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CHAPTER 1

INDUSTRIAL TYPE AND INTRODUCTION

The industry type that we have choosen is AUTOMOTIVE. The automotive is more related
to defence. For this type, we focus more on the ARC WELDING.
In DEFENCE TECHNOLOGY SDN BHD produce the vehicle for army like AV8. This type
of AV8 is 100 percent design from Malaysia but use the engine from the Turkey. To produce
top quality AV8, many criteria that must be addressed because the vehicle will be used by the
military for a very tough task. The vehicle should be produced according to all the law and
the requirements of the military. AV8 is an eight-wheel vehicle that has a lot of functions
depends on type. The types of functions are as a medical team, team combat, a team of
mechanics and team infantry carrier.
In DEFTECH, welding work is done manually by workers. The employee must
have at least a certificate or technical skills. Although they have certified skills and so on,
they are required to enter a special room as a continuous course. This criterion is for precision
and accuracy when doing welding work. If the employee fails to make welding work properly
and in accordance with the conditions, they will stay in a special room is for training. After
success, they will start working on the actual welding room to produce military vehicles. In
addition, every three (3) months, the employees that work in welding room or welding
section must be enter the special room to make the welding works is in good condition.

CHAPTER 2

CURRENT SYSTEM

ARC AND SPOT


WELDING
The focus is on ARC welding
on the front of the AV8.

ASSEMBLE THE
COMPONENT

All the body parts and the


systems are assembled
manually by using human
energy .

PAINT THE VEHICLE


The paint process also use
the human energy by
follow the camo in military
of MALAYSIA.

The success of AV8 vehicle


will send to another branch
at NILAI for artillery
assembly.

TESTING THE
VEHICLE

ASSEMBLE THE TURRETE


AND OTHERS EQUIPMENT
FOR FIRE ARTILERRY

DEFTECH have itself station


to test the AV8. The testing
is also under NATO
procedures.

CHAPTER 3

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CURRENT SYSTEM

Advantages

Accurate if the worker in focus mood.


Offer the work for technical person.
Productivity is in good quality.
Human is flexibility in do the welding
work.
Not required high power system.
The electricity cost is reduced.

Disadvantages

Take a long time in welding process.


The process to assemble the AV8 is
slow.
Human limited to do the work in long
time and need some rest.
The number of productivity is low.

CHAPTER 4

NEW PROPOSED DESIGN

Figure 1 : ARC Automatic Welding Robot

CHARACTERISTICS

Lightweight and compact machine


Wheel castor is installed for smooth mobility
Leg stabilizer used to stable the platform during work
Touch screen control panel for display and controlling purpose
Equip with latest safety and security system
Antenna for wireless communication

CHAPTER 5

SENSORING/TOOLING/CONTROLLER

Sensoring
a) Temperature sensor
- Used to detect temperature inside machine
- Important to avoid system overheat
- Will trigger the alarm and automatically shut down the power

b) Humidity sensor
- Used to detect humidity surrounding area of working place
- Important during welding stage to avoid imperfection or crack at welding point
- Will inform the operator if the area surrounding is not ideal for welding

Controlling
This machine will be programmed and controlled using Programmable Logic Control (PLC).
The operator can be directly giving task to the machine through it touch screen control panel.
It can also be programmed remotely using teach pendant. For mobility in working place, this
machine will be equipped with lightweight and wireless remote control that can be carried
around. Finally, this system is monitor by using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) for supervisory purpose. The parts of machine that will be controlled will be:a) Electric motor twisting motion
b) Hydraulic joint rotation motion
c) Stepping motor linear motion

Tooling
a) Mask of Protection
-

Combination of ear plug, ultraviolet safety goggle, and fume diffuser


Internal miniature phone for communication with other operators

the mask is made up from lightweight synthetic fabric that durable and heat
resistance
Ventilation system to release heat that trapped inside the head

Figure 2: Protection Mask

b) Remote Control
-

Made from carbon fiber casing that lightweight


Shockproof and durable
Equip with rubber gripper to avoid it from fall

Divided into two section, left side for platform controller and right sight for arm
controller

Include with ON/OFF button and emergency button for safety purpose, and
additional button for extra tasks.
Antenna for wireless communication

Figure 3: Remote Control

CHAPTER 6

COMMUNICATION

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
CONTROLLER
FIBER OPTIC CABEL
ARC AUTOMATIC WELDING
ROBOT
WIRELESS

REMOTE CONTROL

WIRELESS

CABLE LAN

SCADA

TEACH PENDANT

CHAPTER 7

INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCES

Installation
The major components of automatic welding robots are the manipulator or also mechanical
unit and the controller. It acts as a brain to the robot. The manipulator is what makes the
robot move, and the design of these systems can be categorized into several common types.
For example are SCARA robot and the coordinate of Cartesian for the robot. Cartesian
coordinate is use different coordinate systems to direct the arms of the machine.
For the automatic welding robot, robot installation work will be done by the robot
manufacturer. Robot manufacturers will have a better understanding of operating systems of
the robots. For the first programming, the manufacturer will make the first programming
based on the needs and requirement of the company. Robot will move and operate according
to instructions that have been made in the form of programming. For programming in the
future, if the need for any changes operation, then engineer who have been trained by the
manufacturer will do programming.
Besides, the important criterions to be give full attentions in installation of the automatic
welding robot are world reference frame, user reference frame and tool reference frame. This
robot is categorized as spherical geometry or RRP. The robot can move the gripper to any
position in two angular rotations and one linear movement. The axes for X,Y and Z must be
in best condition.

Maintenance
To reduce the number of breakdown or failure in operation, several types of maintenance
need to be applied to the robot or system. The maintenance divides to two major types like
reactive maintenance and proactive maintenance.
The reactive maintenance is defined as the maintenance that have applied on the emergency
time or when the robot fail to operate. For proactive maintenance, they need to be applied in
required time and must be follows the schedule for maintenance. If not, the robot will
malfunctioned and become breakdown.
Reactive Maintenance

Breakdown maintenance
Emergency maintenance
Corrective maintenance

Proactive Maintenance
Corrective maintenance
Preventive maintenance
Condition maintenance
Predictive maintenance
Realiability-centered maintenance

Breakdown maintenance and Emergency maintenance are required when the robot is
failure to operate or malfunctioned. The process involves are repair, replace and restore the
action performed on the machine to provide at least minimum condition.

Corrective maintenance is the action such as repair, replace or restore that is carried out
after the occurrence of a failure. It is to eliminate the source of the failure or reduce the
frequency of the failure.

Preventive maintenance is performed on the robot before the occurrence of malfunctioned


in order to protect the robot and prevent or eliminate any degradation in their operating
conditions. The preventive maintenance divides into some types like:

Routine maintenance
Running maintenance
Shutdown preventive maintenance
Window maintenance

Predictive maintenance can be defined as a set of activities to detect the changes in the
physical condition of equipment or signs of failure in order to carry out the appropriate
maintenance work. This maintenance can be categories into two types:-

Condition-based predictive maintenance


Statistical-based predictive maintenance

Reliability-Centered Maintenance is defined as a set of activities to ensure that any


physical asset continues to do whatever its user want it to do in its present operating context.

Maintenance Schedule
Maintenance engineer as the responsible person must be follow this schedule to reduce the
number of malfunctioned or failure on the welding robot. Maintenance engineer will work
together with technical maintenance. Any problems or update are required to be informed to
Maintenance Department. Besides, the main criteria to be the maintenance engineer for the
robot, the engineer are compulsory to attend a course at least 1 month.
Proactive Maintenance
No.
Types of Maintenance
1 Preventive maintenance
2 Predictive maintenance
3 Reliability-centered maintenance
4 Corrective maintenance
Table 1: Schedule for maintenance

Period
Every week
Every days
3 times/year 4 months
Every month

CHAPTER 8

COST JUSTIFICATION

Table 2 show the item that needs to be give attention before apply the welding robot. The
automatic welding robot will use to take over the human work.
For No.5 (Maintenances), its combine all the types of maintenance including reactive
maintenance and proactive maintenance. The maintenance is most important item because the
machine must be operate in good condition. If not, it will affect to productivity of the
company.

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Item
Welding robot
Associated Software
Fixtures
Interfacing welding robot
Maintenances
Training and programmer maintenance
one-time
Annual wages for 4 employees +
benefits
Worker Programming Training
Expected Saving Per Year
Depreciation Allowance

Category
C
C
C
C
M
C
I and W
S
I
D

Price
60,000
9,000
13,000
8,000
20,000
11,000
4x23,000 = 138,000
7,000
21,000
18,400

Table 2: Item and price

For associated software, the software must be fully success because in welding process, the
most criteria are accuracy. For the first time, the professional person or maintenance that
understanding the principle of the robot will do the programming while for next time, we can
use the worker that we will send for programming training under the responsible maintenance
engineer. This is initiative from the company to reduce the use of money in applying the
automatic welding robot. Besides, not all engineer or technician can handle the robot if failure
is occurring although in the emergency case. To overcome this problem, we are required to
form special maintenance unit that have specific work in handling, repair, restore, replace or
check the robot. This unit also responsible to apply the maintenance work according to the
schedule. The handling is under full attention from Maintenance Department.

The calculation below shows the total payback for the company :

CHAPTER 9

SAFETY APPLIED

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


Includes all clothing and accessories designed to protect against workplace hazards. In some
situations the only available protection for employees will be the use of PPE and often in
emergencies, PPE will be required for the safety of the workers.

All employees and visitors are required to wear approved accessories like below:-

Eye protection
Hear protection
Apron
Safety boot
Leather coat
Glove
Helmet

CHAPTER 10

EXPECTED RESULTS

Advantages & Disadvantage of New System

Advantages
The number of productivity is
increases.
Replace the human intervention for
hazardous operations in handling the
welding machines.
Increases the emphasis on flexibility
and convertibility in the
manufacturing process.
The number for welding quality is
increases.
The welding is more accurate.
The welding can be done in short
time.
The number for welding hour is
increases and can be do in long time
or within 12 hour.
Very versatile for welding process
because it is fast and accurate.

Disadvantages
Expensive in installation process.
Expensive in maintenance works.
Required to train the responsible man.
Limited movement
Poor programming will produce
inaccurate results.
Required the maintenance man to
repair if the breakdown is occurring.

CHAPTER 11

CONCLUSION

To conclude, this automatic welding robot can help the operator to do the work with
more faster, self and efficient. The welding also will be accurate and can increase the number
of product. The robot also very useful because the welding is too risks. By applying the robot,
AV8 for the military service can be produce in short time compared to using 100 percent
manually of the human energy. Maybe in the future, DEFTECH can design and produce more
military vehicle that have high class of technology and can be use in Malaysias military for
our national defence.