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Think about it…

it…

What happens when plant cells


are immersed in water?
Osmosis in Living Cells

Topic 3.3

Effect of osmosis on plant cells Effect of osmosis on plant cells


The solution has a higher water potential • Turgor Pressure = Pressure exerted by water
than the cell sap of the vacuole on cell wall
• Cell becomes turgid
• Plant becomes firm & upright
Vacuole
Water enters increases in
the vacuole by size
endosmosis
Cytoplasm is
pushed against
cell wall

Effect of osmosis on plant cells

Cell wall is Cell wall exerts


strong & rigid, a pressure What if we place a plant cell…
cell…
it prevents the that prevents … in a solution with a
cell from further entry of lower water potential?
bursting water

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Effect of osmosis on plant cells Effects of osmosis on plant cells
The solution has a lower water potential
than the cell sap of the vacuole • The cell is said to be plasmolysed
• Plant tissue is flaccid
Vacuole
decreases
in size

Water leaves the


Cytoplasm (with
cell by exosmosis
cell membrane)
shrinks away
from cell wall.

Plasmolysis How can we restore plasmolysed


• The shrinkage of the cytoplasm away from
cells to their original state?
the cell wall when the cell is placed in a • By placing them in water or a solution with a
solution with a lower water potential higher water potential

Importance of turgor in plants Importance of turgor in plants


• Movement of certain parts of the plant
• Provides mechanical support and
(a) Guard cells – causes opening &
maintain shape of soft tissues in plants closing of stomata
(a) Young stems & leaves remain firm & (b) Mimosa plants – changes in turgor
erect due to turgor pressure in cells in small swellings at base of leaflets
(b) High rate of evaporation (c) Opening & closing of flower petals
– caused by changes in turgidity of
cells on opposite surfaces of petals
Lose turgidity
(loss of water from
cell sap of vacuoles) Plant wilts

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Fertilizers: The more the merrier?

The plant
will wilt What happens if we place red
Soil solution
becomes more
blood cells…
cells…
concentrated … in a solution of a
(lower water
Water higher water potential?
potential than leaves the
cell sap of root
cells by
hairs)
exosmosis

Effect of osmosis on RBCs Haemolysis


Solution
Solution with
with aa
higher
higher water
water
potential
potential
Cell expands
and bursts
(haemolysis)
Water will enter
the cell by
endosmosis

Effect of osmosis on RBCs


Solution with a The cell shrinks
lower water and becomes
potential crenated

Water leaves
Some terms for solutions…
solutions…
the cell by … that only can be
exosmosis used for animal cells

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Hypotonic
Hypotonic solution Isotonic
Isotonic solution
• Higher water potential
• Same concentration as the cell solution
• More water molecules and less solute
• Water potential gradient = 0
molecules compared to cell solution
• More dilute solution
• Direction of water movement - NO net
flow of water molecules
• Direction of water movement - net flow
of water molecules from external
solution into cell

Hypertonic
Hypertonic solution Applying what we have learnt…
learnt…
• Lower water potential
• Less water molecules and more solute
molecules.
• More concentrated solution

• Direction of water movement - net flow


of water molecules out of the cell

Summary of osmosis in plant cells Summary of osmosis in animal cells