Redefining Osmosis

The net movement of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of lower water potential through a partially permeable membrane.

Osmosis
Topic 3.2

What is a partially permeable membrane?
A membrane that allows some substances to pass through but NOT others Generally allows the passage of water, small soluble molecules and dissolved ions BUT prevents large complex molecules like proteins & starch from passing through.

What would we observe?
Visking Tubing Water

Sugar solution

(4) Diffusion of water/solvent

(4) Diffusion of water/solvent
Inside Outside

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(4) Diffusion of water/solvent

To Note… Note…

High conc. of water molecules = Dilute solution Lower conc. of water molecules = More concentrated solution

3 Characteristics of Osmosis
Diffusion of water / solvent molecules Across a partially permeable membrane From a region with more water molecules to a region with less water molecules

Osmosis

Water Potential
The tendency for water molecules to move from one place to another Dilute solution – contains MORE water per unit volume; has HIGH water potential. Concentrated solution – contain LESS water per unit volume; has LOW water potential

Water Potential Gradient
A water potential gradient is established when:
Two solutions of different water potentials are separated by a partially permeable membrane

Osmosis occurs down the water potential gradient

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Similarities

Diffusion and Osmosis
What are their similarities and differences?

Both are passive transport processes (does not need to use energy released from respiration) Molecules move down a concentration gradient

Differences
Diffusion Osmosis
Refers to any Refer only to substance (molecules water (solvent) of gases, liquid, molecules or ions of dissolved solids) Membrane not required Partially permeable membrane required

Eg A What would we observe?

Observations

Sucrose molecules do not pass through the membrane as they are too large. Higher water potential in B than A. Net Movement of water molecules from B to A via osmosis down the water potential gradient.

Eg B What would we observe?
Higher concentration of sucrose molecules in A than B. Net movement of sucrose molecules from A to B via diffusion down the concentration gradient. Higher water potential in B than A. Net Movement of water molecules from B to A via DIFFUSION down the water potential gradient. No change in level of solutions. Fully

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Eg C What would we observe?

Observations
Sucrose molecules do not pass through the membrane as they are too large. Higher concentration of glucose molecules in B than A. Net movement of glucose molecules from B to A via diffusion down conc gradient. Higher water potential in B than A. Net Movement of water molecules from B to A via osmosis down the water potential gradient.

10% Glucose

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