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Heavy Metal Music:

A New Subculture in American Society

Robert L. Gross
Characterized by crashing guitars, pounding percussion and ear
splitting volume, heavy metal music has emerged as provocative new
force on the American cultural scene. Heavy metal music has been a
controversial subject ever since its inception in the late 1960s. As the
musical genres popularity has increased, a growing number of fans have
evolved into a new youth subculture.
Heavy metal music has always been a controversial topic, but lately
the debate has taken on epic proportions. The subject has been catapulted
into the public view by such events as the formation of the Parents Music
Resource Center (PMRC), Congressional hearings on the content of rock
music lyrics and the Federal Communications Commission sternly
advising broadcasters to monitor more closely the content of those
supposedly unintelligible lyrics. In addition, television images of Oprah
Winfrey and Morton Downey Junior trading verbal barbs with
fundamentalist preachers on the perils of heavy metal have also generated
heated debate.
Many see heavy metal music and the new youth subculture as a
socially and spiritually subversive movement alien to American values
and culture. Others see the phenomenon as a musical and cultural
excursion into a fantasy land, solely for the purpose of entertainment
and commerce.
This paper will examine five aspects of heavy metal music and the
subculture which supports it. The paper specifically focuses on 1) the
origin of heavy metal music, 2) the musical parameters of heavy metal,
3) the cult of heavy metal, 4) the message behind the metal, and 5) the
economics of heavy metal.

The Origin of Heavy Metal Music

The origin of heavy metal music is difficult to pinpoint. Various



Journal of Popular Culture

historians offer divergent opinions. Lester Bangs states in the Rolling

Stone History of Rock and Roll, that heavy metal began in 1968 when
a group entitled Blue Cheer recorded a hard rocking version of the 1958
Eddie Cochran hit Summertime Blues. The Blue Cheer version was
markedly different than the original. The Eddie Cochran version was
a lighthearted pop tune emphasizing both the acoustic guitar and a clean
sounding electric guitar, whereas the Blue Cheer version relied upon
distorted, metallic sounding guitar chords and thumping free-form
percussion to carry its theme.
Some music historians prefer to credit the band Steppenwolf with
the invention of the heavy metal music form. In 1967 they recorded Born
to be Wild, a tune that not only features many criteria that fit the
modern day definition of heavy metal, but the words heavy metal
thunder actually appear in the second verse of the song.* Many
individuals believe that Steppenwolf first coined the term heavy metal,
and that they are the ultimate representative of the heavy metal genre.
Even today, Born to be Wild is considered to be an anthem to a variety
of heavy metal fans, especially motorcycle clubs.3
Monte Conner of Road Racer Records, a New York based record
company specializing in heavy metal, states that the true genre of heavy
metal music began in 1969 with the release of the first Black Sabbath
album.4 Conner states, All of the music prior to Black Sabbath, such
as Blue Cheer, Steppenwolf, and others was just a warm-up for the real
heavy metal.5
Many rock historians cite the group Led Zeppelin as a front runner
of the heavy metal style of music. Robert Christgau in his 1971 Village
Voice review of the then new Led Zeppelin album declared the record
to be, the definitive Led Zeppelin and hence heavy metal album,6
leading one to believe that Christgau considered Led Zeppelin to be the
archetype of heavy metal music at that time period.
Opinions on the origin of heavy metal vary, but most critics agree
that heavy metal began between the years of 1967 and 1969, and that
its content and popularity have steadily changed. In the early days of
heavy metal, most artists fell into the category of underground album
music and relied on sparse FM radio airplay on college and eclectic
radio stations, as well as the college concert tour circuit to promote their
music. Today heavy metal artists have the advantages of wide media
coverage through mainstream album rock radio stations, MTV and a
variety of magazines. Some metal bands, such as Motley Crue and AC/
DC have even cracked the T O P 40, and the growth boom in the heavy
metal music industry is continuing. Today heavy metal is a popular
and commercially viable form of music, and has created a spin-off
subculture among American youth.

Heavy Metal Music


The Musical Parameters of Heavy Metal

There is no exact musical formula that one can use to define what
constitutes heavy metal, however most metal songs have several common
attributes. John Bello of Road Racer Records defines heavy metal: The
typical metal tune is guitar oriented, with a metallic sounding guitar,
and the lyrics focus on topics that are relevant to todays youth. Most
heavy metal songs are in fact comprised of pop-style lyrics, with a healthy
dose of repetition, coupled with wailing guitar solos, and a thumping
bass and percussion line. The main instruments used in metal music
are the electric guitar, electric bass guitar, drums and electronic keyboards.
Brass and woodwind instruments are rarely used, and acoustic instruments
make only an occasional appearance in metal music.
The musical structure of heavy metal music is similar to pop and
conventional rock music, except that metal is usually louder, harder and
faster paced. It is difficult to generalize since there are various subcategories and styles of heavy metal. For example, both Led Zeppelin
and Anthrax are members of the Heavy metal genre, but their sound
and audience are very different. Anthrax belongs to the sub-category of
Thrash Metal, which is a high speed form of violent sounding songs
that are geared to pre-teen and adolescent audiences. Led Zeppelin is
more conventional, having a smoother, mellower sound that at times
can even be described as a modern day melodic version of medieval Celtic
music. The Led Zeppelin fan is generally much older than the Anthrax
The major differences between heavy metal and other forms of
popular music fall into four main areas: the musical structure and
production elements of the recordings, the lyrics, the stage and public
performances of the artists, and the youth subculture that has attached
itself to the genre. The first of these elements, the musical structure,
seems to be of little interest to anyone other than musicians and the
fans themselves, but the other elements; the subculture, lyrics and
performances seem to generate controversial discussion everywhere.
The Cult of Heavy Metal
Willa Appel, author of Cults in America, defines a cult as a group
of people who share a common vision of the world some withdrawing
literally from society, others merely withdrawing psychologically. . .By
their very nature, cults alienate ordinary citizens, for they defy the existing
social order.* The subculture of heavy metal enthusiasts seems to fit
Appels cult criteria. Robert Pielke, author of You Say You Want A
Revolution, notes that
allegiance to this kind of music has resulted in clearly definable subculture among the
new youth. ..Most evident in heavy metal has been the attitude of negation, with its emphasis
on the images of death, Satanism, sexual aberration, dismemberment and the grotesque.g


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Heavy metal cultists exhibit a variety of common traits such as mode

of dress, family background, attitudes, shared symbols and slang, as well
as taste in music. In examining the demographic make u p of members
of this cult, one finds that the typical heavy metal fan is an adolescent,
Caucasian male from a lower class background in an urban or suburban
area. It is curious that heavy metal is predominantly a Caucasian
phenomenon. It appears to have little appeal to minority individuals.
According to Alex, a heavy metal radio personality in Central
Pennsylvania, her typical listener is a seventeen year old male from
a lower income family. He lives only for today, and he has a distinct
disregard for the laws and morals of society. Often he is a high school
drop out that feels life has very little to offer.1 John Bello of Road
Racer Records concurs stating that his company markets their heavy
metal product to a sixteen year old male from a working class
background, hes loyal yet trendy, and he likes to party as much as he
can. I1
Fred Wynn, a Pennsylvania radio announcer and metal fan agrees
that metal heads fit the description mentioned above. He also notes
that although metal fans appear to be antisocial and rebellious, its just
an act. Heavy metal is a safe form of rebellion, i t lets everyone know
that you are different, but in reality you never really have to take a
stand; you dress up and act like a misfit, but in reality you are just
going along with your own crowd.Iz
Although heavy metal comprises its own distinct subculture, parts
of the cult have already been absorbed into popular culture. Mike Snail
of the band Dream Death says that heavy metal started as a denial of
modern culture, but now it has been absorbed into everyday pop
This phenomenon is similar to the assimilation of the 1960s hippie
subculture; one day Peter Max was counter-culture, a year later his work
starts showing up in middle class living rooms. Already heavy metal
bands are appearing at the top of the pop charts, and some are even
receiving heavy airplay on both CHR (Contemporary Hit Radio) stations
and AOR (Album-Oriented-Rock) stations.
Some individuals feel that the very nature of heavy metal music
and its subculture are a ruse. On the surface it appears to be an antisocial subculture, but in reality it is a clever marketing scheme geared
to arouse teen-age interest so that various industries can benefit
financially. David Handelman of Rolling Stone magazine claims that
heavy metal is by no means as subversive as it appears.

Its main selling points are that adults find it unlistenable, preachers call it blasphemous,
and Tipper Gore blushes reading the lyrics.. .For all the anthemic raunch, horror-show
make-up and well planted whispers of Satanism, heavy metals only discernible message
is party hearty.

Heavy Metal Music


Several metal bands dispel the idea that they are trying to impart
an important message to their fans. Gang Green states Our new album
just really promotes the idea of having fun, because thats what Gang
Green are all about.. .were out for laughs.5 Paul Stanley of Kiss, a
metal band that has enjoyed worldwide popularity and success for more
than a decade, declares Kiss is about having fun. . .We sing about having
a good time in every way possible.16 The art of having a good time
is relative as Chris Williams of Rock Hotel Productions points out. I
had a kid come up to me (after a metal show) and say My God I had
such a good time, I broke my arm!.
Although many metal artists claim that there is no real message
or belief system contained within their material, others have such a strong
focus to their material and performances that it is difficult to deny an

The Message Behind the Metal

Heavy metal music offers the listener a wide variety of provocative
lyrics that are guaranteed to liven u p any discussion. Fred Bruning
comments on metal lyrics in an article in Macleans magazine entitled,
The Devilish Soul of Rock and Roll, a somewhat jovial account of
the controversy surrounding music lyrics, yet tinged with actual concern,
also. For middle age individuals, lyrics such as the following from Motley
Crues song Live Wire are not apt to inspire faith in the mental health
of their offspring, let alone the future of the planet Earth:
Not a woman, but a whore,
Ill either break her face

G o for the throat, never get loose

Going in for the ki11.18

Scanning the lyrics of a variety of metal songs leaves one with the
distinct impression that these are not everyday topics of discussion at
the family dinner table. The preoccupation with the darker side of life
is evident as well as the use of some words that you wont hear on the
radio often. Scott Ian of the band Anthrax comments that metal lyrics
are about things that everyday people are aware of already. In an interview
backstage at an Anthrax show in Allentown, Pennsylvania last summer,
Ian asked, How many kids are buying our album or seeing our show
that havent heard these words already?19
Scott Ian may have a point, but it should be noted that a large
number of Anthraxs records have been denied radio airplay because they
contain explicit language that is considered unsuitable for broadcast
according to the Federal Communications Commission. General


Journal of Popular Culture

obscenity is not the main thrust of metal lyrics, nor certain groups
objections to them. The lyrics in question generally deal with what some
individuals believe is the promotion of Satanism, violence, sexism, drug
and alcohol abuse, as well as general youthful rebellion. An example
of questionable lyrics comes from the latest release from Coven, entitled
Blessed is the Black, in which every single track on the album glorifies
negative or Satanic elements and mocks traditional Judeo-Christian
values. Is Coven serious when they advise their listeners that Blessed
are the wicked, Cursed are the weak2O or Your God is dead and now
you die, Satan rules at last21 or perhaps its just part of their marketing
plan. Judas Priests hit album Defenders of the Faith, warns followers
that, Rising from the darkness where Hell hath no mercy and the screams
of vengeance echo on forever, only those who keep the faith shall escape
the wrath of the Metallian.22 Is that an advertising teaser printed on
the back cover, or should the listener feel that he is now initiated into
some form of secret cult?
Metallicas Master of Puppets offers the cultist the same general
message, Crushing all deceivers, mashing non-believers. Hungry
violence seeker, feeding off the weaker.23 Anvils Strength of Steel
again illustrates the raw power associated with heavy metal. With the
strength of steel, Ill show how I feel, All of the weak will kneel, for
the strength of stee1.*4
A substantial amount of metal songs seem to concentrate on the
concept of power. There are songs that discuss occult power, tracks that
mention the power struggle between parents and teens, medieval power
fantasies and a variety of other topics. However, the key element in the
majority of heavy metal songs is the concept of power.
Individuals who belong to the cult of heavy metal are either seeking
some form of power, or believe that they have found it in the music
and trappings of heavy metal. The resistance of organized groups and
parents to the cult of heavy metal actually reinforces this belief. The
lowly ignored teen-ager is amazed at how quickly adults feathers can
become ruffled all because he/she now sports a tattoo, wears leathers
and listens to Iron Maiden wailing on about the number of the beast.
The amount of negative attention focused on the heavy metal subculture
has probably won more new converts to the cause than anything else1
T o illustrate the importance of power to the heavy metal subculture,
one need only look to the symbols used by metal bands and fans alike.
For example, AC/DC uses a runic lighting bolt on all of their albums,
Motley Crue uses an inverted pentagram as their trademark, and Iron
Maiden consistently uses Egyptian and Biblical symbols on their albums.
Examining the typical metal cultist, one finds that they often wear assorted
rings, earrings and other forms of jewelry that indicate their favorite
group or preference for specific types of symbols. A full page advertisement


Heavy Metal Music


in Circus magazine25 depicted a variety of heavy metal jewelry, rings,

pendants, earrings and pins for sale by a company called Gesner Legion.
Surprisingly, the majority of designs that were illustrated were not
representative of any musical group but instead were various religious,
occult and death oriented symbols. Of the 172 designs depicted, only
23 were related to any musical group. The collection contained 13 Nazi
Schutz Staffel and swastika designs, 34 skeletons and deaths heads, and
the remainder were a variety of religious and occult power symbols such
as ankhs, traditional and inverted crucifixes and pentacles, crescent moons
and other arcane and mysterious symbols too numerous to mention
The author asserts that these symbols are worn by cult members
as a signature of identification with heavy metal, not as a religious or
philosophical statement of faith. Looking back to the hippie subculture
of the late 1960s, one finds that there was also a tremendous use of symbolic
jewelry to indicate ones ties to the counter-culture. The author is
sincerely skeptical in the belief that the majority of teen-agers wearing
Egyptian ankhs are even aware of the symbols meaning. Judging by
the astonishing lack of knowledge exhibited by some youthful members
of the heavy metal subculture, one must conclude that the typical ankh
wearers knowledge of Egyptology is rather limited. Likewise when
questioned about the significance of a variety of symbols, cult members
will identify the symbol with heavy metal, as opposed to its original
or actual meaning.
There are many individuals and groups that believe there is a
message behind the metal, that is a hidden agenda to the subculture
of heavy metal music. On The Morton Downey Junior Show broadcast
on WWOR-TV on February 12, 1988, the topic of discussion was heavy
metal music. Mr. Downey opened the show with the following
commentary. Hey, mom.. .is it only rock and roll, or are kids on a
down grade spiral of drugs, sex and possibly death; heavy metal music
on the Morton Downey Junior Show!26 One of Downeys guests on
the program, Jennifer Norwood of the Parents Music Resource Center
was asked by Downey whether heavy metal music really glamorizes
graphic sex, drugs and violence, to which she replied Some of it does.27
Norwood went on to say, I am concerned with the growing trend in
some music to degrade women, to show violence against women, to show
brutality against women, and I am concerned because the audience for
this type of music is mostly adolescent males.28 Norwood and the PMRC
are more concerned with the effect of heavy metal music on youth, than
the actual content of the music. Another guest on the program, J.J.
French of the band Twisted Sister, commented that heavy metal was
not responsible for violence, that people such as the Son of Sam killer
existed long before the popularity of heavy meta1.Z9


Journal of Popular Culture

Terrence Moran in the article, Sounds of Sex asks the all important
question; Do kids really listen to these words and behave accordingly?
No one really knows.30 Moran goes on to say that the controversy over
music lyrics and the youth subculture is not new, nor is it limited to
heavy metal music. The difference-and its an important differenceis that todays salacious lyrics are not the exception to otherwise generally
respected sexual standards and community values, but a symbol of their
collapse. 3
The more that one examines the cult of heavy metal, the more
apparent it becomes that this controversy is a replay of the age old
generation gap, in a new and, perhaps, more striking form. Iron Maiden
may strike todays adults as alien to their culture, but the author suspects
that a similar reaction occurred when adults first heard the lyrics to
Good Golly, Miss Molly. As a matter of fact even some metal bands
find their colleagues repugnant. Anthraxs song Imitation of Life
actually takes a stab at other metallers who are posers, that is bands
who wear make u p and glitter.
Bands dress like women, with hairspray and lace, Id pass an image law, stick it in their
face, Lets see how long they keep dressing this way, Wearing this image twenty-four
hours a day.s2

The subculture of heavy metal includes a variety of shared attitudes

that many would like to attribute to the message behind the metal.
However, the author believes that most metal cultists come into this
subculture with preconceived notions that this is a group in which there
are others who share their feelings of isolation, anger and a dissatisfaction
with life. Robert Pielke credits a variety of pre-existing social problems
with an interest in the cult.
Youthful unemployment, the economic hardship of the lower classes amid upper-class
affluence, a conservative music industry, an even more conservative political establishment
and a curious but aberrant version of traditional Christianity (the born again movement)
all combined to set the stage for a massive, seemingly nihilistic outrage from those at
the bottom of society and others who in some way could identify with them.3s

An individual who feels that life is passing him by might enjoy

membership in a cult that promises fun, excitement, secret signs and
forms of communication, and a healthy dose of fantasy. This is the heavy
metal subculture. Just as a bored housewife might get involved with
imaginary soap opera characters via the television, or a housebound
grandmother might listen to the pleadings of Jerry Falwell, so may a
frustrated youth become entwined with a media subculture that offers
images of power, fame, glory and free sex.

Heavy Metal Music


If there is truly a message behind the metal i t is most likely obscured

by another message; heavy metal music and its adjoining subculture
are financially lucrative.
T h e Economics of Heauy Metal
If economic success and media attention are used as indicators of
popularity, then heavy metal is indeed popular with the youth of America.
There are many areas that are part of the marketing of heavy metal,
aside from the music industry. Certainly, recordings and musical
performances make up a major part of the heavy metal phenomenon,
however, the television, print, and other assorted industries all have a
hand in generating income from the subculture of heavy metal.
If you dial (900)660-METL, you can get the latest metal information
via the telephone, or you can read all about it in H i t Parader, Circus
or a variety of other heavy metal fan magazines. The metal fan can send
$10.95 to a company advertising in various fan magazines and learn
how to be a heavy metal star overnight! For radio fans, the syndicated
Metal Shop which airs nationally will keep them abreast of the latest
news in the cult of heavy metal, or if they live in a major market, they
can probably tune to any AOR or college station to hear favorite tunes.
When its T V time, fans can tune into MTVs all metal show,
Headbangers Ball. After all that, they can don their metal oriented
tee shirts that were bought at the mall, slip on some official metal oriented
jewelry and toss on an AC/DC or Harley Davidson Cap and be ready
to go. Is there a dollar to be made off the cult of heavy metal? You
bet your Def Leppard T-shirt, there is.
Kevin Hawkins, a buyer for the 128 store Record Bar chain estimated
that hard rock and metal acts can comprise as much as thirty percent
of the chains music sales.34 According to sales charts in Billboard
magazine, heavy metal artists are having a banner year. Since June of
1987, Bon Jovi sold eight million units of their LP Slippery When
Wet, Whitesnake sold five million albums, and Motley Crue moved
two million records. As of the February 27, 1988 sales count, 21 out
of the top 150 albums in the world were heavy metal releases.35Some
of the top selling metal albums have been on Billboards Top 100 chart
for over a year!36
In the arena of live concert performances, heavy metal is extremely
lucrative. In a two week period from June 29 through July 12, 1987,
the Whitesnake and Motley Crue tour grossed 1.2 million dollars, whereas
the Bon Jovi and Cinderella tour grossed 1.5 million dollars.37
Since the movement began, heavy metal has enjoyed a slow but
steady economic growth pattern, however in the last several years it has
exhibited an explosive growth trend. Newsweek credits MTVs decision
last year to rotate heavy metal videos once again. The channel also created


Journal of Popular Culture

Headbangers Ball, a highly successful weekly show devoted to

MTV has certainly increased metals popularity, but there are other
factors, too. The increased amount of radio airplay and the partial relaxing
of the Federal Communications Commissions guidelines on indecency
enabled many questionable metal songs to be programmed. Previously,
these songs woula have been passed by.
The proliferation of fan magazines and newsletters has also
contributed greatly to metals increase in popularity. Circus magazine,
a teen music publication, which incidentally, does not claim to be a
metal magazine, caters to metal fans, and introduces its readers to new
artists. With a circulation of over 250,000 Circus appears to be rather
influential. In a content analysis of the January 31,1988 issue, the author
found that 62%of the entire magazine, including advertising, was devoted
to stories and photographs of heavy metal artists. Interestingly enough,
the advertising content was 28%, leaving only a paltry 10% devoted to
non-metal artists such as The Rolling Stones and Madonna-rather
unusual for a magazine that calls itself a Music, News and Entertainment
Heavy metal has long been a component of radio playlists, but there
is now a nationally syndicated metal format available simultaneously
in Dallas, Cleveland, Columbus, Ohio and Chicago. This heavy metal
superstation is called Z-Rock and originated last year. According to
Bob Hall, vice-president of programming for Satellite Music Network,
in Cleveland, Z-Rock showed a strong listenership not only in the 1224 age demographic, but also in the males 25-35 years category.*OHeavy
metal music is not the number one choice for radio programmers, however
it is establishing itself as an important part of contemporary radio
programming in the 1980s. Because metal has a limited demographic
appeal, it will never totally dominate the airwaves. However, the author
predicts that metal will remain strong through at least the next decade.
Heavy metal music and the accompanying subculture have had a
strong impact on American culture and the mass media. Through the
use of clever marketing strategies, musical artists have been able to expand
their influence into areas that are equally as lucrative as record sales.
By involving their fans in a subculture that stresses values generally
outside of their parents norms, the metal marketers have managed to
cash in the natural element of youthful rebellion.
The heavy metal craze has been with our culture for more than
a decade, and the author believes that it will survive into the 199Os,
as well. Metal music is predominately a teen-age phenomenon. Most
metal fans will outgrow the subculture as they become adults, however
as time has already proved, they will continue to enjoy the music of

Heavy Metal Music


their youth. The only exception to this is perhaps groups who are already
outside of mainstream culture as adults, for example outlaw motorcycle
Although many critics state that heavy metal music is corrupting
the hearts and minds of Americas youth, the author must take issue.
The strongest critics of heavy metal are the same groups and individuals
who are strongly critical of anything that smacks of free thought or
even freedom of choice. Metals most vocal critics are members of the
religious right, self-appointed guardians of public taste, and generally
people who have nothing better to do than worry that Satan or perhaps
a Communist is hiding under the bed. The author does admit, however,
that the fascination with the dark side of life that appears to be so inherent
in the heavy metal subculture, is by no means healthy. Although some
metal fans are adversely affected by the musical content, the majority
of fans are not programmed by the music, but, in fact, have minds of
their own. Many of todays hard core metal fans will no doubt grow
up to be outstanding community leaders, no worse for their involvement
in the subculture. However, a few will indeed sink to the depths of life,
devoting their existence to a fantasy world of metal dreams.
Youth will often reject the norms and values of society and attempt
to validate their own agenda. This has been going on for centuries and
no doubt will continue. The cult of heavy metal is certainly a modern
day manifestation of an age old struggle between the generations.

Lester Bangs, Rolling Stone History of Rock and Roll, as quoted i n Rolling
Stone Special Twentieth Anniversary Supplement, August 27, 1987, pp. 94-95.
2Mars Bonfire, Born to be Wild, Steppenwolf, (New York: ABC Dunhill Records,
SAuthors excerpts from personal interviews with members of the Swampriders
Motorcycle Club, Hope, Arkansas, July 12, 1985.
Monte Conner, Road Racer Records, New York, N.Y. i n a personal interview,
February 5, 1988.
6Robert Christgau, Chzistgaus Record Guide, (New Haven, CT.: Tickner and
Fields, 1981), p. 222.
7John Bello, Road Racer Records, New York, N.Y. i n a personal interview,
February 5, 1988.
8Willa Appel, Cults in America, (New York, N.Y.: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston,
1983), p. 4.
9Robert Pielke, You Say You Want a Revolution, (Chicago: Nelson-Hall
Publishers, 1986) p. 202.
JAlex, Host of Heavy Metal Rendezvous, Selinsgrove, P.A., i n a personal
interview, August 25, 1987.
.I1 John Bello, in a personal interview.


Journal of Popular Culture

12Fred Wynn, WYGL, Selinsgrove, PA. i n a personal interview January 15, 1988.
13Mike Snail i n a personal interview as recorded by Fred Wynn presented January
15, 1988.
14David Handelman, Money for Nothing and the Chicks for Free, Rolling
Stone, August 11, 1987, p. 36.
IsChris Doherty of Gang Green, as quoted in The Gang Show, Kerrang!
November 1987, p. 8.
16Paul Stanley of Kiss, as quoted in Circus, January 31, 1988, p. 24
Chris Williams as quoted i n Heavy Metal Frenzy, Newsweek, August 10,
1987, p. 59.
8Fred Bruning, The Devilish Soul of Rock and Rol1,Macleans October 21,
1985, p. 13.
1gScott Ian of Anthrax in a personal interview at Allentown, PA. August 8, 1987.
20Paul Hash, Blessed is the Black, Coven (Seattle, WA.: Ever Rat Records,
2lPaul Hash, Burn the Cross, Coven (Seattle, WA.: Ever Rat Records, 1988).
22Judas Priest, Defenders of the Faith, (New York, N.Y.: CBS Records, 1984).
z3James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich, Battery, Metallica, (New York: Warner/
Elektra/Asylum Records, 1986).
z4Anvil, Strength of Steel, Anvil, (Tarzana, CA.: Metal Blade Records, 1987).
Z5Gesner Legion advertisement, Circus, January 31, 1988, p. 112.
Z6Morton Downey, Junior, The Morton Downey Junior Show, February 12,
1988, WWOR-TV, Secaucus, N. J.
27Jennifer Norwood, The Morton Downey Junior Show.
29J.J. French, The Morton Downey Junior Show.
SoTerrenceMoran, The Sounds of Sex, The New Republic August 12-19, 1985,
p. 12.
SZAnthrax, Among the Living, Anthrax (New York, N.Y.: Island Records, 1987).
SSRobert Pielke, p. 202.
S4Geoff Mayfield, Marketing Heavy Metal: Expertise Needed, Billboard, July
25, 1987, p. 38.
SSAuthor, Compilation of statistics from sales charts i n Billbolird as of February
27, 1988.
38Newsweek,August 10, 1987, p. 59.
39Author,research on Circus January 31, 1988.
Robert L. Gross is a member of the Communications Faculty of Susquehanna University
in Selinsgrove, PA. Gross is also the Station Manager of WQSU-FM, a popular music
formatted public radio station that serves one-third of the state of Pennsylvania. Gross
has worked in a variety of positions in the radio, television and music industries for over
15 years.