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# Singapore University of

MATH 10.004

## Elimination & Augmented Form

Cohort 2
Meyer, Sections 1.2-1.3

Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

substitution.

## express systems in terms of matrices and perform basic

operations with matrices.

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION

equations.

## Commonly credited to Carl Friedrich Gauss, but first appearance

was in The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Arts, an early
Chinese mathematics book composed by several authors and
completed around the 1st century.

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION

## Our aim is to simplify equations by performing the following types

of row operations:
(I) Exchange two equations.
(II) Multiply an equation by a non-zero constant.
(III) Add a multiple of one equation to another equation.

subsitution.

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

EXAMPLE

2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

Elimination

Matrices

Original system:

(3)+(1)(3):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

Summary

5 (1)

2 (2)

## 2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

9 (3)

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
8x2 ` 3x3

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We proceed by forward
elimination:
(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):
2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
1x3

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
1x3

## 1. From the third equation we have x3 2.

2. Plugging x3 2 into the second equation, we then have
x2 41 x3 ` 32 12 ` 32 1.
3. Plugging both x3 2 and x2 1 into the first equation gives us
x1 12 px2 ` x3 q ` 25 1.
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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

GAUSS-JORDAN METHOD
The Gauss-Jordan method simplifies back substitution.
2x1 ` x2 ` x3

2x1 ` x2 `

8x2 2x3 12
1x3
2x1 ` x2

x2

8x2

8
x3

x1

x3 2

3
2

1
x2

1
x3 2

terms is zero.
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## ACTIVITY 1: DOCKING A SPACE POD (15 MINUTES)

You find yourself in deep space piloting a small space pod that you
would like to dock to the mother ship.
You are currently stationary and your navigation tools define an
px , y , z q coordinate system relative to your current position. The
docking location is 4, 10, and 17 meters away (in x, y , and z).
You have 3 thrusters at your control. For each second you fire each
thruster the pod will move, in the x, y, and z directions:
Thruster A: 1, 2, and 3 meters,
Thruster B: 1, 3, and 6 meters,
Thruster C: 2, 6, and 10 meters.

## Assuming a simple additive model of the interaction of the thrusters,

use elimination to find how many seconds each thruster needs to be
fired to move the pod to the dock.
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## ACTIVITY 1: DOCKING A SPACE POD

Let s1 , s2 , and s3 be the time that each of the thrusters is fired. Using
matrix notation, the problem to solve may be written as:
s1 ` s2 ` 2s3 4
2s1 ` 3s2 ` 6s3 10
3s1 ` 6s2 ` 10s3 17
or after elimination:
1. p2q 2p1q p2q

s1 ` s2 ` 2s3

s2 ` 2s3

2s3 1

## which through back substitution then gives us the solution s1 2,

s2 1, and s3 1{2.
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

MATRICES

## A matrix is a rectangular array of scalars.

If the matrix has m rows and n columns, we say that the size of
the matrix is m n.

the matrix.

a11
..
.

A
ai1
mn
..
.
am1

...
...
...

a1j
..
.
aij
..
.
amj

...
...
...

fi

a1n
..
.

ain

..
. fl
amn

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

SUM OF MATRICES

a11
..
If A .
am1
then

...
...

fi

a1n
b11
..
..
. fl and B .
amn
bm1

a11 ` b11

..
A`B
.
am1 ` bm1

...
...

...
...

fi

b1n
..
. fl ,
bmn

fi

a1n ` b1n

..
fl .
.
amn ` bmn

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## PRODUCT OF A MATRIX BY A SCALAR

a11

.
Matrices can be multiplied by a scalar. If A ..
am1

...
...

fi

a1n
..
. fl
amn

and P R, then

a11

...

a1n

fi

..
A ...
. fl .
am1 . . . amn

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

TRANSPOSE
Given a matrix A, its transpose AT is obtained by interchanging the
role of rows and columns. For instance:

2 4

1
3

2
2

pAT qT A

pA B qT AT B T

pAqT AT

7
1

0
6

2
AT
7
42
0

fi

3
2
.
1fl
6

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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

VECTORS AS MATRICES

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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

PRODUCT OF MATRICES
Matrices can be multiplied if the number of columns of the first matrix
is equal to the number of rows of the second. If

a11
..
A .
mn
am1

...
...

fi

a1n
b11
..
..
.
. fl and nB
k
amn
bn1

...
...

fi

b1k
..
. fl , then
bnk

C AB

mk

cij

h 1

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## SIMPLE MATRIX MULTIPLICATION

For column vectors u, v, w and y:

v T w v1

fi
w1
v3 w2 fl v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3

v2

w3

u
u1
w
vT
v1

vT w

u2
v2

y v1

fi
w1

u3 fl
u1 w1 ` u2 w2 ` u3 w3
w2
v3
v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3
w3

v2

fi

w 1 y1
v3 w2 y2 fl
w

3
3

v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3 v1 y1 ` v2 y2 ` v3 y3
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

A linear system of m equations in n unknowns is written as
a11 x1 ` a12 x2 ` ` a1n xn b1
a21 x1 ` a22 x2 ` ` a2n xn b2
..
.
am1 x1 ` am2 x2 ` ` amn xn bm .
which is a mathematical way of expressing m linear equality
constraints that the n variables xi , i P t1, . . . , nu, need to satisfy.
In matrix notation, we can write this compactly as
Ax b ,
where A P Rmn , x P Rn , and b P Rm .
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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

MATRIX FORM
We can rewrite the system:
2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

(4)

(5)

(6)

as
Ax b ,
where

4
A
2

1
6
7

fi

1
0fl ,
2

fi

x1

x x2 fl ,
x3

fi

b 2fl .
9

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## Create a matrix S that records the day-end sales for m stores

selling the same n items.

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

fi

s11
..
S .
sm1

...
...

p1

fi

s1n
..
. fl
smn

and

p2

p.
.. fl
pn

stores.

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

fi store:
each
0
fi fi

## s11 . . . s1j . . . s1n ...

s1j
.

..
.
.

..
.. fl 1 .. fl
Se j .
.
sm1 . . . smj . . . smn .. fl
smj
0

s11
..
Sp .
sm1

...
...

fi fi

fi

s1n
p1
rev1
.. .. ..
. fl . fl . fl ,
pn
revm
smn

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

1Tm Sp 1

...

s11
.
1 ..
sm1

...
...

fi fi

p1
s1n
m

.. ..

revk .
fl

fl
.
.
k 1
smn
pn

e Ti Sp 0

... 1 ...

s11
..

.
0
si1
..
.
sm1

...
...
...

fi

s1n
.. fi
p
.
.1

sin .. fl revi .
..
. fl pn
smn
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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2B (5 MINUTES)

Enter these commands into SCILAB, MATLAB, etc and discuss their
meaning:

clear all;
sales=[500 520 128 58; 850 600 54 32]
prices=[1.55 2.35 1.5 3.5]
revshop=sales*prices
revtot=[1 1]*revshop
revshopfruit=sales(:,1:3)*prices(1:3)
revtotfruit=[1 1]*revshopfruit

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## ACTIVITY 3(10 MINUTES)

Consider an electric circuit which takes input voltage Vin and current Iin
and produces output voltage Vout and current Iout .
For a series circuit:
V2 V1 I1 R1 and I2 I1 .
For a parallel circuit:
V3 V2 and I3 I2 V2 {R2 .

## Define a (transfer) matrix A such that:

V
V2
A1 1 ,
I1
I2

V
V3
A2 2 ,
I2
I3

V
V3
A3 1
I1
I3

for the series circuit, parallel circuit, and combined circuit, respectively.
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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 3
According to Ohms law and Kirchhoffs circuit laws:

## For the series circuit, V2 V1 I1 R1 , I2 I1 :

1
The transfer matrix of a series circuit is A1
0

R1
1

## For the parallel circuit, V3 V2 , I3 I2 V2 {R2 :

1
The transfer matrix of a parallel circuit is A2
1{R2

0
.
1

V1
V
V3
,
A2 2 loAomo
2 Ao1n
I1
I2
I3

A3

1
1{R2

R1
1 ` R1 { R2

A3
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

AUGMENTED FORM

2
4
2

we call A

1
6
7

fi fi

fi

x1
5
1
0fl x2 fl 2fl ,
2
x3
9

b
4
2

1
6
7

1
0
2

fi

5
2fl
9

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Elimination

Matrices

Original system:

(3)+(1)(3):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

Summary

5 (1)

2 (2)

## 2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

9 (3)

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
8x2 ` 3x3

14

We proceed by forward
elimination:
(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):
2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
1x3

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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Original system:

Summary

(3)+(1)(3):
1

fi

4 6 0 2fl
2 7 2 9

2
0
0

1
8
8

fi

1
2
3

5
12fl
14

1
2
1

5
12fl
2

We proceed by forward
elimination:
(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):

fi

0 8 2 12fl
2 7
2
9

2
0
0

1
8
0

fi

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## ELIMINATION WITH MATRICES

Using matrix notation, we started with the original system:

2
Ax 4
2

1
6
7

fi

fi

1
5
0fl x 2fl b ,
2
9

## and through a series of elementary row operations transformed it to

the equivalent system:

2
Ux 0
0

fi

1
8
0

fi

1
5
2fl x 12fl c .
2
1

way as before:

Rx 0
0

0
1
0

fi

fi

0
1
fl

0 x 1fl d .
1
2
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## Solve Activity 1: Docking a Space Pod using augmented matrices.

Swap rows 2 3 and solve through elimination again.

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## ACTIVITY 4: AUGMENTED MATRICES

Let s1 , s2 , and s3 be the time that each of the thrusters is fired. Using
matrix notation, the problem to solve may be written as:

1
2
3

1
3
6

2
6
10

fi

4
10fl
17

1
0
0

1
1
0

2
2
2

fi

4
2 fl
1

1
3
2

1
6
3

2
10
6

fi

4
17fl
10

1
0
0

1
3
0

fi

2
4

4
5 fl

2
3

1
3

## Elimination is not unique!

Either way substitution then gives us the same solution:
ps1 , s2 , s3 q p2, 1, 1{2q.
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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

## Using elimination on augmented matrices solve the following system

of linear equations.
x1 `2x2 ` 8x3 7x4 2
3x1 `2x2 `12x3 5x4

x1 ` x2 `

x3 5x4 10

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Elimination

Matrices

## Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 5: PRACTICE

1
3
1

2
2
1

8
12
1

p2q 3p1q
p 3 q ` p1 q

0 4 12
0

3
3p2q
4p3q

fi
7 2
5
6 fl
5 10

1
0
0

2
12
12

8
36
36

p 3q ` p 2q

fi

16
12

12 fl
12

1
0
0

2
12
0

8
36
0

fi

48
48

36 fl
48

48
0

36 fl
12

fi

## This system is inconsistent,

therefore it has no solution!

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Elimination

Matrices

Summary

SUMMARY

equations.

equation.

elimination.

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