You are on page 1of 28

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
Nowadays, human needs in the ever-increasing data access, is due to the shifting patterns
of human life towards a more evolved. With the use of computers this can be facilitated
quickly. The result will be the efficiency of time, cost and resources, so it will generate
optimum output. On the other hand the need for data access that is blocked by the presence of
distance and time, sometimes we need access to our brothers who are in different countries.
With the computer network, it can be resolved. Not only the distance but the time
difference can always be accessed. for example when we want information that has past.
Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) is very popular all over the world. Many people are
in need of Internet-based applications, such as E-Mail and Web access via the internet. So
that more and more businesses are developing applications running over the Internet.
In this paper we are called computer networks group 9 will discuss the details of the
computer network as a condition of final exams.

1.2 FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM


In order to limit the discussion of the paper it is necessary to identify the core problem of
the topic. The group has come up with the problem formulation as follows : what are the
consideration in the application of Computer Network ?
The discussion will involve various consideration such as
1. Definitions Computer Networking
2. Types of Computer Networks
3. Topology Computer Networks
4. Equipment required to build a computer network
5. Software needed to build a Computer Network
6. Examples of applications of Computer Networks
7. Benefits of Computer Network

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 1

1.3 PURPOSE OF WRITING


The purpose of the development of this paper, are as follows:
1. To complete the required assignment for final exams.
2. To increase knowledge on the issues related to computer network as one of core studies
in Management of Information.
3. To improve the students capacity in English

1.4 METHOD OF WRITING


The method that was applied in developing the paper are as follows :
1. Literature Research
Nowadays, there are abundant information on the internet that could be easily
explored and used as a reference for the development of any paper on any topic .
Therefore, research was done by exploring the information on the subject through
internet and available books.. That method is done by studying and collecting data from
the literature related to the tool, both in the form of books and information on the internet.

2. Personal Communication
In order to get better understanding of the topic, the group has done personal
communication with colleagues who have better knowledge on the Computer Networks

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 2

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

2.1 THE DEFINITION OF A COMPUTER NETWORKS


The computer network is is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral
devices. Information and data moving through wires or wireless computer network that
allows users to exchange documents and data, print on the same printer and together
using hardware / software connected to the network. Each computer, printer or
peripherals connected to the network are called nodes. A computer network can have
two, tens, thousands or even millions of nodes.
Or in its other definitions, Network (network) is an operating system consisting of
a number of computers and other network devices that work together to achieve a
common goal or a network consisting of the points (nodes) are connected to one each
other, with or without wires. Each of these nodes serve as workstations (workstations).
One of the nodes as services or media server, which regulates certain functions of other
nodes. Basically the computer network technology is a combination of computer
technology and communication technology.

2.2 TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS


In studying the various classifications of computer networks, there are two very
important that technology and distance transmission. Broadly speaking, there are two
types of transmission technology that is the network broadcast and point-to-point.
Broadcast networks have a single communication channel that is shared by all
machines on the network. Small messages, called packets, which are transmitted by a
machine will be accepted by the other machines. The address field of a packet containing
information about to whom the package is addressed. When receiving a packet, the
machine checks the address field. When the package is addressed to him, then the engine
will process the packet, if the packet is intended for other machines, the machine will
ignore it.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 3

Network point-to-point connection consists of several individual pairs of


machines. To send a packet from a source to a destination, a packet on a network of this
type may have to go through one or more intermediaries machines. Often have to go
through a lot of different possible route distance. Because the algorithm route plays an
important role in the network of point-to-point.
In general, smaller networks and geographically localized tend to use
broadcasting, whereas larger network using point-to-point.

1.

Local Area Network (LAN)


Local Area Network (LAN), a private network within a building or campus-sized
to several kilometers. LANs are often used to connect personal computers and
workstations in a corporate office or factories to use shared resources (resouce, such
as printers) and exchange information.
LANs often use a single cable transmission technology. Traditional LAN operates
at speeds from 10 to 100 Mbps (mega bits / sec) with low delay (tens of microsecond) and has a small error factor. Modern LANs can operate at higher speeds, up
to hundreds of megabits / sec.

Figure I.1 Two types of broadcast networks. (a) Bus. (b) Ring
There are several kinds of topologies that can be used on a LAN broadcast. Figure
1.1 illustrates two of the existing topologies. In the bus network (ie cable liner), at a
time of a machine to act as a master and is allowed to send packets. Other machines
need to refrain from sending any. So to prevent conflict, when two or more machines
want to transmit simultaneously, then the necessary regulatory mechanisms.
Regulatory mechanism can take the form centralized or distributed. IEEE 802.3
Ethernet is popularly called a bus broadcast network with decentralized controllers
[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 4

that operate at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps. The computers on the Ethernet can be sent
at any time they want, when two or more packets collide, each computer then waited
enough with the random waiting time before repeating again shipping.
Other broadcast system is the ring, on the topology of each bit is sent to the
surrounding area without waiting for the complete package is received. Usually
every bit around the ring in the time required to transmit a few bits, often even
before the complete packet is sent entirely. Like the other broadcast system, some
rules have to be met simultaneously to control access to the ring. IEEE 802.5 (token
ring) is a popular ring LANs operating at speeds between 4 to 16 Mbps.
Based on the channel allocations, broadcast networks can be divided into two,
namely static and dynamic. Static allocation type can be divided based on discrete
time intervals and the round robin algorithm, which allows each machine to
broadcast only when its time slot has been received. Static allocation is often a waste
of channel capacity when an engine no longer has to be done at the time slot
allocation is received. Because the system tend to allocate most of its channel
dynamically (that is based on need).
Method for the dynamic allocation of a channel can be centralized or
decentralized. In the centralized channel allocation methods are a single entity, such
as a bus controller unit, which determines who the next turn. This packet delivery
can be made upon receipt of a turn and make decisions related to an internal
algorithm. In the decentralized method of channel allocations, there is no central
entity, each machine must be able to determine themselves whether or not to send
any.
Advantage Network LAN:
1. Exchange of files can be done easily (File Sharing).
2. Use of the printer can be done by any client (printer sharing).
3. Data files can be stored on the server, so that data can be accessed from any
client securities under the authorization of all employees, which can be made
based on the company's organizational structure so that data security is
ensured.
[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 5

4. The data files in / out from / to the server can be in control.


5. Process of data backup becomes easier and faster.
6. Risk of data loss by computer viruses being very small.
7. Communication among employees can be done by using the E-Mail & Chat.
8. When one client / server connected to the modem, then all or part of a
computer on the LAN can access

the Internet or network to send faxes via 1

modem.

2.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is basically a LAN version is larger and
usually wear the same technology as the LAN. MAN can include corporate offices
are adjacent and can be used for private purposes (private) or public. MAN usually
able to support data and voice, and can even be associated with the cable television
network. MAN just have a cable or two and not have the switching element, which
serves to regulate the output packets through multiple wires. The existence of
switching elements to make the design become simpler.
The main reason as separate MAN is a special category has been the standard for
MAN-determined, and these standards are now being implemented. The standard is
called DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual Bus) or IEEE 802.6 standard by. DQDB
consists of two unidirectional wires where all the computers are connected, as shown
in Figure 2.2 Each bus has a head-end device to start transmitting activity. Computer
traffic going to the right of the sender uses the upper bus. Traffic to the left by bus
under.

Figure II.2 Architecture DQDB MAN

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 6

3.

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a wide geographical area, often covering a
country. WAN consists of a collection of machines intended to run application
programs.
We will follow traditional usage and call these machines as hosts. The term End
System is sometimes also used in the literature. The hosts are connected by a
communication subnet, or simply called subnets. The task is to bring the message of
the subnet host to the other, as well as telephone systems that bring the contents of
the conversation from the speaker to the listener. By separating the pure
communication aspects of a network (subnet) of aspects of the application (host),
complete network design becomes much simpler. In most WAN, subnet consists of
two components, that is transmission cable and switching elements. Transmission
cable (also called a circuit, channel, or trunk) move bits from one machine to
another.
Switching element is a special computer that is used to connect two or more
transmission lines. When the data cable to the receiver, the switching element must
choose a wired sender to forward the messages. Unfortunately there is no standard
terminology in computer named like this. His name is very variously called packet
switching nodes, intermidiate system, the data switching exchange and others.

Figure 3.3 The relationship between the hosts in the subnet


As a generic term for computer switching, we will use the term router. But need
to know first that there is no consensus in the use of this terminology. In this model,
as shown in Figure 1.1 each host is connected to the LAN where there is a router,
[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 7

although in certain circumstances a host can be connected directly to a router. Set of


communication channels and routers (but not the host) will form the subnet.
The term is critical subnets, subnet means the collection was a collection of
routers and communication channels that move packets from the host destination
host. However, a few years later subnet get meaning in connection with the network.
In most WANs, the network consists of a lot of cable or telephone lines that
connect a pair of routers. When two routers that do not contain the same cable will
communicate, both must communicate indirectly through other routers. when a
packet is sent from a router to another router through an intermediary routers or
more, then the packet is received the router in a complete state, kept up the output
channel to be free, and then just passed.

Figure 3.4 Many diagnostic subnets topologies for point-to-point.


(a) Star (b) Ring (c) Tree (d) Complete (e) ring interact (f) Any.

Subnet containing such principle is called subnet point-to-point, store-andforward, or packet-switched. Almost all WAN (except that use satellite) has a subnet
store-and-forward.
In the subnet using point-to-point, which is an important design issue is the choice
of interconnection topology router. Figure 1.3 describes several possible topologies.
Usually shaped symmetrical topology LAN, WAN generally bertopologi otherwise
uncertain.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 8

Advantage Network WAN:


a. The server can serve as the head office of the data bank branches.
b.

Access between computers quick and easy.

c. Documents / files are usually sent by fax or postal packet, can be sent via e-mail
and transfer files from / to the head office and branch offices with a relatively
low cost and in a very quick period of time.
d. Data Updating Data Pooling and between offices can be done every day at the
specified time.
e. Can Back up data on another computer without having to disassemble the hard
drive.

4.

Campus Area Networks (CANs)


A campus network, campus network local area network or the company could be
is a computer network made up of interconnected local area networks.
In this type of network, the same technology together with the hardware used in a
different building from the one campus or one company. They follow the same
terminology as a local area network, but the difference is that they are interconnected
between several buildings in certain locations. Imagine a university campus where
you have several departments such as information technology, electronics, mass
communication and fine arts etc. and in all departments of the computer lab, they
have applied the same infra-structure of the hardware and other technology that uses
a local area network as the main tool , and a message sent by one department can be
accessed by other departments, then we say that the network is the following
technique Regional Campus network (CAN).
Similarly, companies or organizations that have different departments in one
location and the department can communicate with each other using communication
media CAN (Campus Area Network). In Campus Area Networking (CAN) system
means the same type of hardware routers, switches, hubs, cables and wireless
connections the same point even in some buildings. We can say that all theses
network resources owned by the same organization.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 9

If we talk about the company's internet connection, we see that one of the
universities use the same connection for all its departments. In CAN (Campus Area
Network), such as an Internet connection, the company has been dealing with the
whole organization.

5.

Home Area Networks (HANs)


A home network or home area network (HAN) is a type of local area network that
develops from the need to facilitate communication and interoperability among
digital devices present inside or within the close vicinity of a home. Devices capable
of participating in this networksmart devices such as network printers and handheld
mobile computersoften gain enhanced emergent capabilities through their ability to
interact. These additional capabilities can then be used to increase the quality of life
inside the home in a variety of ways, such as automation of repetitious tasks,
increased personal productivity, enhanced home security, and easier access to
entertainment.

6.

Internet
It is a combination of various LAN and WAN computer network located
throughout the world. Forming a network with a broader scale and global terms
Internet networks typically use TCP / IP protocol to transmit data packets coming
from the internet (interconnected networks) which means that the relationship of a
variety of computer networks in the world are integrated with each other to form a
communication global terms.

7.

Wireless Network
Mobile computers such as notebook computers and Personal Digital Assistants
(PDA), a branch of the computer industry's most rapid growth. Many types of
computer owners who actually have had desktop machines installed on a LAN or
WAN, but because it is not possible cable connections are made in a car or airplane,
so many are interested in having a computer to the network without wires.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 10

Wireless network has many benefits, which have been commonly known is the
portable office. People who were on their way often want to use their portable
electronic devices to send or receive telephone, fax, e-mail, read the file remotely
login to the remote machine, and so on and also want to do these things anywhere,
land, sea, air. Wireless networks is very useful to overcome the above problems.
Table 1.1 Combination of wireless networks and mobile computing
Wireless

Mobile

Aplication

No

No

Workstation remain in office

No

Yes

Portable computer is connected to a telephone line

Yes

No

LAN with wireless communication

Yes

Yes

Portable office, PDA for inventory

Although wireless networks and computing systems that can be moved around
often closely linked, in fact not the same, as shown in table 1.1. Sometimes portable
computer using a cable as well, that is when someone who is on his way to connect
the portable computer to the phone jack in a hotel, then we have the mobility that is
not the network without wires. Conversely, there are also computers that use a
wireless network but not portable, it can happen when the computers connected to
the LAN using a wireless communications facility (radio).
Although wireless networks is quite easy to be installed, but this kind of networks
has many shortcomings. Usually wireless networks have the ability of 1-2 Mbps,
which is much lower compared to the wired network. Error rate is also often times
larger, and the transmission of different computers can interfere with each other.
The following characteristics are used to classify different types of networks:
1. Topology: Is a geometric arrangement of a computer system. Topologies include
bus, star, ring, mesh, fully connected, line, tree.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 11

2. Protocols: protocol definition is a set of rules and signals to communicate with


computers on the network. Two of the most popular protocols for LANs is
Ethernet and token-ring network of IBM.
3. Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified by the use of an architecture of
peer-to-peer or client / server. computers on a network are sometimes called
nodes. computers and devices that provide resources (resource places) for a
network are called servers.

2.3 COMPUTER NETWORK TOPOLOGY


Topology is a way to connect one computer to other computers to form a network.
How that is currently widely used is the bus, token-ring, star and peer-to-peer network.
Each of these has a characteristic topology, with its own advantages and disadvantages.

a. BUS Topology
The first type is a bus which is the first of its kind in the Ethernet networking
technology and consists of a coaxial cable that connects to all the other computers on
a network where each computer is connected to the BNC connector type T. The
following figure shows the type of bus.

All computers communicate over the same bus, so bus is also a logical topology
as well. The bus topology is generally in need of collision detection algorithm (CD collision detection) or collision avoidance (CA - collision avoidance) because of the
nature of this bus is a broadcast to all computers that are vulnerable packet collisions.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 12

Advantages:
1. Saving Cable
2. Layout simple cable
3. Easily developed

Disadvantages:
1. Detection and fault isolation is very small
2. Traffic density
3. When one client is damaged, then the network can not function.
4. Required repeaters for long-distance

b. Star Topology
The second type is the Star. Star just as you pull the network cable to the center of
each computer concentration as Switch, that's the basic concept of a star topology.
Switching the switch handle outbound traffic to other nodes in the network. The
following diagram shows the picture of a star topology.

Advantages:
1. Most flexible
2. Installations / change station is very easy and does not interfere with other parts of
the network
3.

Centralized control

4.

Ease of detection and fault isolation / damage

5.

Ease of network management

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 13

Disadvantages:
1. Wastage cable
2.

Need special handling

3.

Centralized control (HUB) so the critical element

c. Ring Topology
Third computer network topology is the Ring. Compared Bus and Star, Ring is
more complex but offers an interesting feature. Nodes communicate with Ring
formation, with each node communicates directly only with the upstream and
downstream neighbors.

The following figure shows the ring that often implemented physically as Star.

Advantages:
1. Saving Cable

Disadvantages:
1. Sensitive error
2. Development of a more rigid network

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 14

d. Mesh Topology
Other LAN computer network topology is a mesh that is a relationship with each
other among multiple nodes. Generally, a mesh intended for redundancy purposes.
Each campus network must apply a mesh to achieve a level of redundancy and fault
tolerance is a requirement of the business data network them.There are two types of
mesh and full mesh partial mesh. Full mesh - each node interconnected with each
other with its own dedicated line while partial as the name suggests has a track only a
part according to the requirement.
The following figure shows the mesh in general, any device / node has a
connection to every other device on the network.

Advantages:
1.Partial mesh designed to provide redundancy where it is needed.

Disadvantages:
1. Full mesh is not very practical except for small scale networks.
2.

Implementation cost of a full mesh is very expensive because of its redundancy


for fault tolerance purposes.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 15

e. Tree Topology
Tree topology is a network topology tree (Tree) network topology is called as
well as a multilevel network topology. This topology is commonly used for
interconnection between different central hierarchy.

Advantages:
1. Like a star topology devices connected to the control center / HUB.
2. But the HUB is divided into two, the central HUB, HUB and secondary,
3. This tree topology has the advantage over able to reach greater distance by
activating the Repeater function owned by HUB.
Disadvantages:
1. Cable used be a lot more careful planning so that necessary arrangements,
including the layout of the room.

f. Line Topology
Line topology is the topology of rare works by connecting each host to a host
which is located on the right.

Advantages:
1. Save cables
2. Layout simple cable
Disadvantages:
1. Detection and Isolation of error is very small

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 16

2.4 NETWORK PROTOCOLS


Network protocol is a set of rules that are used in the network, protocols are the
rules that governs the communications between computers on a network so that the
network of member computers and different computer platforms can communicate with
each other. all types of computer networks using protocol. Protocols are rules includes
instructions that apply to the ways or methods of accessing a network, the physical
topology, cable types and data transfer speeds.
Here are the Types of Computer Network Protocols:
1. Ethernet
2. Local Talk
3. Token Ring
4. FDDI
5. ATM

a. TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)


Is a data communications standard used by the Internet community in the process
of exchanging data from one computer to another computer in a network the Internet.
This protocol can not stand alone, because this protocol is a set of protocols (protocol
suite). This protocol is a protocol that is most widely used today. Data are
implemented in software (software) in the operating system. The term given to this
software is the TCP / IP stack.

b. UDP (User Datagram Protocol)


UDP (User Datagram Protocol), is one of the transport layer protocol TCP / IP
that

supports

communication

unreliable

(unreliable),

without

connection

(connectionless) between the hosts in the network using TCP / IP. This protocol is
defined in RFC 768.

c. Domain Name System (DNS)


Domain Name System (DNS) is a system used to distribute the database to search
the computer name (name resolution) in a network that uses TCP / IP (Transmission
Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). DNS is used in applications that connect to the
[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 17

Internet such as web browsers or e-mail, where DNS helps map the host name to an
IP address of a computer.

d. Point-to-Point Protocol
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a network packet encapsulation protocol that is
widely used in wide area network (WAN). This protocol is an industry standard that
runs on the data-link layer and developed in the early 1990s as a response to the
problems that occur in protocol Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), which only
supports static IP addressing to its clients. Compared with its predecessor (SLIP), PPP
is much better, considering this protocol work faster, offers error correction, and
negotiation sessions dynamically without any intervention from the user. In addition,
this protocol also supports many network protocols simultaneously. PPP is defined in
RFC 1661 and RFC 1662.

e. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)


is a commonly used protocol for sending electronic mail or e-mail on the Internet.
This protocol is used to transmit data from the sender's computer to the e-mail
recipient's mail server.

f. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)


HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a protocol used by WWW (World Wide
Web). HTTP defines how messages can be formatted and transmitted from the server
to the client. HTTP also set what actions should be done by a web server and a web
browser in response to the commands available on the HTTP protocol.

g. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an Internet protocol that runs in the application
layer which is a standard for transferring files (files) between the computer machines
in an internetwork. FTP or protocol Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for data
communication between the client and the server, so between these two components
will be made a communication session before data transfer begins. FTP uses only

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 18

standard authentication methods, which use the user name and password are sent in
unencrypted form.

2.5 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE


Network architecture is the use of the procedures of hardware and software in the
network to a computer with other computers can communicate and exchange data.
Computer network security system is an integral part of an organization's computer
security system as a whole, especially with the development of the Internet. More and
more applications based on the users computer network. If an insecure computer network,
the computer system in the organization is also not safe.
There are three forms of architecture that is commonly used in computer networks,
namely:

1. Hybrid Network
This network is a combination of the nature of the peer-to-peer and client / server.
Workgroup is composed of several computers connected together to manage
resources without requiring authorization from the network or server administrator. In
this network, there is also the nature of the client / server network so that security
levels can be maintained and the presence of servers having a certain service
functions, such as file servers, print servers, database servers, mail servers, and
others.

2. Peer To Peer Network


In peer-to-peer network, all computers have a similar position / parallel, in the
same hierarchy. Each computer can be a client to other peer computers, each
computer can also share resources with the computer in the network, peer-to-peer is.
[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 19

Decentralization of resources placed on each member of the network, and does not
require network administrators.

The flow of information can flow between two computers directly, wherever.
However, this network is not completely free without control, they can use a
password to protect files and folders, can also be set so that certain people can not use
certain peripherals.
Because of the ease of installation, maintenance, and cost, this network is more
popular with the number of computer network that is slightly (about 2 to 20
computers).

3. Network Client / Server


In the client / server network, the software that controls the entire network
are working on the server. These networks can connect hundreds of computers with a
security level that is not possible in a peer-to-peer.

This network can be set up so that each client must log on to the server
before it can take advantage of the resources that are connected to the server. The
server then authenticates the client and verify that the client computer used to have

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 20

permission to log on to the network, by checking the client's username and password
against a database on the server.

2.6 COMPUTER NETWORK EQUIPMENT


To build a better network based on Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000
Server and Workgroup based Windows XP or Vista Windiws there are some important
things and an alias must be a mandatory requirement. The components in question is
hardware to build the network itself. The definition of hardware is hardware that includes
several components Computer Servers, Client Computers, NIC, HUB, Switches, Cables,
and others.
As an illustration, the following will briefly diuraikian at least for the purposes of
building a computer network.

1. Hardware
For computer network or LAN (Local Area Network) contains some simple hardware
components or very important and is the main requirement. The hardware in question
include:

The computer that will be used as a server

Some computers to workstations

NIC (Network Interface Card)

Wireless LAN

HUB or Swicth supporting F / O

Swicth Wireless

UTP Cable

Telephone Cable

RJ45 and RJ11

Conector

VDSL Converter

UPS if needed

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 21

The equipment is standard and there should be a need for a network. Then when
the computer network in your office will be upgraded or greater must be added some
other hardware such as:

Repeater

Bridge

Router

Gateway

1.1 NIC (Network Interface Card)


is a network card or LAN card in the form of an electronic board that will
be planted or installed on each computer that will be connected to a network. This
network is not limited to the LAN (Local Area Network) alone could also
Workgroup.
Particularly with the development of network technology, many types and
brands of network cards. However, there are three main points to note from the
network card or NIC, that is the type of card, protocol type, type of cable
supports.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 22

1.2 HUB or Concentrator


Simply HUB can be said of a device that has a lot of ports that will connect
multiple nodes or points so as to form a star network topology. In simple common
network and one of the hub ports to connect to a computer server. While the other
port is used to connect a client computer or workstation that already has a NIC to
form a network.
If the HUB will be the development can also be connected to the next hub in
up-link. It occurs when the HUB is used only have 16 ports plus ports 1 port for
server or another hub. So to add additional HUB network is required.

1.3 Switch
Switch or better known as a LAN switch is an extension of the concept of
bridge. There are two basic architectures used in switches, namely cut-through
and store-and-forward. Cut-through switches have advantages in terms of speed
because when a packet arrives, the switch only pay attention to the destination
address before being forwarded to the goal segment. While the switch store-andforward is the opposite of cut-through switches. This switch receives and analyzes
the entire packet before it forwards it to the destination and to check the package
requires time, but it allows the switch to detect and prevent damage to the
package so as not to disrupt the network.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 23

1.4 Router
Routers work in a manner similar to switches and bridges. The difference,
the router is a filter or filters data traffic. Filtering is done by using a specific
protocol. The router is basically a divider network devices logically instead of
physically. For example, an IP router can divide a network into several subnets so
that only traffic destined for a specific IP address that can flow from one segment
to another. An example could be a regular network LAN (Local Area Network) or
WAN (Wide Area Network) or a global network such as the Internet.

2. Software
As has been described above that the software mentioned in this paper is the
software including the operating system that is used in building a network, either a
Windows-based network (Workgroup or Client Server) as well as other operating
systems. However, in this paper I limit it to just use Microsoft's operating system
products, namely Microsoft Windows family.

2.1 Operating System


Operating system used in this papers is a Microsoft Windows Server 2003,
Microsoft Windows XP and the Windows Vista for Client. However, you can also
use the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server and Microsoft Windows 2000
Professional, because the principle is the same and this papers can still be used.
Should be advised to the current server operating system used is Microsoft
Windows Server 2003 with Windows Vista client or Windows XP .

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 24

For those of you who want to build a small network with Workgroup, can use the
operating system Microsoft Windows XP , Windows Vista or Windows 2000
Professional .

2.2 Program Application


The application program used freely . But I suggest using some
applications, such as word processor, process the numbers, data processing, and
graphics applications are needed .In addition to the application you can also add
other applications if your computer has a scaner . I mean the application is an
application that supports the scanner image processing results .

2.3 Internet Sharing Program


So that all the computers are connected to a LAN network can surf
entirely , you can avail the facility of Internet Sharing . Microsoft Windows
Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows XP, already provides facilities for
Internet Connection Sharing ( ICS ) and ICF ( Internet Connection Firewall ) .
However, you can also use the same practice provided another provider or ISP .

2.4 Program For Internet


The program is meant here is the program to run the facilities associated
with the Internet. So with this program user or all users can use the facilities such
as browsing, chat,e - mail, and so on The program is as follows : Microsoft
Internet Explorer,Microsoft Outlook,Windows Messenger.

2.7 BENEFITS OF COMPUTER NETWORK


In general, the network has several benefits more than the stand-alone computer
and business world has also acknowledged that access to modern information technology
has always had a competitive edge over competitors who are limited in the field of
technology.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 25

Networks allow more efficient management of resources. For example, many


users can share a single printer with high quality, compared to using low quality printers
at each desk. In addition, software license network can be cheaper than a separate standalone license for the same number of users.
Networks help maintain reliable information and to keep up-to-date. Centralized
data storage system is managed properly allows multiple users to access data from a
variety of different locations, and restrict access to the data while it is being processed.
Networks help speed up the process of sharing the data (data sharing). Transfer
data on the network is always faster than other means of data sharing network instead.
Networks allow groups working to communicate more efficiently. Letters and
delivery of electronic messages are the substance of most of the network system, in
addition to scheduling systems, project monitoring, online conferencing and groupware,
which all help teams work more productively.
Network helps businesses to serve their clients more effectively. Remote access to
centralized data allows employees to serve clients in the field and the clients can directly
communicate with the supplier.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 26

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

3.1. CONCLUSION
Computer Networking is the solution to human needs in accessing the data, this is
reflected by the growing computer network demand, both small and large in scope.
Users of these services was not limited only at certain groups, but has spread to
almost all the computer users.
Computer networks provide a good side and a bad side. One bright side is that
there are big potential on efficiency of resource usage, time acceleration and money
savin in accesing it.. However, there are also potential negative impacts done by
people who are not responsible, such as data theft by haecker for their personal
advantage, accessing porn sites, hacking accounts and other cyber crime cases.
Eventually, the above mentioned side effects are depending onn the intention of
the users, and on how to position themselves in undertaking the technology

3.2. RECOMMENDATION
In the era of increasingly sophisticated technology, everyone can have more
access to the internetin the entire world .Our suggestion to the potential users is to
take most advantages in utilizing computer networks wisely. Wise use of computer
networks will result a great affect in their daily life..So, take advantage of all of them
for good.

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 27

REFERENCES

Yuhefizar, ilmukomputer.com

Isfah, Fahmi dkk, Jaringan Komputer: 2006

Purbo, Onno W, Jaringan Kompute #1

Rival Sahabat, http://rivalsahabat.wordpress.com/

Cv-Sysneta, http://www.jaringan-komputer.cv-sysneta.com/

[ Brief Review on Computer Networks ]

Page 28