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PROGRESSIVISM –

-Movement for social change between the late 1890’s and WWI. Its origins lay in a fear
of big businesses and corrupt government and a desire to improve the lives of countless
Americans. Progressives set out to cure the social ills brought about by the
industrialization and urbanization, social disorder, and political corruption

Muckrakers-Unflattering term coined by Theodore Roosevelt to describe the writers who made a
practice of exposing the wrongdoings of public figures. Muckraking flourished from
1903-1909 in magazines such as McClure’s and Collier’s, exposing social and political
problems and sparking reform
-dirt, stirring up the dirt
McClure’s Magazine-owned by Samuel S. McClure
Lincoln Steffens-McClure sent him to travel and find something to write about
-wrote “Tweed Days in St. Louis” and “The Shame of Minneapolis” which was about the
corrupt partnership between businessmen and politics
-believed reform was possible
Ida Tarbell-wrote “History of the standard oil company”
Upton Sinclair-wrote “The Jungle” which was about the corruption in meat packing industries
Louis Brandeis-Attorney for the state of Oregon who filed the Brandeis brief in Supreme Court for the
case of Muller v. Oregon, this brief presented only two pages of legal precedents, but
contained 115 pages of sociological evidence on the negative effects of long workdays on
women’s health and thus on women as mothers. The brief expanded definition of legal
evidence
Muller v. Oregon-Supreme Court decision established special protections for working
women, upholding an Oregon law that limited women working in factories and laundries
to a ten-hour work day.
W.E.B. DuBois-Sociologist that graduated from Harvard
-founder of the Niagara Movement with William Monroe Trotter; focused on equal rights
and the education for the African American youth
-helped start the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
which is founded on the beliefs that nonviolent protests and legal action were the best

Successes of the NAACP-Guinn v. journalists -weaknesses: if you don’t know how to fix it. professors. then you don’t know -alienate people Objectives of the Progressive Movement-bringing greater democracy to America -social justice -prohibition -eradicating prostitution -making businesses and industry better . doctors. expert on agency overseeing -“Wisconsin Idea” -Two areas of America didn’t get along. lawyers. He didn't like Booker T. NAACP persuaded the federal government to form a special Bureau of Negro Economics within the Labor Department to look after the interests of African American wage earners -despite this. Washington's way of saying that thought that economic and moral advancements rather than legal and political changes would ensure equal rights for blacks. African Americans still experienced disenfranchisement. poor job opportunities. United (1915) states the Supreme Court overturned a “grandfather clause” that kept African Americans from voting in Oklahoma -Buchanan v. abortion. created birth control Frederick Taylor-wrote “the principles of scientific management” -standardization of tools and equipment -eliminated redundancy -cut business in half Robert LaFollette-governor of Wisconsin -train gov. Bureaucrat. and segregation Margaret Sanger-nurse. Kentucky that required residential segregation -with the National Urban League.way to achieve equal rights for blacks and white. Worley (1917) struck down a law in Louisville. now they do Who were the Progressives?-middle class -educate elite.

Acres of national park land -building panama canal which was under control by Columbia Hawk pro war (Roosevelt) Dove no war Northern Securities Co.Allows the right to directly allow senators Secret ballot: secretive of who you elect 19th Amendment: ladies allowed to Social justice – -protection of the worker and consumer Comstock act: -illegal to mail anything pornographic Triangle Shirtwaist Fire-only 1 exit. 46 women died -upton Sinclair Prohibition – -progressives didn’t like alcohol. became a cowboy. Purposes: figuring out who is running for President 17th Amendment. ROOSEVELT-Outspoken.voting for something or not voting -recall. decided to make it illegal (18th and 21st amendments)18th. Teddy became President -conserved national resources. national politics. created 17 mil. destroyed farm. organized the rough riders. bought a farm. mother and wife died. looking for ways to make money 21st – got rid of 18th amendment Prostitution-more women came to America than could be employed -only place it wasn’t illegal was in Nevada T.outlawed liquor. came back to NYC. do we keep the president or not? -primaries. William Mckenny assassinated.not liking the president.held in June of President election year. – a holding company that maintained financial interests in other companies William Howard Taft-became President with Roosevelts help .Bringing greater democracy to America – 17th and 19th amendments-initiative -Referendum.

of VHA used money from VHA to his bank account -Teapot Dove: Secretary of Interior Albert Fall and Attorney General Doherty. approached white house.keep wealthy powerful so wealth trickles down -JP Morgan paid no income tax during Coolidge Herbert Hoover-Jesse Smith: friend of Harding who sold information for money -Charles Forbes: admin. Act. 1936. Italy. 1940. Ohio. and Japan Calvin Coolidge-1923-1929 -from Vermont. Austere living -Trickle down theory. Newspaper editor 0 factor. lawyer. technically still at war with Germany -Hughes invited Great Britain. 1944 -family lived for public service -only child. Elkhill. Harding-1920-1923. France. oil preserved. CA. in check -underwood-simons tariff act: lowered tax by 15% -federal reserve act of 1913. save money. -Doherty 1 year in jail. had 5 children. crippled. no parties/celebrations. Forbes jailed for taking $200 mill.outlaw the worst corporate practices -keating owen child labor act. went to Amherst.prohibited interstate goods made by children Warren G. sensitive to criticism. first President to have PHD. -Amendment 22 limits Presidency to two terms because of Roosevelt -veto 635 bills . marries cousin Eleanor Roosevelt. of Massachusetts.Andrew Mellon -Secretary of State: Charles Hughes -Congress didn’t want to ratify treaty. Franklin D. attended Harvard.oversee business activities -clayton antitrust act of 1914.Woodrow Wilson-believed 13 was lucky. wanted to keep the federal gov. loyal -got 61% of popular vote -releases Eugen Debbs from jail -lacked will to change political habits -Secretary of Commerce: -Secretary of Treasury.any president elected in a year that ended in 0 was killed -risen to senate because of political bosses. gov. had an affair with Lucy Mercer (Eleanor’s secretary). Trade com.12 regional banks across US -fed. released oil deposits that belonged to gov. Roosevelt-1933-1945 -4 terms: elected in 1932.

WORLD WAR I-Sedan was a railroad for Germany. America had to crush this -Nov. 11 Germany surrendered -flu killed more American in Europe than anything Underlying and immediate causes of the War- CPI- War Industries Board- War Labor Board- Chateau Thierry- Belleau Wood- Treaty of Versailles-1st cause of WWI -Germany wasn’t involved -14 points: Wilson wanted the nations to have access to free elections and self determination -reparations: the one who starts the war and loses the war has to pay money -France requested money .

1st American to graduate from Oxford College The Migration Narrative-come up with reasons to leave.New Negro. -American worker became highest paid worker in the world -radio broadcasting: KDKA Pittsburgh.mass produce anything -characterized by cities.didn’t own the land Impact on NYC -Harlem Renaissance: Jazz Music -Alaine Locke. bootlegging economic issues and weaknesses-upper class and upper middle class benefited from economic changes -African Americans were lowest class Great Migration -African Americans moved North to find work and get out of the South Sharecropping. and the automobile that will change the world -electricity will replace steam washing machines. drew paintings that explained migration . refrigerators. 1st major radio station -motion pictures: Hollywood used Mexico because it was cheap and had good weather Changes in the family/women’s roles-“flapper girl” -women were able to work but had lowest paying jobs -youth rebellion: men had alcohol in trench coats.Weimar Republic: -Democratic gov. new gov’t didn’t do so well -England wanted Germany gone completely Lebensraum: living room in French Clause 231: put complete blame for the beginning of WWI on Germany and its allies The TWENTIES – Why did the US enter the world in a confident note? -no battles fought in America -American population not harmed -economy booming -on the winning side Changes in America-Assembly line. find out where you’re going Jacob Lawrence-taught at Washington University. in Germany. etc.

admitted there were parts of the bible that he didn’t believe. 1 paymaster killed. found guilty.“A moveable feast” American life in Paris Non fict. 30 bill. used credit. “The Sun Also Rises” story of Am. found guilty.political party boss of Indiana who convicted 2nd degree murder Hemingway-questioned New World Order. -lose 47. before executed there were protests because found guilty with no real evidence Scopes’ Trial-John Scopes taught evolution in class. gov. down payment -close to 900 grocery store chains -over 8000 coal miners too poor to buy anything 1928 election -Hoover (wet) vs. Dollars in stocks lost . Al Smith (dry. 1921 no income -1920 people developed poor impulse control. Moving to Europe “A farewell to arms” response to post war -committed suicide in 1961 The DEPRESSION and STOCK MARKET CRASH – -railroad industry in trouble b/c of trucks -coals in trouble b/c natural gas and electricity -agriculture in trouble b/c goods sent out to France but France didn’t need it.50 per share -b/w Thurs. overturned a few days later -William Jennings Bryan – questioned having religious knowledge. prosecutor -Clarence Darrow. put on trial. 1929 -price collapsed in Wall St. of NY. arrested.Sacco and Vanzetti-Italian immigrants put on trial for robbing a truck. in favor of getting rid of prohibition -Hoover elected -President during biggest economic crisis in the US Black Thursday 24 Oct. left US to live in Paris Non fict. to Tues. couldn’t pay bills -middle/upper class buying stock margin.attorney KKKNativism-reemergence of the KKK -only native borns mattered David Stephensen.

shanty towns (Hoovervilles).-sold shares due to panic -Hoover believed in efforts in private sector to jump start economy not government (republican idea) Great Depression -buying on credit. Gave over 1 billion dollars . The Revenue Act of 1932 -help bring money into system Causes of and reaction to-wanted new President THE NEW DEAL-did not end depression. depression with whole world (domino effect) -business men poor. reopen banks with government support. intervention to assist the unemployed -believed government subsidies would undermine the American character What did he eventuall7 do? -cut taxes to restore public confidence -PECE. reform (prevent from happening again).stabilize agriculture -Public Works – created jobs where needed -Reparations moratorium -Reconstruction Finance Corporation of 1932. agency to oversee current reliefe programs -Federal Farm Board. stocks on margin. WWII did -relief.000 if bank closes Hoover’s initial plan -did not believe in gov. federal reserve system was empowered to making loans to them with rubber checks. etc. reopened banks were safe to put money into.gov. deposits exceeded withdrawals. banks foreclosed. recovery of business The first 100 days -Emergency Banking Act: national federal assistance program for banks. looked for jobs out of the country -hobos go to Ca to get a job in agriculture by jumping freight trains -more women seek divorces -birth rates dropped -banks closed -FDIC protection protect $150. mortgages. lost homes. $500 million given to act.right the wrongs done with banking failures. employment agencies over 5000 men looking for jobs. FDR announced banks were safe. largest one day increase in stock market -Federal Emergency Relief Act-relief of human suffering with middle class being target. agriculture trouble.

need lasting permanent recovery .increased taxes corporations were paying.-Agricultural Adjustment Act. dictator of Louisiana.5 billion to 8. must agree to spend money not hoard Huey P.money protected in bank $2500 -The National Industrial Recovery Act.3 billion dollars in public works money. aimed at transforming one of the poorest areas in the US. USS Yorktown/ Enterprise. Beer and alcohol taxed National debt increased FDR programs too moderate. Roosevelt would not support banking industry. started share the wealth program.experiment in regional development. increase average income in these areas. -young people -17-30. 100% tax on income over 1 million dollars Social Security Act of 1935 -provide a measure of unemployment insurance as well as security pension for old age. planted trees. house and 3 meals guaranteed to American family. 3. slow recovery. Works Progress Administration -4 million Americans back to work -do everything -built golden gate bridge -spent 11 billion dollars after liquidated 8. Canada born Dr. spoke for elderly. prevented erosion. Wagner Act -eliminate employers’ interference with the autonomous organization of workers into unions. Francis Townsend. physician. farm income grew from 5. outdoor work -worked forest fires.Catholic priest that broke with the new deal in 1934.5 million back to work Civilian Conservation Corps. taxes placed on processors.Long Beach CA. Long. reduce flooding. adversary w/ FDR. -Glass-Steagall Act-separate embossment from commercial banking in order to reduce speculation from commercial bankers FDIC. all fortunes over 5 million dollars would be seized from government. old age pension plan for retired citizens over age of 60. Lincoln Tunnel. social security for disabled/ unable to work.stimulate heavy industry and provide jobs. 7 states that bordered the Tennessee river. used radio to deliver his message. through taxes.farmers paid for not planting crops. tried to create dams for electricity. refurbished California missions Critics Father Charles Couglin.7 billion -Tennessee Valley Authority. called for National Union of Social Justice.