Think about it… it…

What happens when plant cells are immersed in water?

Osmosis in Living Cells
Topic 3.3

Effect of osmosis on plant cells
The solution has a higher water potential than the cell sap of the vacuole Vacuole increases in size Cytoplasm is pushed against cell wall

Effect of osmosis on plant cells
• Turgor Pressure = Pressure exerted by water on cell wall • Cell becomes turgid • Plant becomes firm & upright

Water enters the vacuole by endosmosis

Effect of osmosis on plant cells

Cell wall is strong & rigid, it prevents the cell from bursting

Cell wall exerts a pressure that prevents further entry of water

What if we place a plant cell… cell…
… in a solution with a lower water potential?

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Effect of osmosis on plant cells
The solution has a lower water potential than the cell sap of the vacuole Vacuole decreases in size Water leaves the cell by exosmosis

Effects of osmosis on plant cells
• The cell is said to be plasmolysed • Plant tissue is flaccid

Cytoplasm (with cell membrane) shrinks away from cell wall.

Plasmolysis
• The shrinkage of the cytoplasm away from the cell wall when the cell is placed in a solution with a lower water potential

How can we restore plasmolysed cells to their original state?
• By placing them in water or a solution with a higher water potential

Importance of turgor in plants
• Provides mechanical support and maintain shape of soft tissues in plants
(a) Young stems & leaves remain firm & erect due to turgor pressure in cells (b) High rate of evaporation

Importance of turgor in plants
• Movement of certain parts of the plant (a) Guard cells – causes opening & closing of stomata (b) Mimosa plants – changes in turgor in small swellings at base of leaflets (c) Opening & closing of flower petals – caused by changes in turgidity of cells on opposite surfaces of petals

Lose turgidity (loss of water from cell sap of vacuoles)

Plant wilts

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Fertilizers: The more the merrier?
The plant will wilt

Soil solution becomes more concentrated (lower water potential than cell sap of root hairs)

What happens if we place red blood cells… cells…
… in a solution of a higher water potential?

Water leaves the cells by exosmosis

Effect of osmosis on RBCs
Solution with a Solution with a higher water higher water Cell expands potential potential

Haemolysis

Water will enter the cell by endosmosis

and bursts (haemolysis)

Effect of osmosis on RBCs
Solution with a lower water potential

The cell shrinks and becomes crenated

Water leaves the cell by exosmosis

Some terms for solutions… solutions…
… that only can be used for animal cells

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Hypotonic solution Hypotonic
• Higher water potential • More water molecules and less solute molecules compared to cell solution • More dilute solution • Direction of water movement - net flow of water molecules from external solution into cell

Isotonic solution Isotonic
• Same concentration as the cell solution • Water potential gradient = 0 • Direction of water movement - NO net flow of water molecules

Hypertonic solution Hypertonic
• Lower water potential • Less water molecules and more solute molecules. • More concentrated solution • Direction of water movement - net flow of water molecules out of the cell

Applying what we have learnt… learnt…

Summary of osmosis in plant cells

Summary of osmosis in animal cells

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