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QUIZ 4. Wave Optics and Optical Instruments

A. Apairofslits,separatedby0.150mm,isilluminatedbylighthavingawavelengthof=643nm.An

interferencepatternisobservedonascreen140cmfromtheslits.Considerapointonthescreenlocatedat

y=1.80cmfromthecentralmaximumofthispattern.

1.Whatisthepathdifferenceforthetwoslitsatthelocationy?

(a) 1.93 m

(b) 2.79 m

(c) 5.63 m

(d) 1.58 m

2.Expressthispathdifferenceintermsofthewavelength.

(a) 1.5

(b)

(c) 3

(d) 2

3.Willtheinterferencecorrespondtoamaximum,aminimum,oranintermediatecondition?

(a) maximum

(b) minimum

(c) intermediate

(d) none of the above

B.Anairwedgeisformedbetweentwoglassplatesseparatedatoneedgebya

veryfinewire,asinFigure.Whenthewedgeisilluminatedfromaboveby600

nmlight,30darkfringesareobserved.

4.Calculatetheradiusofthewire.

(a) 3.91 m

(b) 1,87 m

(c) 4.35 m

(d) 5.31 m

C. Monochromatic light from helium-neon laser (=632.8 nm) is incident normally on a diffraction grating containing

6.00 X 103 lines/cm.

5. Find the angle at which one would observe the first-order maximum

(b) 22.30

(c). 32.140

(d). 35.10

(a) 20.10

6. Find the angle at which one would observe the second-order maximum

(a) 41.80

(b) 49.30

(c). none of the above

(d). 51.140

7. Find the angle at which one would observe the third-order maximum,

(a) 610

(b) no solution

(c). 1.140

(d). none of the above

D.Thecriticalanglefortotalinternalreflectionforsapphiresurroundedbyairis34.4.

8.CalculatetheBrewsterangleforsapphireifthelightisincidentfromtheair.

(a) 52.70

(b) 60.50

(c) none of the above

(d) 41.10

E.Amicroscopehasanobjectivelenswithafocallengthof16.22mmandaneyepiecewithafocallength

of9.50mm.Withthelengthofthebarrelsetat29.0cm,thediameterofaredbloodcellsimagesubtends

anangleof1.43mradwiththeeye.Thefinalimagedistanceis29.0cmfromtheeyepiece:

9.Whatistheobjectdistanceandmagnificationfortheeyepiece?

(a) Me= -30, pe = 0.99 cm (b) Me= +30, pe = 0.83 cm (c) Me= +31.5, pe = 0.92 cm

(d) Me=3, pe = 1.92 cm

10.Whatistheobjectandimagedistancefortheobjectivelens?

(a) q1=30.1 cm, p1=28.1 cm (b) q1=1.19 cm, p1=1.92 cm (c) q1=2.31 cm, p1=4.82 cm (d) q1=28.1 cm, p1=1.72 cm

11.Whatistheactualdiameteroftheredbloodcell?

(a) 0.589 m

(b) 0.806 m

(c) 1.703 m

(d) 0.913 m

F.12.Calculatethelimitingangleofresolutionfortheeye,assumingapupildiameterof2.00mm,a

wavelengthof500nminair,andanindexofrefractionfortheeyeof1.33.

(b) 3.43 X 10-4 rad

(c) 2.29 X 10-4 rad

(d) 4.21 X 10-4 rad

(a) 1.09 X 10-4 rad

13.Whatisthemaximumdistancefromtheeyeatwhichtwopointsseparatedby1.00cmcouldbe

resolved?

(a) 43.6 m

(b) 91.6 m

(c) 51.7 m

(d) 65.4 m

A. The angular deviation from the line of the central maximum is given by

1.80 cm

y

= tan 1 = tan 1

= 0.737

140 cm

L

1. The path difference is then

2. = ( 1.93 106 m )

= 3.00

9

643 10 m

3. Since the path difference for this position is a whole number of wavelengths, the waves interfere constructively

and produce a m axim um at this spot.

B. With a phase reversal upon reflection from the lower surface of the air layer and no phase change for reflection at

the upper surface of the layer, the condition for destructive interference is

2t= m n = m

= m , where m = 0,1,2,

nair

4. Counting the zeroth order along the edge of contact, the order number of the thirtieth dark fringe observed is

m = 29 . The thickness of the air layer at this point is t= 2r , where r is the radius of the wire. Thus,

9

t 29 29( 600 10 m )

r= =

=

= 4.35 m

2

4

4

1

= 1.67 104 cm = 1.67 103 nm , and dsin = m gives the angular position of

6.00 X 103

m

m

a second order spectral line as

sin =

or = sin 1

d

d

2(632.8 nm)

3

= 49.3

1.67 10 nm

2 = sin 1

6. m=2

7. m=3

632.8 nm

3

= 22.3

1.67 10 nm

1 = sin 1

3(632.8 nm)

sin 3 =

3

= 1.14

1.67 10 nm

D. The critical angle for total reflection is c = sin 1 ( n2 n1 ) . Thus, if c = 34.4 as light attempts to go from sapphire

into air, the index of refraction of sapphire is

nsapphire = n1 =

n2

1.00

=

= 1.77

sin c sin 34.4

n

1.77

8. Then, when light is incident on sapphire from air, the Brewster angle is p = tan 1 2 = tan 1

= 60.5

1.00

n1

E.

Note: Here, we need to determine the overall lateral magnification of the microscope, M = he h1 where he is

the size of the image formed by the eyepiece, and h1 is the size of the object for the objective lens. The lateral

magnification of the objective lens is M 1 = h1 h1 = q1 p1 and that of the eyepiece is M e = he he = qe pe .

Since the object of the eyepiece is the image formed by the objective lens, he = h1 , and the overall lateral

magnification is M = M 1M e .

9. Using the thin lens equation, the object distance for the eyepiece is found to be

( 29.0 cm )( 0.950 cm )

q f

pe = e e =

= 0.920 cm

qe f e

29.0 cm 0.950 cm

and the magnification produced by the eyepiece is

( 29.0 cm )

q

Me = e =

= + 31.5

0.920 cm

pe

10. The image distance for the objective lens is then

q1 = L pe = 29.0 cm 0.920 cm = 28.1 cm

and the object distance for this lens is

( 28.1 cm )(1.622 cm )

q f

p1 = 1 o =

= 1.72 cm

28.1 cm 1.622 cm

q1 f o

11. The magnification by the objective lens is given by

q

( 28.1 cm )

M 1= 1 =

= 16.3

1.72 cm

p1

he = qe = ( 29.0 cm ) ( 1.43 103 rad ) = 4.15 102 cm

and the size of the red blood cell serving as the original object is

h

4.15 104 m

h1 = e =

= 8.06 107 m = 0.806 m

M

514

12. The wavelength of the light within the eye is n = n . Thus, the limiting angle of resolution for light passing

through the pupil (a circular aperture with diameter D = 2.00 m m ), is

m in = 1.22

n

D

= 1.22

nD

( 500 10 m ) =

= 1.22

( 1.33) ( 2.00 10 m )

9

13. From s= r , the distance from the eye that two points separated by a distance s= 1.00 cm will intercept this

minimum angle of resolution is

r=

m in

1.00 cm

= 4.36 103 cm = 43.6 m

-4

2.29 10 rad

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