJ??
-.--_-..

FREOUENCY:

ZO-

TUNED

100 KHz

3.8 -

Mhlmum
ralr
depth 01 6 f-t.
WOIII pondrot*
goao+#l**y
wgankr
Yutllplo rdtootlonomay obyw.
dola.
Dow not protide o hard oopy fund
Llttlr pn&oUon
h cqahed
molutd.

Goodde(hltlal or l oulnmt/ulltu

APPROXlMAl?I
COST:

NOTE:

htmfocr
Accwat*
-mmmt
dapth.
Lwy to laprote.
4 hard copy ol doto
abtohad

ot wtu
h

MOO-UOOO
UUheo 0 amdl trmdlcr

(0 for

h 4anetr)
to Irmmtt
ht@
*eqmcy
aootk
pde*
and
radwe
*de
reflrtd
at
hlufoue
botwm
km
ff
obJwto
.I dfffuhg
oonuoUod
pcop-

f3RlDCE SCOUR
STUDIES:
ENVIRONMENT
8RlDCE SCOUR
STUDIES:
EXPECTED
RESULTS

00 --_

Ahnhchw

UMITATIONS:

ADVANTAGES:

I4 Ktlx

0 - M hot depmdhg
Q) Wqumoy
md ad-bottan
mot~rld.
wu*
pm4uollon
h Cow
gmh.Ll
mulrtal.

PENETRATION:
RESOLUTION:

GROUND
EilbLMJ!L

IEANSQucfB;

May penetrate
anducttw
motutdh
Vdllble
h~acy.
t&y be uud to d&w
w&-bottom
molwlda
and tiatlgophy.
Good h &cp
801~.
May hdkota
aam. ph&.d
popullw
ot wdhlmtr
(I* 4mdty.
pwdt)r
mah Jz.).

Uay pawbut
o~dllcttw
molrlda.
VorkAllo llqualnc~
Uoy br und ta dstie
sub-b&cm
matubla
and 8Cotlgraphy.
Good h &up watr.
A hwd copy of the data Ir obtohti

mm

s2o.wo - uo.ooo

opratw

Cmrllucu

May

dofhe

ahthg

PopOf

Figure 618

wlrn

(chd

0 butable

4 h&w

kequmcy

In 610.)

*hIdI
trollmlto
oowruc
pulw
md
mc&oe
UI. rellutd
e@td from
htutacu
bet*Imv
Q ohm
01 dlttulng
aoauatkd
prop&k
Coaotte
rwxsdhg@
of data-moy
bo
obtahd.

In >S foot

Aauato

wm

of rater.

cpuatw
rlth 0 vorlabk
hDq4oncy
(&out
4 hchr
h da.)
*hkh
trmmlta
acwwtk
puloa and
rcdvw
th. rdoctd
ek#ad fawn
htducoa
ootwm
la
-*k=Q
ol dlttatng
acoudk or ptoptilr.
Cggtt
mwdhgr
01 dolo may 09
trmubcr

In >5 hot of rotr.

hdr
meauuna3t.

-__I---

Matrix
Comparlng
Geophysical
Methods,
from
The
Use of Surface
Gaophplcol
Methods
in Studying
Rlvcrbed
Scour
at Three
Connecticut
River
Brldg,es
In Hartford.
Conneclicul.
Corin,S.H.
ond Hoeni,F.P..
U.S.
Ceologicol
Survey
In cooperotlon
with
the
Federal
Hlghwoy
Admlnlstratlon.
1988.

1.000

PENETRATING
Ylil

CHAPTER
REPAlR:OF

SECTION
7-1.1

UNDERWATER

MEMBERS

time may be requiredsince underwater


done on a smaller scale.

? - INTRODUCTION

construction

is

General

Maintenance
and repair of underwater
bridge
elements, like underwater inspection, has often been
neglected in the past. This, however, is changing as
the number
of underwater
inspections
being
conducted increases.
._

VII

SECTION 2. CONCRETE
7-2.1

- The second option is to use underwater


repair
methods which eliminate the need for -a cofferdam.
The disadvantages of this method are that the quality
of repairs isdifficuli to maintain, quality assurance
inspections must be conducted by a diver, and more

of DiWeaa

Prevention of deterioration and damage


more desirable than repair, dnd begins
and. cpnstruction
of the bridge.
construction inspection, in particular,
future maintenance costs.

Almost any repairs that can be accomplished above


water, can also be made below water, but the work
can be much more expensive and time consuming,
and require specialized equipment.
it is. therefore,
most important before performing repairs that one
fi.rst understand
the causes of the distress.. The
cause of the damage or deterioration may not always
be apparent,
and further investigation
may be
required to determine the cause.
Sometimes far
reaching studies of changes in channel configuration,
testing of samples or changes in the environment
may be necessary.

There are two options for performing repairs: in the


dry, or the wet. For the first option, a cofferdam can
be driven around the pier and dewatered, and the
-.., repair Sjork performed in fhedry. The advantagesof
this method are that conventional above-water repair
procedures can be used and construction inspection
is easier. The major disadvantage is the high cost of
building the cofferdam.

Prevention

is, of course,
during design
Conscientious
can minimize

C&&y control of materials used and careful attention


to construction procedures can help ensure long term
serviceability. Aggregates should be free of -chlorides
and reinforcing steel should have adequate cover.
Concrete with a low permeability, such as high strength
concrete,
is desirable,
but the mix must be
proportioned to reduce shrinkage cracking. Protective
coatings applied to piles can contrd permeability, but
the durabiiity of these coatings in some environments
is questionable.
s - kfany piobiems associated with concrete are caused
by corrosion of reinforcing steel. Using epoxy coated
reinforcing steel can alleviate this problem in many
situations. Special care should be taken when handling
the bars to prevent damage to the coating. Cut ends
and holidays should be touched-up.in
the field with
liquid epoxy.
Precast concrete piles can be damaged during
construction. Rough handling oroverdriving can result
in scars or cracks which allow water to penetrate.
67

Common

Minor deterioralian d concrete surfaces may not be


significant in it&, but it provide$ a pat9 for oxygen ad
moisture to reach the krtaMr of the member where more
serious deterioration can occur.

preparation

7-2.2

Repair of Cracks

The area should be cleaned of all marine

(2)

Loose and broken

(4)

growth.

concrete

should

removed to sound material.


Missing or reduced
reinforcing
should be restored.

The concrete

shouid

be restored

least the original contours.

be
steel

to at

Quick setting cement mortars have been used to repair


small areas. The material is mixed with fresh water and
is then carried by or conveyed to a diver who hand
packs the material in place. Epoxy mortar can also be
used to patch small voids. A typical mortar consists of
one part epoxy binder and one part silica sand The
mixture has the consistency of putty and can be placed
by gloved hands or trowels above or Wow water. One
consideration in using this mortar is its relatively short
pot life. No more should be mixed that can be
immediately used.

Cracks can be repaired with epoxy injections bath above

and below water. The area around and


should be rhoroughiy deaned.
A high
blaster is very effective for this deaning.
the crack should then be sealed with a
trowel-applied epoxy grout and injection

IS the type of surface

(1)

(3)

Cracks in concrete can indicate Severe damage has


occurred 01 may lead to severe detedoratti,
if rot
repaired. When water enters the cracks, spaiiing and
scaling damage can be acceierated.

to all these methods


required:

within the crack


pressure water
The outside d
handappiied or
ports pbced at

regular intervals in the epoxy along the crack. After the


epoxy seal is allowed to harden, epoxy is injected through
the ports working from one port to the next.

7-2.4

Repsir

of Irrge

Voids

For the repair of large void areas in concrete members,


the use of cement and epoxy grouts is generally #lot
economical.
Larger voids must be formed and the
member recast to the original cross section with
concrete piaced underwater
(Fig. 7-2).
Forming
methods indude conventional wood and sted forms.
steel sheeting, and a number of proprietary rigid and
flexible forming systems.

Figure

7-l

Injecting epoxy into a crack


UdgtPA@tW.

Generally, cracks ;p to l/4 inch are filled Mth epoxy


-+3n. For larger cracks, a fine aggregate is added to the

epoxy as a filler.
7-2.3

Repair 0; Small Voids


Figure 7-2

Voids caused by spalling, scaling or other distress


mechanisms can be repaired by several fIWhOdS.
68

Damaged concrete pile; ail


reinforcing steel exposed.
.

Several methods can be used to @ace concrete


underwater. The primary concern in placing Concrete
below water is to prevent washout of the cement. The

unhardened concrete should be kept Out of direct


contact with the water to the ,exIent possible, and
protected against fast flowing water. A number of
methods have been developed to accomplish this. Five
methods, tremie concr&e, preplaced aggregate, the
bottom opening bucket, pumped concrete, and bagged
concrete are described below.

b. Predated
Aaarwate.
The prep(aced aggregate
method consists of packing forms with coarse
aggregate and injecting the iement mortar or grout
into the mass. The aggregate is packed around tubes
through which mortar is injected. This method has
advantages underwater if @acement of concrete by
conventional
methods would result in segregation
because it allows the larger aggregate to be placed. by
hand if necessary, and permits pumping of the monar
to fill the voids.

a. Ttemie Concrete. In the tremie method, concrete is


delivered through a ve&.@ pipe, 6 or 8 inches in
diameter. A funnel shaped hopper is attached at the
top of the pipe through which the concrete is fed (Fig.
7-3). The concrete that is used in this method must
have a high slump so that it flows easily. The bottom

In order to achieve quality concrete. the aggregate


must be w#l graded, high quality and dean. The grout
must be fluid to ensure proper coverage and be able
to develop good strength.
The grout should be
pumped from the lowest point upwards using a smooth
and uninterrupted operation.

i
4/

of the tremie is maintained below the top surface of the


fresh concrete so that the concr$te,ex.iting the bottom
of the tremie forces the previously placed concrete
upward, displacing the water in the form. It is essential
that a sufficient head be maintainecj on the concrete in
the tremie to raise the surface of the fresh concrete.
As the level of the concrete rises, the tremie pipe is
moved upward, but always kept in the fresh concrete.
At the beginning of the pour, the end
plugged to prevent water from entering
placement is started. it must continue
form is filled. Even short delays can
in the pipe.

of the tremie is
the pipe. Once
until the entire
cause Mockage

---+

Figure 7-3 Placing concrete underwater


tremie.

wtih d

Figure 74

69

Drawing of i&tom

opening. bucket.
.

c. Bottom Ooenina Bucket. Special buckets (Fig. 74) covered at the top to protect the concrete are also
used to place concrete underwater.
The bucket is
lowered into place by crane and the bottom opened
to place the concrete. These b.uck,ets usually have
a skirt around the outside of the bucket that is
Lowered to protect the concrete during placement.

7-2.5

Jacketing

Piles

Deteriorated
concrete piles can be repaired by
encasing the pile in concrete; that is, by jacketing, In
this method, the pile is first cleaned of marine growth;
broken and loose concrete is removed; reinforcing steel
on the pile is cleaned to bright metal; additional steer
is added, tf necessary; and forms are installed.
Conventional wood and sted forms can be used; figld
plastic forms to match a variety of pile configurations
are available; and flexible fabric forms can be sewn to
fft most situations.

d. Pumoed Concrete.
Pumped concrete is widely
used in above water construction.
One of the
advantages
of using it below water is that the
placement work is less dependent on highly skilled
workers than other underwater placement methods.

For repair of minor defects, forms only slightly, larger


than the original pile can be used, and the small
defects filled with a thin cement or epoxy grout.

Concrete can be pumped through pipes or hoses.


Pipes are preferred since resistance to the concrete
is lower and they will not kink. Hoses are better
suited for operations where flexibility is required.
The pipelines should be of a material which does not
react With concrete. For this reason aluminum pipes
are generally not used.
Concrete pumped underwater
should start at the
bottom of a form and progress upwards.
The
concrete shoul,d not be allowed to free-fall through
the water.
e. Baaaed Concrete.
Concrete can also be placed
in jute or porous synthetic bags. Th& begs should
be small enough to be handled by a diver. They are
filled with dry cement and aggregate, and are placed
in contact with each other to allow bonding.
The
surrounding water starts the hydration process, and
the bags harden in place.
Another method is to fit nylon bags with injection
ports for mortar or grout. The bags can be sewn to
any size to fit cavities to be filled. The bags are
placed below water and the mortar is pumped into
them from the surface.
This method has an
advahtage over the hand placed small bags in that
the bags can be pumped to completely fill a void
under an existing structure.

Figure 7-S Open fabric form on a concrete pile.


SECnON
74.1

3. STEEL

Prevention

of Distress

The majority of structural steel used for bridge


substructures consists of H-piles and pipe piles with
concrete pile caps, or piles driven to suppon a pier.
In general, piles in seawater or brackish w%f have
higher ritteS of corrosion than thOS8 in fresh Water.
Polluted fresh water, however, can also cause severe
corrosion.
Three means of protecting
steel are
coatings, cathodic protection, and concrete jackets.

These bagged concrete methods czn-also be used


to construct a riprap blanket to prevent scour at
piers. Additionally,
both small, hand-placed
bags
and pumped, s8wn bags, can be placed or pumped
around the perimeter of a footing to act as a form for
a tremie concrete repair.
70

a. ih&SlS
Coatings Can Preve,nt s~~~~~;,(Corro~~~~~.~~~~~:~~,~~(~~~~~~,~
by the corrosion Process. The Impressed
by separating the steel from the m%ine environment.
&rent
bakes the structure cathodic and ejlminates
COrrOSiOn Of the steel. A d.c. power source, anodes,
Nbmerous coatings are available for Steel piling,
reference electrode and negative return clrcult from
incfuding paint, epoxy, bituminous
and, Coal-tar
the StrUCtUre
to the power supply are needed to
materials, and plastic shrinkiwraps.
,.
operate this system.
Surface preparation
for most types of coatings
consists of near white blast cleaning or pickling.
The advantages of the impressed current system are
Solvents, hand tools, and power tools can also be
that it can regulate and provide current according to
used to remove heavy deposits of rust and any
requirements
of the environment
and that one
grease prior to blasting or pickling.
installation can protect a large area.
Coatings are applied either by brush, roller, spraying
or wrapping. Applications are best made in a shop,
but can be accomplished
in the field with suitable
protection during the application and curing,of the
coating.
Care should be taken not to damage the
coating during installation.

c. Concrete Jackets. Concrete jackets are used to


inhibit further corrosion
of existing piles. When
properly installed they can be very effective.
The concrete used for jacketing must be of high
quality, be relatively impermeable
and have good
bonding characteristics.
Jacketing of steel piles is
similar to jacketing concrete piles as described in
Article 7-2.

b. Cathodic Protection.
Cathodic protection can be
used to protect steel in seawater, freshwater and soil.
Refer to Article 3-3 for a discussion of corrosion as
an electrochemical
process. There are two systems
of cathodic
protection;
galvanic
anode
and
impressed current.

Jackets should extend from several feet above the


high water line into the mudline.
It had previously
been considered
only necessary to protect the
portion of the pile in the tidal zone. It has been
observed, however, that exposed areas of steel
between the mudline and encasement
can be
susceptible to rapid and severe corrosion, especially
if the length of exposed steel is relatively short. This
is because a galvanic ceil is created. This same type
of corrosion
hag also been observed when the
encasement ends at the mudline.

In the galvanic anode system, sacrificial anodes,


which are more active than the steel piles, are
attached to piles at regular intervals. The anodes of
zinc, aluminum alloys and magnesium, which have
high negative potentials, eliminate Jocal corrosion
cells on the piling by sacrificing
themselves.
Periodically, the sacrificed anodes must be replaced.
The galvanic anode system has several advantages.
It does not require an exterrial power source:
installation is easy: it can be installed prior to driving
a pile; and maintenance is negligible over the life of
the anode. The disadvantages of the galvanic anode
system are that it requires an electrolyte, of low
resistance, and many anodes may be needed to
protect a large structure.
After the system is
installed, a coirosion survey of the structure should
be made to ensure that the system is effective.

One disadvantage to concrete jackets is that they are


rigid and ca? deveiop
cracks due to bridge
movement or vessel impact.
They can, however.
greatly extend the life of piling.
7-3.2

The repair of steel sections underwater is generally


accomplished
by encasing the deteriorated
section
in concrete as described in the preceding section.
Repair of steel sections
by bolted or welded
replacement
underwater
is generally
not costeffective, but it can be done if necessary.
Quaiity
control of underwater repair, especially welding, is
quite difficult.

The impressed current system uses iron and graphite


anodes which are suspended in wa!er qdjacent to
the piles. The anodes are connected to a direct
Sufficient current,
current (d.c.) power source.
usually low in voltage, is impressed on the structure
system in opposition
to the current flow. that is
71

Repair

caated with prsservative. Standards for timber treatment


are avsliable through the American Wo5d ?reserv&
Asdation.

SECTION 4. TlMBER
?-Ut
h&r

Prevention

of Dfdme

decay. Timber immer&

b. Protective Pilmq Piings in existiq structures can be


protected against rkne borer attack by wng
them
in a protective jacket The purpose d the jacket is to
create an anaerobic envim
which is hthi to the
borers. To be effective the jacket must M tightly around
the pie with no breaks in the jacket which would allow
oxygen to ecder. Jackets are not recommended for use
in areas where abrash may occur.

against
in salt Waer additionally needs

immersed in fwshwtff

protection against damage

tis

fkcbdon

from marine borers.

Two

types of pm&on
which have proven effec%ive are
matives
and flexible barTiers.
a Preservatives. Presehatives, in use for many years,
are appiied to timbers under pressure irr order t0
irqmgnate the wood calls.

Onetsystemax@sk3donelayerdPVCandonehyer
d polyethylene she&q.
A layer d prueaive film, PVC
(Pdyvinyi chloride) sheets, 30 mls thick, is prwed
M
land. Thesheetiswrappedtightfyaroundthepileand
fastened with aluminum or nylon straps and aluminum
Ms. A layer d p~lyethyiti
sheeting, 6 mils thick, is
placed between the PVC and timber to prevent the
creowte from sdtening the PVC. Piles are generally
encased from several feet above the high waterline to the
mudline.
r

Many types of presemtlves are in usa today v&h the


most widely used being coal-tar creosote. The American
Wood Presewers institute defines coal-tar creOsote as a
preservath/e oil obtained by distillation d coal-tar
produced
by high temperature
carbonization
of
bauninous coal: it consists principally d liquid and solid
aromatic hydrocarbons
and contains appreciable
qrrantitks d tar acids and tar bases; it is heavier than
water; and it has a continuous boiling range d at least
126 degrees Centigrade, beginning at about 200 degrees
Centigrade.

7-4.2 Repair

C&-tar creosote effectivety protects timber immersed in


fre&uater against fungal attack. In saltw&r, it protects
against t&do,
but is ineffectfve against limnoria.
Protecting timber against both types d borers requires
dual treatments. The timber is first treated ,with a watersoluble compound toxic to limnoria; the wmpound
becomes insdude after impregnation. The wood is then
treated with coal-tar creosote.
There are No processes for treatment:
the full&l
process and empty cell process. In the fullcell process,
the timber is placed in a dumber and air is removed to
create a vacuum. Preservathe is then *ntroducad into the
&amber, without Mtlng air into the chamber, and
pces%re is applied untt the timber has a&orbed the
proper amount Of w.
A vacuum may be applied
after the chamber is emptied to remove dripping
preservative. The full&i
prqcess alIzhe largest
retention of preservative.
In the empty cell process, timber is placed
and pressure treated with preservative.
initially applied. After required absorption
chamber is emptied. The resutt is that the

in the chamber
No vaCuum is
is obtained, the
timber cells are

a. Marine Boferq
Damage from marine borers can
generallybehaft&,whensectionlossislessthan15
percent, by installation of a protedve film. If damage is
mofe sevefe, it may be necessary to replace the
damaged section or rep&c-e the entire pile.
When the loss Of cross-sectional area is greater than
about 20 percent it is generally recommended that piie
be encased in a reinforced concrete jacket. A flexible
or rigid jacket form can be placed around the pile and
concrete placed by tremie or pumping similar to the
methods as described for concrete piles in Article 7-2.
Care shou!d be taken to ensure the concrete is evenly
distributed around the pile.
b. Sv.
Split piles can be repaired by
installing compression rings around the damaged area.
The rings consist of two semi-circular, rectangular steel
bars. The steel,is placed around the split and joined
together by boltsnat the en& of the ring halves. Splits
can also be bolted together using one or more bolts
with washers.
In both cases, the area should be
protected against further deterioration with a protective
. film.
72

CHAPTER
MANAGEMEtiT

SECTION
8-1.1

VIII ~

OF UNDERWATER

confo&ce
with the federal, state and local
prescribed practices and procedures.
It is important,
however, for procurement personnel to be aware that
special requirements peculiar to underwater operations,
must also be addressed. Technical staff may have to
provide guidance to procurement personnel to ensure
that all technical aspects of the work are adequately
covered
in the procurement
and contractual
documents.
In some instances, because underwater
inspections have not been conducted on a wide scale,
the technical staff may have to work ciosely with
procurement personnel to ensure that administrative
requirements
peculiar to this work are included.
Underwater inspection contracts are hybrid contracts
involving aspects of professional service contracts. and
provisions which are normally a part of maintenance
and construction contracts.

1. INTROOUCTION

General

This chapter provides guidance for procuring and


monitoring professional services for underwater bridge
While the. information
is primarily
inspection.
concerned with securing outside services, this chapter
should also aid in the planning, execution and
management of inspections by in-house dive teams.
Local agencies are responsible for the overall adequacy
of their underwater inspection programs.
While the
FHWA and state departments of transportation
may
issue guidelines
and regulations
for minimum
standards, the local agencies must ensure that those
minimum standards are adapted and expanded as
necessary to ensure the structural safety of bridges
located in water within their area
. -.. of responsibility.
Development of a comprehensive
scope of work is
critical to obtaining all desired inspection information,
and can aid greatly in obtaining a safe and costeffective underwater
investigation.
Underwater
inspection work, while similar to other professional
services, requires special contractual provisions to
address the unique hazards and costs wsodated with
it. Contractual provisions alone, however, cannot
ensure quality &water
bridge inspections. Training
of underwater inspectors, and managers of underwater
inspection programs is essential.
II-cl.2 Procurernenl

CONTRACTS

The acquisition of underwater


inspection services
has been considered a maintenance department
contract
by some agencies and a professional
.engineering services contract by other agencies. As
a