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Narendra Modi

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Narendra Damodardas Modi ([nrend r d mod rd s mod i] ( ), born 17 September 1950) is

the 15th and current Prime Minister of India, in oce
since May 2014.[1][2] Modi, a leader of the Bharatiya
Janata Party (BJP), previously served as the Chief Minister of Gujarat state from 2001 to 2014. He is currently
the Member of Parliament (MP) from Varanasi.
Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which
resulted in an outright majority for the BJP in the Lok
Sabha (the lower house of the Indian parliament) the
last time that any party had secured an outright majority Modi with his mother Heeraben on his 63rd birthday on 17
in the Lok Sabha was in 1984. Since then, Modi has also September 2013.
been credited for the BJPs electoral victories in the states
of Haryana and Maharashtra in October 2014. [3]
the image he portrays of himself in politics.[21][22]

Modi is a Hindu Nationalist and a member of

the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).[4][5] He is
a controversial gure both within India as well as
internationally[6][7][8][9] as his administration has been
criticised for failing to act to prevent the 2002 Gujarat
riots.[9][10] Modi has been praised for his economic policies, which are credited with creating an environment for
a high rate of economic growth in Gujarat.[11] However,
his administration has also been criticised for failing to
make a signicant positive impact upon the human development of the state.[12]

At the age of eight, Modi came into contact with the

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and began attending its local shakhas, or training sessions. There he met
Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb,
who was to become Modis political mentor. Inamdar inducted Modi as a balswayamsevak, or junior cadet in the
RSS.[23] While training with the RSS, he also met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana
Sangh leaders who were later founding members of the
BJPs Gujarat unit in 1980.[24][25][26][27]
In keeping with the traditions of the Ghanchi caste,
Modis marriage was arranged by his parents while he
was still a child. He was engaged at the age of 13 to
Jashodaben Chimanlal, and the marriage of Narendra
Modi and Jashodaben Chimanlal was when Modi was 18.
They spent little time together, and were soon estranged
when Modi decided to pursue an itinerant life.[17][28] The
marriage was reportedly never consummated.[29] Modi
kept the marriage secret for most of his career, only acknowledging the existence of his wife when ling his
nomination for a parliamentary seat in the 2014 general

Early life and education

Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to

a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, in
Bombay State (present-day Gujarat).[13][14][15] His family
belonged to the Ghanchi (oil-presser) community, which
is categorised among the other backward classes by the
Indian government. He was the third of six children born
to Damodardas Mulchand and Heeraben Modi.[16] As a
child, he helped his father Damodardas sell tea at the
Vadnagar railway station, and later ran a tea stall with
his brother near a bus terminus.[17][18] He completed his
schooling in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described
him as being an average student, but a keen debater with
an interest in theatre.[17][19] An early gift for rhetoric in
debates was noted by teachers and students at the time.[20]
Modi also showed a preference for playing larger than life
characters in theatre performances which has inuenced

Little is known of the time he spent traveling; however,

in interviews Modi has spoken of visiting various Hindu
ashrams, or places of Hindu religious learning, founded
by Swami Vivekananda. The rst of these was the Belur
Math near Kolkata. He later visited the Advaita Ashrama
in Almora, and the Ramakrishna mission in Rajkot. However he was only able to stay for a short period in each
ashram, as he lacked a college education, and the institu1


tions were strictly limited to postgraduates.[32][33][34] After two years of travel, Modi returned to Vadnagar, and
after a brief visit left again for Ahmedabad. Here he
lived with his uncle and worked at a canteen also run by
his uncle at the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation.[35][36] In Ahmedabad, Modi renewed his acquaintance with Inamdar, who was then based at Hedgewar
Bhavan, the RSS headquarters in the city.[24][25][37] After
the end of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he stopped
working for his uncle and became a fulltime pracharak
(campaigner) of the RSS.[36][38] In 1978, Modi became
a sambhaag pracharak (regional organiser) for the RSS,
and also earned an extramural degree in political science through a distance education course at Delhi University.[29][39] In 1983, he completed his Master of Arts
degree in political science from Gujarat University.[19][40]

In November 1995, Modi was elected National Secretary of BJP and was transferred to New Delhi where he
was assigned responsibility for the partys activities in
North India in states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and the Union Territory of
Chandigarh.[49][51][53] Vaghela defected from the BJP after he lost the 1996 Lok Sabha elections, having previously threatened to do so in 1995.[17] Modi was promoted
to the post of general secretary (Organisation) of the BJP
in May 1998. While on the selection committee for the
1998 Assembly elections in Gujarat, Modi favoured supporters of Patel over those loyal to Vaghela, in an attempt
to put an end to the factional divisions within the party.
He was seen as a master strategist who knew the way out
of every crisis.[54] His strategies were credited as being
key to winning the 1998 elections.[51]

3 Chief Minister of Gujarat

Early political career

After Modi had received some RSS training in Nagpur,

which was a prerequisite for taking up an ocial position in the Sangh Parivar, he was given charge of Sanghs
student wing, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad, in Gujarat. In 1973, he participated in the Navnirman student
agitation against the alleged corrupt Chimanbhai Patel led Congress government.[41] During 197577, when
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of the
emergency, political opponents were jailed and political
organisation including RSS were banned. Modi went underground in Gujarat and to evade arrest was occasionally
disguised as a Sikh, saint, elderly man etc. and printed Chief Minister Modi and his cabinet ministers at a Planning Comand sent booklets against the central government to Delhi. mission meeting in New Delhi, 2013
He also organised agitations and covert distribution of the
Sanghs pamphlets.[17][29][42][43]
In 2001, Keshubhai Patels health was failing, and the
He also participated in the movement against the Emer- BJP had lost seats in the by-elections. Allegations of
gency under Jayaprakash Narayan. He was made the gen- abuse of power, corruption and poor administration were
eral secretary of the Gujarat Lok Sangharsh Samiti and being made, and Patels standing had been damaged by
his primary role was to co-ordinate between activists in his administrations handling of the Bhuj Earthquake of
the state.[44][45] During this period he wrote a book titled 2001.[51][55][56] As a result, the BJPs national leadership
Sangharsh ma Gujarat (Gujarats struggle) in Gujarati sought a new candidate for the oce of chief minister,
which chronicles events, anecdotes as well as his personal and Modi, who had aired his misgivings about Patels adexperiences.[43][46][47] The RSS assigned Modi to the BJP ministration, was chosen as a replacement.[17] L. K. Adin 1985.[26] While Shankersinh Vaghela and Keshubhai vani, a senior leader of the BJP, did not want to ostracise
Patel were the established names in the Gujarat BJP at Patel and was worried about Modis lack of experience in
that time, Modi rose to prominence after organising BJP governance. Modi declined an oer to be Patels deputy
President Murli Manohar Joshi's Kanyakumari-Srinagar chief minister, informing Advani and Atal Bihari VajEkta yatra (Journey for Unity) in 1991.[17] In 1987, he payee that he was going to be fully responsible for Guwas appointed as the rst General Secretary of BJP in Gu- jarat or not at all, and on 3 October 2001, Modi was
jarat and he was the force behind organising the Nyay Ya- named as the replacement of Patel as the Chief Minister
tra (Journey for Justice) against the alleged repressive and of Gujarat, with the responsibility of preparing the BJP
corrupt Congress regime, marking his formal entry into for elections in December 2002.[57][58][59] As Chief Minmainstream politics.[29][48][49] In 1988, Modi was elected ister, Modis ideas of governance revolved around privatias organising secretary of BJPs Gujarat unit.[50] In 1989, sation and small government, which stood at odds with
he organised the Lok Shakti Yatra He along with Patel and what political commentator Aditi Phadnis has described
Vaghela were considered to be the troika that put the BJP as the anti-privatisation, anti-globalisation position of the
on Gujarats political map.[26][41][51][52]



Second term (200207)

First term (200102)

On 7 October 2001, Modi was administered the oath of

oce by the Sunder Singh Bhandari, Governor of Gujarat
.[60] He then contested election from Rajkot - II assembly
constituency in a by-poll and won by defeating Congresss
Ashwin Mehta by 14,728 votes.[61]


2002 Gujarat riots

Main article: 2002 Gujarat riots

On 27 February 2002, a train with several hundred passengers including large numbers of Hindu pilgrims was
burned near Godhra, killing around 60 people.[lower-alpha 1]
Following rumours that the re was carried out by Muslim arsonists, anti-Muslim violence spread throughout
Gujarat.[64] Estimates of the death toll ranged from 900
to over 2,000, while several thousand more people were
injured.[65][66] The Modi government imposed a curfew
in major cities, issued shoot-at-sight orders, and called for
the army to prevent the violence from escalating.[67][68]
However, human rights organisations, opposition parties,
and sections of the media all accused Gujarats government of taking insucient action against the riots, and
even condoning it in some cases.[67][68][69] Modis decision to move the corpses of the Kar Sevaks who had been
burned to death in Godhra to Ahmedabad had been criticised for inaming the violence.[70][71]
In March 2008, the Supreme Court asked the state government to re-investigate nine cases in the 2002 Gujarat
riots, including the Gulbarg Society incident, and constituted a Special Investigation Team (SIT) to probe the
cases afresh.[69][72][73] Responding to a petition from Zakia Jafri, widow of Ehsan Jafri who was killed in the
Gulbarg Society massacre, the Supreme court in April
2009 asked the SIT to probe her complaint alleging
that Modi and another minister had been complicit in
the killing.[72][74] The SIT questioned Modi in March
2010, and in May 2010 presented its report before the
Court, stating that it found no evidence to substantiate the
allegations.[72][75] In July 2011, the amicus curiae Raju
Ramachandran submitted his nal report to the Supreme
Court, stating that Modi could be prosecuted based on the
available evidence, contrary to the position of the SIT.
Ramachandrans report was criticised by the SIT for relying on the testimony of Sanjiv Bhatt, who, it said, had
fabricated the documents used as evidence.[76][77] The
Supreme court handed the matter to the magistrate court,
and left it to the SIT to examine Ramachandrans report.
The SIT submitted its nal report in March 2012, seeking closure of the case, against which Zakia Jari led a
protest petition. In December 2013, the magistrate court
rejected the protest petition and accepted the clean chit
given to Modi by SIT stating that there was no evidence
against Modi in the case.[78]

Modis involvement in the events of 2002 has continued to be debated. Several scholars have described the
events of 2002 as a pogrom, while others have called
it an instance of state terrorism.[79][80][81] Summarizing
academic views on the subject, Martha Nussbaum stated
that There is by now a broad consensus that the Gujarat violence was a form of ethnic cleansing, that in
many ways it was premeditated, and that it was carried
out with the complicity of the state government and ofcers of the law.[82] In 2012, Maya Kodnani, a former
minister in Modis Government from 200709, was convicted of having participated in the Naroda Patiya massacre during the 2002 riots.[83][84] She was both the rst
female and the rst MLA to be convicted in a postGodhra riots case.[85] While initially announcing that it
would seek the death penalty for Kodnani, Modis government eventually pardoned her in 2013 and settled for
a prison sentence.[86][87][88]
A few months after the riots, New York Times reporter
Celia Dugger asked Modi if he wished he handled the
riots any dierently. He told her his only regret was
that he did not handle the news media better[89][90] and
cited Indias NDTV channel as being irresponsible in its
3.1.2 2002 election
Main article: Gujarat legislative assembly election, 2002
In the aftermath of the violence, there were widespread
calls for Modi to resign from his position as chief minister
of Gujarat. These came from both within and outside the
state, including from the leaders of the Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam and the Telugu Desam Party, which were allies in then BJP-led NDA government at the centre. The
opposition parties stalled the national parliament over the
issue.[92][93] In April 2002, at the national executive meeting of BJP at Goa, Modi submitted his resignation; however, it was rejected by the party.[94] On 19 July 2002,
Modis cabinet had an emergency meeting and oered its
resignation to the Governor of Gujarat, S. S. Bhandari,
and the assembly was dissolved.[95][96] In the subsequent
elections, the BJP, led by Modi, won 127 seats in the 182member assembly.[97] Modi made signicant use of antiMuslim rhetoric during his election campaign, though he
later denied it.[98][99][100][101] Modi won from the Maninagar constituency receiving 1,13,589 votes of the total
of 1,54,981 votes polled defeating Congress Candidate
Yatin Oza by a dierence of 75,333 votes.[102] On 22 December 2002, Modi was sworn in as the Chief Minister
for a second time by the Governor Bhandari.[103]

3.2 Second term (200207)

Despite allegations of using anti-Muslim rhetoric during
the campaign, Modis emphasis shifted during his sec-

ond term from Hindutva to the economic development of

Gujarat.[55][98] Modis decisions curtailed the inuence of
organisations of the Sangh Parivar such as the Bharatiya
Kisan Sangh (BKS) and the Vishva Hindu Parishad
(VHP),[104] which had become entrenched in Gujarat after the decline of Ahmedabads textile industry.[55] Modi
dropped Gordhan Zadaa, an ally of his former Sangh
coworker and VHP state chief Praveen Togadia, from
the cabinet ministry. When the BKS launched a farmers agitation, Modi ordered their eviction from houses
provided by the state government. Modis decision to
demolish 200 illegal temples in Gandhinagar deepened
the rift with VHP.[104][105] Various organisations of the
Sangh were no longer consulted nor informed of Modis
administrative decisions prior to their enactment.[104]


held a meeting to discuss security of Gujarats 1,600

km (990 mi) long coastline which resulted in the central
government authorisation of 30 highspeed surveillance
In July 2007, Modi completed 2,063 consecutive days as
chief minister of Gujarat, making him the longest-serving
holder of that post.[115] The BJP won 122 of the 182 seats
in the state assembly in the 2007 election, and Modi continued as chief minister.[116]

3.3 Third term (200712)

3.3.1 Development projects

The changes brought by Modi in the period 200207 has

led to Gujarat being called an attractive investment destination. Aditi Phadnis writes that there was sucient
anecdotal evidence pointing to the fact that corruption
had gone down signicantly in the state... if there was to
be any corruption, Modi had to know about it.[55] Modi
started nancial and technology parks in the state. During
the 2007 Vibrant Gujarat summit, real estate investment
deals worth 6.6 trillion were signed in Gujarat.[55]
Despite his focus on economic issues during the second
term, Modi continued to be criticised for his relationship
with Muslims. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then Prime Minister of India, who had asked Modi not to discriminate
between citizens in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat violence and had pushed for his resignation as Chief Minister of Gujarat,[106][107] distanced himself from Modi and
reached out to North Indian Muslims before the 2004
elections to the Lok Sabha. After the elections, Vajpayee
held that the violence in Gujarat had been one of the reasons for BJPs electoral defeat and acknowledged that not
removing Modi immediately after the Gujarat violence
was a mistake.[108][109]


2007 election

Further information: Gujarat legislative assembly election, 2007

In the run up to the assembly elections in 2007 and the
general election in 2009, the BJP stepped up its rhetoric
on terrorism.[110] On 18 July 2006, Modi criticised the
Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, "... for his
reluctance to revive anti-terror legislations such as the
Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act. He asked the national government to allow states to invoke tougher laws in
the wake of the 2006 blasts in Mumbai.[111] Around this
time Modi frequently demanded the execution of Afzal
Guru,[112] a collaborator of the Pakistani jihadists who
had been convicted of terrorism for his involvement in the
2001 Indian Parliament attack.[113][lower-alpha 2] As a consequence of the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, Modi

The Sardar Sarovar Dam, undergoing a height increase in 2006.

Successive BJP governments under Patel and Modi supported NGOs and communities in the creation of infrastructure projects for conservation of groundwater.
Gujarat is a semi-arid state and, according to Tushaar
Shah, was "... never known for agrarian dynamism.
By December 2008, 500,000 structures had been constructed, of which 113,738 were check dams. While most
check dams remained empty during the pre-monsoon
season, they helped recharge the aquifers that lie beneath them.[117] 60 of the 112 tehsils which were found
to have overexploited the groundwater table in 2004
had regained their normal groundwater level by 2010,[118]
meaning that Gujarat had managed to increase its groundwater levels at a time when they were falling in all other
Indian states. As a result, production of geneticallymodied Bt cotton, which could now be irrigated using
tube wells, increased to become the largest in India.[117]
The boom in cotton production and utilisation of semi
arid land[119] saw the agriculture growth rate of Gujarat
increase to 9.6% in the period 200107.[120] Though public irrigation measures in the central and southern areas, such as the Sardar Sarovar Project, have not been
as successful in achieving their aims,[117] for the decade
200110, Gujarat recorded an agricultural growth rate
of 10.97%, the highest among all Indian states.[119] However, sociologists have pointed out that the growth rate


Third term (200712)

under the Congress government during 199297 was at


Modi at the inauguration of a hospital in Kheda district, Gujarat.

The Narendra Modi government also succeeded in bringing electricity to every village in Gujarat, although
Dipankar Banerjee points out that all but 170 of
them had been electried under the previous Congress
administration.[121] Modi also greatly changed the system of power distribution in the state, with a signicant impact on farmers. The state greatly expanded the
Jyotigram Yojana scheme, in which the agricultural electricity supply was rewired to separate it from other rural power supplies. The electricity supplied was then rationed to t scheduled demand for irrigation, resulting in
a cost reduction. Initial farmer protests died down when
the farmers who beneted found that supply had become
more regular.[117] An assessment study found that corporations and large farmers had signicantly beneted from
the policy, but that small farmers and labourers had been
negatively impacted.[122]

Narendra Modi addressing law graduates at the Gujarat National

Law University.

that maternal mortality declined by 32 percent from 2001

to 2011.[129] Additionally, the Indian Supreme Court, in a
review of the Land Acquisition Act, 1894, identied Gujarat as being one of the few states from which there were
In his third term, progress was made on the Gujarat Interno complaints of forcible land acquisition.[130]
national Finance Tec-City project, considered as one of
Modis pet projects. The rst phase, which encompassed Political scientist Christophe Jarelot asserts that the detwo skyscrapers, GIFT One and Two, was completed in velopment in Gujarat has been limited to the urban middle class, while rural dwellers and lower castes have be2012.[123][124]
come increasingly marginalised. He cites the fact that
Gujarat ranks 10th among the 21 Indian states in the
3.3.2 Debate on Gujarats development under Modi Human Development Index, which he attributes to the
lower development in rural Gujarat. He states that under
Modis government has worked to brand Gujarat as a state Modi, the number of families living below the poverty
of dynamic development, economic growth and pros- line has increased, and that particularly rural adivasi and
perity, using the slogan Vibrant Gujarat.[125][126][127] dalits have become increasingly marginalised.[131] In July
However, critics have pointed to Gujarats relatively poor 2013, Economics Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen criticised
record on human development, poverty alleviation, nutri- Narendra Modis governance record and said he did not
tion, and education. The state is 13th in India for poverty, approve of it, saying that under Modis administration,
21st for education, 44.7 percent of children under ve are Gujarats record in education and healthcare is pretty
underweight and 23 percent are undernourished putting bad.[132] However, economists Arvind Panagariya and
the state in the alarming category on the India State Jagdish Bhagwati state that Gujarats social indicator imHunger Index.[128] In contrast, ocials from the state of proved from a much lower baseline than other Indian
Gujarat claim that Gujarat outperformed India as a whole states. They state that Gujarats performance in raising
in the rates of improvement of multiple human indicators, literacy rates has been superior to other states in India,
such as female education, between 2001 and 2011. Fur- and the rapid improvement of health indicators in Guthermore, they claim that the school drop-out rates de- jarat as evidence that its progress has not been poor by
clined from 20 percent in 2001 to 2 percent in 2011, and any means.[133]


Fourth term (201214)


4.2 2014 general election

Modi addressing a rally in Meerut, during the campaign for 2014

general election.
Modi with Anandiben Patel at a meeting of BJP MLAs, after being elected as Prime Minister. Patel succeeded Modi as the Chief
Minister of Gujarat.

Main article: Bharatiya Janata Party campaign for Indian

general election, 2014

Further information: Gujarat legislative assembly elec- On 31 March 2013, Modi was appointed to the BJP Parliamentary Board, the highest decision-making body of
tion, 2012
the party.[142][143] On 9 June 2013, Modi was appointed
Chairman of the BJPs Central Election Campaign ComIn the 2012 Gujarat legislative assembly elections, Modi mittee for the 2014 general election, at the national level
won from the constituency of Maninagar with a majority executive meeting of BJP.[144] The partys senior leader
of 86,373 votes over Sanjiv Bhatts wife, Shweta, who and founding member Lal Krishna Advani resigned from
was contesting for the Indian National Congress.[134] The all his posts at the party following the selection, protesting
BJP won 115 of the 182 seats, continuing the majority against leaders who were concerned with their personal
that the party has had throughout Modis tenure,[135] and agendas"; the resignation was described by The Times of
allowing the party to form the government, as it has in India as a protest against Narendra Modis elevation as
Gujarat since 1995.[136]
the chairman of the partys election committee. HowIn later by-elections, the BJP won an additional four ever, Advani withdrew his resignation the next day at the
assembly seats and 2 Lok Sabha seats that were all urging of RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat.[145] In September
held by the Indian National Congress prior to the by- 2013, BJP announced Modi as their prime ministerial
elections, even though Modi never campaigned for its candidate for the 2014 Lok Sabha election.[146] Narencandidates.[137] This brought the number of seats held by dra Modi contested the election from two constituencies:
Varanasi[147] and Vadodara.[148] His candidacy was supthe BJP in the state assembly up to 119.
ported by spiritual leaders Ramdev and Morari Bapu,[149]
In 2013, the Wharton India Economic Forum (WIEF)
and by economists Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panaat the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
gariya, who have stated that they, "...are impressed by
cancelled a keynote video-conference speech by Modi afModis economics.[150] His detractors included Nobel
ter some Indian-Americans lobbied against Modi.
Prize laureate economist Amartya Sen, who said that he
After being elected as Prime Minister, Modi resigned did not want Modi as a Prime Minister because he had not
from the post of chief minister on 21 May 2014, and done enough to make minorities feel safe, and that under
his MLA seat from the Maninagar constituency, af- Modi, Gujarats record in health and education provision
ter delivering a leaving speech described as emotional. has been pretty bad.[132]
Anandiben Patel was chosen as his replacement.[139]
During his campaign, Modi, pledged to speed government decision-making and remove bureaucratic hurdles
that have slowed development.[151]

National government

Modi won from both seats he contested; defeating Arvind

Kejriwal, leader of the Aam Aadmi Party, in Varanasi
and Madhusudan Mistry of the Indian National Congress
4.1 2009 election
in Vadodara (by a margin of 570,128 votes, the second highest ever).[152] He led the BJP-led NDA to a
Modi played a role in the 2009 national general elec- decisive victory in the general elections in which the
tion campaign of the BJP[140] and was one of their star ruling Indian National Congress suered its worst ever
defeat.[153][154][155] Modi was unanimously elected as


As chief minister of Gujarat

the leader of the BJP parliamentary party following his

partys victory in the Indian parliamentary elections and
was subsequently appointed the prime minister by Indias
president.[156][157] To comply with the rule that a MP can
not hold two constituencies, Modi vacated the Vadodara
In Indias rst social media election, Modi eectively
used social media like Twitter, Facebook and Google
in his campaign, besides Google Hangouts and holograms for campaign appearances. He even posted a sele
on Twitter and his victory tweet emerged as the most
retweeted in India.[159]

6.1 As chief minister of Gujarat

To attract foreign investment in Gujarat during his time
as chief minister, Modi made visits to countries such
as China, Singapore and Japan.[167] He also visited
China in November 2006 to study the Special Economic
Zones that were about to be implemented in Gujarat.[168]
He again visited in September 2007[169] and later in
November 2011. A month after his visit of 2011,
the Chinese Government released 13 diamond traders
from India who had been jailed by the Shenzhen Customs, which Modi attributed to his diplomatic eorts and

Prime Minister

Further information: Swearing-in ceremony of Narendra

Narendra Modi was sworn in as Prime Minister

Narendra Modi meeting the South Korean ambassador in Gandhinagar.

Modi (far right) was sworn in on 26 May 2014 at the Rastrapati


on 26 May 2014 at the Rastrapati Bhavan.

is Indias rst prime minister born after the countrys independence.[160] In a rst of its kind, Modi
invited all SAARC leaders to attend his swearing-in
ceremony;[161] the attendees included Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai, Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa, Bhutan Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay, Maldives President Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom, Prime
Minister Navin Ramgoolam of Mauritius (SAARC observer), Nepal Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, Prime
Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif,[162] and Speaker of
the National Parliament of Bangladesh Shirin Sharmin
Chaudhury.[163][164] Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh
Hasina could not attend since she had a scheduled state
visit to Japan and deputed the Speaker of National Parliament of Bangladesh to attend the ceremony on her

Modis relationship with many Western nations was a

troubled one during his tenure as Chief Minister. Questions about his role in the 2002 Gujarat riots resulted
in a boycott by the UK, the US and the EU. He was
barred from entering the United States under a provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act.[172] Modi
is the only person ever denied a visa to the U.S. under
this provision.[173] The UK as well as the European Union
refused to deal with Modi because of perceptions of his
role in the riots. However, as Modi emerged as a national
leader in India, the UK[174] and the EU[175] lifted their
boycotts in October 2012 and March 2013 respectively
and, following Modis election as the Prime Minister of
India, the US invited him to Washington.[176][177]

In 2011, the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry,

impressed with the development of Gujarat, invited Modi
to visit Pakistan and address prominent business leaders.
They also asked him to consider a ight between Karachi
and Ahmedabad, on account of the historical cultural and
economic relations between the two regions of Gujarat
and Sindh. Modi wanted to help Pakistan out of its power
crisis, especially in Sindh, suggesting Pakistan can follow
Modis rst cabinet consisted of 45 ministers, less than the 'Gujarat Model' in two ways Gujarat Solar Park and
Kalpasar Project.[178]
the 70 ministers of the previous government.[166]

International diplomacy

In April 2014, in a move described as unexpected, senior Pakistani diplomats told The Daily Telegraph that
Modi is their preferred choice for the Prime Minister of
India, as he could provide the strong leadership neces-

sary for peace talks.[179]

Although boycotted by Western nations, Modi visited
Japan in 2012. According to Ryohei Kasai, research fellow at the Center for South Asian Studies, Gifu Womens
University, Japan, There is a growing interest in Modi
in Japan with much anticipation that he will reshape India by revitalizing its economy and better governance. I
believe Japan has an excellent relationship with him. Not
only have successive Japanese ambassadors to India been
regular guests in 'Vibrant Gujarat' investors summit (organised biennially) but Japanese private companies also
made a big amount of investment in the state.[180]


As Prime Minister of India


7 Personality and image

Modi is a vegetarian.[188] He has a frugal lifestyle, is
a workaholic and an introvert.[189] He writes poems in
Gujarati.[190] As a speaker, he is known as a crowdpuller.[191] In the critical opinion of Somini Sengupta,
writing for The New York Times in a 2009 article on the
Supreme Courts ordering of an investigation into Modis
role in the 2002 Gujarat riots, Mr. Modi has assiduously sought to reinvent himself from a scruy mascot of Hindu nationalism to a decisive corporate-style
administrator.[69] He emerged as social media savvy
politician and since September 2014 is the second most
followed leader in the world with over 6 million followers
on Twitter.[159][192] His interaction on Google Hangouts
on 31 August 2012 made Modi the rst Indian politician to interact with netizens through live chat on the
Modi has been labelled by the media and some articles
in peer-reviewed journals as a controversial, polarising
and divisive gure,[195][196][197] but British economist Jim
O'Neill, author of the BRIC report, wrote on his blog that
Modi is good on economics, one of the things that India desperately needs in a leader.[198] In August 2013,
nancial analyst Chris Wood, chief strategist of CLSA,
wrote in his weekly Greed & Fear that the Indian stock
markets greatest hope is the emergence of Gujarat Chief
Minister Narendra Modi as the BJPs prime ministerial

8 Awards and recognitions

Modi delivering his maiden speech at the 69th session of the UN
general assembly.

Further information: Foreign policy of Narendra Modi

and List of Prime Ministerial trips made by Narendra
Modi invited the leaders of SAARC countries to his
swearing-in ceremony for taking oce as Prime Minister, to strengthen the diplomatic relationship and increase
business.[181] Continuing with the aim of promoting close
ties with neighbouring countries, Modis rst foreign visit
as Prime Minister of India was to Bhutan . He later visited Nepal on August 8, 2014.[182][183] Later, he made
a 5 day bilateral visit to Japan starting on August 30,
2014.[184] On 17 September 2014, Chinese President Xi
Jinping arrived in India and several nancial MoUs and
agreements of cooperation were signed between the two
countries.[185] which Modi termed as a new chapter in the
economic relations of both them.[186] Modi visited the
United States in the last week of September 2014, which
was described as very successful, leading to a boosting of
bilateral relations between India and the US.[187]

Gujarat Ratna by Shri Poona Gujarati Bandhu

Samaj at Ganesh Kala Krida Manch on celebration
of centenary year.[199]
e-Ratna award by the Computer Society of India.[200]
Best Chief Minister In a nationwide survey conducted in 2007 by India Today magazine, Narendra
Modi was declared the Best Chief Minister in the
Asian Winner of the fDi Personality of the Year
award for 2009 by FDi magazine.[202]
In March 2012, Modi appeared on the cover of the
Asian edition of Time, one of Indias few politicians
to have done so.[203]
Modi was featured in Times 2014 Time 100 list of
the most inuential people in the world.[204]
Modi has become the most followed Asian leader on
In 2014, he was ranked as the worlds 15th most
powerful person by Forbes.[206]


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PMs post: Uma. The Indian Express (New Delhi).
16 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.

[176] Readout of the Presidents Call with Prime Ministerial

Candidate Narendra Modi of India.
May 16, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.

[179] Pakistan 'backs Narendra Modi' as Indias next prime [192] Modis world second most followed politician on Twitter,
Facebook. Times of India. 5 September 2014. Retrieved
minister. The Daily Telegraph. 21 April 2014. Retrieved
12 September 2014.
22 April 2014.
[180] Roche, Elizabeth (20 May 2014). Narendra Modi and [193] Narendra Modi on Google Hangout, Ajay Devgn to host
event. The Times of India. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3
the art of Twiplomacy. Live Mint. Retrieved 4 June
September 2012.
[181] "'Modis invitation to SAARC leaders was a master- [194] People ask, Narendra Modi answers on Google Plus
Hangout. CNN-IBN. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 3
stroke'". 26 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June
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[182] Narendra Modi has a 'Full' Diplomatic Calender Ahead: [195] Ramaseshan, Radhika (2 July 2013). Boomerang warning in article on 'polarising' Modi. The Telegraph
Bhutan, Japan, US. The Times of India. 8 June 2014.
(Kolkata). Retrieved 15 August 2013.
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[183] Modi thanks guardian deities, Kings for Bhutan visit suc- [196] Malik, Ashok (8 November 2012). Popular but polarcess. Zee News. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August
ising: can Narendra Modi be PM?". Hindustan Times.
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[184] Prime Minister on a 5 day visit to Japan. Firstpost. 30 [197] Bajaj, Vikas (22 December 2012). In India, a DangerAugust 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
ous and Divisive Technocrat. The New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
[185] List of Documents signed during the State Visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to India. Press Bureau of India. [198] NaMo, Ram the new mantra on Dalal Street!". The Eco18 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
nomic Times. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
[186] English rendering of the Remarks by Prime Minister Shri
Narendra Modi at the Press Brieng with President Xi [199] Narendra Modi to be presented 'Gujarat Ratna' today.
Jinping of China. Press Bureau of India. 18 September
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2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
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[191] Crowd puller Modi. Hindustan Times. 7 May 2013.
[204] Zakaria, Fareed (23 April 2014). The 100 Most InuRetrieved 17 May 2013.
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2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.




Fernandes, Vivian (2014). Modi: Leadership,

governance and Performance. Orient Publishing.
Kamath, M.V.; Randeri, Kalindi (2013). The Man
of the Moment: Narendra Modi. Vikas. ISBN 9789325968387.
Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (2014). Modi, Muslims
and Media: Voices from Narendra Modis Gujarat.
Manushi Publications. ISBN 978-81-929352-0-1.
Mahurkar, Uday (2014). Centrestage: Inside the
Narendra Modi Model of Governanace. Random
House India. ASIN B00JR3PQ64.
Marino, Andy (2014). Narendra Modi: A Political
Biography. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN
Mitta, Manoj (2014). The Fiction of Fact-Finding:
Modi & Godhra. HarperCollins Publishers India.
ISBN 978-93-5029-187-0.
Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan (2013). Narendra Modi:
The Man, The Times.
Nag, Kingshuk (2013). The NaMo Story - A Political
Life. Roli Books. ISBN 978-8174369383.
Nussbaum, Martha Craven (2008). The Clash
Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and Indias
Future. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674-03059-6.


External links

Ocial website (Prime Ministers oce)
Ocial website (personal)
Ocial page on Bharatiya Janata Partys website
Collected news and commentary at the Indian Express
Collected news and commentary at the Times of India
Collected news and commentary at the NDTV
Book titled 'Apatkalme Gujarat' by Narendra Modi
in Hindi
Political Information of Narendra Modi





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