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BTEC

Edexcel Level 2
BTEC First Certificate and
Diploma in Applied Science

September 2006

Edexcel BTEC Level 2 First Certificate and


Diploma in Applied Science

Tutor Support

Edexcel Limited is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and
throughout the world. It incorporates all the qualifications previously awarded under the
Edexcel and BTEC brands. We provide a wide range of qualifications including general
(academic), vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers.
Through a network of UK and overseas offices, our centres receive the support they need to
help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners.
For further information please call Customer Services on 0870 240 9800, or visit our website
at www.edexcel.org.uk
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Centres are responsible for the overall risk assessment of experimental work undertaken
by learners.

Attention is drawn to the need for safe practice when students carry out laboratory
experiments or observe demonstrations. Particular attention is drawn to the possible
hazards associated with electrical equipment, the handling of micro-organisms and
ionising radiation. Strict aseptic conditions should be used when undertaking practical
work. Reference must be made to COSHH regulations and any specific local education
authority restrictions.
Relevant advice can be obtained from the following publications:

CLEAPSS Laboratory Handbook (available from CLEAPSS School Science Service,


website www.cleapss.org.uk)
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (HSE, 2005)
ISBN 0717629813
Hazcards (2004 update available from CLEAPSS School Science Service)
Topics in Safety Third Edition (ASE 2001) ISBN 0863573169.

References to third party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel
does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be
subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks,
journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard


Prepared by John Fincham

All the material in this publication is copyright


Edexcel Limited 2006

Contents

PAGE

Introduction

Course programme rationale

Structures of the qualification of BTEC First Certificate and First Diploma in


Applied Science

Delivery strategies

Resources

External links

Assessment

Assessment strategies

Assignment design

11

Exemplar Scenarios

12

Exemplar activities and assignment briefs

14

Unit 1: Scientific Principles

15

Unit 2: Science and the World of Work

21

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications

26

Unit 4: Physical Science Applications

45

Unit 5: Biological Systems

50

Unit 6: Working with Science

62

Unit 10: Forensic Science Applications

72

Unit 11: Science in Medicine

77

Annexe 1 Useful websites

82

Annexe 2 Learners guide to SI units and their conversion

87

Annexe 3 - Exemplar tracking documents

107

Annexe 4 Header/front sheet template

109

Annexe 5 Mapping previous specification against 2006 version

110

See Edexcel website for:


Services for Centres- FE Colleges and Schools> Quality Assurance FE Colleges
and Schools> Guidance Documents for Centres 2006/7 (updated annually) >
www.edexcel.org.uk/sfc/feschools/qa/guidance-06071

Guidance Documents for centres 2006 2007


NQF BTEC Level 2 3 (including short courses at Level 1 3) Centre Risk
Assessment Handbook 2006 2007
NQF BTEC Level 2 3 (including short courses at Level 1 3 National
standards sampling Handbook

Introduction
These tutor support materials have been produced to complement the information given in the guidance
section of the specification and to provide extra support in the planning, delivery and assessment of a
course programme.
Activities and exemplar assignment briefs are provided for Units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11.
The materials have been designed mainly for the delivery of a 1 or 2 year full-time First Certificate or
Diploma programme, although referrals to part-time programmes are made and the principles can be
adapted for any mode of attendance.

Course Programme Rationale


The BTEC First Certificate and Diploma are vocationally related qualifications and have been developed to
give course programme leaders/tutors the opportunity to deliver a programme of learning that reflects the
nature of the science industry, or an organisation that uses science.
The BTEC First in Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science have been developed to focus
on:

providing opportunities for full-time learners to gain a nationally recognised applied science workrelated qualification

providing opportunities for apprentices, laboratory technicians or assistant practitioners in employment


to gain a work-related qualification

providing opportunities for learners to develop a range of skills, personal qualities and attributes
essential for successful performance in working life

providing opportunities for learners to progress to a vocational qualification such as the BTEC
Nationals in Applied Science, Sports and Exercise Science or Beauty Therapy Science; levels 2 and 3
NVQ Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities; or other science/technology-related course

the education of full-time learners who would like to follow a career in one of a variety of types of
science technical/assistant practitioner work, such as quality control, medical laboratory testing,
materials testing, health care sciences, forensic science, soil testing, pilot scale, research, education

developing the knowledge, understanding and skills of learners in a work-related programme, where
the methods of delivery and assessment will be assignment driven and have a practical investigative
approach to reflect the needs of employers and the future career path of the learner

giving an insight into the role of a technician/assistant practitioner working in the science industry or
organisations that use science

providing opportunities for learners to focus on the development of the major key skills and the wider
key skills, such as improving own performance, working with others and problem solving in a science
and technological context.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

Structures of the qualification of BTEC First Certificate and First


Diploma in Applied Science
Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science
The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science consists of three core units that provide a
combined total of 180 guided learning hours (GLH) for the completed qualification.

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science


Unit

Core units

GLH

Level

Chemistry Applications

60

Physical Science Applications

60

Biological Systems

60

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science


The Edexcel level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science consists of two core units and four specialist
units that provide a combined total of 360 guided learning hours (GLH) for the complete qualification.
Pre-16 learners who are studying for the BTEC First Diploma must complete the core Units 1 and 2 and
specialist Units 3, 4 and 5 (incorporate the Key Stage 4 programme of study). Pre-16 learners therefore can
select only one specialist unit from Units 6 to11.

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science


Unit

Core units

Scientific Principles

60

Science and the World of Work

60

Unit

Specialist units select four units

Chemistry Applications**

60

Physical Science Applications**

60

Biological Systems**

60

Working with Science

60

Anatomy and Physiology

60

Environmental Science

60

Plants and Food

60

10

Forensic Science Applications

60

11

Science in Medicine

60

GLH

Level

Delivery Strategies
Mode of delivery
This is a mode - free qualification and modes of delivery should be appropriate to learner types (full - time
or part - time). The guidance part of the specification gives a definition for guided learning hours. The First
Certificate programme which is equivalent to 3 60 = 180 guided learning hours and the First Diploma
6 60 = 360 guided learning hours.

Induction
Learners should be given a course handbook that outlines information about the course and centre policies
with regard to their programme of study eg authenticity of work, deadlines, portfolio assignment work
storage, assessment, practical work etc.
It is important that learners during the induction programme are given activities that are interesting,
contextualised and allow them to start to develop skills and knowledge that they will require during the rest
of the programme. The skills and knowledge should include information about:

portfolio-building skills
how the course operates and how they will be assessed
how to search for, use and reference appropriate information sources to complete assignments
health and safety
scientific practical procedures
scientific terminology
data collection, analysis and presentation.

Programme of delivery
This programme is normally delivered over one or two years dependent on the type of learner(s) and their
other learning commitments.
The BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science is equivalent to two GCSEs and should normally be given
approximately 20 percent curriculum time in schools (normally four to five hours per week over two
years).
Induction Could take place towards the end of Year 9 (in schools after the SATs tests) and could be used
as a formative tool to assess who would benefit from the BTEC approach at KS4.
Tracking/assignment sessions One lesson every two weeks could be allocated to tracking learners
progress and enabling them to keep up to - date with completing their assignment work.
Review weeks Review sessions could take place in the last week of each term (or other appropriate
week), so that learners can work on their portfolios to ensure they are up to date with their assignment
work and reflect on their learning.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

Resources
BTEC First qualifications are designed to prepare learners for progression to other work related
qualifications or employment into specific science related sectors. Physical resources needed to support
the delivery of the programme, and assessment of the grading criteria and should be of a national standard.
Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with current practice
and standards in the sector concerned. Centres will need to meet any specialist resource requirements when
they seek approval from Edexcel.
The physical resources provided must be sufficient in type, quality and quantity for all learners to meet the
outcomes specified in each unit. Where a centre cannot provide all the resources itself, arrangements can be
made for another organisation to provide them, but this should not result in the loss of teaching time. It is
essential that these arrangements are formal and agreed in writing. The quantities of resources should be
sufficient for the number of learners.
Any centre wanting to run a BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science should consider the
following as essential:

suitably qualified delivery team

opportunities for staff to acquire and/or maintain specialist knowledge and skills

appropriate physical resources and equipment

classrooms and study areas

suitably equipped library or learning resources centre

studio, audio and video recording equipment, eg:

ICT resources, including access to the internet

access to appropriate specialist resources, eg:

appropriate environments (eg suitable science laboratories, science workshops, laboratory


preparation facilities)

physical resources (eg laboratory equipment, materials, appropriate and readily accessible science
and related facilities for development of practical skills, an assignment and skills assessment
resource, access to suitable establishments with appropriate tutors, demonstrators and assessors)

laboratory and workshop ICT resources, including access to the internet and data logging facilities

field trip visits for relevant units

access to a variety of opportunities for assessment and assessment support.

Access to the following would be seen as added value and enrich the learners learning:

appropriate direct links with relevant science, forensic science and/or medical science organisations,
their personnel, and access to their policy and practice

current and relevant employment experience within the delivery team. This could be supplemented
with specialist lecturers, visits, visiting speakers and talks from technical support staff about their roles

where appropriate, access to work experience placements relating to chosen options

staff time for visiting work placements

access to wok placement supervisors who are occupationally competent and willing to contribute to the
assessment of learners professional practice

staff time for liaison with employers

flexible access for staff and learners to modern information communication technology facilities with
technician support

suitable resources for the promotion of equal opportunities and anti-discrimination practice (eg
learners charter, childcare facilities, access funds).

Units that focus on the development of practical skills should be delivered in a way that allows learners to
develop those skills, relating them to underpinning knowledge.
For the specialist resource requirements to deliver the individual units, refer to the resources section in each
Unit of the specification.
Centres will need to ensure that all staff are aware of, and comply with, the national and local statutory
requirements relating to Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations.

External Links
Links with external organisations are important for reasons such as:

finding work placements for learners (although this is not compulsory for this qualification)
gathering information to enable learners to complete assignments
simulating or using the latest workplace practical techniques in the laboratory
arranging visits to organisations or organising speakers to talk to the learners
using information and materials from organisations to contextualise generic units
using information and materials to make the course relevant and interesting for the learners
gathering information about future careers/jobs
using pro formas/templates/policies etc used within the industry as real specimen exemplars
(permission from an organisation should be sought before using such materials).

The definition of a science-based organisation should be drawn as widely as possible. It can include
science organisations or organisations that use science. It could include manufacturing sites, the public
and/or private utilities, agricultural or horticultural concerns, public or private analysts, research
laboratories, medical or veterinary centres, etc.
Other organisations include professional bodies/associations and societies that deal directly with science or
are science - related.
Employed learners can be an excellent source of information and a valuable link to employers.
Full-time learners may need access to directories related to local services and the manufacturing industry.
Examples include:

The Directory of Small Businesses

Directory of Businesses from the Local Chambers of Commerce and Industry


Work Experience / Workplace learning frameworks - Centre for Education and Industry (CEI University of Warwick) www.warwick.ac.uk/wie/cei/

www.gcseappliedscience.com

Careers in Science

www.vocationallearning.org.uk

Learning and Skills Network

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

www.setnet.org.uk

Section on Science and Engineering Ambassadors

www.nebpn.org

National Education and Business Partnership Network

Annexe 1 (p 82) contains a list of websites for large organisations, professional bodies and
societies/associations.

Assessment

Grading criteria
Learners need to provide evidence to meet the grading criteria shown in the assessment evidence grids.
To pass - every pass criterion must be met.
To gain a merit all the pass and merit criteria need to be achieved.
To gain a distinction all the pass, merit and distinction criteria need to be achieved.
See the grid overleaf page as an example grid showing the requirements of the pass criteria for Unit 3:
Chemistry Applications.
In this qualification the evidence grids are known as sequential grids.
Sequential grids are grids where the number of criteria remains constant across the grid from Pass to
Distinction ( P1 > M1 > D1) and shows progressive improvements in the quality of performance across
the grid. This is shown in the Unit 3: Chemistry Applications grading grid on page 10.
The evidence required to meet the needs of the assessment grading criteria often follow a sequence of:
Pass = What?

>

Merit = How?

>

Distinction = Why?

Assessment Strategies
Learners need to complete assignments set by the programme team and complete their portfolio of
evidence for each individual unit to meet the grading criteria in the unit. It is important that learners have
the opportunity early on in the course to develop portfolio building skills, so that learners can manage and
organise their evidence ie practical reports, assignments, posters, tests etc.
During the programme of learning, learners should complete a number of formative developmental
assignments and must complete a number of summative assignments to pass the qualification.

The formative assignments should be used for developmental purposes and can be used to:

prepare the learners for the essential summative assignments

confirm knowledge and skills

extend knowledge and skills depth and breadth

prepare learners for progression to other qualifications.

These developmental formative assignments can help learners to gain confidence and skills. It is normally
good practice to start with some smaller assignments where learners can get quick feedback and use
reflective practice to understand what is required when they start summative assignment work.
The summative assignments must cover part or all of the grading criteria in the relevant grid. This will be
dependent on the nature and size of the assignment and how it relates to the assessment grading criteria and
content of the unit.
The grading grid in Unit 3 has a total of 18 pass, merit and distinction grading criteria. It has 6 sequential
related criteria, eg P1, M1, D1; P2, M2, D2 etc. The six sequential related pass, merit and distinction
criteria could be used to design six different summative assignments. Each assignment is normally broken
down into a number of smaller tasks.
Learners normally receive feedback after each assignment has been assessed (usually by the tutor) and
internally verified where appropriate. This will let them know if they have achieved the criteria specified in
the assignment or if they need to provide further evidence. This also keeps learners informed of their
progress throughout the course.
Tutors should provide learners with a list of assignment work deadlines over the period of study. This will
help learners to manage their workload. The table below shows part of a list of assignments.

Unit 1

September

October

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Unit 2
Unit 3

November

December

January
Assignment 7

Assignment 4
Assignment 3

Unit 4

Assignment 6
Assignment 5

Tracking learner assessment evidence


Annexe 3 gives an example of a learners tracking grid to enable a course programme leader/tutor to keep
track of the learners progress during the course
The Edexcel website also has an example of a detailed learner achievement tracking document for
individual learners. This is an excellent method of summarising an individual learners evidence of
achievement.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

It is important to ensure that assessors, internal verifiers and external verifiers have easy access to
summative learner evidence for each of the unit grading criteria in the learners portfolio. The evidence
must be clearly referenced and annotated.
When the criteria includes the assessment of process skills it is important to use witness statements to
verify that the learner is competent at that skill and establish its authenticity, eg the learner has worked
independently, has worked safely with regard to themselves and others, or has competently followed a
laboratory procedure.

Grid showing the requirements of the pass criteria for Unit 3: Chemistry Applications
Grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the evidence must
show that the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must


show that in addition to the pass criteria, the
learner is able to:

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence


must show that in addition to the pass and
merit criteria, the learner is able to:

P1 describe atomic and electronic structures of


elements 1- 20, including isotopes, in the
periodic table

M1

D1

P2 investigate and describe ionic, covalent and


metallic bonds

M2

D2

P3 carry out investigations to collect primary data


to define what is meant by exothermic and
endothermic reactions

M3

D3

P4 investigate and use primary data to identify the


factors affecting reaction rates and reversible
reactions

M4

D4

P5 investigate and describe the use of the three


main types of organic compounds used in
society

M5

D5

P6 describe how human and natural activity affect


the earth and its environment

M6

D6

Tutor Support Material - l Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Grading grid
In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the
unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show
that the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

P1 describe atomic and electronic structures of


elements 1- 20, including isotopes, in the
periodic table

M1 describe the patterns and trends of chemical


properties of groups 1 and 7 in the periodic
table

D1

explain the patterns and trends within groups 1


and 7 in the periodic table

P2 investigate and describe ionic, covalent and


metallic bonds

M2 investigate and explain the difference in


properties of substances with ionic, covalent
and metallic bonded substances

D2

explain bonding in terms of stability a means


of achieving a full outer shell either by
transferring or sharing electrons

P3 carry out investigations to collect primary data


to define what is meant by exothermic and
endothermic reactions

M3 using examples of suitable investigations using


primary data , describe the differences between
exothermic and endothermic reactions

D3

explain the processes involved in exothermic


and endothermic reactions

P4 investigate and use primary data to identify the


factors affecting reaction rates and reversible
reactions

M4 investigate use primary data to describe how


the factors affect reaction rates and reversible
reactions

D4

use primary data to evaluate how different


factors affect reaction rates for a given
industrial reaction

P5 investigate and describe the use of the three


main types of organic compounds used in
society

M5 explain the benefits and disadvantages of using


organic compounds in society

D5

evaluate the importance of organic compounds


used in society

P6 describe how human and natural activity affect


the earth and its environment.

M6 explain how human and natural activity effect


the earth and its environment

D6

evaluate the effects of human and natural


activity on the earth and its environment.

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Tutor Support Material - l Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Assignment Design
These tutor support materials contain a number of exemplar activities and summative assignment
briefs to cover parts of Unit 1: Scientific Principles; Unit 2: Science and the World of Work; Unit 3:
Chemistry Applications, Unit 4: Physical Science Applications, Unit 5: Biological Systems, Unit 6:
Working with Science; Unit 10: Science in Medicine and Unit 11: Forensic Science Applications.
Summative assignment briefs must have a header/front sheet and they must include the grading
criteria which are targeted. The assignment brief must be fit for purpose, contain appropriate tasks
that are vocationally relevant, and:

contain accurate unit details


contain accurate programme details
contain clear deadlines for the assignment
contain relevant grading criteria for the unit covered
contain relevant grading criteria targeted against each task
clearly state what evidence the learner needs to provide
be likely to generate evidence which is appropriate and sufficient
be set at the appropriate level
have a time period of appropriate duration
use suitable vocational language
have a clear presentation format
contain the assessor name
contain a space for internal verifier comments
contain a space for assessors comments
contain a space for the learner to sign to confirm it is all their own work.

The exemplar summative assignment briefs given in this document will often need to be supplemented
by information provided by the tutor (through demonstrations, teaching notes, handouts, videos/dvds
etc) or by the use of references to books, websites, visits to local industry, visiting speakers or other
useful resource based learning materials.
The assignment briefs should also be adapted to meet local needs (eg use local science organisations
or organisations that use science) and to meet the needs of learners at the centre.
Learners need to provide evidence that is all their own work. They may need support in developing
their study skills in identifying and gathering information from different sources extracting relevant
information, combining and rewriting the information for their assignment. This will help learners to
develop their independent learning skills, knowledge management skills, and confidence in
completing assignment work.
Learners need to take responsibility for completing their assignments. Assignments should contain a
number of key features of project management such as: aims and outcomes (tied to evidence criteria
when summative), start and end dates (deadline/timelines), procedures (eg laboratory practical
procedures), risk analysis, budget (costings can be built into a assignment if relevant), resources to
complete the assignment (equipment, software, hardware etc).
Learner access to appropriate and relevant information is an essential part of this course.
A learners guide to SI units and their conversion is included to support learners so they can practice
converting different units (see Annexe 2). This can be adapted to meet individual learners, needs.

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Tutor Support Material - l Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

EXEMPLAR ASSIGNMENTS SCENARIOS

Scenarios
Assignments must be set in a work - based scenario, where learners can simulate the role of being
employed when carrying out tasks or learn how to carry out tasks that a technician/assistant
practitioner/scientist would need to do in order to work effectively and efficiently.
Some examples of the types of science organisations or roles of employees working for science
organisations or organisations that use science, together with some example contexts/features that
could be used for assignment and activity scenarios, include:

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science magazine editor or journalist editing; writing articles; proofreading; (useful for
assignment work that includes abstract concepts)

forensic scientist or attendant analysing materials from crime scenes; properties of


elements, compounds and ions; genetics; infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays

school/college/university technician preparing laboratory practicals for learners; repairing,


maintaining and calibrating equipment; organising preparation rooms/laboratories; making up
solutions; solubility; science curriculum knowledge; technical skills

pharmacy services technician making up formulations/mixtures; precise measurements


drugs; solvents; solubility; purity; pH; properties of materials

assistant practitioner in a hospital laboratory medical laboratory sciences; medical


physics; imaging; screening; use of instruments; analysing data; testing samples against
standards

science trainer in a science organisation preparing trainee materials for new starters, eg
apprentices or for professional development of employees; prepare a poster about the periodic
table for new trainees to inform them about elements 1-20 (useful for abstract concepts)

biotechnologist in a biotechnology organisation research into genetic materials; genetic


production; plants; soil science

food science technician/technologist quality control standards; taste; purity; colourings;


other additives; E numbers; preservatives; production % yields.

research technician or scientist new products; factors affecting the preparation of new
products; analytical techniques; atom economy; sustainable development; Combinatorial
Theory

quality control technician purity/accuracy/errors; analytical features; use of instruments;


data collection and analysis

manufacturing plant operator production % yields, rates of reaction, equilibrium effects;


energetics; exothermic, endothermic reactions; energy use; sustainable development

bulk chemicals plant manager raw materials; extraction; purity; energy sustainability;
electrolysis; quality control; pilot scale; % yield; salts, sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate,
sodium hydrogen carbonate, sulphuric acid, ammonia; waste and energy management
Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

fine chemicals manager raw materials; quality control; pilot scale; purity; % yield;
antibiotics; barbiturates; gold salts; sulphonamides; photographics; antihistamines; waste and
energy management.

polymer or paint (surface coatings) scientist % yield; quality control; surface properties;
pigments; solvents; bonding; porosity; adhesion, cohesion; viscosity; solubility; suspensions;
colloidal properties; waste and energy management

confectionery plant manager colourings; sugars; purity; texture; taste; sweetners; pH;
solvents; preparative techniques; quality control; raw materials; quality control; pilot scale;
% yield; waste and energy management

milk quality control technician data collection and analysis; viscosity; relative density;
colloidal properties; pH; raw materials; oils; fats, waste and energy management

glass production manager inert gases; raw materials; transparency; sound and heat
insulation; double/triple glazing; opacity; solar glass; reflection, refraction; quality control; %
yield; waste and energy management

cement/plaster production manager bonding, hydration, exothermic reaction; strength;


durability; raw materials; porosity; quality control tests; purity; surface area of product; raw
materials; % yield; limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium oxide; waste and energy
management

pharmaceutical plant manager or research scientist research into new drugs; side effects;
purity; barbiturates, antibiotics, antihistamines, gold salts, sulphonamides, opiates; raw
materials; quality control; pilot scale; % yield; waste and energy management

environmental scientist or advisor river pollution; pH; land pollution; global monitoring;
soil science; fertilisers

alternative energy consultant carbon economy; future fuels; energy transformations,


sustainable development; insulation; fossil fuels; alternative energy

analytical physics laboratory physicist properties of materials; measurements; accuracy;


observations

polymer/plastics scientist properties of plastics; water resistance; weathering properties;


flexibility; strength; raw materials; quality control; research; % yield; additives

medical physicist radiography; laser science; x-rays; MRI; electromagnetic spectrum

oil manufacturing or refinery manager fractional distillation; cracking; future fuels;


bitumen; petrol; methane, pentane, propane, butane; calor gas; raw material; quality control;
% yield; waste and energy management

oil chemical company by-product chemist organic chemicals, acids; alkalis; soaps,
soapless detergents, polymers; raw material, quality control; pilot scale, research, % yield;
waste and energy management

construction/engineering scientists thermal and sound insulation; energy sustainability;


lighting; forces; properties of materials; energetics; rates of reactions; porosity; damp proof
courses, capillarity; efflorescence; erosion; corrosion; electricity

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2
July 2006

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water company environmental scientist or water quality control scientist testing water;
pH; purity; soluble salts; distilled water; evaporation; solubility; suspended particles;
transparency; purification; chlorine; fluorine; heavy metals; filtration; pollution; hard and soft
water; soapless detergents; surface tension, microbes

textile manufacture production manager or quality control technician smart materials;


fibres; flexibility; dyes; strength; pigments; raw materials; quality control; transitional metals;
% yield

cosmetics or beauty therapy scientist anatomy; physiology; organic solvents; solubility;


texture; viscosity; evaporation; purity; nanochemistry creams/lotions; pigments; dyes; opacity;
colloids; quality control; pH; acids; alkalis; refractive index; raw materials; quality control,
pilot scale, research; % yield

firefighting science consultant organic solvents; fireproof clothing; foams; fireextinguishing chemicals; chlorinated solvents; combustion; combustion products;
exothermic/endothermic reactions; rates of reaction; inflammability

sports scientist anatomy; physiology; carbon fibres; smart materials; nanotechnology;


polymers; textiles; waterproofing; flexibility; strength; thermal response materials; wind
response materials; moisture response material; porosity.

Exemplar Activities and Assignments Briefs


The activities and (or) assignment briefs are provided for units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11. A number of
assignment briefs (not all assignment briefs) have:

14

a typical exemplar header /front sheet (a template is given in Annexe 4 that can be adapted for
centre use)

a tutor information section showing alternative scenarios or additional sources of information


and

a practical information work sheet that could be used to complete one or more tasks in the
assignment briefs.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 1: Scientific Principles Exemplar activities and assignments

Introduction
One of the aims of this unit is to ensure that every learner covers some key concepts of chemistry,
physics, biology and standardised systems of measurement.

Formative activities

Activity 1 The importance of units of measurement and accuracy


Science technicians or practitioners in industry and in hospitals are required to measure out liquids to a
degree of accuracy required for the task eg measuring out a liquid medicine for a patient.
Ask the learners to measure out 25 cm3 of water in a beaker, a measuring cylinder, a burette and a
pipette. Weigh each of them (by difference) on a balance in grammes, make a comparison of the
masses obtained and calculate the % accuracy of each measurement.

Activity 2 The periodic table


It is important that technicians have a knowledge of the periodic table and the properties of commonly
used elements, eg elements are used as starting materials in the chemical industry to manufacture
heavy bulk chemicals (nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur to produce ammonia and sulphuric acid for
example). Learners could carry out an activity to identify the symbols of elements in the periodic
table which are metals and non-metals and the history of some examples.

Activity 3 The importance of cooling curves

It is important that an industrial chemist has an accurate knowledge of the melting points of
solid products to establish their purity. The melting point (or freezing point) can be used for
the quality control of different batches of the same chemical products.
Sharp melting point pure product Wide range melting point impure product. Learners could also be
asked to look up the literature melting point of stearic acid.
Melting points can also be important in the use of plastics to ensure they do not melt when
transporting hot liquids.
Learners can carry out a cooling curve to measure the melting point of a substance
(eg stearic acid).

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2
July 2006

15

Activity 4 Naming of chemical substances


The IUPAC system is used throughout the world as a reference for naming chemical substances. It is
important that scientists and practitioners can communicate with each other using the same naming
system, using the same symbols for elements.
Learners can be given a series of labels with element names/symbols of a mix of metal elements and
non-metal elements and compound names ending in ide or -ate.
They can use the labels to put together some examples of common compound names with one metal
element and one non-metal element, and name the compound using the:

metal element name before the non-metal element name and

changing the non-metal elements name to end in ide eg

Metal element name

Non-metal element name

Calcium

Oxygen

Ca

Change name of nonmetal element in


compound

Calcium

Oxide

Compound name

Calcium Oxide

Formula

CaO

Common name

Lime

Symbols for elements

This could then be extended to one metal element and two non-metal elements (including oxygen) to
end in ate.

16

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 1: Scientific Principles

Exemplar assignment brief 1

Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Assignment title:

Ref:

Using the correct scientific units

Learner name
Start date:

Deadline:

Unit 1: Scientific Principles


Scenario
It is very important for all science employers in the UK and around the world to be able to communicate
with each other using the correct scientific units.
To help this process a common terminology of common units has been devised. Standard common units are
used to enable science employees to make measurements and carry out calculations correctly and
accurately.
As a new science employee in the food manufacturing industry, you have been asked to complete the
following tasks to get a good understanding of the scientific units and their applications:
Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:

U1

P1:

use SI units with quantities and amounts when describing and using
scientific concepts

M1:

use SI units and conversions to multiples and sub-multiples or vice versa


within a scientific context

D1:

use SI units and conversions to multiples and sub-multiples or vice versa


within different scientific contexts

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2
July 2006

17

Using the correct scientific units


Unit 1 learning outcome 1 Understand the need for standardised systems of measurements
and communication within the world of science to allow a common interpretation of findings
and recordings.

Unit content covered:


SI units: Seven fundamental and derived units; multiples and sub-multiples; standard
form; terminology as relevant to each of the following quantities: length, area, volume,
time, mass, temperature, force, velocity, energy, power, pressure
Scalar and vector quantities: mass and weight; speed and velocity.

Task 1
Research information from a recommended textbook, website or other information source
about scientific units and their conversion, to assist you in completing the following tasks.
Check that your information sources cover the unit content shown above.

Task 2
Complete the following task about scientific units:

define what is meant by a unit

list the seven base units and the symbols used for them and give three examples of
units that are derived from the base units.

Task 3

Using the base SI unit for length carry out an investigation to measure out the floor
area of a science laboratory

Weigh out 1 litre (1000 cm3 or 1 dm3 ) of water and state its mass using the correct
base SI units.

Convert the mass of water above into weight in Newtons.

Is mass a scalar or vector quantity? Explain your answer.

Measure the temperature of tap water using a thermometer and state its temperature in
the SI base unit.

Using a viscometer (or a large glass measuring cylinder) filled with a suitable viscous
liquid (eg oil) measure the time taken for a ball bearing to travel the whole distance
through the liquid. Calculate the average speed (in the appropriate SI derived units) of
the ball bearing.
P1

Task 4
In terms of sub-multiple and multiple units, describe what is meant by the prefixes: mega-,
kilo-, centi-, milli- , micro- and nano- . Give an example of each including the number
expressed in standard form.
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Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

A quality control technician in a food manufacturing industry needs to be familiar with submultiple and multiple units in order to measure weights, forces, energies and volumes of
materials. Carry out the typical conversions they would be asked to complete below.

Weigh a 250 cm3 beaker, add water up to the 250 cm3 graduation line/mark, re-weigh
the beaker with water and calculate the weight of the water. Express the weight of
water in the sub-multiple unit grammes and convert to the SI base unit kg.

Convert the following:


1

20 mm into m

6 km into m

100 J into kJ

5.2 kg into g

220 g into kg

2500 cm2 into m2

7
8
9

520 cm3 into litres(dm3)


kN into N
120 W into kW

10 2.2 litres into cm3.

M1

Task 5
A production manager in a food science company needs to be able to measure and convert
multiple and sub-multiple units into SI base units and vice versa. Complete the following
conversions:
1

3.6 tonnes into kg

225 kg into tonnes

420 s into min

12 min into s

450oC into K

298 K into C

5000 litres into m3

2.5 m3 into litres

D1

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P1:

use SI units with quantities and amounts when describing and using scientific
concepts

M1:

use SI units and conversions to multiples and sub-multiples or vice versa within a
scientific context

D1:

use SI units and conversions to multiples and sub-multiples or vice versa within
different scientific contexts.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First


Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

Tutor information
Alternative method of collecting evidence
Evidence to satisfy Unit 1 P1 to D1 grading criteria could be obtained from other
units where scientific units and there conversion are used. This could be for example
an assignment that includes a practical investigation or a calculation etc.
Alternative scenarios

A scenario could be used in the context of a weights and measures inspector


where learners would be asked to check a number of consumer good/materials
for their weight or measurement, eg the measures given out in public houses,
petrol stations, coal distributors, drug dispensers and vegetable markets.This
could involve learners checking weights and measures.
A scenario could be given where a writer for a scientific publisher has been
asked to produce an easy to use booklet or a poster(s) on scientific units and
their conversion.

Sources of information

Relevant parts of Annexe 2 (A learners guide to SI units and their conversion) in this
publication can be used to as an information source for learners.
Signs, Symbols and Systematics The ASE Companion to 516 Science (2000)
ISBN: 0863573126

Website
www.nwml.gov.uk National Weights and Measures Laboratory

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Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 2: Science and the World of Work Exemplar Assignment


brief 1
Introduction to assignment brief
Science technicians or assistant practitioners working in a laboratory need an understanding
and an awareness of how their role and the section/department they work in fits within the
overall company structure/organisation. They also need to know the relationship between the
company and the scientific and local community.

Scenario
Tasks 1 and 2 are based on any organisation that uses science that you have chosen. You need
to be familiar with this organisation. You will need to consult with your tutor when choosing
the organisation. This is essential to ensure that your selected organisation is appropriate to
meet grading criteria requirements of this unit.
Carry out a study of any organisation that uses science. The organisation you choose could
provide a service such as:
an environmental health office
a hospital laboratory
a water supply company.
Or the organisation could use science to make a product such as:
a pharmaceutical company
a factory making food products or materials
a factory making mechanical, optical, electrical, electronic or computer equipment.
The organisation might be one near to your school or college, one you have been to on work
placement, one you have visited, or one you have studied through annual reports or websites.
During your study, you should collect as much information as you can about the organisation.
You will need to organise the information carefully to help show what you have found out.
This assignment brief covers all four outcomes and all the content of the unit.
Task 1
1a
Illustrate the aims, structure and functions of a science based organisation or an organisation
that uses science. Is the organisation profit or non-profit making? Does the organisation
provide a service or make a product? Use flow charts and diagrams to illustrate the structure
of the organisation. What are the functions of the different departments of the organisation?
P1
1b
Describe how the different departments of the organisation work together, explaining how the
products or services that are provided contribute to society.
M1

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First


Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

1c
Describe the advantages and disadvantages that the organisation has for the lives of people in
the area and for the general public. You should consider the effect on the local economy and
on employment opportunities. You should consider the effect of the organisation on the local
environment, such as transport and road usage, air quality, water and waste management.
D1
Task 2
2a
Investigate and describe one scientific product or service provided by your selected
organisation.

P2

2b
Describe why the scientific product or service is suitable for the purpose it is designed for.
M2
2c
Compare the product or service with the same or a similar product or service from a
competing organisation.

D2

Task 3
This task requires you to carry out a practical investigation. You should consult with your
tutor at all stages of the practical activities. Your tutor will need to see your plans before you
begin. You will also need to select equipment and materials to be used and carry out a risk
assessment. You must record all results from your practical work and show how you used
them to draw conclusions.
3a
Identify one of the main scientific processes that are used to make the product or supply the
service you have investigated. Investigate this process by carrying out a practical
investigation in the laboratory. Provide evidence of practical work you have carried out that
demonstrates the selected process.
P3
3b
Use your practical work to help you identify the scientific principles involved in making the
product or supplying the service.
M3
3c
Use equations, formulas and diagrams, where appropriate, to explain the scientific principles
involved in making the product or supplying the service.
D3

22

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Task 4
This task requires that you investigate a scientific topic that is reported through the media.
Select a topic of scientific interest reported by radio, television or through newspapers and
magazines. The reports could be on for example, global warming; evolution, creationism and
intelligent design; stem cell production; or genetically modified crops. Look at some reports
and choose two that express different opinions on the topic you have chosen.
4a
Identify the topic that you have selected. Identify the opinions being reported. Identify the
sources and dates of your media reports.
P4
4b
For the two chosen reports, describe the opinions being reported and any particular influence
on the writers of the reports. The influences on the opinions being expressed could be
political, social, economic or technological.
M4
4c
Use evidence from the reports to form your own opinion about the topic of scientific interest
that you have selected. Give your opinion and explain the aspects of the reports that have
helped you form this opinion.
D4
Task 5
The knowledge gained through the applications of science and other discoveries allows the
development of many new technologies. The subsequent use of any such new technologies
requires innovation, invention and investment. For example, the quantum theory led to semiconductor development, and the development of LASER technology; materials technologists
have developed composite materials such as Kevlar and carbon fibre based materials;
chemists have developed new molecular structures such as Buckminister Fullerenes, etc.
5a
Select and identify an enabling technology that has been developed through the application of
science. List some effects of the use of application of your chosen scientific technology on
our quality of life and standard of living. Identify at least six different effects. Consider
whether they were immediate or delayed effects.
P5
5b
Describe how the quality of life and standard of living has been affected by the use of your
enabling technology. Use examples to support your descriptions.
M1
5c
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the use of your selected enabling technology on
our quality of life and standard of living.
D5

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First


Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

Task 6
Select a recent (recent in the sense of it having occurred during the industrialised age)
science-based event in the world. Investigate the scientific knowledge involved; the
technologies involved and how they have developed (and may still be developing); and how it
was made to work. Consider any investment, innovation invention (if relevant) that was
involved. Consider items and possibilities that were not considered or may have been
overlooked. Events might include, for example, Sinclair C5, high speed trains, the Channel
Tunnel, the Millennium Dome, mobile phones, internet, ozone layer and CFCs, Apollo
missions, the hubble space telescope, food and genetic research, artificial limbs, transplant
surgery, organic food as opposed to pesticides, river pollution, genetic defects, etc.
6a
Identify your selected science-based event. Identify whether there was a particular innovation
or source of investment or both that helped the event to occur. Identify the particular
aspect of technology and engineering that enabled the selected scientific event to occur.
P6
6b
Describe the innovation or source of investment that helped the scientific event to occur.
Describe the particular enabling aspect of technology and engineering.
M6
6c
Describe the beneficiaries of the scientific event, describe whether or not all people have
benefited. Describe whether or not technology and engineering have gained from the
scientific event. Describe whether or not the costs of investment in the scientific event were
worth the benefits.
D6
All grade criteria in the unit are covered by this assignment.

Tutor information
Sources of information
Materials
KS4 Applied Science Scientists at work

Websites

www.4science.org.uk

GlaxoSmithKline

www.gsk.com/careers

Association of the British Pharmaceutical


Industry

www.abpi-careers.org.uk

Association for Science Education

www.ase.org.uk

The Forensic Science Service

www.forensic.gov.uk

Science Engineering and Manufacturing


Technologies Alliance

www.semta.org.uk

Careers in Science

www.gcseappliedscience.com

Learning and Skills network

www.vocationallearning.org.uk

24

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Section on Science and Engineering


Ambassadors

www.setnet.org.uk

Case studies
Johnson Mathey http://360science.edexcel.org.uk/home/btecqual/btecfirst/
Brunner Mond http://360science.edexcel.org.uk/home/btecqual/btecfirst/

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First


Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

Unit 3: Exemplar assignments Briefs and activities Chemistry


Applications
Introduction
Unit 3 is designed to encourage an experimental approach to chemistry. It also encourages
consideration of how the theory underlying chemical reactions is used in process operation in the
applied chemistry sector. Included are investigations of the making and breaking of bonds, the
reversibility of reactions, and of the factors influencing the rates at which reactions take place.
It is intended that learners should become familiar with the key concepts by working with real data,
whether collected from individual or group experiments or supplied by the tutor from literature
sources. Discussion of the application of the results of such laboratory investigations to the design of
industrial processes should be included.
The approach is not intended to be very mathematical. First Certificate and Diploma learners may not
have studied mathematical techniques, particularly the rearrangement of complex formulae, so they
should be supplied with those equations required for data analysis. Many of the required analyses can
be achieved graphically, ideally through use of spreadsheets.
Some of the exemplar assignments include a completed header/front sheet, a learner brief containing
the tasks to be completed, and a practical worksheet. Other exemplar assignments may contain
reference to support materials where relevant.

Formative Activities
Activity 1 Hydration
This activity can be carried out in the context of a scientist working in a quality control laboratory in
the construction industry, checking the exothermic behaviour of samples of cement.
Learners could also investigate the temperature rise and rate of reaction of Ordinary Portland Cement
(OPC) and Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (RHPC) with water in the laboratory and comment on
the role of cement in the production of concrete or mortar. They could also compare this to the
reaction with hemihydrate plaster with water.

Activity 2 Surface Area


A pharmaceutical company is deciding whether or not to produce and sell a product in tablet form or
as a powder. The product is water soluble and is an antacid. How long would consumers want to wait
for the product to dissolve in the water and how does this relate to surface area and shape (or in
powder form) of the product?
Investigate the effect of surface area on rate of reaction by adding the same mass of an alka-seltzer
tablet and the powdered form to water.
Science Experiments from Alka-Seltzer
26

www.alkaseltzer.com/as/experiment/studentsexperiment.htm

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First


Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications Exemplar assignment brief 1


Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Assignment
title:

Investigating exothermic and endothermic


reactions

Learner name
Start date:

Ref:

Deadline:

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications


Scenario
As a research technician in a bulk chemical company (Chemtex) you have been asked to investigate:

a new reaction to produce salt that gives out heat energy


a new reaction between citric acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate that absorbs heat energy from the
surroundings.

The head of the pilot scale department has been asked to scale up these two reactions in readiness for
production to sell the bulk chemicals for the UK and overseas markets. He also wants to know about any
scaling up effects in terms of the amount of heat released or absorbed during the two reactions. This could
affect the design of the chemical plant required to produce bulk quantities and health and safety/risk issues
with regards to the technical plant operators and causing fires.
Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:

U3

P3:

carry out investigations to collect primary data to define what is meant by


exothermic and endothermic reactions

M3:

using examples of suitable investigations, collect primary data and describe


the differences between exothermic and endothermic reactions

D3:

explain the processes involved exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

27

Investigating exothermic and endothermic reactions


Unit 3 Learning outcome 2: understand the factors involved in chemical reactions
Unit content covered:
Exothermic and endothermic reactions: heat evolved or absorbed; bond breaking and bond making
reactions, eg heat of neutralisation and combustion; energy calculations with given formulae; use of
data logging.

Task 1
Research information from a recommended textbook, website or other information source about
exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions to assist you in writing your report and providing
evidence to show your understanding of exothermic and endothermic reactions. Check that your
information sources cover the unit content shown above.

Task 2
Using the practical handouts provided, carry out the investigation into the heat of neutralisation of an
acid and an alkali, eg. hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. Measure the maximum
temperature change during the reaction (use a temperature sensor attached to a computer if available,
in place of a thermometer to plot a graph of temperature against time) and use this information to
calculate the energy change.

Task 3
Using the practical handouts provided carry out a similar investigation to measure the temperature
change when reacting citric acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate solution.

P3
Task 4
Using the information that you have gathered from your research and from the above exothermic and
endothermic reactions, describe the difference in these reactions.
M3
Task 5
Explain the processes involved in exothermic and endothermic reactions, using the two reactions you
have investigated as examples.
D3
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:
P3:

carry out investigations to collect primary data to define what is meant by exothermic and
endothermic reactions

M3:

using examples of suitable investigations collect primary data and describe the differences
between exothermic and endothermic reactions

D3:

explain the processes involved in exothermic and endothermic reactions.

28

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Investigating exothermic and endothermic reactions


Assignment Brief Practical Information Sheet

Safety
Wear protective eye protection. The solutions used are irritants.
Apparatus required:

thermometer
plastic cups or beakers
measuring cylinders.

Thermometer

Plastic beaker or cup


Reaction mixture

Chemicals required:

dilute hydrochloric acid 20 cm3 0.4 mol dm-3


dilute sodium hydroxide solution 20 cm3 0.4 mol dm-3
dilute sodium hydrogen carbonate solution 20 cm3 0.4 mol dm-3
four spatula measures of citric acid.

Method
Set up the apparatus ready to record the temperature changes.
Using the measuring cylinder, place 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution in the
beaker (or plastic cup), and record the temperature. Add 20 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric
acid whilst stirring the combined solutions in the beaker and record the altered
temperature.
Using the measuring cylinder, place 20 cm3 of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution in
the beaker (or plastic cup), and record the temperature. Add four spatula measures of
citric acid whilst stirring the combined reaction mixture in the beaker and record the
maximum or minimum temperature.
Complete the table below:

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

29

Reaction

Temperature
before
mixing/oC

Maximum or Minimum
temperature after
mixing/oC

Exothermic
or
Endothermic

Sodium hydroxide solution +


dilute hydrochloric acid
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
solution + citric acid

Calculation
Use the given equation:
E = - m c(T final T initial)

where m is the mass of mixture in moles


c = specific heat capacity of water
T final = maximum or minimum temperature
T initial = temperature before mixing.

Tutor Information
Alternative scenarios to cover the exothermic reaction part of the criteria:

chemist working for an energy company researching the amount of energy given off using
different alcohol fuels

working for the firefighting services measuring the amount of energy given off using
different alcohol fuels.

Reference: see pages 219 221 Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of Chemistry
2000) ISBN- 0854049193
Sources of information

30

Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000) ISBN


0854049193
School Chemistry Experiments (ASE, 2001) ISBN 0863573266

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications Exemplar assignment brief 2


Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Atomic structure and the chemistry of the elements
and their compounds

Assignment title:

Learner name
Start date:

Ref:

Deadline:

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications


Scenario
It is important for analytical chemical technologists and forensic scientists to be able to identify patterns and
trends in metallic and non-metallic elements in the periodic table.
It is also important for them to understand how reactive certain elements are and the properties of their
ionic, covalent and/or metallically bonded substances.
This understanding helps them in their role when testing and analysing materials found at a crime scene or
an environment pollution spillage or in the detection of substances in food or water supplies.
You have been asked to investigate the electronic and atomic structures of certain elements and to
describe/explain patterns and trends that you have found.
Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:

U3

P1:

describe atomic and electronic structures of elements 1-20, including isotopes,


in the periodic table

M1:

describe the patterns and trends of chemical properties of groups 1 and 7 in the
periodic table

D1:

explain the patterns and trends within groups 1 and 7 in the periodic table.

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

31

Unit 3 learning outcome 1: Know how atomic structure relates to the properties of the elements and
compounds.
Unit content covered:
Atomic and electronic structure: nucleons and electron shells; relationship to the elements 1 to 20 in
periodic table; isotopes, eg hydrogen, chlorine.

Task 1
Using diagrams, describe the atomic/electronic structures of the elements hydrogen, helium, lithium,
nitrogen, fluorine, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, carbon, oxygen, chlorine, neon and calcium
(a) In your description include information on the number of charges of the sub-atomic particles
in each of the atoms.
(b) Some elements have more than one type of atom. What are these different types of atoms
called and describe the difference between two atoms of chlorine.
P1

Task 2
Relate the number of electrons in the outer shells of group 1 and group 7 to their group number
and the distance of the outer electrons from the nucleus.

Task 3
(a) Carry out a practical investigation into to investigate the reactivity of the elements within
group 7 of the periodic table, using the attached practical worksheets.
(b) Describe any patterns and trends of chemical properties that you have observed from your
practical investigation.
(c) Describe any patterns and trends that you have found of chemical properties within group 1 of
the periodic table.
M1

Task 4
Explain the patterns and trends within groups 1 and 7 in the period table.
D1

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P1:

describe atomic and electronic structures of elements 120, including isotopes, in the periodic
table

M1:

describe the patterns and trends of chemical properties of groups 1 and 7 in the periodic table

D1:

explain the patterns and trends within groups 1 and 7 in the periodic table.

32

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Tutor information
Sources of information

Classical Chemistry Experiments see page 46 (Reactions of halogens) and page 230
(Halogen compounds) Royal Society of Chemistry ISBN 0854049193

School Chemistry Experiments (ASE 2001) ISBN 0863573266

Demonstrations

Microscale gas chemistry chlorine and oxygen gases for information and
practicals/demonstrations from the website: www.mattson.creighton.edu

a demonstration or video could be used to show the reactivity of the alkali metals with water
RSC Classical Demonstrations 72 and 76

Websites

individual element information from www.webelements.com

individual element information from www.chemicool.com/

individual elements information from www.periodic.lanl.gov/

visual elements from www.chemsoc.org

individual elements and groups from www.chemicalelements.com

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

33

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications - Exemplar assignment brief 3


Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Assignment title:

Investigating the properties of materials

Learner name
Start date:

Ref:

Deadline:

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications


Scenario
Quality control technicians and fire fighting science investigators need a background knowledge of the
properties of their ionic, covalent and or metallically bonded substances.
The quality control technician needs the practical skills to analyse materials that are being produced and to
confirm that they are pure enough to be sold. The fire fighting science investigator needs to analyse the
residues left from a fire and find out what they were originally made of and ascertain what started the fire.
You have been asked to investigate the properties of some sample materials to gain an understanding of
their properties ( eg do they dissolve in water? Do they conduct electricity? ) and how the atomic particles
in the materials are bonded together.
Assessment Evidence:
Unit
Grading Criteria
The grading criteria that this activity relates to:

U3

P2:

investigate and describe ionic, covalent and metallic bonds

M2:

investigate and describe the difference in properties of substances with ionic,


covalent and metallic bonded substances

D2:

explain bonding in terms of stability a means of achieving a full outer shell


either by transferring or sharing electrons.

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

34

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 3 learning outcome 1: Know how atomic structure relates to the properties of the elements and
compounds.
Unit content covered:
Chemical properties: graduation in properties in group 1 and group 7 relationship with electronic
configuration; reactivity with water; displacement reactions
Bonding: ionic; covalent; dative covalent; metallic bonding; dot and cross diagrams; electron shell
diagrams; properties and applications of ionic and covalent compounds, eg group 1 salts, diamond,
graphite, oxygen, chlorine.

Task 1
Carry out a practical investigation into the properties of ionic (group 1 salts), covalent (to include
oxygen, chlorine, graphite and diamond) and metallically bonded substances. This can be done by
investigating:

their solubility in water and organic solvent


their conductance of electricity.

The investigation also needs to include learners researching information about physical states and
literature values for melting and boiling points.

Task 2

Carry out a model making investigation to explore the shapes and bonding of simple covalently
bonded molecules, eg hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, water, chlorine, oxygen, methane, ethane,
ethene and carbon dioxide.

Investigate the structures of ionically bonded, giant macromolecular covalently bonded and
metallically bonded substances by examining models of structures.

Relate the structures and shapes of the simple covalently bonded materials, giant macromolecular
covalent materials, ionically bonded materials and metallically bonded materials to their physical
states, melting and boiling points, solubility and properties.

Task 3

Using the information that you have gathered in the tasks above, draw and describe electronic
shell diagrams and dot and cross diagrams of oxygen, chlorine and sodium chloride. Draw
and describe the macromolecular structures of diamond and graphite.
P2

Using the information, explain the difference in properties of substances with ionic, covalent
and metallically bonded substances. This may be best achieved by using a table of examples
and their properties. Include an application of an ionic, covalent and metallic bonded
substance.
M2

Using the dot and cross diagrams and electronic shell diagrams explain how ionic and
covalent substances achieve stability either by transferring or sharing electrons.
D2

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The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P2:

investigate and describe ionic, covalent and metallic bonds

M2:

investigate and describe the difference in properties of substances with ionic, covalent and
metallically bonded substances

D2:

explain bonding in terms of stability - a means of achieving a full outer shell either by
transferring or sharing electrons

Tutor information

Other practical experiments

The learners could prepare sodium chloride before testing its solubility. This could also be
done using a titration as an analysis technique. See page 121 Titration of dilute hydrochloric
acid and sodium hydroxide solution in Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of
Chemistry) ISBN 0854049193

Preparation and properties of oxygen See page 25 in Classical Chemistry Experiments


(Royal Society of Chemistry) ISBN 0854049193

An experiment on melting points or boiling points could be carried out to gain an


understanding of the concept (including sharp and wide ranging melting points as a guide to
purity). See page 64 Melting and Freezing Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society
of Chemistry) ISBN 0854049193

An experiment could be carried out as a part of Task 1 Electricity from Chemicals see page
15 Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of Chemistry) ISBN 0854049193

School Chemistry Experiments (ASE 2001) ISBN 0863573266

Demonstration

36

Microscale gas chemistry chlorine and oxygen gases (Task 1) for information and
practicals/demonstrations - from the website: www.mattson.creighton.edu

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications - Exemplar assignment brief 4


Investigating the rates of chemical reactions
Scenario
It is important for a manufacturing chemist to know how quickly a product can be produced and the
amount of product that will be obtained at the end of the reaction (known as the percentage yield). It is
also important to produce the product as effectively and efficiently as possible using the least number
of stages (using the atom economy concept).
The production chemist will have targets to meet and will need to produce the product with as high a
yield as possible in the shortest period of time.
The rate of reaction can be used to describe how quickly a reaction takes place and be affected by a
number of different factors that can be altered to speed up or slow down the reaction. Sometimes
producing a product more quickly can reduce the yield, although it can save energy costs. A decision
has to be made about which is the most important in terms of:

getting the product to market


all the costs involved
amount of yield and
health and safety factors.

In this assignment you will investigate

the factors that effect the rate of two reactions


report on the effects of reversible reactions.

Investigating the rates of chemical reactions


Unit 3 learning outcome 2 understanding the factors involved in chemical reactions.
Unit content covered:
Reaction rates: effect of catalysts; surface area; concentration and temperature; use of reaction rate
graphs and data logging.
Task 1
Research information from a recommended textbook, website or other information source about the
factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions. Check that your information sources cover the unit
content shown above.

Task 2
Investigate the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid at different
temperatures. The rate of reaction is measured by placing a black cross on white paper under the
reaction and recording when the black cross is no longer visible. The rate of reaction is dependent on
the rate at which the sulphur precipitate concentrates enough to block out the black cross.
Use the same reaction to investigate the changes in the rate of reaction using different concentrations
of sodium thiosulphate solution.
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Task 3
(a)

Investigate the effects of different catalysts on a reaction to show how different catalysts can
change the rate of a reaction.

(b)

Investigate a reversible reaction which changes colour to show in which direction the reaction
is taking place and describe what is meant by dynamic equilibrium.

Task 4
Using the primary data collected in task 2 and 3 identify the factors effecting reaction rates and
reversible reactions.
Task 5
Describe how the factors affect reaction rates and reversible reactions.

P4

M4

Task 6
Investigate the industrial reversible reaction known as the Haber process. Evaluate how the different
factors affect the rate of this reaction.
D4

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P4:

investigate and use primary data to identify the factors affecting reaction rates and reversible
reactions

M4:

investigate the use of primary data and describe how factors affect reaction rates and
reversible reactions

D4:

use primary data to evaluate how the different factors affect reaction rates for a given
industrial reaction.

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Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate


Assignment Brief Practical Information Sheet
Introduction
In this experiment the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and
hydrochloric acid is investigated.
Timing about 60 minutes
Description Sodium thiosulphate solution is reacted with acid, a precipitate of sulphur forms. The
time taken for a certain amount of sulphur to form is used to indicate the rate of the reaction. The
effect of temperature on the rate of reaction can be investigated.
Apparatus and equipment (per group):

250cm3 conical flask


10cm3 measuring cylinder
50cm3 measuring cylinder.

Chemicals (per group)

sodium thiosulphate solution


hydrochloric acid

40gm dm-3
2 mol dm-3 (irritant).

Tutor information
The experiment is best understood when the teacher demonstrates it first. The endpoint can be
measured with a light sensor connected to a data-logger.
A light sensor set up as a colorimeter and connected to a computer can be used to monitor the
precipitation clamp a light sensor against a plastic cuvette filled with the reactants. The result, in the
form of graphs on the computer, provides very useful material for analysis using data logging
software. The software shows the change on a graph and this tends to yield more detail than the
endpoint approach used in this experiment. The rate of change can be measured from the graph slope
or the time taken for a change to occur.

Safety
Wear eye protection. Sulphur dioxide (toxic gas) forms as a by-product. Ensure good ventilation.
Warn asthmatics, who should preferably use a fume cupboard.
As soon as the reaction is complete, pour the solutions away, preferably into the fume cupboard sink.
Wash away with plenty of water. This is particularly important with solutions used at higher
temperatures.

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Diagram and apparatus

Thermometer
Beaker

Sodium thiosulphate
solution

Sodium
Thiosulphate and
dilute hydrochloric
acid

Sodium
thiosulphate

Tripod

Bunsen burner
Conical
flask
from
above

Dilute
hydrochloric
acid

Results
Record your results in the table.
Initial
temperature of
the mixture in
the flask/C

Final
temperature of
the mixture in
the flask/C

Average
temperature of
the mixture in
the flask/C

Time taken for


the cross to
disappear/s

1/time taken/s-1

Method
1
2
3
4
5
6

40

Put 10 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate solution and 40 cm3 of water into a conical flask. Measure
5 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid in a small measuring cylinder.
Warm the thiosulphate solution in the flask if necessary to bring it to the required temperature.
The object is to repeat the experiment five times with temperatures in the range 1565C.
Put the conical flask over a piece of paper with a cross drawn on it.
Add the acid and start the clock. Swirl the flask to mix the solutions and place it on a piece of
white paper marked with a cross. Take the initial temperature of the mixture.
Look down at the cross from above. When the cross disappears stop the clock and note the
time taken. Record the final temperature of the mixture in the flask.
As soon as possible, poor the solution down the sink (in the fume cupboard if possible) and
wash away.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Safety
Wear eye protection. Take care not to inhale fumes.
Results, calculations and graphs
1
2

For each set of results, calculate the value of 1/time. (This value can be taken as a measure of
the rate of reaction for this experiment).
Plot a graph of 1/time on the vertical (y) axis and average temperature on the horizontal (x)
axis.

Tutor information
Other Practical Experiments

The effect of temperature on reaction rate page 159 Classical Chemistry Experiments
(Royal Society of Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

The effect of concentration on reaction rate page 162 Classical Chemistry Experiments
(Royal Society of Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

Catalysis page 145 and The effect of concentration on reaction rate page 159
Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

An oscillating reaction page 140 and The effect of concentration on reaction rate page
159 Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of Chemistry 2000) ISBN
0854049193

Rate of reaction see page 73 of Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of


Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

Sources of Information

School Chemistry Experiments (ASE, 2001) ISBN 0863573266

Alchemy? Chemistry and Industrial Processes for Schools and Colleges (Royal Society of
Chemistry and GlaxoSmithKline) CD ROM 2002

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Unit 3: Chemistry Applications - Exemplar assignment brief 5


Investigating important organic compounds used in society
.

Scenario
Science journals publish articles that are topical, are scientifically correct (at the time of being
published) and give any information about both benefits and disadvantages to society.
Editors/technical advisers working for a science journal need to have a good understanding of ethical
and moral issues that apply to science and society.
Organic compounds have had a history of being both essential to society to maintain our standard of
living and having a number of disadvantages in their useage to society and the environment. This has
led to a number of ethical and moral issues and pressures put on different governments to stop
disastrous events happening again.
A science journal wants its technical adviser to prepare and report on the properties of examples of the
three major types of organic compounds, their uses, any environmental consequences and sustainable
development issues of using them in society.

Investigating important organic compounds used in society


Unit 3 learning outcome 3 Know the importance of organic chemistry.
Unit content covered:
Organic compounds: definition; organic chemicals; carbon cycle
Hydrocarbons: petroleum cracking; alkanes and alkenes (methane, butane, pentane and octane,
and ethene); 2D structures; shapes; applications of hydrocarbons; polymerisation of ethene and its
applications
Halogen-containing organic compounds: chloroethene; polymerisation of chloroethene (PVC and
PVCu) and its applications
Oxygen-containing organic groups: alcohols (ethanol); carboxylic acids (ethanoic); structures;
physical properties and combustion; applications ethanol, eg alcoholic drinks, biofuels, cosmetics,
inks, coatings; applications of ethanoic acid, eg pickling, manufacture of esters.

Task 1
Research and collect information from suitable sources about the uses of:

42

hydrocarbons to include alkanes and alkenes


oxygen containing organic compounds to include ethanol and ethanoic acid
halogen containing organic compounds to include chloroethene.

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Task 2
Use the practical investigation worksheets provided to confirm properties of alkanes, alkenes, alcohols
and carboxylic acids. This can include tests such as pH, solubility in water, tests with bromine water
(for alkanes/alkenes), flame test in a fume cupboard to test for sootiness and addition of ethanol to
ethanoic acid to produce the ester ethyl ethanoate.

Task 3
Use this information to describe the use of the three main types of organic compounds used in society.
P5

Task 4

Produce a table to list the benefits and disadvantages of using the above organic compounds in
society.
M5

Task 5

Produce and present a poster that evaluates the importance of the above organic compound used in
society.
D5
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:
P5:

investigate and describe the use of three main types of organic compounds used in society

M5:

explain the benefits and disadvantages of using organic compounds in society

D5:

evaluate the importance of organic compounds used in society.

Tutor information
Delivery should emphasise the nature of organic substances, their uses and effects on the environment.
This topic overlaps learning outcome 1 of this unit and learning outcome 3 in Unit 1, where formulae,
bonding and shapes of molecules are covered.
The learners could be given an assignment to investigate the alkane and alkene homologies series, and
their uses (to include polymerisation and petroleum cracking).
A simple test tube practical investigation could be carried out to demonstrate the differences in
properties of alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Simple reactions of alkanes, alkenes, acids, alcohols and carboxlyic acids need to be covered.
The study of environmental issues can be covered through investigation of organic chlorides, recycling
plastics, greenhouse gas production by burning fossil fuels, ozone depletion, sustainable development.

Sources of Information
Practical Experiments

The properties of ethanoic acid see page 199 of Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal
Society of Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

Properties of alcohols see page 201 of Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society of
Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

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Cracking hydrocarbons see page 247 of Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society
of Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

Addition polymerisation see page 245 of Classical Chemistry Experiments (Royal Society
of Chemistry 2000) ISBN 0854049193

Sources of Information

Alchemy? Chemistry and Industrial Processes for Schools and Colleges (Royal Society of
Chemistry and GlaxoSmithKline)

The Essential Chemistry Industry (Chemistry Industry Education Centre, 1999) ISBN
185342577X

Websites

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Global warming
www.globalclimate.org.uk
www.epa.gov

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 4: Physical Science Applications Exemplar Assignment Briefs


and Activities
Introduction
Formative activities
Activity 1 Sound Insulation amplitude
This activity could be carried out in an engineering, environmental or construction context, where a
scientist/technician can be asked to investigate the insulation properties of new or adapted materials.
Learners could investigate the sound insulation properties of different materials, eg expanded
polystyrene, wood, and glass, using a sound insulation box which has a loudspeaker connected to an
oscilloscope (learners could compare the amplitude of the source signal to that from the microphone or
use a decibel meter). Application: house insulation to reduce the noise levels produced by noisy
neighbours.

Activity 2 Sound Insulation frequency


This activity could be carried out in an engineering, environmental or construction context, where a
scientist/technician can be asked to investigate the insulation properties new or adapted materials.
Using the same sound box as in Activity 1, learners could investigate how the insulating properties of
a material change with the frequency of the sound wave. Alternatively, learners could investigate how
the thickness of a material affects the level of sound transmitted through it. Application: reduction of
bass frequencies.

Activity 3 Transformers
This activity could be carried out in the context of a scientist working for a power/energy company that
distributes electricity or for a company that manufactures electrical appliances.
Learners could investigate how the secondary voltage produced by a transformer depends on the
number of turns on the primary and secondary coils for a small, fixed alternative voltage applied to the
primary coil from a signal generator. Application: used in radios and TVs.

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Unit 4: Physical Science Applications - Exemplar assignment brief 1


Investigating energy transformations and communicating this information to
customers
Scenario
Scientists and technologists have been trying to find more efficient and effective ways of transforming
energy types.
A lot of research has taken place to try to provide energy to users (for domestic use and industrial use)
more effectively and more cheaply. Also, new technologies have been developed to devise more
efficient domestic appliances (eg energy saving light bulbs), the production and use of hot water in the
home (eg combination boilers) and use of alternative energy sources (eg wave power, wind turbines,
solar panels, solar lighting, geothermal power, hydrogen cars).
There are lots of examples where energy losses take place in different technologies such as
transforming:

electrical energy to light energy


heat energy to mechanical energy
chemical energy to electrical energy
nuclear energy to electrical energy
chemical energy to mechanical energy and
solar energy to electrical energy.

Some of these conversions take place in multiple stages where a lot of energy is lost in the process (eg
chemical > heat > mechanical > electrical).
An energy conservation technician/adviser within an energy supplier company has been asked to
research the latest ways of transforming energy efficiently. The information is going to be used to
communicate to customers that the company is environmentally friendly and is supportive of finding
new ways of saving energy.
Unit 4 learning outcome 1 understand the importance of energy and energy transfer.
Unit content covered:
Energy transfer: measurement; conservation eg solar to electrical to mechanical; chemical to
mechanical to electrical; efficiency calculations; economic costs; environmental effects.
Task 1
Research and gather information about two energy cycles where at least three of four transformations
are taking place in a domestic or industrial situation. The information could be obtained from a tutor
demonstration, a lesson, a recommended textbook, a website or another information source about
energy cycles. Check that your information sources cover the unit content shown above.
Use the information gathered to describe the energy cycles in diagrams and in writing.

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P1

Task 2
Explain situations involving the energy conversions and energy conservation within the energy cycles.
M1
Task 3
Calculate energy consumption and the efficiency of energy conversions in energy cycles.

D1

Task 4
Provide a report or use other media in preparation for presenting the information to customers.

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P1: describe the energy cycles in diagrams and in writing
M1: explain situations involving energy conversions and energy conservation within energy cycles
D1: calculate energy consumption and the efficiency of energy conversions in energy cycles.

Tutor information
Sources of Information
Websites

The National Grid

www.nationalgrid.co.uk/

REVOLT

www.revolt.co.uk

Electric and Magnetic Fields

www.emfs.info

The Institute of Physics Practical Physics

www.practicalphysics.org

Electric running costs/renewable energy

www.ukpower.co.uk/

Department of Trade and Industry Energy Sources

www.energyprojects.com

The Centre of Excellence for New and Renewable Energy

www.narec.co.uk

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Unit 4: Physical Science Applications - Exemplar assignment brief 2


Electrical sources, transmission and conversion
Scenario
A toy manufacturer uses mains electricity at its factory, this electricity is obtained from the local
substation.
The manufacturer has produced an electric toy that needs a battery or dynamo to operate it. The
manufacturer needs to identify the best type of battery or dynamo to use considering factors such as
how long the battery lasts and its cost. You are asked to identify the battery or dynamo that offers best
value for money from the different types and sizes available.
Unit 4 learning outcome 3 understand applications of electricity
Unit content covered:
Production: types of batteries, eg rechargeable, nickel hydride, non-rechargeable; safe disposal;
accumulators; basic generator
Applications: eg motors, loudspeakers, transformers
Generation and transmission: power stations eg hydroelectric, coal fired, nuclear; transmission
from power stations to consumers; economics; environmental considerations
Conversion for industrial applications: movement; heating; lighting; sound.

Task 1
Using suitable sources of information, investigate how a battery and how a dynamo produces
electricity.

P4

Task 2
Describe the characteristics of a range of different types of batteries, eg carbon zinc, alkaline, lithium,
nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride.
Explain at least two different applications of different types of batteries and two applications of
dynamos.
M4

Task 3
The voltage across a battery decreases as it is used until it becomes so low that it can no longer power
the device that it is powering the battery becomes dead.
Measure the performance of different low-capacity batteries by using them to power the toy provided
by your teacher and measure their voltage at regular intervals. Use you results to explain why battery
indicators show that some batteries are fully charged and then very quickly changes to show that they
are only half charged and then empty.
Hint: If you take the battery out of the toy to make a measurement, be quick as the voltage will recover
slightly if the battery is no longer powering the device.

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Task 4
(a)

When electricity is produced at a power station, it then has to be transmitted through overhead
power cables or underground cables to the local substation and then to the consumer (the
manufacturer in this case).

Analyse the problems of energy loss when the electricity is transmitted through the cables.
(b)

Many consumer applications of electricity require a transducer or a transformer eg, mobile


phones, laptop computers, loud speakers etc

Analyse the problems of energy losses when converting electricity into other forms of consumer
applications.

D4

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P4:

describe two ways in which electricity may be produced

M4:

explain two applications of electricity

D4:

analyse the problem of energy losses when transmitting electricity and when converting it
into other forms for consumer applications

Tutors Information
Sources of Information

School Physics Experiments (Ralph Farley 2005) ISBN 0863574017

Websites

HSW Media Network

www.howstuffworks.com

The Institute of Physics Practical Physics

www.practicalphysics.org

The National Grid

www.nationalgrid.com.uk/

Consult battery manufacturers websites which have data tables of information.

Duracell

www.duracell.com/uk/

Powerstream

www.powerstream.com/Compare.htm

Technicians note (Task 3): This task will require at least two different types of low-capacity
batteries and an electrical device that draws a lot of current from the battery, eg a toy containing an
electric motor (use the wrong capacity battery to ensure the toy runs down quickly).
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Unit 5: Biological Systems - Exemplar Assignments Briefs and


Activities
Introduction
Unit 5 introduces the learner to some very basic biological concepts and encourages the use of
practical investigative techniques to provide relevant, informative and applicable knowledge and
skills. There are two main strands of the unit: one explores the way in which humans have an
influence on the environment in which they live, using a pre-learned tool of classification of
organisms; the other explores the mechanism of the inheritance of human characteristics, and how
human health may be influenced by a variety of factors. The two strands follow closely the science
KS4 specifications.
Learning outcome 1 looks at classification, a subject which is often regarded as boring or
inappropriate at this level of study. It is, however, a key requirement of learning at this stage and must
be approached sympathetically and with as much practical input as possible. Field investigation is
recommended to select material for identification keys, the use of computer data video/DVD material
and maybe a trip to a garden centre to encourage the realisation of the diversity of organisms and use
of the Linnaean classification system. (Gardening programme presenters are very fond of using the
system.)
The exemplar assignments include a completed header/front sheet, a learner brief and the tasks to be
completed.

Formative activities
Activity 1 Variation
Learners are required to build up a knowledge of the variation within a species and to experience
the diversity within closely related species of organisms. Learners should collect materials (eg
leaves, fruits, shells, toadstools and other fungi, mosses, insect larvae) to determine the
characteristics which may be suitable for use in the construction of simple identification keys.
These can be trialled between groups and the results discussed and judged.
This activity may form part of a wider investigation of a local ecosystem, where sampling
techniques can be used to estimate the numbers of organisms within an area.

Activity 2 Classification
Learners will be daunted by large and detailed classification and identification books but sight of
these is useful. Identification of some species collected can be attempted from simpler guide
books (preferably ones based on a recognised natural classification system i.e. not colour of
flowers). This will introduce the Linnaean system, which is recognisable from being used by
gardening programme presenters.

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Activity 3 Characteristics
Research, in recommended textbooks or websites, the characteristics common to all living
organisms. The differences between viruses and bacteria, and between protists and fungi may be
approached through diagrams rather than through complex detail of cellular structures. Draw and
annotate diagrams of representatives of each group to indicate the major characteristics that
separate them separation into different major classification groupings ie, kingdoms. Repeat the
exercise for non - flowering and flowering plants and for invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

Activity 4 Nutrients
Use selected textbooks, web and other information sources to revise knowledge of organisms which
make their own organic nutrients from an external supply of simple raw materials (eg photosynthesis),
and those organisms which depend on existing foods (organic nutrients) which have to be broken
down before they can be used.

Activity 5 Sampling
Learn to describe the area to be studied and use measuring and sampling techniques to investigate the
distribution and number of organisms within the area. Identify the organisms found and estimate the
numbers and types, eg photosynthetic, herbivores, carnivores.

Activity 6 Inter-relationships
Use secondary data to work out possible inter-relationships between organisms. Research the meaning
of food chains, food webs, pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy.

Activity 7 - Functions
Observe individual organisms within their natural habitat and note any features which enable them to
function efficiently within the particular ecological niche eg structures to enable gas exchange for
respiration or photosynthesis, structures which enable food to be captured/eaten.

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Activity 8 Cell Structure


Use light microscopes and prepared slides to revise cell structure and to view chromosomes within the
nucleus of cells. Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different cells.

Activity 9 Cell division


Watch video sequences of the process of cell division and produce diagrams which demonstrate the
way in which chromosomes replicate and cells divide in the process of mitosis.

Activity 10 DNA or RNA


Find newspaper or magazine references to DNA or RNA to see if you can understand what they mean.
Pool resources within a group and try to find out what the articles are about, and the importance of
understanding of the terms used.

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Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Unit 5: Biological Systems - Exemplar assignment brief 1


Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Assignment
title:

Classifying organisms

Learner Name
Start date:

Ref:
Deadline:

Unit 5: Biological Systems

Scenario
As a field scientist with the Environment Agency part of your work requires you to collect samples of
organisms to assess the environmental health of the area based on the number and types of species found.
To do this you need to be able to identify the organisms you find, using identification tables.
Simple identification charts can be made to distinguish between similar organisms as a quick reference
guide. Characteristics of organisms which indicate the possible evolution of the organism must be used to
establish the correct identity of an organism.
Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:
P1:

construct simple identification keys and describe the main characteristics


within the major classification groups

M1:

explain the need to classify organisms

D1:

discuss the characteristics which are used to distinguish the major groups.

U5

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

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Unit 5 learning outcome 1: Understand the diversity of living organisms and how they are classified.
Unit content covered:
Classifying organisms: wide variety of living organisms; identification keys; the need to
organise/classify; variety of systems; Linnaean system of classification
Major characteristics of: viruses; bacteria; protests; fungi; plants (flowering plants, non-flowering
plants,) animals (invertebrates, vertebrates).

Task 1
a) Research information from textbooks, from websites or from other information sources to
determine the fundamental differences between living things: between animals, plants,
prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Produce a simple leaflet guide to these groupings for use by peer
workers.

b) As part of your practical study of an area, or from local habitats, select a group of similar
organisms, eg snails, mosses, toadstools, or part of an organism, eg leaves, shells, twigs,
berries, and collect up to 10 different examples of your chosen organism. Use these to identify
characteristics to construct a simple artificial identification key.
P1

Task 2
Choose one organism for your sample and research its Linnaean classification. Explain why it is
necessary to classify organisms, and the advantages of this system to, for example, gardeners.
M1

Task 3
Explain how the characteristics you used to produce the identification key differ from those which are
used to distinguish the major classification groups. Write down the arguments you could use if you
were to debate the topic Which is more important in classification: the relationships between
organisms or the similarities between them?
D1

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P1:

construct simple identification keys and describe the main characteristics within the major
classification groups

M1:

explain the need to classify organisms

D1:

discuss the characteristics which are used to distinguish the major groups.

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Tutor Information
To ensure that this topic is one which learners find interesting there must be a high practical input
based on the collection of materials and imaginative introduction of the diversity of living organisms.
Ideally this section should form a part of a wider ecological investigation which will relate to learning
outcome 2 of this unit.
Formative study may involve the use of videos, quizzes and visits, egto zoos, wildlife centres or even
just the local garden centre.

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Unit 5: Biological Systems - Exemplar activities and assignment


brief 2
Introduction
It is essential that learners are given the opportunity to experience some outdoor practical work to
complete the investigation of an ecosystem. This does not need to be a sophisticated environment
parkland, wasteland, local ponds or streams, even walls can provide sufficient material for an
investigation. Whatever the chosen location, learners need to become familiar with the need to use a
variety of sampling techniques to estimate numbers and to quantify the investigation. Identification of
organisms could have been part of the evidence for learning outcome 1 of this unit.

Formative activities
All of the following formative activities develop knowledge and skills which are required by those
who work to monitor the environment and the organisms within it. These include:
water utilities scientists
environmental control analysts, pollution detection.
bird, animal and fish population control scientists
National Park wardens
Forestry Commission scientists.
Scenarios from any of these areas would be appropriate contexts for the ecological study which is
conducted in the area.

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Unit 5 Biological Systems - Exemplar Assignment Brief 2


Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Assignment
title:

Investigating organisms in their habitats.

Learner name
Start date:

Ref:

Deadline:

Unit 5: Biological Systems

Scenario
Scientific investigations to establish the current state of particular ecosystems are conducted by
environmental scientists whenever planning permission is requested for a large green field site.
The construction of a new road to by-pass a town has caused an uproar from local wildlife enthusiasts as
they are concerned that the construction work and the siting of the new road will cause the demise of an
important ecosystem, and will endanger some rare species of plants which are found there. Initially it is
decided that a survey of the current situation should be commissioned to assess future planning
requirements.

Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:
P2:
U5

M2:
D2:

describe an ecosystem investigated and indicate the types of interdependence


of living things in it
describe examples of adaptations to the environment shown by organisms
within the ecosystem
construct quantitative and qualitative diagrams to demonstrate the
relationships between organisms living interdependently within an ecosystem

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

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Unit 5 learning outcome 2: Be able to investigate how living things interact with each other and their
environments.
Unit content covered:
Interdependence of organisms: nature and relationship, eg. parasite and host, predator and prey; food
chains and food webs; pyramids of numbers; energy and biomass

Task 1
Select and mark out the area to be studied. Describe visual details of the area and measure the area to
be studied. If possible, determine the contours of the area under investigation. Identify as many as
possible of the organisms present, starting with the plants. Select and use sampling techniques to
estimate the numbers and distribution of organisms within the area. Represent the information you
collect so that it can be clearly understood by members of the planning committee. A short illustrated
report or a double folded A4 leaflet would be suitable.
Highlight any organisms which are unusual and note the particular habitat of that organism. Suggest
how the organisms you have found are dependent on each other for their food, shelter and survival.
P2

Task 2
Draw a selection of the organisms which you find and describe how each is adapted to the ecological
niche it occupied within the habitat. A series of annotated drawings will assist in the explanation of
your findings.
M2

Task 3
Using the data which you collect from the study, and using the suggested inter-dependency of the
organisms, construct possible food chains which are operating within the system. Link these where
possible into a food web and represent these diagrammatically, showing the particular feeding links.
Attempt to quantify the data you have collected into a pyramid of numbers. Explain the findings of
these inter-relationships.
D2

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P2:

describe an ecosystem investigated and indicate the types of interdependence of living things
in it

M2:

describe examples of adaptations to the environment shown by organisms within the


ecosystem

D2:

construct quantitative and qualitative diagrams to demonstrate the relationships between


organisms living interdependently within an ecosystem.

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Unit 5: Biological Systems - Exemplar activities and assignment


Brief 3
Genes and variation
Introduction
Learning outcome 4 considers the basis of inheritance by looking at the structure of DNA, genes and
chromosomes and how they control variation within the cell. DNA structure should be made
interesting by the use of models, role play scenarios, videos, web materials. Learners should become
aware of the link between base sequence and protein structure.

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Unit 5: Biological Systems - Exemplar assignment brief 3


Rashnor College/School

Department of Science

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:
Assignment
Genes and variation
title:

Learner name
Start date:

Ref:

Deadline:

Unit 5: Biological Systems

Scenario
You are in a situation where you are required to explain the inheritance of a disease to a group of assistant
practitioners within a hospital. To start with you are going to have to explain where DNA and genes are
located in the cell and how genes and chromosomes can pass on information to other cells. You need some
visual materials which will help you to get your point across to them as well as some written explanatory
materials. The tasks will help you to prepare materials for your presentation.
Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:

U5

P4:

describe the relationship between chromosomes, DNA and genes

M4:

describe (using examples) how variation within a species brings about


evolutionary change

D4:

explain how genes control variation within a species using a simple


coded message.

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

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September 2006

Unit 5 learning 0utcome 3: Understand that genes are responsible for inheritance, and variations
within species, leading to evolutionary change.
Unit content covered:

Genes control cell function: DNA code; translation; structure of a protein, eg enzyme; control
of cells activities
DNA molecule: coded sequence of bases (A, C, T, G)
Evolutionary change: role of genetic variation, environmental conditions.

Task 1
Prepare an action poster or model to demonstrate the structure of DNA showing the base sequences,
the formation of messenger RNA and the process of protein formation from a series of amino acids
assembled from the RNA instructions.
Prepare a set of slides to illustrate your explanation

P4

Task 2
Summarise the causes of gene and chromosome mutation and suggest how these changes can bring
about evolutionary changes by the process of selection using named examples
M4

Task 3
Using diagrams, prepare a leaflet on the way in which genes carry inherited information from one
generation to another via the process of meiosis and gamete formation, and through fertilisation.
Refer to simple monohybrid inheritance and examples of this in human inheritance,
describe what is meant by discontinuous variation and continuous variation.
D4

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:

P4:

describe the relationship between chromosomes, DNA and genes

M4:

describe (using examples) how variation within a species brings about evolutionary changes

D4:

explain how genes control variation within a species using a simple coded message.

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Unit 6: Working with Science Exemplar assignment briefs and


activities
Introduction
Unit 6 is designed to give learners an introductory overview of the science technician/assistant
practitioner at work in context, to include: their duties and responsibilities, laboratory organisation,
health and safety and safe working practices, and personal, communication and ICT skills.
It is important to stress the important role that science technicians/assistant practitioners play in all
aspects of the science sector and other sectors that use science, and their role within the
school/college/university environment.
The content of this unit is best delivered through an investigative approach using activities and
assignments to make it interesting and relevant.

Activity 1 - The role of a science technician/assistant practitioner


Invite a science technician or practitioner within your college or school, or from a local science
based company or a local hospital that uses science to give a presentation to the learners about
their role (duties/responsibilities). Learners can take notes of how the speakers role relates to
learning outcome 1 in the unit and its identified content.

Activity 2 The importance of writing sequential, logical, detailed and


accurate procedures
Brief the learners to write a procedure for a relatively simple task (eg carry out a filtration by
gravity) and get one learner to follow the procedure (written by a different learner) to check that
the task can be repeated and achieve the desired outcome. Learners can then appreciate the
significance of scientists/practitioners (especially in research) being able to write up their
experiments logically and in detail so that they can be repeated, eg cold fusion.
Learners could also be shown how to carry out a filtration under suction and asked to produce a
risk analysis of this process using equipment under vacuum.

Activity 3 Visit a local science employer or employer that uses science


Organise visits to local companies or hospitals to observe science technicians/practitioners at work
and to find out what part they play within the organisation. Learners could be given a
questionnaire to complete about the environment, equipment/apparatus, health and safety features,
organisation, practices etc.

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Activity 4 Safety features of science laboratories


Brief the learners to compare and contrast the health and safety features of different types of
laboratories, eg water supply features and availability in a physics laboratory compared to
chemistry and biology laboratories.
The learners could complete a table with four columns: features, chemistry laboratory, biology
laboratory and physics laboratory

Activity 5 Repair, maintenance and calibration of equipment


Learners could be given a set of instructions to follow in manual form to repair a piece of
equipment.
Learners could carry out a simulated case study to repair some equipment, such as soldering two
contacts together and checking with a multimeter.
Learners could construct and calibrate a melting/freezing point apparatus.
Learners could be asked to explain the importance for technicians/assistant practitioners to be able
to carry out front line repair, maintenance, and calibration of equipment, eg calibrating an
audiometer for testing hearing.

Activity 6 First aider


Identify a trained first aider in your centre or preferably from a local business and ask them to give
a talk/interview about their role. Alternatively, a visit from the district nurse, GP or St Johns
Ambulance might be organised. Learners to take notes and explain the importance of having first
aiders in a science environment.

Activity 7 Acid to water


Demonstrate the importance of adding concentrated acid to water and not water to acid. Ask
learners to observe, pointing out the striations due to changes in density, and asking them to
comment on what risks there are in adding acid to water and what safety clothing/equipment they
would wear to carry out the task. Learners could be asked to explain the importance of diluting
concentrated solutions to the required strength.

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Activity 8 Laboratory equipment


Part of a technicians/assistant practitioners job can be to identify and purchase equipment at a
reasonable cost. Learners could be given some information from supplier catalogues or the
internet.
Lay out about 40 pieces of equipment in the laboratory and ask the learners to identify the
apparatus and glassware, eg a 250 ml round-bottomed B19 single-necked flask.

Activity 9 Use of solvents


An important part of a science technicians job is the use of solvents to dissolve materials, carry
out reactions, clean apparatus, etc. Demonstrate or ask learners to carry out an activity
involving the safe use of solvents in dissolving different solids/liquids. Learners can get an
awareness of the
importance of the use of solvents in a laboratory and their relationship to solubility. Solubility can
also be related to the properties of covalent and ionic compounds Concepts could be introduced
such as: solution = solute + solvent; polar solvents dissolve polar solids/liquids; non-polar solvents
dissolve non-polar solids/liquids.

Activity 10 Drying and storage of materials


Part of a technicians job is to dry wet materials and to, store materials that can be sensitive to
moisture, oxygen or light.
Ask learners to carry out an activity to weigh a wet solid by difference, dry the wet solid using an
oven or a desiccator and re-weigh the solid to calculate its moisture content.
Point out to the learners the dangers of drying some materials (eg solvent inhalation, explosion,
materials being burnt) in an oven and the use of silica gel in desiccators.
It could also be pointed out that desiccators can be used to store dry materials that are sensitive to
moisture. Ask for suggestions how to store materials that are sensitive to light. Why is the glass on
some reagent and Winchester bottles brown in colour?
How could you store materials (and keep them fresh in the case of food) that are sensitive to
moisture and oxygen?

Activity 11 Labelling
Learners can be given a set of safety labels used for different chemicals, fire - extinguishers and
clothing. They could be asked to match the labels with descriptions of why the labels are used and
where they may see some of them in everyday life.

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Activity 12 Fire prevention


Identify the fire officer within the centre or from a local business. The local fire department is
usually more than happy to visit or put on a demonstration.
Ask learners to explain why it is important to store inflammable solvents in metal cabinets using
the correct labelling.

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Unit 6: Working with Science - Exemplar assignment brief 1


Investigating work career paths in science
Introduction
Science is evident in almost every working environment and is not the exclusive domain of the large,
multinational, chemical or biological conglomerates. Consider the science that is present in a food
manufacturing company (micro-organisms, raw materials, electric ovens, mechanical packaging) or in
the local hospital (use of drugs, use of technical equipment, testing of samples, measuring and
dispensing chemicals etc) not to mention the health and safety issues inherent within every working
environment.
Science technicians/assistant practitioners work in the manufacturing industries such as food, plastics
and rubbers, construction materials, iron and steel, glassware, oil, cosmetics, soap products,
pharmaceuticals and textiles. They also work in service industries such as: hospitals, dentistry,
pharmacy, waste products, environmental, water, education, research and development, electricity and
forensic science.
In this activity learners are encouraged to look at the role of a junior science technician/assistant
practitioner in the local working environment as well as the more obvious, large scientific
establishments. Learners should visit a number of local workplaces and look at what science is used
there as well as the health and safety issues that are present. They could also explore the work that
technicians/assistant practitioners do in large multinational companies through visits, speakers, videos
or the internet and obtain job adverts from science magazines/journals. The learners could look for
such things as job title, qualifications needed, salary, previous experience and other requirements.
Scenario
You are employed as a scientific technical adviser for a scientific magazine and have been asked to
investigate and write a positive article/leaflet/poster about science technicians/assistant practitioners.
This is to include their role and how they are employed to effectively and efficiently run a laboratory.
Unit 6 Learning outcome 1: Be able to investigate and demonstrate knowledge of the basic duties and
responsibilities of a junior science technician and assistant practitioners
Unit content covered:
Typical duties and responsibilities: eg to support senior technicians and practitioners; maintain the science
workplace; types of workplace eg quality control, research, weights and measures, environmental health,
forensic, medical
Tasks: complexity of knowledge and skills required to perform job effectively and efficiently eg following
procedures, reading services manuals.
Task 1
Investigate a number of employers that recruit and employ science technicians/assistant practitioners.
They should be encouraged to ask questions of the organisation and its staff, and gain information
about the role of junior science technicians/assistant practitioners.
Use this information to identify the typical duties and responsibilities of a junior science technician
and assistant practitioner as part of your poster/leaflet.
P1

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Task 2
Investigate relevant scientific journals, papers, magazines, professional body or technician
organisations or the internet for any job advertisements for junior science technicians/assistant
practitioners. You can then apply for or download from the internet any relevant job
specifications/descriptions.
Use the information from Tasks 1 and 2 to describe the typical duties and responsibilities of a junior
science technician and assistant practitioner and include it on your poster/leaflet.
M1
Task 3
Investigate the relationship and role of a junior science technician/assistant practitioner and how they
contribute to running a laboratory workplace.
Use the information to explain how the typical duties and responsibilities of a junior science
technician and assistant practitioner contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of the laboratory
workplace.
D1

The grading criteria that this assignment relates to:


P1:

identify the typical duties and responsibilities of a junior science technician and assistant
practitioner

M1:

describe the typical duties and responsibilities of a junior science technician and assistant
practitioner

D1:

explain how the typical duties and responsibilities of a junior science technician and assistant
practitioner contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of the laboratory workplace

Tutors Information
Sources of Information
Hazards, CLEAPSS School Science Service (2004 update)
Safeguards in the School Laboratory (11th edition 2006 - (ASE website)
DFEE Safety in Science Education (1996)

ISBN 011270915X (ASE website)

Technician Package ISBN TPJUN05 (ASE website)


The Prep Room Organiser 2003 (ASE website)
Microbiology: an HMI Guide for Schools and FE

HMSO, ISBN 0112705782

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67

Websites
These are by no means exhaustive but illustrate the range of businesses that use science. The
companies listed also contain details of careers available.
Organisation
Givenchy
ICI
Ferrari
B&Q

Website
www.givenchy.com
www.ici.com
www.ferrari.com
www.diy.com

Toni and Guy

www.toniandguy.co.uk

British Nuclear Fuels


plc
Department for
Environment Food and
Rural Affairs
Nestle
Association of the
British Pharmaceutical
society
European Food
Information Council
Food Standards Agency
Institute of Biomedical
Science
Work Experience /
Workplace learning
frameworks
Centre for Education
and Industry (CEI University of Warwick)
At work with science

68

Organisation
NASA
Glaxo Smithkline
ASE
Pfizer
Health and Safety
Executive

Website
www.nasa.gov
www.gsk.com/careers
www.ase.org.uk
www.pfizer.com

www.bnfl.com

ESSO

www.esso.com

www.defra.gov.uk

Royal Society for


Chemistry

www.rsc.org.uk

www.hse.gov.uk

www.nestle.com
www.abpi-careers.org.uk

Institute of Biology

www.iob.org.uk/

www.eufic.org
www.foodstandards.gov
.uk
www.ibms.org

www.warwick.ac.uk/wi
e/cei/

www.atworkwithscience.co
m

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September 2006

Unit 6: Working with Science - Exemplar assignment brief 2


Producing an induction pack materials for a prospective junior science
technician/assistant practitioner
This assignment has been divided into three tasks that cover the grading criteria P2, M2 and D2 in
Unit 6. The induction pack can include a variety of forms including posters, reports, handouts, charts,
tables, requisitions, all types of laboratory proformas, risk assessment forms, photographs, diagrams,
flow charts etc. It is important that the new junior technician can see the big picture as well as essential
detail.
This assignment will require a significant amount of research and learners should have a knowledge of
the grading criteria and grade descriptions in the Essential information for teachers part of the unit.
Learners will need to obtain information from companies or simulated information/case studies to
enable them to complete this assignment.
The assignment scenario can be put into content by using local scientific manufacturing, service
science or health care science organisations or could be put into an educational setting or organisation
that uses science.
Scenario
You are a senior technician manager working within a large science pharmaceutical organisation and
have the responsibility for 25 science technicians working in five different laboratories. One of the
laboratories carries out research and development into new pharmaceutical products and the other four
are quality control laboratories analysing the quality of the products produced in four different
production workshops.
The pharmaceutical company manufactures a number of drugs used in medicine. The quality control
laboratories are attached to the workshops producing barbiturates, antibiotics, antihistamines and gold
salts.
The company is sensitive to such issues as: pollution and recycling materials, disposal of effluents, the
health and safety of its workforce, the personal development of its workforce, and its relationship with
the local community. The company also recognises the importance of the value of its employees,
communication within the organisation, the roles of its members of staff and how they relate to others,
the use of ICT, and the local environment each person works in.
You have a vacancy for a new junior technician within one of your quality control laboratories. The
induction and development materials available for new junior technician recruits are out-of-date and
need rewriting. You have been asked by the human resources department complete the following
tasks.
Unit 6 learning outcome 1 Be able to investigate and demonstrate knowledge of the basic duties
and responsibilities of a junior science technician and assistant practitioner.
Unit content covered:
Schedule of work: eg daily, weekly, monthly and annual tasks, duty rotas, meetings, annual leave
timing, break time, flexibility, inter-departmental servicing
Personal: job description; appraisal; targets; professional development; progression/career
development

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Typical duties and responsibilities: eg to support senior technicians and practitioners; maintain the
science workplace; types of workplace, eg quality control, research, weights and measures,
environmental health, forensic, medical
Tasks: complexity of knowledge and skills required to perform job effectively and efficiently, eg
following procedures, reading service manuals

Task 1
(a) Identify the need for the relevant personal skills required by a junior technician working to carry
out their job effectively and efficiently within a quality control laboratory.
(b) Identify the need for communication skills for a junior science technician working in a quality
control laboratory.
(c) Identify the need for ICT skills for a junior science technician working in a quality control
laboratory.

P2

Task 2
Using the information you have gathered, put together an induction pack for a newly appointed junior
science technician.
M2
Task 3
Evaluate the need for personal, communication and ICT skills for junior science technicians within an
organisation. This could be done by the use of a table showing the identified skills and evaluating the
need.
D2

The grading criteria that this activity relates to:


P2:

identify personal, communication and ICT skills of junior science technicians and assistant
practitioners within an organisation

M2:

describe how the personal, communication and ICT skills of the junior science technician and
assistant practitioner contribute to the work of an organisation

D2:

evaluate how their personal, communication and ICT skills can effectively contribute to an
organisation.

Tutor Information
Sources of information
Hazcards, CLEAPSS School Science Service (2004 update);
Safeguards in the School Laboratory (11th edition 2006 - (ASE website)
DfES Safety in Science Education (1996)
70

ISBN 011270915X (ASE website)

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September 2006

University Science Dept Prospectus (Career choices) ; The Prep Room Organiser 2003 (ASE
website)
Technician Package ISBN TPJUN05 (ASE website)
Microbiology: an HMI Guide for Schools and FE HMSO, ISBN 0112705782
Websites
CLEAPSS Laboratory Handbook website www.cleapss.org.uk
Association of the British
Pharmaceutical Industry

www.abpi-careers.org.uk

Association for Science Education

www.ase.org.uk

Careers in Science

www.gcseappliedscience.com

The Forensic Science Service

www.forensic.gov.uk

GlaxoSmithKline

www.gsk.com/careers

Learning and Skills Network

www.vocationallearning.org.uk

National Education and Business Partnership Network

www.nebpn.org

Section on Science and Engineering Ambassador

www.setnet.org.uk

Science Engineering and Manufacturing


Technologies Alliance

www.semta.org.uk

These are by no means exhaustive but illustrate the range of businesses that use science. The
companies listed also contain details of careers available.

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Unit 10: Forensic Science Applications Exemplar activities and


assignments
Introduction
This unit is an overview of forensic science: the application of scientific methods and processes used
for the purposes of the law. The aim of this unit is to develop knowledge and skills in the underlying
concepts of biological, physical and chemical analysis, and to apply this knowledge to applications in
forensic science. Forensic science is a multidisciplinary subject, and this unit reflects that by drawing
together and building on aspects of the other core units, covering a range of scientific practices, to
extend the learners knowledge of the range of practical applications of core science principles and
techniques.
This unit introduces and develops the skills, understanding and knowledge of scientific processes and
their application to forensic science and the criminal investigation. In a criminal investigation, scene of
crime officers (SOCOs) examine the crime scene and collect evidence from the scene, victim and/or
suspect. The evidence is then sent to a laboratory where a forensic scientist examines and analyses the
evidence. Both SOCOs and scientists may be required to give evidence in court as expert witlessness .
The unit provides students with the opportunity to find out how to effectively process the crime scene
and to recover evidence using the correct techniques. Learners are encouraged to plan, perform and
record lab analyses of different types of evidence using a number of different biological, physical and
chemical techniques. Learners should collect, record, process, interpret and evaluate data, and report
their findings in an appropriate format. Learners are encouraged to recognise the significance and
quality of evidence, and how to reconstruct a crime from the information gathered. In addition,
learners will be introduced to wider forensic issues of the criminal investigation, the criminal justice
system and expert witness testimony.
The skills developed are essential for forensic science practitioners. It is important during the delivery
and assessment of this unit that the learner should complete the work as if they are employed within
the forensic science industry. Crime scenarios should be created for activities and assignments, and
mock crime scenes and courtrooms provide excellent delivery strategies. A range of teaching and
learning methods may be used including videos, media coverage of crime, guest talks and educational
visits, discussion and debates as well aspractical work.

Activity 1 Health and safety

72

Use question and answer techniques to get learners thinking about the risks and hazards at the
crime scene and in the laboratory, for example biological hazards, sharps and chemicals.
Discuss the techniques used to control the hazards and risks; for example, personal protective
equipment, fume cupboards and waste management.
Split the class into two. One group will represent for the use of risk assessment in forensic
science, the other group will represent against risk assessment.
Ask the two groups to nominate two lead speakers and a chairperson.
Learners should discuss in their groups the advantages and disadvantages of risk assessment at the
scene and in the laboratory.
The groups should then hold a debate, indicating how and why health and safety is an important
issue.

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Activity 2 Evidence collection and packaging

Split the learners into small groups and provide each group with examples of different types of
evidence, for example, a piece of glass, a white powder, a knife, a drop of (fake) blood.

Ask the groups to discuss how these types of evidence could be collected and packaged.

Provide the groups with different types of collection methods, for example, swabs, tweezers,
sticky tape. Ask the learners to match the different types of evidence with a suitable collection
method.

Provide the groups with different types of packaging, for example, a brown paper bag, a plastic
crime scene evidence bag, a metal tin, a small gripseal bag, a plastic weapons tube. Ask the
learners to match each piece of evidence with a suitable bag or container.

Activity 3 Sequence of events

Learners could complete a time sequence puzzle, placing in the correct order the sequence of
events that take place during the initial assessment or processing of a crime scene.

Activity 4 - Hair comparison

Ask learners to collect hairs from different people, different parts of the body and from different
animals.
Explain the three structures of hair cuticle, medulla and cortex
Show the learners a chart showing images of different types of hairs, describing their similarities
and differences.
Learners can use a microscope to examine the collected hairs and compare their features.
Lerners can then be provided with hair evidence from a crime scene which they must analyse
and identify, and compare to reference hairs from a suspect.

Activity 5 - Blood typing

Learners can use a simulated blood typing kit available from a commercial supplier to learn about
blood types and to carry out a blood typing investigation.

Activity 6 Fingerprints

Describe the three categories of fingerprints loops, arches and whorls.

Show the learners a large image of each type, pointing out the different patterns and giving
frequencies for each category in the general population.
Learners should use finger paint to record their fingerprints and determine their fingerprint type.

Stick the three images on different walls in the classroom and ask learners to stand near the image
that represents their fingerprints.

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Ask learners to determine if the percentages of learners in each category reflect the percentages for
the general population.

Activity 7 Casting a footprint

Fill large, deep trays or window boxes with sand or mud and ask one tutor to leave their footprint.
Make sure the impression is deep.

Using washable paint, ask three different tutors to make a print of the bottom of their shoe on A4
white paper and write their names by their footprints. Photocopy the three prints for each learner.

Produce a worksheet for the learners containing questions about and describing the technique of
footprint casting. The handout should also include details of a crime that the learners must solve.
An example of this could be that a burglary has taken place at the school and footprints have been
found outside the point of entry. Three suspects have been apprehended by the police and prints
taken of their shoes for analysis. The learners must determine which of the three suspects is the
offender.

Randomly distribute the sand/mud footprint impressions and hand out photocopies of the
worksheet and ink prints to the learner.

Learners should follow a protocol describing how to use plaster to cast a footprint.

Once the casts have dried, the learner should clean the casts using paintbrushes.

The cast impressions can then be compared to the ink prints and the learner may determine which
suspect left their prints at the crime scene.

Activity 8 Ink analysis chromatography

Create a crime scenario, for example the theft of MOT certificates from a local garage. Signed
MOT certificates have been recovered from the crime scene and two suspects have been searched.
Black pens found on the suspects have been submitted as evidence.

Produce a worksheet containing the case details and experimental protocol.

Learners should be provided with two different black felt tip pens.

Learners should carry out paper chromatography on the two pens and on a sample of ink extracted
from the signed MOT certificates.

From the chromatography analysis learners may determine which of the two suspects stole and
signed the certificates.

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Activity 9 Drugs of abuse

Learners could produce presentations in groups on a different drug of abuse.

Each group should identify the type and appearance of the drug, alternative street names and
prices, laws and grade of drug, countries of origin and production method, effects on the body,
suitable presumptive colour test and confirmatory analytical technique, etc.

Activity 10 The Expert Witness

Set up a mock court trial with members of staff acting as the judge, prosecutors and defence.

Learner must give evidence in court as expert witnesses, describing techniques of analysis, and
their results and conclusions from an investigation they have carried out.

Activity 11 Victim/witness interview role play

Show the learners video clips from different television programmes showing police interviews of
suspects, witnesses and victims, for example, from The Bill and CSI.
Manage a class discussion on interview techniques and different types of questioning. The leaners
should determine how asking questions can influence the answers given.
Provide the learners with a list of different types of interview questions and ask then to indicate
whether they are open or closed type questions.
Split the lerners into two groups; one group will be interviewers and the other will be witnesses to
a crime.
Show the witness group a short video of a real or simulated crime being carried out.
Provide the interview group with a short synopsis of the crime and ask them to prepare questions.

Pair up each witness with an interviewer and give learners 20 minutes to carry out an interview.

The class should then come back together and each pair should describe the technique they used,
the information they gathered and the effectiveness of the interview.

Activity 12 Media influence

Learners could produce and present posters in small groups on different aspects of the medias
influence on crime, for example, the influence of media on the eyewitness or jury, the link
between violent media and aggression, or the legal and social issues of reporting high-profile
crime in the media.

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Unit 10: Forensic Science Applications- Exemplar assignment brief 1


Powdering for fingerprints, hair and blood analysis
Crime scenario
A burglary has taken place at the school. Last night the staff room window was broken and the room
was ransacked. A number of items have been stolen including exam papers. The police were called
this morning by the school caretaker when he discovered the break in and crime officers have
examined the scene. A number of items of evidence have been submitted to the laboratory for
fingerprint, hair and blood analysis. Two suspects have been apprehended by the police who have
taken their fingerprints for reference.
Unit 10 learning outcome 2: Understand the principles and demonstrate the techniques used it the
analysis and interpretation of biological evidence
Unit content covered:

Hair

Fingerprints

Blood and bodyfluids

Task 1
You are the forensic scientist allocated to the case. You must develop a plan to effectively analyse the
items for fingerprint evidence, using the powder and lift technique, blood type and hair analysis
P2
Task 2:
Carry out the analysis and compare the crime scene prints, hair and blood type to the two suspects
reference evidence. Analyse the evidence and draw conclusions to determine the identity of the
offender.
Task 3:
Write a short report describing how well the outcomes of the plan met the objectives of the
investigation and draw conclusions.
M2
Task 4:
Justify any changes to the plan that you have made and any procedural changes to improve the
conclusion drawn.
D2

The grading criteria in this unit relates to :


P2:

produce and follow a realistic and achievable plan to analyse two types of biological evidence

M2:

describe how well their outcomes met the objectives of the investigation and draw and make
connections

D2:

justify potential changes to their plans and procedures to improve the conclusions drawn

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September 2006

Unit 11: Science in Medicine Exemplar Activities and Assignments


Introduction
Unit 11 should encourage learners to participate in very elementary procedures which are used in the
diagnosis and treatment of human illness. All learners will have first-hand experience of some of the
procedures and should be encouraged to relate experiences of diagnosis and treatment within reason.
A more scientific approach should then be adopted and the work of GPs, hospital departments and
pathology laboratories should be explored. Some of the simpler techniques will be appropriate for
exemplar laboratory work. These should include temperature and blood pressure measurements and
the concept of norms, some simulation of blood concentration in urine, appearance of a range of
different (safe) bacterial cultures for identification features, examples of viral plaques, the appearance
of normal animal cells, and the cell and chemical structure of blood.
It is intended that learners should become familiar with the range of physical treatments rather than
become involved in the detail of the equipment. Details of body scanners need only be known in so far
as they relate to the results which they can produce. Learners should know the different types of data
produced, what the machine can be used to do and any possible side effects. Actual scans and x-rays,
either in photograph, video or internet format, should be used wherever possible.
Microbiological investigations to determine the effect of varying concentrations of drugs on bacterial
samples will be appropriate, and the basic classification of different drug types should be discussed.
The concept of prescription and over the counter drugs will provide opportunities for local research
using label information. Formulations of drugs may be introduced again by observation and primary
research using harmless products. Use of sweeteners and flavours for palatability, and different
formulations can be explored.
Information is available online to cover learning outcome 3, and this will require the learner to engage
in research into the actual processes involved in the development of a new drug compound. Learners
should be aware that very few compounds from the many hundreds of thousands are active for use
against disease. The active compounds are taken to stage two of the process, where the time scale of
the development, the laws relating to the testing of drugs and the use of cell cultures and animal
models to determine the pharmacology of the compound and the side effects are exposed. Problems
associated with scaling-up production of a complex compound to a manufacturing scale should be
introduced. At all stages in this unit the work of the technician in all aspects of the processes should be
emphasised. Routes through to employment opportunities in the pharmaceutical industry should be
made clear.
The fact that not all treatments are available, appropriate or wanted by all people (limited to the
country of study) should be introduced. This will review current news stories relating to these issues
and should be presented in innovative learning scenarios.

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Activity 1 Range of antibiotics


Learners could investigate the reason why a wide range of antibiotics are produced and why there is a
need to carry out research to develop even more.

Activity 2 Visits/speakers
Learners could arrange visits to local medical/pharmaceutical organisations or arrange for speakers to
come to describe an aspect of the work of a biomedical technician.

Activity 3 Medicines
Learners could do a survey of a local supermarket or chemists pharmaceutical stock to determine the
different types of a particular non-prescription medicine, eg. anti-histamine, antacid. Research based
on the formulations, their concentrations, how they are packaged and a comparison of the different
price ranges in different formulations and brands could be carried out.

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Unit 11: Science in Medicine - Exemplar assignment brief 1


Scientific principles used in the diagnosis and treatment of human illness

Unit 11 learning outcome 1 The range of scientific procedures which are used in diagnosing
illness
Unit content covered:
Biological diagnosis (pathology): microbiological organisms causing disease, eg bacteria, viruses,
parasites; haematology (the cellular structure of blood, and abnormalities) eg leukaemia; chemical
analysis of blood, sputum, urine, faeces, eg urine sugar levels, blood cholesterol levels; cytology
(cell appearance) eg cervical smear tests; genetic investigations (DNA analysis; family history
counselling) eg cystic fibrosis
Physical diagnosis: normal range of body temperature measurements and blood pressure
measurements; significance of deviations from these norms, body scans, eg x-rays, computerised
tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans; endoscopy procedures, eg
gastro-endoscopy.

Unit 11 learning outcome 2 The scientific principles of treating illness


Unit content covered:
Using therapeutic drugs: the principles of the use of a range of therapeutic drug types; analgesics,
eg paracetamol, aspirin, codeine; anti-inflammatory, eg ibuprofen; anti-biotics eg penicillin; antihistamine. eg acrivastine; chemical replacement, eg insulin; other groups of drugs eg cytological
(chemotherapy), anti-depressants, stimulants, sedatives, heart drugs
Drug formulations: eg cream, ointment, tablet, capsule, oral liquid, injection liquid
Administration routes of therapeutic drugs: eg oral, intravenous injection, sub-cutaneous injection,
topical
Using therapeutic techniques: the principles of a range of physical therapies available for
treatment of conditions; surgery, eg appendectomy; radiotherapy eg cancer treatment, laser
therapy, eg short sightedness; physiotherapy, eg muscular sport injuries; osteopathy, eg back
injuries, alternative therapies, eg acupuncture; replacement and preventative therapy; the
principles of blood and plasma transfusion; vaccinations and organ transplants; cultures and
religions; beliefs and values.
Scenario
A medical practitioner is working in a busy accident and emergency department at a general hospital.
On one particular evening a number of patients came through the department, including:

Margaret, an elderly lady suffering from severe lower abdominal pains. Initial assessment
indicated a possibility of bowel cancer

Jasmin, who was three-years-old and suffering from a severe headache, a high temperature
and stiffness of the neck. Initial assessment indicated a strong possibility of meningitis

Paul, who was 52-years-old and had been involved in a fall whilst climbing a ladder at work.
Initial assessment suggested broken bones in his right arm and shoulder

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Abdul, who was suffering from severe pain in the lower side of his back on both sides. He had
a fever and was shivering, with some vomiting. Initial assessment suggested a possible kidney
infection

Ray, who was 65 years old and complaining of crushing pain in the centre of his chest, with
breathlessness and some dizziness. Initial assessment suggested a potential heart attack.

Task 1
Using some or all of the suggested cases in the scenario above, identify and describe two biological
and two physical procedures that could be used in diagnosis.
P1
Explain the scientific principles underlying each of the procedures.

M1

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using the identified procedures for the chosen cases.
D1
Task 2
Identify the therapeutic drugs relevant to treating three named illnesses. Use the examples above, or
other illnesses of your choice.
P2
Describe how the therapeutic drugs are used to treat the named illnesses.

M2

Explain why the actions of the therapeutic drugs are used to treat the illnesses.

D2

Task 3
Using some of the examples suggested in the scenario, describe two therapeutic techniques that could
be used in treatment.
P3
Explain the functions of each of the techniques in the treatment of the illness/condition.
M3
Evaluate the reasons why some individuals, religions and cultures may choose not to take advantage of
all types of available treatments.
D3
The grading criteria in this unit relates to:
P1
M1
D1

identify and describe two biological and two physical procedures used to diagnose illness
explain the scientific principles underlying the two biological and two physical procedures
evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using the two biological and two physical
procedures

P2
M2
D2

identify the therapeutic drugs used to treat three given illnesses


describe how the therapeutic drugs are used to treat these illnesses
explain why the actions of therapeutic drugs are used to treat given illnesses

P3

describe two therapeutic techniques that are available to treat given examples of illnesses and
conditions
explain the functions of each of the techniques in given treatment processes
evaluate the reasons why some individuals, religions and cultures choose not to take
advantage of all types of available treatments.

M3
D3

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Tutor Information
Sources of information
Websites

Medical uses of electricity

www.ecglibrary.com

Wellcome Science Wellcome Trust 2005

www.wellcome.ac.uk/wellcomefocus

GlaxoSmithKline The science behind medicines free of charge

www.gsk.com/

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ANNEXE 1
USEFUL WEBSITES FOR SCIENCE
The website information given is for guidance only. The addresses were correct at time of publication,
however, centres should be aware that website addresses often change.

Generic
www.gcseappliedscience.com

Careers in Science

www.sciencephoto.com

Science Photo Library

www.vocationallearning.org.uk

Learning and Skills Network

www.setnet.org.uk

Section on Science and Engineering Ambassador

www.nebpn.org

National Education and Business Partnership Network

Chemistry
www.alkaseltzer.com/as/experiment/

student science experiments

www.rsc.org

The Royal Society of Chemistry

www.chemindustry.com

Chemical Industry

www.uyseg.org/ciec_home.htm

Chemical Industry Education Centre (information


source for industrial application of chemistry)

www.iom3.org/

Institute of materials, minerals and mining (information


source for smart materials)

www.ase.org.uk

The Association for Science Education

www.abpi.org.uk

The Association of the British Pharmaceutical

www.sep.org.uk

Science Enhancement Programme

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

The Science Museum

www.york.ac.uk

Support for Science Education (University of York)

www.platolearning.co.uk/

Platolearning (multimedia website)

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium (online resources)

www.mond.org

Society of Chemical Industry

www.philipallan.co.uk

Philip Allan updates (publisher of science magazines)

www.shell.co.uk

Shell

www.bpes.com

BP Amoco

www.chemweb.com

Chem Web

www.cia.org.uk

Chemical Industries Association

www.esso.co.uk

Esso

www.bbc.co.uk

BBC resources

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Industry

www.bpf.co.uk

British Plastics Federation

www.echalk.co.uk

Science e- teaching resources

www.lgc.co.uk

Laboratory of the Government Chemist

www.mutr.co.uk

Middlesex University Teacher Resources (smart


materials etc)

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Physics
www.iop.org

Institute of Physics (information about


education and careers)

www.scienceonestop.com/html/main.htm

Resources for teachers

www.practicalphysics.org/

Practical physics (suggestions for practical


work)

www.planetary.org/

The Planetary Society (information on the


planets)

www.space.com/

Space (information on astronomy)


www.ase.org.uk The Association of Science
Education (information for science teachers)
Science Enhancement Programme (education
resources and projects)

www.sep.org.uk
www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

The Science Museum (current science


information, for teachers and learners)

www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/index.asp

School Science (information that links science


to the world of work)

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium (online CPD for


teachers)

www.learningschools.net

Learning Schools Programme (OU


information on ICT training for teachers)
National Grid Transco (network utility with
information on careers)
BBC (information on science, and current science
and technology news)

www.nationalgrid.com
www.bbc.co.uk

Biology
www.scilinks.org/default.asp

SciLinks (online database of science websites)

www.iob.org

Institute of Biology

www.ase.org.uk

Association of Science Education

www.sln.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/classify/classify.html

The Franklin online (classification website)

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

Science museum

www.york.ac.uk

University of York

www2.gsu.edu/~wwwfit/index.html

The Exercise and Fitness Page Georgia


University (US university site for health and
fitness)

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www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium (online resources and


CPD for TUTORS)

www.philipallan.co.uk

Philip Allan Updates (publisher of student


magazines)

www.bbc.co.uk

BBC website resources

www.schoolscience.org.uk

Virtual Visits (virtual tours of science related


sites)

http://www.streetdrugs.org/

Street Drugs (drugs website)

http://www.nutritiondata.com/index.html

Nutrition Data (interactive nutritional data


website)

Forensic
www.bbc.co.uk/crime/fighters/fss.shtml

BBC Crime Fighters

www.fsni.gov.uk

Forensic Science Northern Ireland

www.forensic.gov.uk

The Forensic Science Service

www.forensic-science-society.org.uk

The Forensic Science Society

www.koshlandscience.org/exhibitdna

Koshland Science Museum of the National


Academy of Sciences

www.m-scan.com/services/ofec/forensic

Mass spectrometry consultants and analysts

Medical
www.abpi.org.uk

The Association of the British Pharmaceutical


Industry

www.ase.org.uk

The Association for Science Education

www.astrazeneca.co.uk

Astra Zeneca Pharmaceuticals

www.bbc.co.uk

(BBC resources)

www.bupa.co.uk

BUPA Health Information

www.gsk.com/

Glaxo Smith Kline

www.iob.org

Institute of Biology

www.philipallan.co.uk

Philip Allan updates (publisher of science

www.platolearning.co.uk/

Plato Learning (multimedia website)

www.rcr.ac.uk

Royal College of Radiologists

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium (online resources)

magazines)

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ANNEXE 2 A Learners guide to SI units and their conversion


Introduction

One of the important areas where science and technology leaners need support is in the
conversion of units. This annexe is designed to be useful for students in all science,
technology and engineering subjects.
This annexe has been produced to:

introduce learners to SI base and derived units

help learners with the conversion of multiple and sub-multiple units to SI base and derived
units.

This annexe can be used:

by the learner for individual study and self-assessment

as an aid to teaching.

The units used in this annexe are based on the seven base units of the International System
of Units (SI system).

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What are units?

You have probably used units without thinking about them. For example, when using a ruler, you
may have used centimetres or millimetres for the unit of length.
A unit is a quantity or an amount used as a standard of measurement.
List some other units have you used.

Symbols are used to represent units. For example the letter m represents the metre.
Write down the symbols for the units that you listed above.

The unit of length, the metre, is not built from other units. Units that are not built from other units
are called base units.

Some units are built up from other units. For example, the unit of area is built from the unit of
length.
Area = length length
Square metre = metre metre
m2 = m1 m1

Derived unit

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Base unit

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September 2006

Example 1

3m

Area = 3 m x 3 m = 9 m2

3m
Units that are built up from other units are known as derived units.
The square metre is a derived unit.
5

Different units may be used to make up a derived unit, eg m s1.


The different units are separated by a space.
State whether each of the following units are a base unit or a derived unit.

m s2

_______________

kg

_______________

m3

_______________

_______________
Sometimes one symbol represents two or more different base units.

Example: The unit for force is the newton. Its symbol is N. The newton is derived from the base
units kilogram, metre and second:

N = kg m s2

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Base units
Name

Symbol

Topic Area

metre

length

second

time

kelvin

temperature

kilogram

kg

mass

ampere

electric current

mole

mol

amount of substance

candela

cd

luminous intensity

Name

Symbol

Topic area

newton

force

joule

energy

hertz

Hz

frequency

ohm

electric resistance

volt

potential difference

watt

power

pascal

Pa

pressure

Derived units

When a unit is named after a person, the name begins with a small letter (Newton) but the symbol
starts with a capital (N).
7

When a unit is used which has a power of 1, the power is excluded for convenience, eg
m1 = m
s1 = s

Many of the topic areas are abbreviated using the Greek alphabet, eg

Name

Symbol

Topic area

theta

temperature

lambda

wavelength

mu

friction coefficient

rho

density

sigma

Stefans constant

omega

electrical resistance

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Operations with units


When operations are carried out using units, the units from the same topic area must be the same, e.g.

millimetres cannot be added to metres (without converting the millimetres to metres first)

metres can be added to metres.

Addition and subtraction


Measurements can only be added or subtracted if they have the same units.
Example 1
Two lengths are added together and both are in metres:
9

2m +3m = 5m

The sum is also in metres.


Example 2
One length is subtracted from another and both are in metres:
9

6m 2m = 4m

The difference is also in metres.


Example 3
Lengths measured in different units cannot be added:
5
10 m + 5 cm = ?
Exercise 1
Carry out the following operations and check your answers.

2m+3m+4m

N+3N+2N

5s+6s4s

4JJ+2J

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Multiplication
When multiplying the same topic area units, the indices (power numbers) are added together.
Example 1

m1 m 1 = m 2

ie: m m = m2

eg 2 m 2 m = 4 m2

When multiplying two different units the indices should not be changed.
Example 2

m s2

eg 6 m 2 s2

m s2

12 m s2

Exercise 2
Carry out the following operations and check your answers.

4m2m

5N8m

2 m 3 s2

6 m2 m

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Division
When the same units with the same power are divided they cancel each other and in some cases the
result is a ratio.
Example 1

m
= ratio (no units )
m

6m
=3
2m

eg.

When different topic area units are divided, the denominator (bottom of the fraction) unit changes its
power sign from positive to negative or vice versa.
Example 2

m
= m s 1
s

8m
= 4 m s 1
2s

eg

Exercise 3
Carry out the following operations and check your answers:

4K
4K

11

12 m
3s2

10

3m x 5s
s

12

10 N
5m2

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Submultiple and multiple units


Submultiple unit
When using a 30 cm ruler to measure objects, most people take the measurement in centimetres or
millimetres since it is easier to write 5 mm than 0.005 m.
Base units that are too big for some measurements, eg the metre, can be split into smaller units, eg. the
centimetre.
Base units can be split into smaller units called submultiple units.
The millimetre is an example of a submultiple unit and it is a smaller quantity than the metre.
A submultiple unit is a smaller quantity unit than a base unit.

Multiple unit
Sometimes the base unit can be too small. For example, large distances are often measured in
kilometres instead of metres.
The kilometre is a larger quantity than the metre.
A multiple unit is a larger quantity than the base unit.
Common prefixes used for multiple and submultiple units are shown in the table below:

Prefix

Symbol

Number in
words

Number in
figures

Powers of
ten

Mega-

million

1 000 000

106

Kilo-

thousand

1 000

103

Centi-

hundredth

1
100

102

Milli-

thousandth

1
1000

103

Micro-

millionth

1
1 000 000

106

Multiple and submultiple units must be converted into SI units when used in formulae for problem
solving.

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Conversion of units
Conversion is an operation of changing submultiple or multiple units into SI base units.
The conversion factor is the figure which relates the multiple or submultiple unit to the SI unit.
Rules for conversion
Rule 1
When converting a multiple unit (larger quantity) into the SI base unit (smaller quantity), multiply the
multiple unit by the conversion factor.

Larger quantity

Smaller quantity = Multiply by a factor

Example
The kilometre is a multiple unit of the SI base unit of length, the metre. A kilometre is one thousand
times larger than the metre.
Multiple

Conversion factor

Conversion

SI units

1 kilometre (km)

1 000

1 x 1 000

1 000 m

Relationship 1 kilometre = 1 000m = 1 x 103 m


Rule 2
When converting a submultiple unit (smaller quantity) into the SI base unit (larger quantity), divide
the submultiple unit by the conversion factor.

Smaller quantity

Larger quantity = Divide by a factor

Example
The millimetre is a submultiple unit (smaller quantity) of the SI base unit of length, the metre. A
millimetre is one thousand times smaller than the metre.
Submultiple

Conversion factor

Conversion

1 millimetre (mm)

1 000

1 1 000

SI units
0.001 m
3

Relationship 1 millimetre = 0.001 m = 1 x 10 m

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Conversion examples and exercises


Length
SI base unit metre (m)
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion factor

Multiple kilometre km

Relationship

1 000

1 km

1 000 m

Submultiple centimetre cm

100

100 cm

1m

Submultiple millimetre mm

1 000

1 000 mm

1m

Examples
Convert the following into metres
1

5 kilometres
5 km

5 x 1 000

5 000 m

5 x 103 m

25
100

0.25 m

2.5 x 101 m

236
1 000

0.236 m

2.36 x 101 m

25 centimetres
25 cm

236 millimetres
236 mm

Exercise 4
Convert the following into metres.
13

12 km

16

220 cm

14

6.32 km

17

212 mm

15

12 cm

18

1234 mm

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Area
Derived unit square metre (m2)
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion factor

Relationship

10 000

1 hectare = 10 000 m2

Submultiple square millimetre mm2

1 000 000

1 000 000 mm2 = 1 m2

Submultiple square centimetre cm2

10 000

10 000 cm2 = 1 m2

Multiple hectare

The hectare is a multiple unit used for measuring large areas.

Examples
Convert the following into square metres.
1

6.2 hectares
6.2 hectares

6.2 x 10 000

62 000 m2

6.2 x 104 m2

0.02 m2

2 x 102 m2

0.00521 m2

5.210 x 103 m2

200 square centimetres


200cm2

200
10 000

5210 square millimetres


5210 mm2

5 210
1 000 000

Exercise 5
Convert the following into square metres:
.
19

2 500 cm2

22

21 510 mm2

20

22.2 cm2

23

0.21 hectares

21

600 mm2

24

23 hectares

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

97

Volume
Derived unit cubic metre (m3)
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion
factor

Relationship

Submultiple cubic millimetre mm3

1 000 000 000

1 000 000 000 mm3 = 1 m3

Submultiple cubic centimetre cm3

1 000 000

1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3

Submultiple cubic decimetre dm3


(or litre l)

1 000

1 000 dm3 = l m3
(or litres)

Examples
Convert the following into cubic metres
1

102 dm3 or litres


102 litres

= 0.102 m3

= 1.02 x 101 m3

= 0.000235 m3

= 2.35 x 104 m3

= 0.00001029 m3

= 1.029 x 105 m3

235 cubic centimetres


253 cm3

102
1 000

235
1 000 000

10290 cubic millimetres


10290 mm3

10290
1000000000

Exercise 6
Convert the following into square metres
25

5 200 mm3

28

25 000 litres

26

112 345 mm3

29

10.2 litres

27

55 cm3

98

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Mass
SI unit kilogram (kg)
Multiple or submultiple

conversion
factor

Relationship

Submultiple gram g

1 000

1 000 g = 1 kg

Multiple tonne t

1 000

1 tonne = 1 000 kg

Examples
Convert the following into kilograms.
1

200 grams
200 g

200
1000

3.3 x 1 000

= 0.2 kg

= 2 x 101 kg

= 3 300 kg

= 3.3 x 103 kg

3.3 tonne
3.3 tonne

Exercise 7
Convert the following into kilograms.
30

2 520 g

32

0.56 tonne

31

22 g

33

21 tonne

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

99

Time
SI unit second (s)
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion
factor

Relationship

60

1 min = 60 s

3 600

1 h = 3 600 s

Multiple minute min


Multiple hour h
Examples
Convert the following into seconds.
1

5 minutes
5 minutes

5 x 60

= 300 s

= 3.0 x 102 s

2 x 3 600

= 7 200 s

= 7.2 x 103 s

2 hours
2 hours

Exercise 8
Convert the following into seconds.
34

12 min

36

6h

35

21 min

37

3 h 25 min

100

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Temperature
SI unit kelvin (K)
This is purely a mathematical relationship between temperature scales, there are no multiples or
submultiples. Degree celsius can be converted into kelvin.
Other scale

Conversion
factor

Relationship

Add 273

0 C = 273 K

Degree celsius C
Examples
Convert the following into Kelvin.
1

25 degree celcius or c
25 C

25 + 273

= 298 K

120 degree celcius or c


120 C

120 + 273

= 393 K

Convert the following into degrees celsius.


3

523 kelvins
523 K

523 273

= 250 C

Exercise 9
Convert the following into kelvin (or degrees celsius):
38

10 C

40

400 C

39

5 C

41

659 K

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

101

Density
Derived unit kilogram per cubic metre kg m-3
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion factor

Relationship

1 000

1 g cm3 = 1 000 kg m3

Multiple gram per cubic centimetre


Examples

Convert the following into kilograms per cubic metre.


1

0.8 gram per cubic centimetre


0.8 g cm3

0.8 x 1000

= 800 kg m3

= 8.0 x 102 kg m3

= 5 600 kg m3

= 5.6 x 103 kg m3

5.6 gram per cubic centimetre


5.6 g cm3

5.6 x 1000

Exercise 10
Convert the following into kilogram per cubic metre.
42

1.2 g cm3

43

4.1 g cm3

102

44

7.3 g cm3

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Force
Derived unit newton (N)
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion
factor

Relationship

1 000

1 kN = 1 000 N

Multiple kilonewton kN
Examples
Convert the following into newtons.
1

5 kilonewtons
5 kN

5 x 1 000

= 5 000 N

= 5.0 x 103 N

8.26 kilonewtons
8.26 x 1 000

8 260 N

= 8.26 x 103 N

Exercise 11
Convert the following into newtons.
45

12 kN

47

2.12 kN

46

41 kN

48

25 kN

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

103

Stress and pressure


SI unit newton per square metre (N m-2) or pascal (Pa)
Multiple or submultiple

Conversion
factor

Relationship

1 000 000

1 N mm2 =

Multiple newton per square millimetre


N mm2

1 000 000 N m2

Examples
Convert the following into newton per square metre.
1

0.5 newtons per square millimetre


0.5 N mm2

0.5 x 1 000 000

= 500 000 N m2

= 5 x 105 N m2

= 2 500 N m2

= 2.5 x 103 N m2

0.0025 newtons per square millimetre


0.0025 N mm2

0.0025 x 1 000 000

Exercise 12
Convert the following into newtons per square metre.

49

104

0.0001 N mm2

50

0.00002 N mm2

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

Answers to exercises

Exercise 1
1

9m

6N

7s

5J

40 N m

6 m3

Exercise 2
5
6

8 m2
6ms

Exercise 3
9

11

4 m s2

10

15 m

12

2 N m2

Exercise 4
13

12 000 m = 1.2 x 104 m

16

2.2 m

14

6 320 m = 6.32 x 103 m

17

0.212 m = 2.12 x 101 m

15

0.12 m = 1.2 x 101 m

18

1.234 m

Exercise 5
19

0.25 m2 = 2.5 x 101 m2

22

0.02151 m2 = 2.151 x 102 m2

20

0.00222 m2 = 2.22 x 103 m2

23

2 100 m2 = 2.1 x 103 m2

21

0.0006 m2 = 6 x 104 m2

24

230 000 m2 = 2.3 x 105 m2

Exercise 6
25

0.0000052 m3 = 5.2 x 106 m3

28

25 m3 = 2.5 x 10 m3

26

0.000112345 m3 = 1.12345 x 104 m2

29

0.0102 m3 = 1.02 x 102 m3

27

0.000055 m3 = 5.5 x 105 m3

Exercise 7
30

2.52 kg

32

560 kg = 5.6 x 102 kg

31

0.022 kg = 2.2 x 102 kg

33

21 000 kg = 2.1 x 104 kg

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1 September 2006

105

Exercise 8
34

720 s = 7.2 X 102 s

36

21 600 s = 2.16 x 104 s

35

1 260 s = 1.26 x 103 s

37

12 300 s = 1.23 x 104 s

Exercise 9
38

283 K

40

673 K

39

268 K

41

386 C

44

7 300 kg m3 = 7.3 x 103 kg m3

Exercise 10
42

1 200 kg m3 = 1.2 x 103 kg m3

43

4 100 kg m3 = 4.1 x 103 kg m3

Exercise 11
45

12 000 N = 1.2 x 104 N

47

2 120 N = 2.12 x 103 N

46

41 000 N = 4.1 x 104 N

48

25 000 N = 2.5 x 104 N

50

20 N m2 = 2.0 x 101 N m2

Exercise 12
49

106

100 N m2 = 1.0 x 102 N m2

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 1
September 2006

ANNEXE 3: Exemplar tracking documents


BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science Exemplar learner tracking document
Unit 1

Unit 2

Learner Name
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
M6
M5
M4
M3
M2
M1
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
D4
D3
D2
D1
M4
M3
M2
M1
P4
P3
P2
P1
Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2 July 2006

107

BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science Exemplar assessor mapping document


Assessor name

Unit 1

Unit 2

D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
M6
M5
M4
M3
M2
M1
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
D4
D3
D2
D1
M4
M3
M2
M1
P4
P3
P2
P1
Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2 July 2006

ANNEXE 4 Front/header sheet template


College/School

Department of

Course title: BTEC First Certificate/Diploma in Applied Science


Tutor name:

Ref:

Assignment title:

Learner name
Start date:

Deadline:

Unit :
Scenario

Assessment evidence:
Unit
Grading criteria
The grading criteria that this activity relates to:

Summary assessors feedback

Internal verifiers comment

Learners signature

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2 July 2006

109

ANNEXE 5
Mapping the old BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science units against the 2006 units

BTEC FD
Units old
Diploma
BTEC 2006
version

Unit
1

Unit
2

Unit
3

Unit
4

Unit
5

Unit
6

Unit
7

Unit
8

Unit
9

Unit
10

Now
Unit 6

Now
Unit 1

Now
Unit 2

Now
Unit 3

Now
Unit 4

Now
Unit 7

Now
Unit 8

With
drawn

With
drawn

Now
Unit 9

Mapping
outcomes
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9
Unit 10
Unit 11

Y
X
Y
Z
New unit
X
X
X
X
New unit
New unit

X = all learning outcomes are the same in both current and new units
Y = 1 learning outcome is different
Z = 2 learning outcomes are different

Tutor Support Material/ Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Issue 2 July 2006

Further copies of this publication are available from


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