You are on page 1of 66

2014

Foundation Year
A course of TECHNOLOGY
Curriculum Guide

Equipo de Diseo Instruccional


Alecop S. Coop.
29/07/2014

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

CONTENTS
I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 5
II. THE CONTEXT .............................................................................................................................. 9
1.

THE CoE MODEL OF TVET IN KSA............................................................................................. 11

2.

THE FY PROGRAM .................................................................................................................... 13


2.1. Goals and relevance ......................................................................................................... 13
2.2. Practical course organization ........................................................................................... 15

III. RATIONALE FOR THE COURSE. THE BASIC IDEA ......................................................................... 19


3.

TECHNOLOGY .......................................................................................................................... 21
3.1. Technology defined .......................................................................................................... 21
3.2. Relevance of a technological education ........................................................................... 23
3.3. The philosophy of a broad-based technological education .......................................... 25
3.3. Identifying the technological education in the FY ............................................................ 26

IV. A FRAMEWORK FOR COURSE PLANNING .................................................................................. 31


4.

COURSE DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... 33


4.1. Key components of an integrated course design ............................................................ 33
4.2. Situational factors to consider ......................................................................................... 34
4.3. Learning goals .................................................................................................................. 35
4.4. Feedback and Assessment procedures............................................................................ 36
4.5. Teaching/Learning Activities ............................................................................................ 37
4.6. Course planning in action ................................................................................................ 38

V. COURSE DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................. 41
5. COURSE CURRICULUM......................................................................................................... 43
5.1. General description .......................................................................................................... 43
5.2. General setting ................................................................................................................. 44
5.3. Learning goals ................................................................................................................... 45
5.4. Content ............................................................................................................................. 47
5.5. Teaching approach ........................................................................................................... 49

V1.0

A guiding framework: the engineering design process ........................................... 49

Technological projects and general organization of the course ............................. 52

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~3~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Teaching and learning activities .............................................................................. 54

5.6. Resources.......................................................................................................................... 55

The Technology workshop ...................................................................................... 56

Equipment ............................................................................................................... 57

5.7. Assessment ....................................................................................................................... 60

Project assessment.................................................................................................. 60

Support knowledge assessment.............................................................................. 63

Life skills assessment ............................................................................................... 64

Grading .................................................................................................................... 65

5.8. The teacher ....................................................................................................................... 65

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~4~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Read it to know the general intent of this curriculum guide and how is organized.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~5~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Write down the GENERAL INTRODUCTION to this guide


in this page

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~7~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

II. THE CONTEXT


This curriculum guide specifies a foundational Course of TECHNOLOGY. Read this section to identify
the general context where this technical training proposal is placed.
The following are global situational factors:

Partnership Mondragon-Wintec Colleges, as training provider and author of this training design.
Colleges of Excellence (CoE) Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) model, in
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), as the educational framework.
Certified 3-year technical and vocational training programs, as the providers training offering.
The Foundation Year (FY), as the academic year program where this course is precisely located.
A particular learning goal regarding the acquisition of a technological competency during the FY.

Note that, to ease reading, the abbreviations used above will be used hereafter.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~9~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

1. THE CoE MODEL OF TVET IN KSA


CoE are implementing an ambitious upgrade of the TVET system in KSA which is expected to expand the
capacity of technical and vocational training, improve its quality and make it comparable to TVET programs and
education standards in more advanced countries.

Figure 1 - Official web site of Colleges of Excellence (CoE). Visit http://coe.com.sa/defaulte.aspx

In order to achieve this, CoE has been established to be the leading authority for applied training in the
Kingdom in cooperation with the best international technical and vocational training organizations, and by
attracting the global faculty.
The CoE model is a Public-Private Partnership initiative (PPP in brief) applied to vocational education
in KSA. In essence, under this innovative system of governance the training design (at the course or school level)
and delivery is under responsibility of trainer providers whereas the educational framework, support,

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 11 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

supervision, accreditation of providers and other core managerial functions are provided by the government
institutions.

Mondragon and Wintec are both training providers, and partners, in this new system.
Mondragon- Muhayil-Asir College of Excellence (MMCoE, from here on) is one school run by
Mondragon pertaining to what has been called Wave 1 Colleges (the first generation of Colleges
corresponding to the first phase of implementation of the PPP Model).
CoE wants to offer quality certificates in specialized application areas for high school graduates. The
students are Saudis. Notably, this practical training is focused on specific occupations inside high priority
economical activity clusters and has been designed taking into account employers needs and global tendencies in
the labor markets, as it aims to qualify the graduate to be more ready for the current jobs and meet the real needs
of the national labor markets.

In the CoE system, occupational Qualifications belonging to a number of industry clusters have
been created based on Saudi Skills Standards, which are essentially formalized descriptions of
professional knowledge (competencies) associated to intermediate (technicians or equivalent)
occupational roles (visit: www.ncepa.gov.sa/). These Qualifications orientate the technical training
programs that are required for the students to qualify as professionals in such occupations (earning
correspondingly two types of official certificates: Associate Diploma and Diploma).
MMCoE plans to offer training associated to these Qualifications:

Electrical Technology (2014)


Business and Administration (2014)
Others, in a future.

Figure 2 shows the general organization of practical training programs offered in the CoE model.

Figure 2 - TVET general model of CoEs training.

In essence, a program of 3 academic courses long has been defined. Each course is about 1000 hours long
and it extends for a typical academic year, organized in three terms (trimesters). The two last courses build
properly the path towards professional qualifications, configuring a progressive program of professionalization:
first the student can qualify (illustratively) as a technical assistant (Associate Diploma) and then as a specialized
technician (full Diploma) in the corresponding Qualification. The first course, called Foundation Year (FY),
provides the foundational knowledge globally required; notably, a level of mastery of English language
(communication skills) since another characteristic of CoE TVET model is that its programs are delivered in
English. Other important achievements are expected in FY and also have an official recognition. In this way, every
academic course in the model is valuable by itself and every lateral output in this educational program is officially
recognized.
At the present (2014), 26 Colleges, representing the First and Second waves of CoE Model are operating
in KSA. The system gives considerable freedom to every college and training provider in making and operating its
own education and management models, within the administrative framework and review standards.
To know more about this TVET model consult official publications or interview and training providers
academic leaders.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 12 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

2. THE FY PROGRAM
The FY configures a preparatory program which plays an important role in the CoE TVET model. Its a
multifunctional year intended, above all, to provide learners with the basic competencies that will help them to be
successful in the vocational training studies that they will undertake in Years 2 and 3 (see Figure 2). In addition,
this course promotes the acquisition of knowledge, skills and behaviors that are valuable inside the new
educational model. Basically, this year is structured in some thematic and interdisciplinary courses or component
programs. In this section purpose, relevance and a general practical design of the FY are briefly discussed.
It must be noted that this practical design applies specifically to MMCoE (a Wave 1 College), but has
been conceived to be a general training approach for every other Mondragon-Wintec Partnerships College.
In our particular organization of the FY is noteworthy some learning emphasis related to technology, in
alignment with some of the CoE educational expectations and prescriptions. This informs about the relevance we
(and the CoE itself) give to the developing of a certain technological competency that help students to build more
specific/professional current knowledge according modern work trends, and getting a broader education as well.
This curriculum guide describes a Technology Course which is coherent with this essential learning g in
the FY framework.

2.1. Goals and relevance


Three are the basic educational
functions that this academic year satisfies:

Preparatory Purpose. This program provides


readiness for further studies, especially
technical careers.
Balancing Purpose. It groups students
according their background and other
criteria and teaches them flexibly in order to
meet basic requirements, such as readiness,
more effectively.
Motivational Purpose. This academic year is
the opening to a new educational system and
learning experience for Saudi students.

CoE has some important learning and


educational expectations regarding the FY and, in
particular, have made some prescriptions related
to the preparatory purpose1. These can be
grouped in two major learning goals an
corresponding study areas, which are mandatory:

English Language (Communication Skills)


Information Technology

Output to job market with


support (English
certificate)
YEAR 1
AREA II.
BASIC SCIENCES
(20%)

AREA III.
IT & TECHNOLOGIES
(20%)

AREA I.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE
(50%)

AREA IV.
GENERAL
(7%)

TUTORING PROGRAM (3%)

CONTINUES EDUCATION IN A
SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL
QUALIFICATION (YEARS 2 & 3)

FOUNDATION YEAR

Young enrollment from High School

Figure 3 Essential learning emphases in the FY derived from CoE


prescriptions and expectations. Colleges and instructors are free to
select content and instructional approaches and to organize their
associated courses and training modules, coherently.

The particular criterion (educational model, in sum) of expert training providers must operate to accomplish the foundational goals,
under curricular constraints such these. CoE values, promotes and expect to see a diversity of educational approaches operating inside
the CoE TVET system in order to increase the probability of that high quality education to occur.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 13 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Learning in these areas will prepare students for any further technical studies in CoE system.
Complementary, students will need significant learning achievements in:

Mathematics and Science


Other dimensions, such Life Competencies/Skills

All these emphases taken together provide a basic criterion for organizing (conceptually) the entire
academic year, as indicated in Figure 3. It follows a brief description of every one.

English Language
As it has already been noted, a distinctive feature of the CoE TVET model is that the program is immersive
in English language. Therefore, attaining during the Foundation Year of a level of mastery in this language
emerges as a primary goal. CoE system has defined the competency standards for English language for this year
(and the following courses) and its academic value. Specifically, an A2 Level in English (according to the Common
European Frame of Reference for languages, CEFR) is required to pass the FY and gain access to the vocational
path. In any case, the level of students achievement will be accredited via external and objective evaluation. Every
college is free of implementing its preferred English teaching program and methods.

Information Technology
The case for Information Technology (IT) is the same. In essence, its expected for students to
demonstrate basic and distinctive technological knowledge which is instrumentally relevant (applies) in very
broad knowledge areas and professional domains. Remarkably, this includes practical knowledge and skills in
computers and information technology. International standards have been selected to establish the level of
proficiency expected at the end of this course, and maybe others. The reference is the private certificate:
Cambridge IT Skills Diploma, which is based on the Personal Computer, Windows Operating System and Microsoft
Office Suite (at the level of basic user).

Math & Sciences


Its expected for students to demonstrate a basic scientific competency which is instrumentally relevant
(applies) in a very broad occupational domain or general knowledge area. It includes a selection of concepts,
principles and methods in mathematics and in other basic sciences suitable to build professional competence,
notably in those Qualifications that make the vocational training offering of every college. This calls for a more
flexible selection of math and science contents left to every College. So far, no particular standards (and
corresponding external assessment) for math & sciences have been established for this study emphasis. Every
college is free of creating and implementing its preferred math & sciences courses to be delivered at FY.

Life skills
Being important the structured learning in thematic or core subject matter areas, such as English
Language, IT or Science, the FY program includes more content that respond to complementary goals. These are
Life skills, a wide spectrum of basic, personal, social, thinking or broad technical skills, which are related to
important educational dimensions that today are increasingly valued by society and so, included explicitly in any
educational program. This knowledge is highly transferable and supports the acquisition of other more specific or
higher level competency.
In the specific context of vocational education this kind of knowledge is often referred as employability
skills, such effective team working or self-management which are important capabilities demanded by the modern
industry. Life skills refer to a more basic expression of this kind of generic knowledge in the context of FY. Above
all, from this learning emphasis is expected a remarkable contribution to students readiness for them to get
educated in the new school system; and according to current job global standards and features of modern

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 14 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

citizenship. No particular standards for life skills have been established, so this curricular dimension is left to the
training providers specific criterion.
However, employability skills included generically in the CoEs Qualification programs provide a basic
orientation. These have been grouped in three broad competencies: (1) Self-management skills, (2) Team Working
and (3) Adaptation to work context and career progression skills. From here, some coherent selections of life skills
can be made for including in the FY, taking into account the contribution of other study areas. For example: (1)
Personal Effectiveness (including Social skills, Initiative, Integrity, Responsibility, Self-learning) and (2) Academic
Competencies (Communication, Critical and Analytical Thinking and Problem Solving). It is noteworthy that this
kind of knowledge, to be practical, is better learned in context, the application context that other thematic matters
or the daily life within the College provide, for example.

Tutoring
Finally, together with the previous learning emphases, tutoring makes another important contribution
to the students education during the FY, providing them with individualized support. A tutoring program may
well serve for other supplementary purposes; for example, to reinforce selected life skills and other non-curricular
goals. In sum, a tutoring program is expected to be implemented in every college but its design is a specific one,
left to the training providers particular criterion.

2.2. Practical course organization


Based on the CoE general prescriptions, a design for the FY has been created and agreed, that particularly
applies in MMCoE and the rest of colleges of Mondragon-Wintec Partnership. Figure 4 represents this basic
program and relevant content. Note how the entire year has been structured integrating subject matters and
interdisciplinary programs; note also the remarks made about technology learning:

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

Aim: a level of competency in English language including speaking, listening, reading and writing.

According to standards established in CoE System.

English is used in every other curricular area as the main communication vehicle.

Instructional time allocated: 50% ( 500 Hours).


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.

Aim: a level of competency in using PC, Windows OS and MS Office personal productivity suite.

According to standards established in CoE System.

Other matters and study topics provide practical opportunities for applying and extending IT skills.

Instructional time allocated: 15% ( 150 Hours).

Information Technology makes conceptual part of a technological education program in the FY.
MATHEMATICS. Instructional time allocated: 10% ( 100 Hours).

Aim: an appropriate level of math competency relevant in the vocational areas offered.

This matter can be complemented with relevant sciences, according to particular program requirements.

Other matters and study topics in the FY provide practical opportunities for applying math & sciences.

Instructional time allocated: 15% ( 150 Hours).


TECHNOLOGY.

Aim: an appropriate level of technological knowledge, thinking, skills and behaviors which is particularly
transferable to the vocational path, and also is valuable by itself as a sort of technological literacy.

This matter makes conceptual part of a technological education program in the FY, together with
IT. This study emphasis supplements and extends technological knowledge and skills which are
supportive of the diversified technical and vocational learning offered by the Colleges.

This matter provides practical opportunities for integrating IT, math & sciences and other life skills.

Instructional time allocated: 10% ( 100 Hours).

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 15 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

CONTINUES EDUCATION IN A
SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONAL AREA
(Courses 2 , 3)

Output to job market

INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
(15%)

MATH
(& SCIENCES)
(10%)

TECHNOLOGY
(10%)

SUPPORTREMEDIAL
(Extra T.)

1 Academic
Year (1)
ENGLISH LANGUAGE
(Allocated Instructional Time: 50% of Total)

TUTORING (5%)

ACTIVITIES (Cross-Curricular) (10% )

Academic Year: 990 GLH /33 Weeks

FOUNDATION YEAR

Young enrollment from High School


Figure 4 Practical organization of the Foundation Year at Mondragon-Wintec Colleges

CROSS-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES.

Aim: an effective development of selected life skills through integrative activities and projects.

These activities have near contexts (the school life, the community, the professional career), are real (a
sport competition, for example), can require the support from subject matters or application of previous
learning and are vehicle of selected life skills.

Instructional time allocated: 10% ( 100 Hours).


TUTORING.

Aim: provide personalized support and guidance to students in academic and other issues.

Tutoring is provided in Arabic language.

Tutoring provide opportunities for developing some life skills or supportive knowledge, as well.

Instructional time allocated: 5% ( 50 Hours).


SUPPORT AND REMEDIAL ACTIVITIES.

Aim: provide students with optional opportunities for improving their knowledge and skills in matters.

This matter provides opportunities for discovering new topics or extends already studied topics.

This area is extra-curricular and has no part of official instructional time allocated.

Instructional time estimated: 100 extra Hours.

For each of these component courses/(sub-programs) a curricular specification exists that establishes
the educational standard (the What, How and When) that apply to all Mondragon-Wintec Colleges. This unified
design ensures general quality and is necessarily a flexible one, in order to implement and deliver the education
that every college really needs to be successful. This implies that colleges must finally determine the FY program
in its detailed contents and organization, attending to their contexts. For example, in two colleges the subject
matter of Technology can have different plans motivated by their different vocational training offerings, student

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 16 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

characteristics and other requirements. In another college, the Math matter could start delayed in the course
schedule to allow a more intensive initial study of English language.
For more information related to generic course descriptions and/or particular curriculum
implementations in a certain college refer to corresponding curricular guides and specific communications from
Colleges.

This document describes specifically a Course of TECHNOLOGY, which makes part together with IT
of a technological education program located in the FY of MMCoE and other Colleges of MondragonWintec Partnership.
Read next section to find more concretion about this technological education.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 17 ~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

III. RATIONALE FOR THE


COURSE. THE BASIC IDEA
This section presents the rationale for a TECHNOLOGY course, stressing the particular importance of a
technological education broad conceived which captures the essence of selected and ample
technological fields, including their representative technologies, core processes, professional roles and
context and teach them to students using a distinctive instructional approach.
Such educational proposal operates well preparing students for pursuing a professional qualification,
as its expected to happen particularly in the FY. In addition, considering the relevance of technology
and certain technological thinking in the current life and work, this learning emphasis has an
educational value by itself.
The TECHNOLOGY course is globally identified as part of a more comprehensive technological
education program with a flexible design, in order to meet the specific needs of different colleges and
Qualifications. Notably, IT learning emphasis is identified as a course in this FY component program.
This document focuses properly on describing the TECHNOLOGY course with a distinctive emphasis in
industrial product design/(engineering), which is one between other possible final course designs.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 19 ~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

3. TECHNOLOGY
3.1. Technology defined
While other creatures have been known to make use of simple tools, the development of complex
technological systems is a uniquely human activity.
One of the primary qualities of this activity is change. Due to their limited physical capabilities, humans
rely on technology to meet challenges in their environment. Quite often these challenges are met by making
changes in their world. These changes lead to further challenges, and the cycle of technological development
continues, not simply as a conceptual exercise, but as an ongoing creative activity.
Defined as such, technology extends beyond the observation and conceptualization of natural
phenomena, which is the domain of science. It is also more than just a collection of artifacts, since just hardware
cannot define a discipline. Better:
Technology is an activity that involves the
generation of knowledge and processes to
develop systems that solve practical problems and
extend human capabilities.
Because the needs of modern society and
economy are many and diverse in nature, many
different technologies exist focused to particular
domains of problems or challenges.
These technological fields are more precisely
technological systems that essentially integrate
specialized work-force and organizations, techniques,
tools, science and (private and governmental) support
to produce optimal solutions that fulfills needs, under
the conditions and limits that impose society, which
are: (attending) functional, aesthetic, ethical, legal,
economic, social, political and/or environmental
(factors).
The Table 1 below contains an illustrative
sample of different technologies.
TECHNOLOGY

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY

AGRICULTURAL
TECHNOLOGIES AND RELATED
BIOTECHNOLOGIES

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Figure 5 One advanced technological field is well represented in


aeronautics sector. High qualified work force, research, regulations
and organization is required to implement and improve the value
chain: from airplane producers to flying companies.

DESCRIPTION
Its the application of specialized equipment in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
disease. Understanding of the physical and biological (hard science) components must be
matched with an appreciation for the social aspects of disease and treatment. Because issues
connected with the application of many medical technologies can lead to ethical conflict, the
need for comprehensive understanding based on accurate information is critical. As dialogue
and demand increase regarding access to health care in national and global platforms,
developments in medical technology are occupying a larger share of political attention. Only
through knowledgeable discourse, continuing innovation, and accurate, compassionate
application of medical technologies can sound decisions and advancements be made for a
healthy future society, as well as for individuals in the present.
They deal with the application of knowledge, techniques, and resources to the raising of crops
and animals for food, feed, fiber, fuel, and other useful products. Biotechnology, which uses
part or whole living organisms to create or modify products, improve plants or animals, or
develop microorganisms for specific uses, has been applied in this endeavor throughout

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 21 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

human history. A clear understanding is needed to be able to assess and to manage the effects
of agricultural, and biotechnologies used to create artificial ecosystems and genetically
modified plants and animals in order to sustain the Earths natural resources.
They are concerned with the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand the generation,
conversion, control, transmission, and storage of potential/kinetic energy, and the machines and
tools used to increase strength and mechanical advantage. Technological products and systems
need energy in order to work. Thus, the processing and controlling of energy resources have been
ENERGY AND POWER
key features in the development of technology. It is the responsibility of all citizens to conserve
TECHNOLOGIES
energy resources to ensure that future generations will have access to these natural resources. In
order to decide what energy resources should be further developed, people must critically evaluate
the positive and negative impacts of this area related to technology. Activities in this area should
introduce all of the major scientific, mathematical, and ethical concepts related to energy and
power technologies.
Its concerned with the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand the transfer of information
from a sender to a receiver. Information and communication technologies date from the
INFORMATION AND
development of human speech and language, and continue through the creation of a variety of
COMMUNICATION
writing and encoding systems and the invention of printing. Now they also include computers and
TECHNOLOGY
related devices, an increase in the number of available sensory media, electronic transmitters and
receiving devices, and entertainment products. Digital technologies have revolutionized societys
information handling capacity to the point that the Industrial Revolution has evolved into the
Information Age.
They are concerned with the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand the complex network
of interconnected components that operate on land, on water, in the air, and in space to move
humans or resources from one location to another. As life and work become more complex,
transportation systems become more indispensable to the smooth workings of society. Because
transportation has become such an integral part of life, people often take it for granted or consider
TRANSPORTATION
it an ordinary part of the world. People need to understand the various systems that are
TECHNOLOGIES
interconnected into this network so that they may understand the environmental, social, and
economic issues related to this complex area of technology. Issues such as appropriate or
alternative technologies, the effects of the development of individual versus mass transportation
on urban development would all fall under this category. As we develop into further space
exploration, we need to understand that transportation is no longer limited to our world but can be
used as a tool to open up the worlds around us.
They are concerned with the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand the processes used to
turn raw materials into useful items. Emphasis is placed on 1) recognizing the differences in
producing and using natural and synthetic materials, 2) understanding and using creative problem
MANUFACTURING
solving techniques to come up with design solutions, 3) designing and managing production
TECHNOLOGIES
systems, processes, and resources and 4) the ability to assess the functionality and marketability of
the finished product. Skills developed in many manufacturing courses are often applied to
professional or vocational pursuits. An understanding of Manufacturing Technologies will be vital in
societies dealing with issues such as the development of a global economy, the relations between
labor and capital, and the conservation of scarce resources.
Its the effective use of materials, labor, equipment, methods, and management resources to
produce a self-supporting structure. These structures can be used as residences, office buildings,
entertainment, storage, or commercial facilities. Structures can be part of transportation systems
such as roads, bridges, or airports. Structures can be used for cultural, artistic or civic purposes, as
CONSTRUCTION
pyramids, statues, or monuments. Structures can be as permanent as the pyramids or as
TECHNOLOGIES
temporary as scaffolding. While construction and manufacturing technologies are similar in that
they both produce useful items, Construction is predominantly used for customized designs while
manufacturing generally focuses on mass production techniques. Education in Construction
Technology should involve a variety of construction types. Emphasis should be placed on the
understanding of processes used in planning for the design, building, use, and maintenance of
different structures.
Involves the art and science of conceiving, planning, constructing, operating, and managing
technological systems for the benefit of humanity. The exponential increase in human knowledge
ENGINEERING
and understanding of both natural and technological systems, and the interaction of these,
requires the commitment of resources to ensure citizens are prepared to make ethical and
practical decisions based upon real understanding of complex interactions.
Table 1 Sample of technologies with a brief description and discussion about education in each one.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 22 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Our course of TECHNOLOGY is about an exploratory learning of selected technologies and


technological domains, considering the qualification paths and their learning prerequisites at ours
colleges, as well as certain learning expectations of the promoted educational model.

3.2. Relevance of a technological education


Technology is purposeful human innovation in action. It helps in meeting basic human needs and it
provides tools for improving peoples lives and exploring new frontiers. This technological innovation influences
all areas of life, from the daily lives of individuals and the business and governments work, to interactions at a
global scale. More than ever, all we live in high technology society. In addition, one feature of technology at these
days is its power, reach, and rapid evolution. These are basic reasons for a (universal) technological education that
focuses on developing studentss ability to work competently
with technologies that are central to their lives and
professional choices.
In brief, to meet the challenges and opportunities of
the twenty-first century, every student needs to become
technologically literate. That is, be able to understand, work
with, and benefit from a range of technologies. Students need
to acquire the technological skills and knowledge that will
allow them to participate fully in a competitive global
economy and to become responsible citizens in an
environmentally vulnerable world. To succeed in todays
society, students need to be effective problem solvers
and critical thinkers, able to understand, question, and
respond to the implications of technological innovation.
Technological education is particularly relevant to
students who choose to pursue careers in technical and
technological fields, like those identified in Table 1, and Figure 6 Technological education is universalized in the
qualify like specialized professionals. They will need these curriculum and happens, alone or integrated, in every
high-level skills to perform like competent professionals in educational system and level.
the chosen occupational field and be able to develop effective
solutions to technological challenges under the form of products and services. But, technological education is also
indicated for students who do not choose to pursue careers in industry or in scientific fields. For all, technological
education can provide knowledge, skills and new perspectives that will enhance their daily and professional lives
and an awareness of the practical implications of technology. Concluding, technology is a relevant aspect of our
culture and social life, today more than ever, hence a valuable matter of study.
Even more, considering that technological education has to do with learning to analyze, create, develop
or exploit goods and services, it has the distinctive attribute that promotes the integration of learning across many
other subject disciplines. For example, when students design a product, they explore the social or human need that
the product addresses (social science), the scientific principles involved in its design and construction (science),
its dimensions and shape (mathematics), and the aesthetic qualities of its design (arts). In other example, when
they assess the impact that new technologies have had or may have on society, students are exploring
historical or current events.
Students also apply business principles to the study of the production and marketing of products. They
apply literacy skills to communicate design ideas, produce reports summarizing technological projects, and write
instructions for the use of the products they create. Technological education also helps students to develop
research skills and it fosters creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving. In addition, through emphasizing
innovation for meeting human needs, it encourages global citizenship and promotes social, economic, and
environmental awareness.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 23 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

A practical conclusion is that content from any program in technological education can be combined with
contents from other courses or programs in other disciplines to create an interdisciplinary, alternative (to
thematic instruction) and probably more significant and appealing education.
Finally, technological education is a process and so, to be more effective, it needs to be judiciously
designed in its scope and sequence in every educational system (located in different programs, levels and
courses). Illustratively, as the students proceed through their elementary and secondary education, they should
attain an adequate level of technological literacy valuable by itself and for building readiness for succeeding at
their postsecondary studies (or at the workplace). In this progressive manner, students come to understand
essential technological concepts like those contained in Table 2, and to work with them creatively as they confront
practical challenges acquiring relevant experience for the most demanding or specialized ones.

All technological education located in the FY configures a flexible broad-based program of study
which is coherent with this rationale. To orientate, this program must be identified to be at
the level of secondary studies.

CONCEPT

DEFINITION

AESTHETICS

The aspects of a product, process, or service that make it pleasing to the human senses.

CONTROL

The means by which a device or process is activated or regulated.

DESIGN or ENGINEERING

As Science has the scientific method (an inquiry approach) to get knowledge about the
world (What and Why is it?), Technology have Design (a problem solving approach) to
meet practical human needs (How to do it?). All we make design in our lives, even
unnoticed. However, optimized and formalized design, like industrial design, is a
systematic, specialized and oriented work that happens under problems specifications and
constraints and goes from investigating to evaluating the product or service solution,
through exploring feasible concepts, selecting the optimal and making the chosen solution.

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

The creation of products or services and use of resources in a way that allows present
needs to be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
needs. An important related concept is that of environmental stewardship the
acceptance of responsibility for the sustainable use and treatment of land and other
natural resources.

ERGONOMICS

The design of a product, process, or service in a way that takes the users well-being with
respect to its use or delivery into account that is, in a way that minimizes discomfort,
risk of injury, and expenditure of energy.

FABRICATION/BUILDING

The act or process of assembling components and/or materials and resources to create a
product or service.

FUNCTION

The use for which a product, process, or service is developed.

INNOVATION

Original and creative thinking resulting in the effective design of a product or service

MATERIAL

Any substance or item used in the creation of a product or delivery of a service.

MECHANISM

A system of connected parts that allows a product to work or function.

POWER AND ENERGY

The resource that enables a mechanism to perform work.

SAFETY

The care and consideration required to ensure that the product, process or service will not
cause harm.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 24 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

STRUCTURE

The essential physical or conceptual parts of a product, process, or service, including the
way in which the parts are constructed or organized.

SYSTEMS

The combinations of interrelated parts that make up a whole and that may be connected
with other systems.

Table 2 Some basic technological concepts. They are essential in learning many technologies, like those in Table 1.

3.3. The philosophy of a broad-based


technological education
Following the previous discussion, any technological education can be more or less focused. For
example, qualifying like a professional in an industrial cluster requires a dedicated program referenced by job
tasks or professional competencies. In contrast, broad-based technological programs can be conceived which are
less focused, having as reference the mastering of basic competencies. This is the case for many introductory
programs and courses whose purpose is above all to enable students readiness promoting acquisition of
essentials and seeking to awake an interest for the field or matter considered.
A broad-based technological education conceived as above has some of these distinctive features in
practice:

Its placed in a broad technological domain, which probably integrates


other related sub-domains or near technological fields.
It has a common aim: help students to build an awareness of the
domain.
In order to this happen, it selects factual information, core concepts and
distinctive methods of inquiry/performances. In sum, essential
knowledge representing the most representative and transferable
technological competency.
Learning objectives and contents can be easily adjusted in deep or
width. No unique valid broad-technological curriculum or training
design exists.
It uses basic or prototypical means (representative materials, tools,
information, instruments that can be adapted for the sake of
instructional strategies and learning outcomes) and appropriate
training contexts such as classrooms, labs or workshops.
Can be mandatory or include elective options, too. Elective courses in a
broad program, typically.
These are some illustrations:

Figure 7 In preparatory technological


education students learn in adapted
contexts basic specific and general
knowledge in broad technological
domains to build and awareness of such
domain or/and readiness for
subsequent instruction.

Workplace preparation courses are a frequent option in many


general and vocational schools. Illustratively, in construction technology
this education enable students to acquire foundational knowledge and
skills related to carpentry, electrical/network, cabling, heating and
cooling, masonry or plumbing.
Similarly, an introductory course or program in Information
Technology, instead of concentrating in one narrow application, can deal basically with a representative
sample of computer technologies, software applications and communication technologies useful for a broad
spectrum of students.

V1.0

This is precisely the case for including an IT learning emphasis in the FY.

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 25 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

3.3. Identifying the technological education in the FY

The program of technology in the FY of Mondragon-Wintec Colleges is actually a broad-based


technological education that comprises two main mandatory courses: INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY (IT) and TECHNOLOGY. Both study emphases have practical expression in
courses with a flexible design to meet particular needs of students and Colleges.

The figure 8 represents the basic idea of a technological education that fits in the context of FY and is
coherent with the rationale for a technological education developed so far.

Foundation Year. TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM


Qualification
requirements in every
Mondragon-Wintec
Colleges and CoE
learning expectations
for FY

INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
COURSE

TECHNOLOGY
COURSE

Basic (for novices)

Foundation Course.
Option 1:
INDUSTRY

Foundation Course.
Option 2:
BUSINESS

Other complementary levels of


design or elective courses or
curricular solutions.

Foundation Course.
Other possible options

Standard Design (minimum)

Advanced (for initiated)

*** Broad-based technological courses ***

Figure 8 The program for learning Technologies in the FY.

These are its main features:

During FY, at MMCoE and other Mondragon-Wintec colleges, the students take a mandatory program in
technologies that makes a valuable contribution to readiness for further acquisition of technological
knowledge and qualifying in certain industry occupations. This program is, above all, a broad-based
technological education and therefore is coherent with the general features of this kind of training
described in this rationale.

The qualification options at Mondragon-Wintec Colleges are several, at this moment 2:

Electrical Technology

Business and Financial Services

Nursing

Othersin the near future. For example, in food industry.


Two basic courses configure the technological education program, identified as:

September, 2014

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 26 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) COURSE


TECHNOLOGY COURSE

Both courses are conceived to meet preparation requirements for occupational qualification (which can be
different in any of the Colleges, considering their particular offerings) and CoE learning expectations (which
are general), so their design is notably a flexible one including equivalent educational aims but
different contents.

The IT COURSE mainly attends the CoE requirements and has a standard (minimum) design which applies
to all Colleges (see description in Section II, Point 2.2) independently of Qualification offerings at whatever
College. In brief, every student in the CoE system is expected to attain a certain level of proficiency in
understanding and using Computer, Internet and the Microsoft Office Suit.
Being guaranteed the attainment of standard learning goals and coverage of related content, the Colleges can
adapt their particular programs to better meet the needs of their students and groups adding new content.
At the same time, the complementary course of Technology (see description, below) offers practical
opportunities in their activities and projects for applying and extending learning in IT.
Finally, this course has allocated 15% of total hours of the FY ( 150 GLH).
To know more about this training, consult the corresponding curriculum guide.

The TECHNOLOGY COURSE is basically a diversified education, a broad-based technological training


referred to several wide occupational/productive domains from which take their goals and contents. Such
domains provide ample frames of reference for the specific qualifications offered by the full set of Colleges.
These domains have been decided to be those listed in Table 3, left column:
SELECTED BROAD TECHNOLOGICAL DOMAIN
INDUSTRY
Business
Food Industry
Services
Other

ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGY COURSE


TECHNOLOGY COURSE. OPTION INDUSTRY
Technology course. Option Business
Technology course. Option Food Industry
Technology course. Option Health & Caring
Define

Table 3 Options in TECHNOLOGY learning emphasis.

Depending on the particular qualification offerings a College can impart more than one course options of
those listed in Table 3, right column. In any case, all the technology courses are educationally equivalent and,
illustratively, conceived basically to a beginner level; that is, for students with no relevant background in
practical/technical or technological knowledge in the field. In addition, all of them promote the using of a
similar instructional approach for delivering.
Being this the curricular standard, as is the case with IT, every College can adapt their Technology course(s)
or even create alternative or elective designs, at the same or more advanced levels, based on diagnostic
evaluations of their students, context and expectations and, in the end, seeking how to meet better their
particular needs.
As Table 3 suggest, other course options are possible. Maybe, proposed by the any of the Mondragon-Wintec
Colleges and validated by the corresponding levels of validating boards.
This diversified course has allocated 10% of total hours of the FY ( 100 GLH).
This document describes particularly the curriculum for a TECHNOLOGY COURSE. OPTION INDUSTRY.
The Table 4, below, contains a basic characterization of this option for a better understanding of intents and
conceptual design. Some information about the Business Option is given as well.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 27 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

OPTIONS IN TECHNOLOGY COURSE

DESCRIPTION
Rationale
The students who are novices in a technological or technical education and have
chosen to qualify in occupations belonging to industrial (or secondary) sectors like
Automotive or Electrical Technology will benefit of taking first this exploratory course
in the broad field of industrial engineering and technologies related.
The basic goal of the
engineering approach is to solve
practical problems through the
development or use of
technologies.
Technology/engineering works
in conjunction with science to
expand our capacity to
understand the world.

INDUSTRY
This extremely broad activity field is
an appropriate context for
Qualifications offered by MondragonWintec Colleges, such as:

Electrical Technology
Automotive
Other industry clusters and
educative options (in a future).

This training selects and teaches


basics of industrial creative
product design (see graph) and
how this activity integrates
other relevant industrial
technologies and knowledge
from other disciplines related:
from electronics to product
promotion or effective team work.

Goal
As a result, the students will get an essential, broad and integrated view of the
design/(engineering) process and key aspects of selected technologies and work at
industry. This knowledge will be of high value in their subsequent professional path,
and in their lives.

Contents
This foundation course is conceived modular in its structure. Here are tentative
comprising basic study modules (or learning phases) that ensure an appropriate
learning progression in the course; they can be easily adjusted to better meet
students features and other expectations at a particular College:
1.

2.

3.

SECTION I. BASIC PRACTICAL PROBLEM SOLVING


In this introductory module the students will learn a basic approach to
technological problem solving, including supportive elementary (mostly handbased) knowledge about materials, tools and processes required to materialize
a product concept and get an awareness of the social implications of the
technology and design. Especially intended for those groups and students with
no relevant education in technology.
SECTION II. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DESIGN/CREATIVE ENGINEERING DESIGN
The students go on expanding their understanding about creative industrial
design and technologies involved, like manufacturing technologies, and simple
concepts about production organization and marketing. They are more
conscious too, about the social context and impacts of technology and
professional work (particularly, about the requirements for themselves as
designers in the school context).
TECHNICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN
Finally, the students have a chance of exploring more specific technological
fields that require specialized knowledge, like mechanical systems or electronic
systems and how the framework for designing (or problem solving) products
modifies accordingly.

Teaching approach

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 28 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

This is a project based course. The students face practical problems (design
challenges, for example) working in teams systematically and using relevant design
and production techniques and tools. They apply basic technological knowledge,
make research and apply other contextual knowledge according to specific problem
solving requirements. They are realistically assessed according to the technical
product/realization due. In this manner, the students develop appropriate work
behaviors and consolidate life skills (a remarkable one: communicate in English about
technical and technological matters), together with more specific technological
knowledge.

Rationale
The students who are novices in technology and have chosen qualifying in
occupations belonging to Business and Financial cluster will benefit of taking a unique
foundation course in Business.
This course is intended for developing a basic level of competence in the business
area. Students will identify business and the economic context; they will study
elementary principles of business organization, accounting, marketing, operations
management, human resources and business communications.

Goal
Completing this course, the students will demonstrate a basic understanding of
modern businesses and market dynamics and elementary using of selected business
procedures and tools. This acquired competency will assist students to confirm their
professional qualification intentions and build appropriate readiness.

BUSINESS
This broad occupational field is an
appropriate context for Qualifications
offered by Mondragon-Wintec
Colleges, such as:

Basic design
This foundation course in Business is conceived modular in its structure. Here are its
comprising basic study modules:
1.

2.

Business and Financial Services


3.

PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
The students discover the economical agents, the market and the law of supply
and demand.
THE ENTERPRISE
The students identify kinds of enterprises, learn the classic functional
organization of enterprises and analyze the launching of an enterprise project.
OPERATIONS
The students explore basically selected activities in the typical business, like
marketing, accounting or production. Even, they play administering a fictitious
business integrating some of these operations.

Teaching approach
This is a project based course. The industrial market and companies provide the
frame for identifying realistic and elementary administration challenges and
other problems related which are posed to students. The students work
collaboratively (eventually competing with other business teams) solving
these challenges using adapted tools and simplified methods. They apply
learned concepts and skills and make autonomous research as needed. They are
realistically assessed according to the business results obtained, under
defining conditions. In this manner, the students develop appropriate work
behaviors and consolidate life skills, together with more specific technological
knowledge.
Table 4 Basic conceptualization of some Technology Course options.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 29 ~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

IV. A FRAMEWORK FOR


COURSE PLANNING
This section presents a significant framework for course design (or course planning) that informs
about how this curriculum guide is conceived and practically used.
In advance, course design can happen at several hierarchical elaborative levels, notably at a curricular
prescriptive level and at the level of teachers. Independently, course design should always exist before
any actual training delivery. In order to design quality courses (effective, efficient and engaging) an
integrated course design is promoted that defines and coherently aligns goals, assessment and
learning/teaching activities under situational constraints. The process suggested is one of backward
design that starts formulating significant learning outcomes and goes on determining assessments and
activities. This place students and learning at the center of training, contrasting with more traditional
topic or content centered instruction which often produce less effective and engaging instruction.
This curriculum guide specifies a course about TECHNOLOGY, being coherent with these principles. Its
expected to be useful to colleges, departments and teachers that have to finally plan how this
prescriptive education will be implemented in their particular contexts seeking quality results.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 31 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

This page left in blank intentionally

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 32 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

4. COURSE DESIGN
In any educational system, core training processes take place that promote the intended learning for
students. In practice, such processes are programs and courses under different practical designs and management.
Two basic activities are always involved: planning (first) and (then) implementing the training. Planning is
design and serves to represent the intentional teaching and learning experience facilitating its subsequent
practical implementation. Implementation is actual delivering of training, and evaluation. Training evaluation
allows improving the training plan, under a philosophy of quality improvement.
Illustratively, a teacher often plans and delivers his or her own training. In complex educational
organizations, such a particular school with its programs, departments and teachers or a entire educational
system with its schools and external accountability, both planning and implementing are frequently guided for an
existing curricular framework. That is, exists some educational planning carried out at a higher level: a curriculum
typically. Being prescriptive, such curricular frame orientates training and put conditions in one or more of these
key components: goals, contents, teaching approaches, resources and/or organization for delivering.
This is the case for this curriculum guide. Its a framework and specifies a minimum standard design
for a course of Technology, as this has been justified in the preceding rationale. This design is flexible although
prescriptive and therefore applies to all colleges, departments and teachers of Mondragon-Wintec Partnership. In
sum, seeking training efficacy and quality, every school, department or teacher must plan and deliver its final,
contextualized training ensuring coherence with this curriculum. Needless to say that in other case (lacking a
training framework for the course), the training enterprise simply would be more complex and harder to manage,
at a global scale.
In order to build this curriculum guide an integrated course design model has been chosen, which is
explained in this dedicated point. This model is especially useful for teachers (and departments) as course
designers. Its also adequate from a curricular, higher level, perspective that seeks to define more general course
components and useful orientations for implementing training.

4.1. Key components of an integrated course design


At a general level, any good course
design comprises a few essential components
interrelated (see figure 9): (1) an analysis of
situational factors, (2) a formulation of learning
goals/outcomes, (3) feedback and assessment
procedures and (4) instructional strategies that
integrate teaching/learning activities and
instructional resources.
Regarding interrelatedness, represented
in figure 6 by the solid connecting lines, all
components must be coherent. This is to say,
there must be an alignment between selected
learning goals, instructional activities
implemented to facilitate such goal attainment
and assessment instruments used to check
students achievements.
Situational factors, such students traits
or technology available, can obviously put
conditions on the core elements, or aspects.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

LEARNING
GOALS

TEACHING AND
LEARNING
ACTIVITIES

FEEDBACK AND
ASSESSMENT

SITUATIONAL FACTORS

Figure 9 Key components of an integrated course design.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 33 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

When a link between any of these core elements and another one is broken then the course quality
suffers. This is the case when, for example, high level of attainment goals are taught only at a superficial level using
inappropriate methods (learning by rote memory, insufficient relevant practice, etc.). Or, when there is an
inconsistency between goals and tests used in a given training. A poor course planning usually is behind these
sorts of unbalances.
In conclusion, quality training is one integrated where his basic components are necessarily
coherent. Also, quality training is optimal, responding to conditioning factors that apply. This principle guides this
curriculum guide. Following, a brief discussion about every core component in the model is given.

4.2. Situational factors to consider


When creating new courses, or improving existing ones, the designer should give careful consideration to
a variety of situational factors that can affect the design to some extent. For example, who is our student? Is he
familiarized with the content area? As it obvious, researching and collecting this sort of information is basic
because goals, contents or instructional methods need to be created/chosen that better suit the students features
(educational background and other traits).
Table 7 lists some more generic situational factors to consider when planning a course. From all of them,
the Specific Context is always important, from the point of view of teachers planning work (work at
school/department/teacher level). The other factors are sometimes important, sometimes not; but its always
useful to review all of them in every new specific course. In general, all of them can be significant at a higher level
of course design (curriculum), as well. This means that a teacher, acting as course planner, will be able to base
their specific situational analysis in some general contextual information where many basic constraints are
identified (learner, delivery mode, instructional times, etc.)
SITUATIONAL FACTORS

DESCRIPTION

Where does this course fit?


What sort of course is it? Foundational, advanced, etc.
How many students are in the class?
SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF THE
Schedule, Calendar?
Delivery mode? (Live, online, in a lab)
TEACHING/LEARNING SITUATION
What physical elements of the learning environment will affect most the
activities or methods?

Others.

What learning expectations are placed on this course or curriculum by:


GENERAL CONTEXT OF THE LEARNING

The College/School or Department?

The profession?
SITUATION

The community/society?

Is this a technical matter?

Is this subject primarily theoretical (conceptual) or practical or a combination?

What are disciplinary references?


NATURE OF THE SUBJECT

What are job references?

Are there important changes, trends or even controversies occurring within the
field that the students need to know? Why?

What is the life situation of the learners (e.g., working, family, professional
goals)?

What prior knowledge, experiences, and initial feelings do students usually


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LEARNERS
have about this subject?

What are their learning goals, expectations, and habits of study?

What is the best teacher profile needed for this training?

What beliefs and values does the teacher have about teaching and learning?

What is his/her attitude toward: the subject? Students?


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TEACHER

What level of knowledge or familiarity does s/he have with this subject?

What are his/her strengths in teaching?


Table 5 Situational factors to consider when planning a course; for teachers as designers and for other curriculum experts.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 34 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

4.3. Learning goals


Definition of learning goals (or
learning outcomes) should follow the
review of the situational factors. They are
essentially what the designer(s) want
students to get out of the course/program.
For example, a teacher planning
his own course could ask himself: What
would distinguish students who have taken
my course from students who have not?
In other cases, the training goals
can be pre-determined; for example, when a
technical course is aligned to some specific
(and prescriptive) job task or competence.
Even in this case the teacher in charge of
delivery probably will add more goals or
adapt the existing goal to the specifics of his
teaching situation.
Finally, goals can appear as a
hierarchical structure of terminal and
subordinating (enabling) learning
outcomes. Any complex training goal can be
analyzed in this kind of component analysis,
which can be useful to select contents and
organize instruction in units and
instructional sequences.

Figure 10 A taxonomy of significant learning based of six dimensions of goals,


which are connected. This means that each can stimulate other kinds of
learning. The more kinds of these goals (realistically) are included in a course
design, the more the goals will support each other, and the more valuable, or
significant, will be the students learning.

Learning outcomes that have to do


with getting global understandings of the matter or development of characteristic practical skills in a domain are
frequent, but in a learning-centered approach3 other kind of goals are equally valuable.
For example, in a vocational training oriented by job performance can equally matter the specific
dimension (acquiring expert understandings and selected specialized skills) and the human dimension (learning to
work with others, for example).
Competency models and taxonomies of learning are valuable instruments to orientate the selection and
formulation of learning goals when planning courses, or designing training at any other level. Figure 10 shows a
basic taxonomy of significant learning goals that teachers or curricular experts could use in deciding learning
goals.
Note how the taxonomy includes familiar categories of Foundational Knowledge (aim: acquiring basic
understandings and elementary or partial skills) and Application (aim: practical using of acquired knowledge),
together with other less frequent dimensions (often absent in many training) such a Human Dimension (aim:
developing of personal and social skills) or Caring (aim: developing of attitudes and behaviors). Other important
3

These kinds of powerful ideas and metaphors are common in current educational environments. In brief, a learning-centered
approach summarize an education philosophy that put learners, a more integral education and appropriate methods in the
center of educational processes, contrasting with other educational approaches, such a content-centered approach, where
content, content coverage and methods related matter most. Whereas the first approach is considered valuable and must be
promoted (in the general scenarios of education), the second is considered negative and so discouraged from general use.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 35 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

aspect is that there exist interactions between categories. Foundational knowledge is required to develop critical
thinking, for example. And attitude creation and reinforcement only are possible through relevant experience
(application of knowledge).
Concluding, the general recommendation is that all of these learning dimensions/(kind of goals) should
be included in the course design or, at least, systematically considered and weighted, seeking a more integral
education which is linked to current social demands and educational trends.

4.4. Feedback and Assessment procedures


To know about students learning
achievements and attainment of intended goals
some measures of learning evidences are needed
followed by some judgment formation about the
quality and extent of the observed learning. This
is assessment, in essence.
Assessment is the base for traditional
grading (summative assessment purpose) and,
also, for giving feedback to the students about
their current performance and learning
progressions (formative assessment purpose).
Without feedback complex learning is
impossible.
Above all, assessment needs to be
coherent with instructional objectives currently
being focused in a given training and with the
global goals (representing more integrated and
complex knowledge). In matter of feedback, this
should be:

Frequent: give individualized feedback


systematically; daily, weekly, or as
Figure 11 This is the educative assessment idea, for a more effective and
frequently as possible, according nature of
significant learning
the learning task.
Immediate: get the feedback to students as soon as possible.
Discriminating: Make clear what the difference is between poor, acceptable, and exceptional work.
Respectful: the students work to learn how to perform well. Feedback delivering should be empathetic.

Assessment processes use instruments which are varied to better adapt to the sampling of several useful
learning evidences that need to be collected: they span from formal and standardized testing to the assessment of
any kind of relevant students performance: homework, products and activities resulting from lab practices,
independent work or projects, relevant interactions in real or simulated environments with people, writings,
classroom participation, portfolio construction, etc. Another necessary component is evaluation criteria, in order
to form objective and reliable judgments about the complex learning evidences being observed.
Currently, assessment practices are being reinforced to better fit in a learning-centered education
paradigm. In essence, what is claimed for is a more educative assessment which transcends the assessment
oriented to traditional grading in favor of the formative function, as well as for a more authentic grading based in
relevant and integrated learning outcomes. Figure 11 represents this movement.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 36 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

4.5. Teaching/Learning Activities


In a given training students learn
through relevant learning experiences that
are conductive (facilitate) of the kind of
intended learning outcome. Such learning
experiences are planned by the teacher or
by the system (in a computer based
instruction, for example) or are generated
by the students themselves in a self-learning
context. A learning experience is
substantiated in some combination of
activities. Often, such activities are named
teaching activities (conducted by the
teacher) and learning activities (carried out
by the students).
For example, a traditional lecture
is a common learning experience where the
teacher presents general information, gives
examples or demonstrates how new
knowledge is applied, and where the learner
listens trying to grasp meaning from the
teachers explanations, take notes and

Figure 12 A holistic view of active learning

summarize or participate in the class discussions.


Learning activities are many and varied. To be effective in the context of a whole training they must be
judiciously selected according to the nature of learning outcome, integrated and sequenced under the most
practical form of strategies (teaching methods or approaches). An appropriate instructional strategy, more than
isolated activities, is what is needed to get progressively the intended goals under conditions that apply (complex
learning is a process). For example, the goals of a technical course can be met using a project based instruction (a
kind of strategy) based on a sequence of authentic team projects increasingly complex. This strategy, as it obvious,
integrates many learning and teaching activities; some of them even could be present in other teaching
approaches (give supportive information, for example).
One powerful idea has emerged in the educational and training contexts in the last two decades or so: the
concept of active learning. In essence, this idea summarizes research from which this principle has been derived:
students learn more and retain their learning longer if they acquire it in an active rather than a passive manner.
When students learn actively they are, basically, doing things using the new acquired knowledge and thinking
about the things they are doing. Both are essential features of effective learning experiences, those that seek to
promote deep learning. In contrast, a passive learning mostly based on receiving information and ideas (learning
by absorption) with few possibilities of practical application and reflection mostly produces shallow or superficial
learning.
Under this perspective a caution is made about the use and abuse of lectures and other (mostly)
receptive teaching activities and methods. Many times, an obligation of content coverage, together with the
simplicity or economy of the method, are behind the selection of lectures. Other many possibilities exist for
creating richer learning experiences4. Figure 12 orientates about what is essentially needed and figure 13 give
some examples.

Warning: doing for the sake of doing (without an appropriate foundation) can result equally in deficient learning outcomes. What
matter is not having the students physically active all the time; instead, all of the core components of active learning must be
present, assuming that coherence already exists between the learning experience intended and the learning goal.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 37 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Another important feature associated to learning and teaching activities and methods are resources.
Strategies and specific activities need to be supported by a variety of media such as:

Learning or instructional spaces: classrooms, laboratories, workshops, computer classrooms, etc.


Materials and Equipment: training kits, simulators, software, etc.
Learning materials: textbooks, workbooks, instructional guides, etc.
Other specific technology for training delivering: e-learning platform, for example.
Resources for training management.

Figure 13 Some learning activities or methods for holistic active learning

4.6. Course planning in action


Some practical approaches can exist in planning a course that uses and integrate effectively the core
components discussed above. They share common ideas, like the basic ones briefly discussed following.
At the high curricular definition of the matter/course, a formalized curriculum document is expected to
be obtained where emphasis is put in the rationale of the training, in identifying learning outcomes and associated
content and informing about general requirements for practical implementation. Some orientation about teaching
approaches, assessment and examples can be included as well. The general design approach is one elaborative
that starts with the situational analysis and proceeds with goals, contents, organization and requirements. Being
probably the designer a board of subject experts which is accountable to some academic management for global
support and validations. One important underlying concept is one of backwards design: from learning
outcomes (learning centered paradigm) to the rest of curricular components (assessment, activities), in order to
build coherence properly.
At the specific planning work level of a school or a teacher that creates his own courses, this backward
design idea is still more evident. What is expected at this level is a full and detailed plan of the course and
dynamics that is going to guide the practical implementation and delivery. It must be noticed, that maybe this plan
doesnt need to be thoroughly expressed in a document. On one hand, experience and familiarity with the matter
determines what kind of personal document the teacher needs. On the other hand, prescriptions from the academic
framework dictate to be accountable, with some formalized detail, of the design work done. The figure 14
illustrates an elaborative basic process in three stages of course planning useful for teachers, departments and
schools.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 38 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Figure 14 A process for an Integrated Course Design

If a curricular specification of the course already exists and apply, the school/teachers will have to adapt
some of the (mostly initial) steps of this process. An existing curriculum orientates and can save planning effort
and time. Assuming some grade of flexibility, the teachers and departments can include in his particular training
design teaching preferences and adaptations to particular constraints, in order to more effectively and efficiently
meet the kind of general educational results intended.

This curriculum guide focuses on the description of a Course of TECHNOLOGY; it follows the
principles of an integrated course design for creating significant learning experiences and,
accordingly, specifies the core components of training and orientates. This prescription and
guiding information must be used by schools and teachers in their situated and final practical
course planning.

Much literature exists about course planning and current educational approaches, such as active learning
and backward training design, in general education and vocational training contexts. The notes given in this
section can be used by teachers and others to guide self-research and self-training in this broad field. Other
references are:
http://www.grantwiggins.org/documents/UbDQuikvue1005.pdf
(Contains a summary of Understanding By Design teaching planning and implementing approach
from the American authors Wiggin and Tighes, who are very influential in the context of general
school reform at USA)

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 39 ~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

V. COURSE DESCRIPTION
This section contains a general description of the course of TECHNOLOGY inspired by the course
planning approach in the previous section and informed by the rationale and general context exposed
in first sections of this curriculum guide.
The basic aim has been the elaboration of a guiding course/curriculum concept for all colleges and
departments of Mondragon-Wintec Partnership, in order to ensure common goals, a rather uniform
approach and delivery of the matter (that can be globally monitored and managed) and quality
teaching. And, at the same time, enough flexibility for adapting the training to particular settings and
teaching preferences.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 41 ~

This page left in blank intentionally

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

5. COURSE CURRICULUM
This section is devoted to the building of a basic and prescriptive course specification. Such general
description focuses on the description of these core course elements:

A rationale.
General conditioning.
Learning goals.
Content.
Teaching approach.
Resources
Assessment
The teacher.

Some of this essential information and general principles of course/curriculum planning come from
previous sections. Is intended, this information will guide the particular implementation of this training in every
school and department, flexibly.

5.1. General description


Technology is about practical problem solving and so, one important drive of industry and a factor of
change at a global scale. With the concurrence of many different technologies, along with scientific research, the
goods and services that satisfy needs of society are endlessly created and improved. This cycle also includes the
advance of exiting technologies and the emergence of others, seeking how to better face the new technological
challenges. Today, technologies are increasingly powerful, sophisticated and evolve faster than ever before in
history. These characteristics put conditions on jobs and finally on workers and professionals.
Modern manufacturing demands professionals who are capable of using the new production
technologies and performing competently in the current work scenarios; those that these technologies are
precisely contributing to shape. Taking advantage of the technologies available, from them is generically expected
to take responsibility on increasingly demanding problems in their domains being creative, effective collaborators
and self-managed. In one word: a sort of creative problem solvers situated in complex technical and human
contexts. One important trend is that work is today more knowledge-based (and less hand-based), as
technologies replace the simpler, tedious and dangerous job tasks and, at the same time, these become more
intelligent (i.e. powerful) giving better support to workers and boosting their intellectual contribution. This kind
of enriched work and participation is much more rewarding for people.
This is a foundational course about TECHNOLOGIES, as they are used in general industry work contexts.
Industry clusters and occupations related are many and varied. So, one integrative idea has been chosen: that of
Engineering Design process. Engineering design has essentially to do with facing real-world challenges in order
to give them solution under the form of competitive technical products and activities/(services). Engineers of
all disciplines have in common certain approaches:

Careful attention given to needs and contextual factors of a particular design challenge.
Problem defining, with requirements and constraints: technical, economical, social and environmental.
Teamwork, to face complex and multifaceted problems.
Brainstorming, to generate and discuss innovative solution ideas and effective courses of action.
Research, to know more about the problem at hand, current and potential improved solutions.
Iterative steps of the design process and evaluation of potential solutions.
Prototyping and production.
Communication and accountability of decisions made.
Reflection about the work done, practical results and lessons learned.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 43 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

An ethical position that guides their general behavior, i.e. strong values about their social role as designers.

Working through all the technical and non-technical issues helps engineers generate useful, appropriate
and successful design solutions.
At the same time, these activities (regarded in essence) reflect much of the desirable new professionals
competency profile demanded by the current industry, as summarized above. This is a course in
TECHNOLOGIES (Option Industry) conceived, in the end, to
prepare FY students for their further vocational training where
they must follow an occupational qualification path which is
inspired by such kind of competent worker.
This course teaches the essentials of the engineering design
process integrating basic technological knowledge from a number of
common technologies used in industry settings together with another
contextual knowledge. To this aim, and for making a more significant
and enjoyable training, it uses a practical approach where students
face authentic design and technical challenges that result in
purposeful products or technical systems. Collaboration,
communication and reflection are promoted; and they are also
assessed according to authentic criteria that establish what effective results and work are, as in real settings.

For more information review the course rationale in section III.

5.2. General setting


The Table 6 below summarizes the setting for this course configuring a general prescription.
FACTOR
COURSE TITLE
(Apply to all Mondragon-Wintec Colleges)
PROGRAM WHERE THIS COURSE FITS

DURATION

STUDENTS

DESCRIPTION
TECHNOLOGY. OPTION INDUSTRY

GROUPING
TYPE OF COURSE

INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Foundation Year at Mondragon-Wintec Colleges


Program: technological education (learning emphasis).
Other courses in this program:

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
100 GLH (Guided Learning Hours: in class)
An additional extra-work (out-class) is estimated in about 20H (20%)
Basic time organization in trimesters.
FY students. Saudi. Language: Arabic
Average age: 17 years.
Urban people. Socio-economical level: medium-low
Educational background: KSA high-school level.
Some students come from University.
No previous technological knowledge is expected (knowledge about industrial
technologies, product design, etc.). Only limited technical knowledge is
expected (basic tools usage, drawing, IT as user, etc.).
Limited knowledge of English Language is expected. No significant level of
technical English knowledge is expected.
20 Students.
Instructor Led Training
Mandatory course
Optional versions could exist
Project based instruction. The students work in teams on technical challenges
and learn support knowledge accordingly. Such challenges end in purposeful
prototypes and models of simple products and technical systems.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 44 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT

RESOURCES

One technical project is expected at least by trimester.


Projects, supportive content and methods are adapted to students features.
Only internal assessment, aligned with course learning goals.
Students course portfolios (or learning evidences) can be used in
accountability of the general goal/program (technological learning in the FY).
Authentic assessment is used, including (weighted):

Individual knowledge tests.

Project assessment. Groups and individual participation.

Assessment of assignments and behaviors: practice, homework,


attendance, participation, etc.

Peer-assessment.

Reflection and self-assessment.


This course requires a Technologies Workshop properly conditioned and
equipped for delivering.
This course requires a Teacher of Technologies trained in the promoted
teaching and assessing approaches.

Table 6 General conditions for this course.

For more detail about the context refer to section II.

5.3. Learning goals


Table 7 below contains the learning dimensions selected for this training as a whole, a concrete courseoption expression of learning outcomes and associated performance standards which can be used to guide
assessment.

Course of TECHNOLOGY

Option Industry
LEARNING GOALS

LEARNING GOALS
GOAL DIMENSION 1:
BE COMPETENT IN PRACTICAL
PROBLEM SOLVING
Associated learning outcome:
1.

Develop a creative and systematic


approach to practical problem
solving and apply it to authentic
design challenges that results in
purposeful and effective products
or technical systems.

GOAL DIMENSION 2:
DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF
TECHNOLOGIES
Associated learning outcome:
2.

Understand the contribution

V1.0

Sept. 2014

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (CRITERIA)

Define and justify industrial product design/(engineering design).


Explain and exemplify the basic process of engineering design.
Characterize engineering designers.

When facing low complexity design and technical problem solving challenges:

Identify needs based on data analysis and simplified market research.

Define a design brief considering constraints: economical, technical, etc.

Make research about already existing and potential design solutions.

Brainstorm design solutions.

Evaluate competing design solutions according to criteria and select one.

Make a model or simulate the design solution in order to validate design.

Plan and build a prototype.

Evaluate product performances against functionalities and constraints.

Write a design report.

Communicate and defend the design. Go public.

Reflect critically about the design and identify redesigns or improvements.

Reflect about the work and identify lessons learned.

Demonstrate essential knowledge and basic application skills in a number


of technological often integrated by engineering design practice, including:

Industrial materials and their practical properties.

Aesthetics and ergonomics criteria.

Mechanical and building structures.

Mechanisms.

Energy and actuators.

Control systems.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 45 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

made from basic technologies and


other instrumental fields to
engineering/(industrial product)
design and apply acquired basic
component skills and associated
knowledge in design challenges
and practical problem solving.

GOAL DIMENSION 3:
APPLY INFORMATION,
COMMUNICATION AND
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
Associated learning outcome:
3.

Work as an effective design team


member, use information and
communicate properly about
engineering processes and results.

GOAL DIMENSION 4:
PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK
Associated learning outcome:
4.

Acquire and apply basic


management skills to design
projects and to manage the own
work.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Technical drawing.
Manufacturing processes.
Product marketing.
Information and Communication Technologies.
Other technologies, basic sciences and/or techniques relevant in a
given design problem.

This generic standard includes:

Characterize and justify the technological field.

Define and explain important underlying concepts and principles.

Identify characteristic technological or work processes.

Indentify production means related: materials, tools, software, etc.

Identify risks and specific security measures.

Execute process and procedures and solve basic specific problems.

Apply acquired knowledge and skills in the design challenges.


Information literacy. In the context of technical tasks and design challenges:

Locate, evaluate and review information in order to make it usable.

Use and manage the kind of information needed.


Communication. When working whit others in technical settings:

Apply active listening skills: reflect, restate, question, clarification.

Understand and respond to verbal messages and complex instructions.

Express information to individuals speaking clearly and confidently using


common English and technical vocabulary learned.

Communicate persuasively in manner.


Reading and writing. In the context of technical tasks and design challenges:

Read and understand work-related instructions.

Read and understand technical documents where textual and graphical


information are integrated.

Create effective technical documents and work communications (English).


ICT skills. In the context of technical tasks and design challenges:

Use basic computer skills and other ICT technologies.


Team Work. In the context of technical tasks and design challenges:

Work as part of a team to achieve mutual goals.

Recognize teams goals and identify ways to accomplish those goals.

Choose always behaviors and/or actions that best support the team and
lead toward the accomplishment of work tasks.

Develop and maintain good working relationships with other members.

Be flexible and open-minded when dealing with a wide range of people.

Persuasively present thoughts and ideas.

Listen to and consider others viewpoints.

Build always toward consensus and work through conflict constructively.


Plan work. In the context of technical tasks and design challenges:

Approach group and individual work in a methodical manner.

Plan and schedule tasks so that work is completed on time.

Keep track of details to ensure work is performed well and completely.


Prioritize

Prioritize various competing tasks.

Perform tasks quickly and efficiently according to their urgency.

Find new ways of organizing work to getting done more efficiently.


Allocate Resources

Estimate resources needed for project completion.

Allocate time and resources effectively.

Coordinate efforts with all affected parties.

Keep all parties informed of progress and all relevant changes.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 46 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

GOAL DIMENSION 5:
APPLY CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS
Associated learning outcome:
5.

Understand and analyze critically


the relationships between
technology/science and society

GOAL DIMENSION 6:
PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
Associated learning outcome:
6.

Value this technological education


and use the learning experience to
reinforce personal effectiveness
competencies.

Anticipate Obstacles

Anticipate obstacles to project completion.

Develop contingency plans to address them.

Take necessary corrective action when projects go off-track.


Apply critical and analytical thinking skills in the general learning context:

Draw conclusions from relevant or missing information.

Identify particular positions in a discussion or written information.

Identify weaknesses and strengths in work approaches.

Use inductive and deductive reasoning to analyze, synthesize, compare,


and interpret information.

Understand connections between relevant issues.

Take or defend a personal position in a given issue based on data.


Thinking specifically about technology/science and society relationships:

Discuss about:

Historical development of Technology (global or local).

Relationships between technology and economy/work.

Relationships between technology and social-cultural aspects.

Relationships between technology and environment.

Trends and predictions about the future of technology.


Lifelong learning:

Examine your own knowledge, detect strengths and weaknesses and


decide how you can broaden it.

Learn from others and with others. Seek for appropriate support.

Reflect and make connections that matter. Use newly acquired


technological knowledge in new ways and settings.

Identify and take advantage of sources of information and learning.

Seek always feedback, and be open to modify behavior for improvement.

Treat unexpected work circumstances as opportunities to learn.


Integrity and professionalism

Take responsibility for accomplishing work goals within accepted


timeframes.

Accept responsibility for ones decisions and actions.

Perform quality work.

Follow rules and standards of dress, work organization and personal


hygiene and safety.
Initiative

Take initiative in seeking out new responsibilities and work challenges.

Pursue work with energy, drive, and effort to accomplish tasks.

Persist at a task until completion, despite interruptions or obstacles.

Establish and maintain personally challenging, but realistic work goals.


Dependability

Behave consistently, predictably, and reliably. Be trusty.

Fulfill obligations, complete assignments, and meet deadlines.

Table 7 Course learning goals and criteria

5.4. Content
Table 8 below contains a basic specification of the associated knowledge that supports the course goals,
as they have been defined in the previous point (Table 7). This full set of content topics is considered basic and, so,
they should be included in a standard delivery of this training. But coverage is not the aim. Instead, as a general
rule, they should be systematically selected, detailed and/or completed considering the instructional approach
specifically implemented (i.e. diversity and requirements of design/technical challenges posed to students) and
other situational factors (e.g. students features).

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 47 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Course of TECHNOLOGY

Option Industry
CONTENT

TOPIC

Knowledge & Skills

1. ENGINEERING
DESIGN

2. DRAWING

3. AESTHETICS

4. ERGONOMICS

5. MATERIALS USED
IN INDUSTRY AND
MANUFACTURING
PROCESSES

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Technology and Design.


Designers/Engineers.
Stages in the design process.

Problem situation.

Analysis and briefing.

Brainstorming solutions.

Research.

Selection of solutions.

Designing and modeling.

Planning and building


prototypes.

Testing and judging


design.

Design report.

Redesign.
Design tools.

Graphical communication.
Sketching and diagramming.
Engineering drawing. Types.
Basic line drawing concepts.
Techniques and drawing
tools.
Building elevations and
perspectives.
Computer Aided Drawing.

Function and aesthetics


Elements of visual design.
Shape, color, texture, etc.
Principles of visual design:
proportions, balance,
harmony, etc.
Practical applications.
Designing for people.
Ergonomics.
Knowledge of human body
physiology and psychology
(anthropometrics).
Principles for ergonomic
design.
Practical applications.
Industrial materials
Materials properties.
Wood and paper.
Ceramics
Plastics.
Metals.
Other special materials.
Manufacturing processes.

TOPIC

8. MECHANISMS

Knowledge & Skills

9. ELECTRICITY &
ELECTRONICS

Electricity.
Electricity principles.
Electrical components.
Basic electrical circuits.
Motors and electrical
actuators. Basic control.
Cabling.
Electronics. Analogue and
Digital.
Electronic components.
Electronic circuits.
Electronic circuit design and
building.
Programmable systems.
Practical applications.
Industry automation.
Automation technologies and
Robotics.
Programmable control.
Programming techniques.
(Electro-)Pneumatics.
Pneumatics principles.
Pneumatics components.
Pneumatics circuits.
Practical applications.
Useful sources of energy.
Energy non-renewable.
Thermal motor
Practical applications.
Renewable energy.
Solar Energy.
Wind Energy and others.
Practical applications.

History of Technology
Technology and work
Technology and environment
Technology and life
Future development

10. CONTROL AND


AUTOMATION

11. ENERGY

12. TECHNOLOGY
AND SOCIETY

Mechanics.
Principles. Force, movement.
Simple machines.
Mechanical guides and unions.
Movement transmission
mechanical systems.
Movement transformation
mechanical systems.
Practical applications.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 48 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

6. STRUCTURES

7. PRODUCTION
SYSTEMS

Tools.
Mechanical structures.
Application in civil building
and industry fields.
Principles. Forces and
mechanical effort.
Simple resistant structures.
Complex resistant structures.
Practical applications.
Industry and market.
Life cycle of industrial
products.
Basic organization of
Industrial enterprise.
Professional roles.
Production process. Storage
and manufacturing
operations.
Marketing process. Market
research and product
promotion

13. IT

Applied ICT (from IT Course)

Table 8 Course contents

5.5. Teaching approach


Many and varied teaching and learning activities can be implemented in a broad technological education
in order to make this training an effective and engaging learning experience for students. Significantly, these
activities can be integrated in a general teaching approach that basically uses design challenges and systematic
practical problem solving to organize an effective project based training. This point describes such strategy.

A guiding framework: the engineering design process


The aim of technological design is the attainment of products that meet human needs. In every state of
need underlay an unsolved problem, this is to say, a gap between what is (the current state of things) and what it
should be (desired stated of things). In the real contexts engineers make practical problem solving conceiving
(designing) technical solutions and products that creatively close this gap. To this aim, they proceed systematically
and apply technological knowledge. Often, this knowledge comes from different fields. Many different types of
design results exist, and settings where engineering design processes occur: from massive consumer products (e.g.
electrical appliances) and machinery for industry (e.g. an industrial robot) to unique big systems (e.g. a ship or a
building).
Despite this complexity, engineers across disciplines and around the world follow in essence a similar
systematic approach to problem solving, which is equivalent to the scientific method that scientists apply in
science domains; some call this approach: technological method. This technological method conveniently adapted
can be used to teach students the rudiments of engineering design, practical problem solving and fundamentals of
technologies, in an engaging and effective way. See in Table 9 a basic guiding framework for elementary
engineering design (which is inspired in the technological/engineering method). Simpler versions of this
framework could exist, or slightly different but equivalent frameworks.
This guiding framework facilitates learning practical problem solving in cooperation and a significant
integration of technological knowledge and knowledge from other courses. In addition, such model can be
elaborated to face a diversity of design challenges: from the simplest ones to the more demanding and domainspecific.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 49 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

So, in practice, teaching can be globally organized in a sequence of carefully selected basic engineering
design projects, through which the students can practice recursively this frame for design and their elaborated or
diversified versions.
Figure 15 represents this general teaching strategy.

Main course divisions or units

Project 1

ENGINEERING DESIGN
ORGANIZING LEARNING GOAL

Project 2

Project 3

Feedback and support

TEAM FORMATION

PRACTICAL WORK ON
PROJECT
(Design Challenge)

PROJECT AND
PERFORMANCE
ASSESSMENT

TECHNOLOGICAL AND CROSSCURRICULAR SUPPORTING


CONTENTS AND ACTIVITIES

Figure 15 A Project Based Course of Technology

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 50 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

ACTIVITY

DESCRIPTION

Identify the situation problem.


Recognize context.

2. ANALYSE THE SITUATION

Analyze the problem and clarify elements: who, why, what/how.


Investigate existing products or technical solutions.
Identify general attributes of the solution and constraints.

3. WRITE A DESIGN BRIEF

Write a design brief summarizing the design challenge.

4. CARRY OUT RESEARCH

Establish coherent criteria: functions, aesthetics, materials, etc.


Locate sources of information and make research into topics.
Compare existing products or solutions.
Identify product and design limits.

Specify requirements aligned to criteria.


Elaborate a product or technical system specification.

Generate realistic/feasible ideas aligned to specification.


Brainstorm solutions.
More research, as needed. Present product concepts.

Evaluate proposed ideas against the specification and constraints.


Select the optimal solution. Explain decision.

Develop the design proposal.


Model the solution. Refine solution or important features.

Do working drawings from which the product can be made.


Plan development: what, who, with what, when, how much.

Follow planning and control manufacturing work.


Obtain the product solution in the form or a prototype or model.

Decide product test. Design essays and instruments. Prepare.


Test to see if the product works and how well. Collect data.

How does the product meet the brief?


Need to be redesigned? How can be improved?
How did I/we tackle the problem? What was well / bad? Lessons.

Write the project report and present results (to class).

1. IDENTIFY NEED OR PROBLEM

5. WRITE A SPECIFICATION

6. WORK OUT PRODUCT IDEAS

7. EVALUATE IDEAS AND SELECT

8. DEVELOP PRODUCT IDEA

9. PLAN FOR MAKING

10. MAKE

11. TEST

12. EVALUATE

13. COMMUNICATE

Table 9 A detailed framework for general simplified engineering design

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 51 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Technological projects and general organization of the course


Through basic design challenges the students learn and interiorize the essential engineering design
process and integrate the other learning goals in an active manner. These inclusive technological projects are thus
of central importance in the course strategy. Many different kinds of technological projects are feasible, which are
globally coherent with the engineering framework in Table 9. See figure 16. The common features of engineering
design challenges posed to students in this course are:

They are relatively complex, time and resources consuming and multifaceted technical activities that end in a
tangible purposeful technological result, such as a product or a technical system (hard, soft or mixed).
They are also authentic activities, in that they resemble (or directly they are) the sort of real challenges.
They have implicit an unsolved problem, a technical challenge.
They are coherent with the engineering design framework, in Table 9.
They require basically acquisition and application of content topics, in Table 8. And maybe, knowledge &
skills from other general or contextual (specific problem related) fields.
They are better carried out in teams as a collaborative and self-organized work. Little or medium sized teams.
Systematic communication of project results and work are also implicit.
Challenges and projects can be posed to students or suggested by students (being validated by teachers).
Several projects can be related, representing parts, improvements or versions of something else.
In the more complex cases a product or a system model is an acceptable end result.

Figure 16 Some design project ideas: furniture, toys, mechanical systems, structures, robotics, etc.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 52 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

To ensure success, the projects should essentially: (1) be several to offer students enough opportunities
of this integrative practice, (2) be within the reach of students capabilities, that is representing attainable
technical challenges and (3) be presented in a sequence of progressive complexity (deep and breath of support
contents). In addition, projects should take into account situational factors, such as available resources
(feasibility) and time.
Considering these conditions, Table 10 presents an elemental, standardized, course organization. Note
that its assumed a year-course with homogeneous distribution of course hours. In essence, the course is divided
in three parts of three course months each (about 30 Hours in a trimester), each one devoted to a broad typology
of projects (or learning goal, in sum) and, all together, configuring a pedagogically appropriate sequence of
technological projects.
Based on this organizing scheme, and on situational factors, every Teacher/Department will define its
preferred/optimal and finalized syllabus.
Course of TECHNOLOGY Option Industry

Duration: 100 H

Aim: learn basics of engineering design process and technologies.


TRIMESTER 1 (Time 30H)
TRIMESTER 2 (Time 30H)
Partial Goal 1 (learning phase 1):
Partial Goal 2 (learning phase 2):
Get familiarized with the technological
Complete the beginner approach to
approach (engineering design) to
engineering design with basics of
problem solving.
industrial product design.

TRIMESTER 3 (Time 30H)


Partial Goal 3 (learning phase 3):
Apply engineering design in more specific
technological domains.

TYPOLOGY OF PROJECTS 1
At least one design challenge that comply
with this features:

TYPOLOGY OF PROJECTS 2
At least one design challenge that comply
with this features:

TYPOLOGY OF PROJECTS 3
At least one design challenge that comply
with this features:

A product prototype or model, with


relatively simple design, made of
materials easily processed, mostly
hand-based. These products can
optionally integrate simple
mechanical and/or electrical
operations.
The engineering design framework is
simplified to these core design
stages:

Problem/Situation analysis.

Brainstorming of solutions.

Research.

Choosing a solution.

Organizing development work.

Building prototype/model.

Testing and revision.

Reporting and communicating.

ASSOCIATED CONTENT
Criterion: The basics of

Engineering design. Problem solving.

Drawing.

Materials used in industry and


manufacturing processes. Paper,
Wood, Plastics, Metals. Hand tools.

Structures.

Mechanisms and Electricity.

Technology and Society. History.

IT (from IT Course)

V1.0

Sept. 2014

A product prototype or model, with


a more elaborated design, made of
materials whose processing
eventually require more operations,
manufacturing techniques and/or
using of relatively complex
technology.
The product can be a technical
system integrating more
sophisticated mechanisms, electrical
controls or elementary automation.
The engineering design framework is
more complete and rigorous

(reference: Framework in Table 9)

ASSOCIATED CONTENT
Criterion: broadening and reinforcing

Engineering design. Industrial


product design.

Drawing. Sketching, Line


Techniques, CAD.

Aesthetics and Ergonomics.

Materials used in industry and


manufacturing processes.

Mechanisms.

Electricity, Electronics and basic


Control.

Production systems.

A product prototype or functional


model, with an elaborated and more
specialized design, requiring
typically complex manufacturing
techniques and technology.
These products can be more
sophisticated technical systems
where a technology clearly
predominates. Illustratively,
mechanics, electronics, automation
and control, software, renewable
energy, etc.
The engineering design framework is
adapted to fit the specific
requirements of design work in the
domain. Illustratively, systematic
design process of an electronic softcontrolled system.

ASSOCIATED CONTENT
Criterion: focusing on/deepening

Engineering design.
Drawing.
Aesthetics and Ergonomics.
Materials used in industry and
manufacturing processes.
Structures.
Mechanisms.
Electricity and Electronics.
Control and Automation.
Energy.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 53 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Technology and Society. Technology


and Work.
IT (from IT Course)

Production systems.
Technology and Society. Technology
and environment.
IT (from IT Course)

Table 10 Basic organization of a year-course based on a sequence of engineering design projects.

Teaching and learning activities


Working in solving creatively design challenges is probably the most significant learning activity in the
course. Students develop in this active and more appealing way a broad technological competency integrating
knowledge from different sources, and reflecting: from specific technologies and essential design processes to
desirably work habits and a general awareness of Technology and its impact on society issues. This describes the
broad technological competency aimed as result of this course.
Other many student and teachers activities and methods are needed in order to globally manage the
inherent complexity of this promoted learning methodology. They are summarized in Table 11.
TEACHING AND LEARNIG ACTIVITIES
DESCRIPTION

SUGGESTED ACTIVITY/METHOD
1. DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHODS

Purpose: facilitate in general


acquisition of supporting
knowledge required to make
progress in engineering design
projects.

2. PARTIAL PRACTICE AND


EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
Purpose: facilitate acquisition of
component skills and
supporting knowledge which is
required for applying in
engineering design projects.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

EXAMPLES

Through direct instruction, teachers promote the


assimilation of new knowledge by students conducting
this basic teaching cycle:
1. Introduce the new study topic and make links to
previous relevant knowledge.
2. Present information or make it accessible to
students (tutorials, etc.). Facilitate acquisition and
assimilation through summarizing, questioning, note
taking and other typically lecture methods.
3. Put examples and demonstrate. Exemplify new
knowledge and demonstrate goal skills. Provide
contextual information: what, why, when, etc.
4. Provide guided practice and give feedback.
5. Provide more information, as planned.
6. Provide more independent practice and give
feedback.
7. Remediate, as needed.
8. Assess students knowledge and performance.
9. Close topic summarizing.
10. Promote integration and reflection about the new
learning.

Lessons planned
about new
technologies,
such as
mechanics,
drawing,
electricity, etc.

Content topics of
special relevance:
stages in the
design process,
using new
software, how to
write the design
report, how to
speak to an
audience, etc.

Effective practice entails planning, appropriate resources


and feedback. It includes, illustratively:

Exercises. To promote basic application of new


knowledge and skills.

Analyzing. Investigating what, why and how.


Detecting errors, assessing, etc.

Drill and practice. To promote automation of basic


knowledge and skills.

Workshop practice. To promote skill development.

Lab practice. Conducting experiments.

Simulations. Exploring and experimenting in


simulated environments.

Role-playing. For interpersonal skills.

Gaming.

Field-trips.

Others.

Any planned
relevant and
partial practice:

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

Tool using
Software using
Drawing
Tech. calculations
Experiments
Writing
Presenting
Interacting with
others

~ 54 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

3. INDIRECT METHODS AND


INDEPENDENT LEARNING

Purpose: facilitate selfacquisition of skills and


supporting knowledge for
applying it in engineering design
projects.

4. TEAM PROJECT SUPPORT AND


CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Purpose: orientate and facilitate
the work of project teams and
promote a conductive
classroom climate for engaging
in engineering challenges and
learning.

Through indirect methods the students can learn in a


more self-directed and exploratory way. Include:

Concept formation.

Inquiry and active search of information.

Reading for meaning.

Case studies.

Reflective discussions.

Writing to inform.

Research projects.

Homework and self-study techniques.

Guided visits, expert talks.

Others.

An adequate support is needed in order to facilitate the


work on projects and stimulate relevant learning. The
teacher can:

Make balanced work teams considering students


traits and make changes eventually.

Explain what is generally expected from a


cooperative team.

Explain work general conditions.

Explain rules of the workshop, including accessing,


security, cleanliness and maintenance of resources.

Check systematically the work and progress of


teams.

Give general and specific support to teams and


members during project development, stages and
tasks.

Check for climate in the group, give advice and


mediate in serious cases of conflict.

Estimate and make supplies needed and check the


status of resources in advance, in order to reduce
frustration with projects and development work.

Deriving a
technological
concept, rule or
procedure from
experience or
examples.

Clarifying societytechnology
relationships
through
discussion of
cases, expert
writings or
contrasting of
opinions.

Research
independently
about an
assigned
technological
topic.

The teacher
check the
progress
experimented in
the work of a
specific project
team observing a
model of the
solution just
created and
being discussed.
The teacher
listens to the
group and gives
them some
cautions about
feasibility and
suggestions
about how the
design could be
improved.

Table 11 A variety of activities and methods to support a project based teaching approach.

5.6. Resources
The projected training, with its learning goals and strategies must occur in a conductive learning
environment. Classrooms, equipments, learning materials and the teacher himself are elements in this context.
This point focuses on the description of key prescriptive material resources and learning spaces to teach this
course.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 55 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

The Technology workshop


To be more effective, physical learning spaces such as classrooms, laboratories and workshops have to be
planned. Subsequently, it is important to think first in terms of the learning goals and activities that need to be
supported; following this, the definition of physical attributes (and, later, resources) can be more accurate. Also,
learning spaces can be defined in extended terms; for example a virtual classroom.
Considering this, the present course should be mainly taught in a TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP.
Table 12, below, contains a general specification of this learning space.

TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP. General Specification


1. BASIC FUNCTIONS AND LAYOUT
The technology workshop is a multipurpose learning space.
Functionally, this space must allow three basic activities happen integrated, facilitating in this manner teaching and learning
and classroom management as well. These basic organizing spaces are:

TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP (100 m 2)

(1) Group Teaching and Design works Justify a


Classroom Zone.
(2) Construction Work and related Practices
Justify a Workshop Zone.
(3) Course and Classroom Management Justify
a Storage Zone.

Classroom Zone
(50 m2)

Workshop Zone
(40 m2)

Storage Zone
(10 m2)

See in the scheme right a conceptual layout.


Orientation: a Technology Workshop 100m2 sized
is appropriate for a group of 15 students.

In practice, many different physical arrangements of this learning space are possible. See bellow and alternative layout
representing two Classrooms sharing one Workshop Zone and Storage Zone.

Classroom
(60 m2)

Workshop
(70 m2)

Classroom
(60 m2)

Storage
(15 m2)
2. DETAILED FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE

The figure below is a model of how this learning space can be made fully functional, through detailed activity zones within the
Classroom and Workshop and adapted infrastructures and basic equipment.
The Technology Workshop should include dedicated spaces, such as:

(Classroom Zone):

Individual and group work posts.

Research post. Computers and Internet.

Library or/and Media Center.

Presentation and projections post.

Teacher post. White or SmartBoard.

Additional areas are possible: drawing/designing,


experimentation, etc.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

(Workshop & Storage Zones):

Group work tables.

Experimentation zone: different technologies.

Construction zone: hand-based, manipulations.

Machines zone. Specific manufacturing processes.

Hand Tools. Gathered or distributed.

Sink.

General storage: shelves, closets, cupboards, etc.

Cleaning cabinet.

Additional areas are possible: Internet, etc.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 56 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Relevant infrastructure and basic equipment is:

Space: 100 m2 (15 Students)

Electrical power (single phase) reaching every workplace. Zonal protections. Lighting independent.

Air and water supply.

Structured cabling for wired LAN and/or wireless.

Internet access.

Furniture for light and heavy works and according to other functional criteria: tables, desks, workbenches, etc.

Furniture for storage: shelves, bookshelves, cupboards, boxes, drawers, cabinets etc.

Ventilation and air conditioned.

Computer and multimedia/audiovisual equipment.

Blackboard or smart board.

Table 12 Technology Workshop. General specification

Equipment
Equipments basically support teaching and learning activities and strategies. Equipments and learning
materials, together with learning spaces, are the most important resources that teachers must manage when
delivering a planned instruction. Regarding the selection of equipments, types and quantities are salient factors.
Also, fidelity is basic principle, that is, to what extent materials and specific equipments represent the reality
(professional, context, etc.). In foundational learning many of them frequently include adaptations seeking to
facilitate concept learning (e.g. understand principles of operation), simplify (e.g. constructive models, trainers) or
increase security (e.g. limited performances, simulators).
Table 13 provides an orientation about the broad kinds of materials recommended for implementing this
course and supporting adequately the promoted teaching approach. Teachers and schools can use this orientation
to define and manage their particular Technology Workshop equipment.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 57 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENTS


TYPE

COMPUTER & GENERAL


PURPOSE SOFTWARE

PROJECTION
EQUIPMENT AND OTHER
ICT TECHNOLOGIES

CONSUMABLE
MATERIALS FOR
PROJECTS AND
PRACTICE

HAND TOOLS AND


LITTLE MACHINES

DESCRIPTION

ILLUSTRATION

(Hardware)

Personal computers (or equivalent). Multimedia and


networking configured.

Peripherals: printer, scanner, storage units, etc.

Windows Operating System and other basic software


(security, etc.).
(General Purpose Software)

Personal productivity suite: MS Office or equivalent.

Other general applications: classroom management, etc.


Orientation: one computer per two students.

Electronic projector.

Extendible projector screen.

Digital photo camera.

Digital video camera.

Electronic/Smart board.

Digital TV tuner.

Associated software.
Orientation: at least one set of ICT equipment

Paper, wood, plastic, metal, textile, ceramic and other


industrial materials in appropriate presentations for work
at classroom: variety of materials, bars, sheets, shapes,
etc.

Paints. Variety of types and colors.

Adhesives. General purpose, fast, etc.

Screws and other fastening methods.

Electrical and electronic components: resistors, motors,


diodes and little lamps, wires, batteries, etc.

Electrical and electronic construction: boards, sockets,


soldering, etc.

Mechanical components and parts: gear boxes, belts,


pulleys, cams, wheels, axes, etc.

Storage accessories.

Others.
Orientation: choose a basic supply according planned typology
of projects and practices. Complement, as needed.

Hand tools for light and heavy works with paper, wood,
plastic, metals, textile, ceramics and other materials.
Typical basic processing includes:

Measuring.

Scribing.

Work holding.

Cutting.

Folding and shaping.

Filing.

Finishing.

Joining.

Others: painting, sewing, etching, etc.


Hand tools are: rulers, saws, scissors, hammers, pliers,
screwdrivers, drilling, wrenches, vices, etc.

Orientation: at least one set. Students hand tools sets can be

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 58 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

POWER TOOLS AND


MACHINE-TOOLS

INSTRUMENTATION

DESIGN AND OTHER


APPLICATION
SOFTWARE

TECHNOLOGY TRAINERS
AND KITS

defined.

Woodworking machinery: wood lathe.

Metalworking machinery: Mill, Lathe, Drill, Grinder, etc.

Plastic working machinery: vacuum forming,


thermoforming, strip heaters, injection moulding.

3D printer.

Accessories, software and spares.

Other machinery: air compressor, welding, etc.


Orientation: choose basic set according planned typology of
planned projects and practices. Machine performances can be
adapted.

Electronic sources.

Multimeters and electronic probes.

Oscilloscope.

Mechanical measures: rulers, gauges, etc.

Materials testing machine.

Accessories.

Other: light, speed meters.


Orientation: choose basic set according planned typology of
planned projects and practices.

Basic 2D CAD.

Modeling software.

Image and animation software.

Circuits and systems design and simulation: electric,


electronics, mechanisms, pneumatics

Control and programming software: electronics,


automation, robotics, etc.

Management software.

Other specific software: associated to machine-tools, etc.


Orientation: choose basic set according planned typology of
planned projects and practices.

Study of materials and technological properties.

Electricity and Electronics trainer.

Mechanics trainer.

Structures trainer.

Automation and robotic trainer.

Pneumatics trainer.

Energies trainer.

Construction kits: structures, mechanics, control,


electronics, etc.

Other.
Orientation: choose basic set according planned typology of
planned projects and practices.

PERSONAL PROTECTION
EQUIPMENT AND OTHER
GENERAL EQUIPMENT

Clothing and gloves.


Head and face protection.
First-aid kit.
Security. Signals.
Cleaning materials.
Other.

Classroom Library and Media Center, including:

Technology and Design books.

Other reference books: magazines, etc.

Audiovisual: video/multimedia lessons, etc.


Textbooks

LEARNING MATERIALS

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 59 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Technology Woorkbook.

Instructional guides.

Other materials for teachers.


Table 13 Technology Workshop; orientation about Equipment

5.7. Assessment
In essence, assessment needs to be coherent with course goals. Through frequent and adequate
measures of students learning achievements and behavior a more educative assessment is possible, meaning this
giving better support for the students to learn, which transcends the traditional and somewhat restricted role
played by assessment in course grading.
Table 14 put in relationship a selection of major assessment types useful for this course and course goals.
Every assessment type can be substantiated in a number of coherent assessment instruments.

ASSESSMENTS
KNOWLEDGE
TESTS

COURSE
GOALS

Written exams
Quizzes

PERFORMANCE
TESTS
Practical tests
Role-play

1
BE COMPETENT IN
PROBLEM SOLVING

PROJECTS
Product
Process. Team
Defense

PARTICIPATION/
ATTENDANCE
Participation
and attitudes
Attendance

x
(preferred option)

2
DEMON. KNOW. OF
TECHNOLOGIES
3
APPLY INFO., COM.
AND INTERP. SKILLS
4
PLAN AND
ORGANIZE WORK
5
APPLY CRITICAL
THINKING SKILLS
6
PERSONAL
DEVELOPMENT
Table 14 Suggested assessments for the course.

ASSIGNMENTS
Homework
Indep. work
Team portfolio

x
x

x
x

It follows a brief discussion about every assessment option and how can be used in this course.

Project assessment
As Table 14 reflects, technical challenges and design projects are integrative practices that should be
used as the most relevant learning evidence in the course, taken as a whole. The majority of learning goals, and
thus the integrated competency, can be evaluated from the students work on projects and from the obtained
results. So, in this course:

At least three collaborative projects are expected (refer to Point 5.5 and Table 10, for more information).
Now, three major aspects for evaluating an engineering design project are:

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 60 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

1.
2.

3.

Product. That is, technical solutions and products realized (prototypes or models).

To what extend a technical specification (or design brief) has been met. Illustratively, structure, function
and aesthetics/finishing compose a (generic) technical specification.
Work process. Including team performance and management.

To what extend the work has been effective, efficient and respectful of norms and constraints (safety,
deadlines, sequence, etc.). A good planning and management are implied.

To what extend the team work has been collaborative and conductive of project results. Individual
participation in the group work is implied.
Communication.

To what extend the work and project results are well documented and explained.

To what extend the work and project results are well presented to one audience.

To what extend the technical solutions and decisions taken are justified and, if questioned, defended.

Table 15 provides a coherent rubric for project assessment. This model can be used by teachers or
schools to define their finalized assessment rubrics. More accuracy about assessment criteria and standards can
be obtained from the course goals (refer to Table 7).
ASSESSMENT RUBRIC FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN PROJECTS
Standards and levels of performance
Criteria
Poor Performance
Good Performance
Superior Performance

ASSESMENT
INSTRUMENT INFO.

(No credit)

It includes technical
challenges, design
projects and other
independent, relatively
complex/integrative,
and team based
practical assignment:
Design projects.
Technical projects.
Research projects.
Other.

Max Value of this


dimension:
(Points)

(Points Range)

PRODUCT

Functional

To assess and grade a


project consider this
criteria or important
dimensions:
1.

Product/solution
quality.

2.

Process
effectiveness.
Including team
work.

Some functions are


missing or performance is
far from standards. The
product or system doesnt
work as its expected.

Structural
Max Value:
(Points)

Materials, Organization
and Structural properties
(resistance, strength, etc.)
are far below what is
expected

(Points Range)

Finishing/
Aesthetics
Max Value:
(Points)

The product appears


poorly finished or
aesthetically is far below
what is expected
(Points Range)

Communication

Max Value of this


dimension:
(Points)
REPORT

3.

Report
Organization

The project report appears


globally poorly finished
and organized and is
difficult to read. In general
is far below what is
expected
(Points Range)

Textual
information in
the report
Max Value:
(Points)

Important information
missing or exposed with
poor vocabulary and
grammar expression. In
general is far below what
is expected
(Points Range)

V1.0

Sept. 2014

(Partial Credit)

(Full Credit)

Major functional aspects are


got but some standards are
below what is expected.

The product meets, or even


exceeds, the technical
specification and standards
defined about operation
and performances

(Points Range)
The product or technical
solution is mostly well
organized / uses
appropriate materials / has
good structural
characteristics. Some
standards are below what is
expected.
(Points Range)
The product appears quite
well finished or aesthetic.
Some standards are below
what is expected.
(Points Range)
The project report is an
essentially complete
document. Some features,
such as logical organization
and content are below what
is expected
(Points Range)
Acceptable technical
communication with
appropriate using of
technical and general
wording. Some standards
are below what is expected.
(Points Range)

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

(Points Range)
The product meets, or even
exceeds, the technical
specification and standards
defined about structural
properties (materials and
structure/organization)
(Points Range)
The product appears
carefully finished or
aesthetically meets or even
exceeds the technical
specification and standards
defined about finishing.
(Points Range)
The project report is
complete in information
due, logically organized,
well formatted and neat
seeking readability. It
meets or exceeds what is
expected.
(Points Range)
The project report contains
accurate information and
shows an excellent
expression which reveals a
careful choice of wording
and grammar. It meets or
exceeds what is expected.
(Points Range)

~ 61 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Graphical
information in
the report
Max Value:
(Points)

The report shows graphs


(Tables, Graphs, Diagrams
and schematics) with
missing information,
wrong or poor presented.
In general is far below
what is expected
(Points Range)

Visual aids
Max Value of this
dimension:

PRESENTATION

(Points)

Exposition
Max Value:
(Points)

Not enough pertinent or


accurate visual aids are
used. Furthermore, some
appear poorly made. Its
far below what is expected
(Points Range)
Poor organized speech,
inadequate language used
and inappropriate body
language. Its far below
what is expected
(Points Range)

Defense
Max Value:
(Points)

Work planning
Max Value of this
dimension:
(Points)

Some important technical


questions or decisions
taken are not well
explained. Its far below
what is expected
(Points Range)
The team barely plans
important tasks and make
deficient estimations of
work and resources or
about the importance of
certain constraints. Its far
below what is expected

PROCESS AND GROUP WORK

(Points Range)

Executing and
Controlling
Max Value:
(Points)

(Points Range)

Collaboration
and Cohesion
Max Value:
(Points)

INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTION

The work flow shows


important deviations
caused for bad planning,
coordination or control.
Also, some norms have
been unattended. Its far
below what is expected

Member 1
Max Value:
(Points)

Acceptable election and


elaboration of graphical
information that integrates
well with textual
information. Some
standards are below what is
expected.
(Points Range)

The project report shows


well chosen, relevant and
integrated, pertinent and
excellent formatting of
graphical information. It
meets or exceeds what is
expected.
(Points Range)

Pertinent and correct visual


aids. Some standards are
below what is expected

Pertinent, accurate and


well made visual aids. It
meets or exceed what is
expected

(Points Range)
Quite correct speech in
organization, information
conveyed, use of visual aids
and gestures. Some
standards are below what is
expected
(Points Range)

Well organized speech with


precise and relevant
information and good body
language. It meets or
exceed what is expected

Mostly well explained


technical questions and
justified some decisions
taken. Some standards are
below what is expected
(Points Range)
The team plans the work
anticipating sufficiently
activities, resources,
responsibilities and
constraints. Some standards
are below what is expected
(Points Range)
The work is sufficiently well
executed according plans
and constraints. The work
can show some deviations.
Some standards are below
what is expected
(Points Range)

(Points Range)

(Points Range)
Well supported and
explained technical
questions. Well justified
relevant decisions taken. It
meets or exceed what is
expected
(Points Range)
The team plans
systematically the work and
complex tasks, anticipating
activities, resources,
responsibilities and
constraints. It meets or
exceed what is expected
(Points Range)
The work is executed
properly in time, according
plans and norms. When
problems arise, effective
action controls are taken. It
meets or exceed what is
expected
(Points Range)

The team work is lack of


cohesion. Some members
dont participate in
important decisions, make
their work or give support
to others. Communication
is scarce and problems
arise. Its far below what is
expected

The team works rather well


discussing and agreeing
about the work, assuming
responsibilities and giving
mutual support when is
needed. Some standards
are below what is expected

The important decisions


about the work are agreed.
Individual responsibilities
are assumed and there
exist frequent
communication and
support among members. It
meets or exceed what is
expected

(Points Range)
Doesnt know about the
project as a whole, his
work has been of little
global value and there
exists some critic about his
participation
(Points Range)

(Points Range)
Demonstrates a general
knowledge about the
project as a whole and has
made a relevant
contribution. No major
critics from other members
(Points Range)

(Points Range)
Knows the project
Knows the process
Explain his responsibilities
Collaborates.
Others appreciate his
participation
(Points Range)

Member 2

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 62 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Max Value:
Member 3
Max Value:
Member 4
Max Value:
Total Score

(Points) of (Max. Points)

Table 15 A model of assessment rubric for evaluating engineering design projects, and other integrative practice

Support knowledge assessment


There are several ways of assessing students (technical and technological) learning achievements and
progression. This kind of knowledge must be available in order to apply it practically, notably in design projects
and work phases. One generic instrument of assessment is formal testing. Another is assignments. So, in this
course:

At least three partial exams are expected.

One per main course segment (refer to Point 5.5 and Table 10, for more information).

Exams can include:

Knowledge (written) tests. That is, objective tests with formal items of constructed or selected
responses (e.g. multiple choice, problems and essays).

Performance (practice) tests. That is, practical exercises to measure skill application.

Supplementary, other partial and simpler tests can be used. For example, lesson or topic quizzes.

A systematic control of assignments and independent work is suggested.

At least, every student should be accountable of his assignments one time per main course segment.

Assignments are homework (reading, exercises, research) and independent work made in and outclass (e.g. Lab Practices).

Assignments are mostly individual or in pair work.

Typically, an assignment implies some kind of production and a submission date. Other requirements are
possible (e.g. a presentation).

A special kind of assignment is the creation and subsequent publication (web site) of a project portfolio
where design teams describe their technological challenges, work and results. This can be a trimester or
year task.
Some forms of formal testing (essays, performance test) and assignments need assessment rubrics.

The assessment rubric for engineering design projects, in Table 15, orientates how other more limited
rubrics can be constructed. For example, in assessing a practical skill application, such as soldering electronic
components, the final result is important and also, the procedure and intermediate products. Table 16 models a
simple rubric for assessing homework and other assignments, valuing most Timeliness, Report and
Understanding, which are indicators of learning effort.
GENERIC EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR HOMEWORK and other equivalent assignments
Standards and levels of performance
ASSESMENT
Criteria
Unacceptable
Emerging
Accomplished
INSTRUMENT INFO.
Independent work
made out of school time
on an on daily basis.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Timeliness
Max Value of this
dimension: (Points)

(No credit)

(Partial Credit)

(Full Credit)

Work not submitted or


submitted more than one
day late

Work submitted one day


late

Work submitted on time

(Points Range)

(Points Range)

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

(Points Range)

~ 63 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

This implies, often, a


systematic
accomplishment of
relatively simple tasks
and work demanded.
What is generally
expected is the
systematic
accomplishment of
demanded homework
and evidences of
learning effort.

Report
Max Value: (Points)

Information careless
generated and
organized/presented
(Points Range)

General understanding
(knowledge/skill
application)

Assignment incomplete or
poorly answered.
Reflect several
misunderstandings

Max Value: (Points)


(Points Range)

Most of information,
textual and graphical,
appears well organized and
neat. Some minor defects
(Points Range)
Assignment completed or
almost completed
Work is quite correct. Some
minor errors and
misunderstandings
(Points Range)

Total Score

Information well organized


and presented.
(Points Range)
Assignment completed
according requirement
Work is correct,
demonstrating general
understanding of the
subject
(Points Range)

(Points) of (Max. Points)

Table 16 A model of rubric for assessing homework

Life skills assessment


Measuring general students behavior is important because is an indicator of attitude change and general
learning effort. In the intended results of this broad technological education underlay some desirable attitudes and
study/work habits which support and foster further students technological learning. This is the case for other
generic skills, too. Assessment of this kind of achievements is possible through formal testing and, more often,
through observing and monitoring students and groups performances. So, specifically in this course:

Thinking skills application are assessed, including analytical, critical and creative skills applied.

Through formal testing, including appropriate items in knowledge tests about Technology and Society
relationships in several dimensions (global technological context awareness).

Inferring from students performance observed in other demanding application contexts. Such as:
assignments, work on projects, classroom discussions, etc. For example, a measure of creativity is
implicit in project evaluation.

A systematic monitoring of students participation in classroom dynamics is suggested.

Attendance control

Participation in general classroom activities and dynamics: lessons, norms compliance, etc.

Other general behavior (not implicit in other more focused assessments).


See in table 17 a model of rubric for assessing these generic skills.

This category includes


generic skills related to
personal development,
application of higher
order skills (analytical,
critical and creative)
and participation (work
habits, attitudes).
This knowledge is learnt
or reinforced in context:
application activities
and classroom
dynamics.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Perfect Attendance
Max Value: (Points)
Punctual
GENERAL BEHAVIOR

ASSESMENT
INSTRUMENT INFO.

GENERIC EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR GENERIC SKILLS AND PARTICIPATION


Assessing and scoring the assessment
Dimensions
Unskilled
Average
Successful

Max. V.: (Points)


Appropriate
behavior
Max V.: (Points)
Appropriate
Dress and
appearance

(No credit)

(Partial Credit)

(Full Credit)

More than 5 absences in a


trimester

From 2 to 5 absences in
trimester

0 or less than 2 absences in


a trimester

(Points Range)
Often is late

(Points Range)
Often is on time

(Points Range)

(Points Range)

Often disrespectful &


Inappropriate

Respectful of others

(Points Range)

(Points Range)

Clothing often violates


dress and appearance
codes

Clothing meets dress code


generally

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

(Points Range)
Always on time
(Points Range)
Encourages
Respectful of others
(Points Range)
Clothing meets dress code
(school uniform, safety at
work, etc.) and is presented
neatly

~ 64 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

Max V.: (Points)

(Points Range)
Often shows a passive or
even disruptive attitude
and little interest in topics
and classroom activities. He
often has to be forced to
participate.

Participative
(Interested &
Focused)
Max V.: (Points)

(Points Range)

(Points Range)
Almost always shows great
attitude, interested in
topics and participative in
group activities with
focused and significant
interventions

Generally appears positive


and engaged, with
interventions focused.

(Points Range)

(Points Range)

(Points Range)

Total Score

(Points) of (Max. Points)

Table 17 A model of rubric for assessing generic skills application

Grading
This integral assessment practice gives complete and timely information about learning achievements
and attitudes, which can be used to provide students with personalized feedback and support along the course.
And, to write assessment grading reports. Specifically, regarding grading the different assessments must be
weighted in order to obtain a global grade and, finally, interpreted according the course grading scale.
Table 18 shows a basic grading scheme for this course.
ASSESSMENT

WEIGHT ON FINAL SCORE

ENGINEERING DESIGN PROJECTS

40 60 %

PARTIAL TESTS AND OTHER FORMAL TESTING

20 30 %

ASSIGNMENTS: HOMEWORK, PRACTICES AND OTHER INDEPENDENT WORK

10 20%

GENERIC SKILLS AND BEHAVIOR

5 15%
100%

Total
Table 18 (Above) Suggested assessment weights (Below) A model of course grade scale
Interpretation key of grades
Generic skills
Generic
skills &
Attitudes

Technological Competency

Superior Performer. Excellent understanding of technologies and


connections, effective and creative practical problem solver, excellent
team member and good disposition for working and lifelong learning.
Good Performer.

Performer.
Emergent performer.
Poor performer. Poor understanding of technologies, poor problem solver and
poor work habits.

GRADE

AVERAGE SCORE

90 100%

80 -89

70 - 79

60 -69

Below 60

Pass
Not Pass

5.8. The teacher


This last point in specifying the course of Technology is about the technology teachers profile. Table 19
contains a description. The schools can use this information for selecting and assigning teachers to the broad
program of technology in the Foundation Year.

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

~ 65 ~

FOUNDATION YEAR

Curriculum Guide
Curricular area of IT & Technologies
A COURSE of TECHNOLOGY

TEACHER PROFILE
TEACHER PROFILE

IT EMPHASIS

Mechanical.
Architecture.

Electronics.

Electricity.

Automation.

Physics.
Professional
Tech. Computers.
specialty

Industrial org.
Industrial design.
Industrial
maintenance.

Others in
engineering field.
Graduate or Engineer.
Graduate or Engineer.
Expert or high
Expert or high
Qualification
technician.
technician.
English. TESOL or
English. TESOL or
equivalent
equivalent
1 year of teaching
1 year of teaching
experience.
experience.
Experience
Or
Or
2 years of professional 2 years of professional
experience.
experience.
Table 19 Instructor requirements in the general program of Technology in the FY

V1.0

Sept. 2014

Computers &
Networks.
Programming.
IT administration
Telecomm.
Business
applications.
Other in IT field.

INDUSTRY

BUSINESS

Business
administration.
Marketing and
commerce.
Accounting.
Financial.
Other in business
and administration
field.

Graduate or Engineer.
Expert or high
technician.
English. TESOL or
equivalent
1 year of teaching
experience.
Or
2 years of professional
experience.

Mondragon-Wintec Colleges of Excellence

FOOD TECH.

Food processing.
Chemistry.
Other in
agricultural and
industrial food
processing.

Graduate or Engineer.
Expert or high
technician.
English. TESOL or
equivalent
1 year of teaching
experience.
Or
2 years of professional
experience.

~ 66 ~