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MALACAANG

Manila

EXECUTIVEORDERNO.464
ENSURINGOBSERVANCEOFTHEPRINCIPLEOFSEPARATIONOFPOWERS,
ADHERENCETOTHERULEONEXECUTIVEPRIVILEGEANDRESPECTFORTHE
RIGHTSOFPUBLICOFFICIALSAPPEARINGINLEGISLATIVEINQUIRIESINAIDOF
LEGISLATIONUNDERTHECONSTITUTION,ANDFOROTHERPURPOSES
WHEREAS,theConstitutionguaranteestheseparateofpowersoftheExecutive,Legislativeand
Judicialbranchesofthegovernment:
WHEREAS,ArticleVI,Section22oftheConstitutionprovidesthatheadsofdepartmentsmay,with
thepriorconsentofthePresident,appearbeforeandbeheardbyeitherHouseofCongressonany
matterpertainingtotheirdepartmentsand,whenthesecurityoftheStateorthepublicinterestso
requiresandthePresidentsostatesinwriting,suchappearanceshallbeconductedinexecutivesession;
WHEREAS,pursuanttotheruleofexecutiveprivilege,thePresidentandthosewhoassisthermustbe
freetoexplorealternativesintheprocessofshapingpoliciesandmakingdecisionssincethisis
fundamentaltotheoperationofthegovernmentandisrootedintheseparationofpowersunderthe
Constitution;
WHEREAS,ArticleVI,Section21oftheConstitutionmandatesthattherightsofpersonsappearing
inoraffectedbyinquiriesinaidoflegislationbytheSenateorHouseofRepresentativesshallbe
respected;
WHEREAS,recentevents,particularlywithrespecttotheinvitationofamemberoftheCabinetby
theSenateaswellasvariousheadsofoffices,civilianandmilitary,havehighlightedtheneedtoensure
theobservanceoftheprincipleofseparationofpowers,adherencetotheruleonexecutiveprivilege
andrespectfortherightsofpersonsappearinginsuchinquiriesinaidoflegislationanddueregardto
constitutionalmandate;
WHEREAS,thereisaneedtopreventsuchinquiresinaidoflegislationfrombeingusedforpartisan
politicalpurposes,disruptingdiplomaticrelationswithforeigngovernment,andweakeningthe
stabilityoftheState,therebyimpedingtheeffortsofthegovernmenttogenerateandattractforeign
investments;
WHEREAS,RepublicActNo.6713ortheCodeofConductandEthicalStandardsforPublicOfficials
andEmployeesprovidesthatpublicofficialandemployeesshallnotuseordivulgeconfidentialor
classifiedinformationofficiallyknowntothembyreasonoftheirofficeandnotmadeavailabletothe
publictoprejudicethepublicinterest;
WHEREAS,Article229oftheRevisedPenalCodeprohibitsanypublicofficerfromrevealingany
secretknowntohimbyreasonofhisofficialcapacityorwrongfullydeliveringpapersorcopiesthereof
whichhemayhavechargeandwhichshouldnotbepublished;
WHEREAS,the1987ConstitutionandtheAdministrativeCodeof1987providethatthePresident
shallhavecontrolofallgovernmentdepartments,bureausandofficesandshallensurethatallthelaws
befaithfullyexecuted.
NOW,THEREFORE,I,GLORIAMACAPAGALARROYO,PresidentoftheRepublicofthe
Philippines,bythepowersvestedinmebylaw,doherebyorder:

SECTION1.AppearancebyHeadsofDepartmentsBeforeCongress.InaccordancewithArticleVI,
Section22oftheConstitutionandtoimplementtheConstitutionalprovisionsontheseparationof
powersbetweencoequalbranchesofthegovernment,allheadsofdepartmentsoftheExecutive
BranchofthegovernmentshallsecuretheconsentofthePresidentpriortoappearingbeforeeither
HouseofCongress.
WhenthesecurityoftheStateorthepublicinterestsorequiresandthePresidentsostatesinwriting,
theappearanceshallonlybeconductedinexecutivesession.
SECTION2.Nature,ScopeandCoverageofExecutivePrivilege.
(a)NatureandScope.Theruleofconfidentialitybasedonexecutiveprivilegeis
fundamentaltotheoperationofgovernmentandrootedintheseparationofpowersunderthe
Constitution(Almontevs.Vasquez,G.R.No.95367,23May1995).Further,RepublicAct
No.6713ortheCodeofConductandEthicalStandardsforPublicOfficialsandEmployees
providesthatpublicofficialsandemployeesshallnotuseordivulgeconfidentialorclassified
informationofficiallyknowntothembyreasonoftheirofficeandnotmadeavailabletothe
publictoprejudicethepublicinterest.
ExecutiveprivilegecoversallconfidentialorclassifiedinformationbetweenthePresidentand
thepublicofficerscoveredbythisexecutiveorder,including:
i.ConversationsandcorrespondencebetweenthePresidentandthepublicofficial
coveredbythisexecutiveorder(Almontevs.VasquezG.R.No.95367,23May
1995;Chavezv.PublicEstatesAuthority,G.R.No.133250,9July2002);
ii.Military,diplomaticandothernationalsecuritymatterswhichintheinterestof
nationalsecurityshouldnotbedivulged(Almontevs.Vasquez,G.R.No.95367,23
May1995;Chavezv.PresidentialCommissiononGoodGovernment,G.R.No.
130716,9December1998).
iii.Informationbetweenintergovernmentagenciespriortotheconclusionoftreaties
andexecutiveagreements(Chavezv.PresidentialCommissiononGood
Government,G.R.No.130716,9December1998);
iv.DiscussioninclosedoorCabinetmeetings(Chavezv.PresidentialCommission
onGoodGovernment,G.R.No.130716,9December1998);
v.Mattersaffectingnationalsecurityandpublicorder(Chavezv.PublicEstates
Authority,G.R.No.133250,9July2002).
(b)Whoarecovered.Thefollowingarecoveredbythisexecutiveorder:
i.Seniorofficialsofexecutivedepartmentswhointhejudgmentofthedepartment
headsarecoveredbytheexecutiveprivilege;
ii.GeneralsandflagofficersoftheArmedForcesofthePhilippinesandsuchother
officerswhointhejudgmentoftheChiefofStaffarecoveredbytheexecutive
privilege;
iii.PhilippineNationalPolice(PNP)officerswithrankofchiefsuperintendentor
higherandsuchotherofficerswhointhejudgmentoftheChiefofthePNPare
coveredbytheexecutiveprivilege;

iv.SeniornationalsecurityofficialswhointhejudgmentoftheNationalSecurity
Adviserarecoveredbytheexecutiveprivilege;and
v.SuchotherofficersasmaybedeterminedbythePresident.
SECTION3.AppearanceofOtherPublicOfficialsBeforeCongress.Allpublicofficialsenumerated
inSection2(b)hereofshallsecurepriorconsentofthePresidentpriortoappearingbeforeeither
HouseofCongresstoensuretheobservanceoftheprincipleofseparationofpowers,adherencetothe
ruleonexecutiveprivilegeandrespectfortherightsofpublicofficialsappearingininquiriesinaidof
legislation.
SECTION4.RepealingClause.Allexecutiveissuances,orders,rulesandregulationsorpartsthereof
inconsistentwiththeprovisionofthisExecutiveOrderareherebyrepealedormodifiedaccordingly.
SECTION5.SeparabilityClause.Ifanysectionorprovisionofthisexecutiveordershallbedeclared
unconstitutionalorinvalid,theothersectionsorprovisionnotaffectedtherebyshallremaininfull
forceandeffect.
SECTION6.Effectivity.ThisExecutiveOrdershalltakeeffectimmediately.
DONEintheCityofManila,this26thdayofSeptemberintheYearofourLord,TwoThousandand
Five.
(Sgd.)GLORIAMACAPAGALARROYO
BythePresident:
(Sgd.)EDUARDOR.ERMITA
ExecutiveSecretary