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Heat Exchanger

Heat Exchanger:
 A device whose primary purpose is the transfer of thermal
energy between two fluids is named as heat exchanger,
which is abbreviated as ‘HX’.
 The transfer of heat is usually accomplished by
means of a device known as a heat exchanger. Common
applications of heat exchangers include boilers, coolers,
cooling water heat exchangers, evaporators, and
condensers.
 The basic design of a heat exchanger normally has two
fluids of different temperatures separated by some
conducting medium. The most common design has one
fluid flowing through metal tubes and the other fluid
flowing around the tubes. On either side of the tube, heat
is transferred by convection and Heat is transferred
through the tube wall by conduction.

Classification of Heat Exchangers:

 They can be classified based on different aspects of their
construction and operation. The different systems of
classification are,
1) Classification according to transfer process
2) Classification according to Degree of surface
compactness
3) Classification according to Pass arrangement
4) Classification based on Flow arrangement
5) Classification based on Geometry of construction
6) Classification based on Number of fluids
7) Classification based on Heat transfer mechanism (Phase
change).

These type of heat exchangers are also called surface heat exchangers. firstly the heat is transferred from the hot fluid to an impervious surface and then to cold fluid. Spray towers and cooling towers. For example. shell & tube heat HX). e. heat is transferred through direct contact between hot and cold fluids. .g. storage type (Thermal regenerator) and fluidized bed heat exchangers.Classification according to transfer process : In a Direct contact type heat exchanger. The Indirect contact type heat exchanger. Direct transfer (Recuperators. For example.

Direct contact type heat exchanger : Cooling Tower Spray Tower .

Indirect contact type heat exchanger : Shell & tube heat exchanger .

Fluidized Bed heat exchanger .

Classification according to Degree of surface compactness:  The compactness of a heat exchanger is defined as the ratio of heat transfer area and heat exchanger volume. And (area density greater than 400 m2/m3 or 122 ft2/ft3 for liquid stream). b. a. And (area density less than 400 m2/m3 for liquid stream). Compact Heat exchanger (area density greater than 700 m2/m3 or 213 ft2/ft3 or hydraulic diameter ≤ ¼ inch) for gas stream. This is also called area density. Non-compact Heat exchanger (area density less than 700 m2/m3) for gas stream. .

Classification according to Pass arrangement : 1) Single pass arrangement 2) Multiple pass arrangement .

fluid flow paths.  Heat exchangers may be classified according to their flow arrangement. allowable thermal stresses. 1) Parallel-flow 2) Counter-flow 3) Cross-flow 4) Divided-flow 5) Split-flow .Classification based on Flow arrangement:  The choice of a particular flow arrangement depends upon the required heat exchanger effectiveness. temperature levels and other design criteria. packing envelope.

the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end. the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger. . and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. The counter current design is most efficient.  In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends.  In a divided-flow heat exchanger. the shell fluid in this case is divided and tube fluid is multi-pass.  In a cross-flow heat exchanger. In parallel-flow heat exchangers.  In a split-flow heat exchanger. the arrangement differs from the divided-flow in only one respect that is the shell side fluid recombines after passing over the tubes. in that it can transfer the most heat.

Split Flow Heat Exchanger .

Plate Heat Exchangers 3. Regenerative Heat Exchangers . Tubular Heat Exchangers 2. Extended surface Heat Exchangers 4.Classification based on Geometry of construction :  The heat exchangers classify based on geometry of construction are. 1.

Double pipe Heat Exchanger Spiral Heat Exchanger Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Circular Fins Heat Exchanger .

Plate Heat Exchanger:  Gasketed Plate  Spiral Plate  Lamella .

 Limited to below 25 bar and 250ºC  Plate heat exchangers have three main types : gasketed .spiral and lamella heat exchangers.  The most common of the platetype heat exchangers is the gasketed plate heat exchanger .

Gasketed Plate Heat Exchanger:  The most common of the plate-type heat exchangers is the gasketed plate heat exchanger .

Spiral Plate Heat exchanger : Ideal flow conditions and the smallest possible heating surface .

Similar to tubular heat exchanger .Lamella Consisting of cylindrical shell having a number heat transfering lamellas.

. Plate exchangers offer the highest efficiency mechanism for heat transfer available in industry. or to allow for cleaning. or maintenance. The design of the plate heat exchanger allows to add or remove plates to optimize performance. service.Advantages Plate heat exchangers yield heat transfer rates three to five times greater than other types of heat exchangers.

or aggressive fluids are present. Because of this problem these type of heat exchangers have only been used in small. low pressure applications such as on oil coolers for engines.Disadvantages Plate exchangers are limited when high pressures. high temperatures. .

In a rotary heat exchanger heat is transferred from a hot gas to a cold one via a rotating cylinder of densely packed metal sheets. called elements. commonly known as the air pre-heater or gas reheater. . A hot gas flows over the surface of the metallic elements. increasing its temperature accordingly. As the rotor turns. These elements are packed in containers and slowly rotate through one gas stream and into the other. raising their temperature. the heated elements move into the cool gas stream. at around 1RPM.Rotary regenerative heat exchanger : The rotary regenerative heat exchanger.

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Rotary regenerative heat exchanger .

Extended Surface Heat Exchangers:  Plate Fin Heat Exchangers  Tube Fin Heat Exchangers .

Plate Fin Heat Exchangers: For gas to gas applications. . refrigeration and air coditioning systems. process industry. Widely used in energy recovery.

Fin Types in Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers: PLAIN A sheet of metal with corrugated fins at right angles to the plates PERFORATED A plain fin constructed from perforated material SERRATED Made by simultaneously folding and cutting alternative sections of fins. HERRINGBONE Made by displacing the fins sideways at regular intervals to produce a zig-zag effect. . These fins are also known as the lanced or multi-entry pattern.

. Used as condersers in electric power plant. as oil coolers in power plants. as ir cooled exchangers in process and power industires.Tube Fin Heat Exchangers: For gas to liquid heat exchangers.

Finned Tubes: .

Tubular Heat exchanger: They are so widely used because the technology is well established for making precision metal tubes capable of containing high pressures in a variety of materials. . There is no limit to the range of pressures and temperatures that can be accommodated.

Tubular Heat exchanger Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Double Pipe Heat Exchanger .

Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger: .

 These provide transfer of heat efficiently.  These are used when a process requires large amounts of fluid to be heated or cooled.  These use baffles on the shell-side fluid to accomplished mixing or turbulence.  Tube : strong. highly Strong  Inner tube : having effective combination of durability. corrosion resistant. corrosion resistant and thermally conductive. high quality  Outer shell : durable. These are the most commonly used heat exchangers in oil refineries and other large chemical processes. . thermally conductive.

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Tube Heat exchangers Fixed Tube Heat exchangers Floating Head Heat exchangers .Shell & Tube Heat exchangers U.

U . .Tube Heat Exchanger: U-Tube heat exchanger consisting of straight length tubes bent into a U-shape surrounded by a shell.

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. They have enlarged shell sections for vapor-liquid separation. Disadvantages:They have drawbacks like inability to replace individual tubes except in the outer row and inability to clean around the bend.Advantages: Boath initial and maintenance costs are reduced by reducing the number of joints.

.Fixed Tube Heat Exchanger:  These have straight tubes that are secured at both ends to tube sheets welded to the shell.  They are the most economical type design.  Cleaning the outside surface of the tubes is impossible as these are inside the fixed part.  Chemical cleaning can be used.  They have very popular version as the heads can be removed to clean the inside of the tubes.

. so it provides the possibility to expand in the axial direction.  A floating head is excellent for applications where the difference in temperature between the hot and cold fluid causes unacceptable stresses in the axial direction of the shell and tubes.  The floating head can move.Floating Head Heat Exchanger  In floating head heat exchanger.  Easy inspection.cleaning or maintenance. one tube end is free to float within the shell and the other is fixed relative to the shell.

 Cold and hot liquid respectively flows in the gap of inner pipe and sleeve pipe. Structure is simple and heat transmission is large.Double Pipe Heat Exchanger:  They consist of one pipe concentrically located inside a second.  It is the most efficient design and require less surface area. . larger one.  They utilize true counter-current flow which maximizes the temperature differences between the shell side and tube side fluids.

. Advantages: They can operates in true counter current flow permitting extreme temperature cross.  Ideal for wide temperature ranges.  Provides shorter deliveries than shell and tube due to standardization of design and construction.

Classification based on Number of fluids: Two fluid Heat exchangers Three fluid Heat exchangers Multi fluid Heat exchangers .

Classification based on Heat transfer mechanism (Phase Change):       Heat transfer mechanism such as single phase or two phase convection can be used for the classification of heat exchangers as follows. a) Reboilers (Evaporator) b) Condensers (Total or partial condenser) . Single phase convection on both sides Single phase convection on one side and two phase convection on other side Two phase convection on both sides Combined convective and radiative heat transfer Commonly phase change heat exchangers are.

Kettle Reboilers b.Reboiler:  Reboiler to generate vapor to drive fractional distillation. Thermosiphon Reboilers . Forced Recirculation Reboilers c.  Types of Reboilers a.

Kettle Reboilers: .

Kettle Type Reboilers: Advantages Disadvantages  Insensitive to hydrodynamics  High heat fluxes are possible  Can handle high vaporization  Simple piping  Unlimited area  All the dirt collects and non volatiles accumulate  Shell side is difficult to clean  Difficult to determine the degree of mixing  Oversize shell is expensive .

Thermosiphon Reboiler: .

Thermosiphon Reboiler: It operate using natural circulation with process flow on the shell side The process flow on the tube or shell side in vertical units. . sensible heat transfer followed by nucleate boiling. It does not require a pump for recirculation In thermosiphon reboiler.

Forced Recirculation Reboilers: .

Forced Recirculation Reboilers:  These reboiler types have two mechanisms of heat transfer: sensible heat transfer followed by nucleate boiling. .  Process flow is typically on the tube side of a standard exchanger in the vertical position.

Condensers Condensers b) Water Cooled Condensers     b) Air Cooled Condensers Horizontal shell and tube Condensers Vertical shell and tube Condensers Shell and coil Condensers Double pipe Condensers .

This includes the process and location parameters such as.BASIC CRITERIAS FOR THE SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS: Generally speaking. the selection process begins with the specification of the environment in which the heat exchanger will work.  Working temperature ranges  Working pressures  Amount of heat transfer  Types of fluids & Their flow rates  Available space  Weight limitation  Corrosion  Fouling of the fluids .