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MATH 10.004

Cohort 2

Meyer, Sections 1.2-1.3

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

substitution.

operations with matrices.

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION

equations.

was in The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Arts, an early

Chinese mathematics book composed by several authors and

completed around the 1st century.

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION

of row operations:

(I) Exchange two equations.

(II) Multiply an equation by a non-zero constant.

(III) Add a multiple of one equation to another equation.

subsitution.

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

EXAMPLE

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

4x1 6x2

Elimination

Matrices

Original system:

(3)+(1)(3):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

4x1 6x2

Summary

5 (1)

2 (2)

9 (3)

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

8x2 ` 3x3

14

We proceed by forward

elimination:

(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

1x3

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

1x3

2. Plugging x3 2 into the second equation, we then have

x2 41 x3 ` 32 12 ` 32 1.

3. Plugging both x3 2 and x2 1 into the first equation gives us

x1 12 px2 ` x3 q ` 25 1.

7

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

GAUSS-JORDAN METHOD

The Gauss-Jordan method simplifies back substitution.

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

2x1 ` x2 `

8x2 2x3 12

1x3

2x1 ` x2

x2

8x2

8

x3

x1

x3 2

3

2

1

x2

1

x3 2

terms is zero.

8

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

You find yourself in deep space piloting a small space pod that you

would like to dock to the mother ship.

You are currently stationary and your navigation tools define an

px , y , z q coordinate system relative to your current position. The

docking location is 4, 10, and 17 meters away (in x, y , and z).

You have 3 thrusters at your control. For each second you fire each

thruster the pod will move, in the x, y, and z directions:

Thruster A: 1, 2, and 3 meters,

Thruster B: 1, 3, and 6 meters,

Thruster C: 2, 6, and 10 meters.

use elimination to find how many seconds each thruster needs to be

fired to move the pod to the dock.

9

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

Let s1 , s2 , and s3 be the time that each of the thrusters is fired. Using

matrix notation, the problem to solve may be written as:

s1 ` s2 ` 2s3 4

2s1 ` 3s2 ` 6s3 10

3s1 ` 6s2 ` 10s3 17

or after elimination:

1. p2q 2p1q p2q

s1 ` s2 ` 2s3

s2 ` 2s3

2s3 1

s2 1, and s3 1{2.

10

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

MATRICES

If the matrix has m rows and n columns, we say that the size of

the matrix is m n.

the matrix.

a11

..

.

A

ai1

mn

..

.

am1

...

...

...

a1j

..

.

aij

..

.

amj

...

...

...

fi

a1n

..

.

ain

..

. fl

amn

11

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

SUM OF MATRICES

a11

..

If A .

am1

then

...

...

fi

a1n

b11

..

..

. fl and B .

amn

bm1

a11 ` b11

..

A`B

.

am1 ` bm1

...

...

...

...

fi

b1n

..

. fl ,

bmn

fi

a1n ` b1n

..

fl .

.

amn ` bmn

12

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

a11

.

Matrices can be multiplied by a scalar. If A ..

am1

...

...

fi

a1n

..

. fl

amn

and P R, then

a11

...

a1n

fi

..

A ...

. fl .

am1 . . . amn

13

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

14

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

TRANSPOSE

Given a matrix A, its transpose AT is obtained by interchanging the

role of rows and columns. For instance:

2 4

1

3

2

2

pAT qT A

pA B qT AT B T

pAqT AT

7

1

0

6

2

AT

7

42

0

fi

3

2

.

1fl

6

15

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

VECTORS AS MATRICES

16

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

PRODUCT OF MATRICES

Matrices can be multiplied if the number of columns of the first matrix

is equal to the number of rows of the second. If

a11

..

A .

mn

am1

...

...

fi

a1n

b11

..

..

.

. fl and nB

k

amn

bn1

...

...

fi

b1k

..

. fl , then

bnk

C AB

mk

cij

h 1

17

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

For column vectors u, v, w and y:

v T w v1

fi

w1

v3 w2 fl v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3

v2

w3

u

u1

w

vT

v1

vT w

u2

v2

y v1

fi

w1

u3 fl

u1 w1 ` u2 w2 ` u3 w3

w2

v3

v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3

w3

v2

fi

w 1 y1

v3 w2 y2 fl

w

3

3

v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3 v1 y1 ` v2 y2 ` v3 y3

18

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

A linear system of m equations in n unknowns is written as

a11 x1 ` a12 x2 ` ` a1n xn b1

a21 x1 ` a22 x2 ` ` a2n xn b2

..

.

am1 x1 ` am2 x2 ` ` amn xn bm .

which is a mathematical way of expressing m linear equality

constraints that the n variables xi , i P t1, . . . , nu, need to satisfy.

In matrix notation, we can write this compactly as

Ax b ,

where A P Rmn , x P Rn , and b P Rm .

19

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

MATRIX FORM

We can rewrite the system:

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

4x1 6x2

(4)

(5)

(6)

as

Ax b ,

where

4

A

2

1

6

7

fi

1

0fl ,

2

fi

x1

x x2 fl ,

x3

fi

b 2fl .

9

20

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

selling the same n items.

21

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

fi

s11

..

S .

sm1

...

...

p1

fi

s1n

..

. fl

smn

and

p2

p.

.. fl

pn

stores.

22

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

fi store:

each

0

fi fi

s1j

.

..

.

.

..

.. fl 1 .. fl

Se j .

.

sm1 . . . smj . . . smn .. fl

smj

0

s11

..

Sp .

sm1

...

...

fi fi

fi

s1n

p1

rev1

.. .. ..

. fl . fl . fl ,

pn

revm

smn

23

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

1Tm Sp 1

...

s11

.

1 ..

sm1

...

...

fi fi

p1

s1n

m

.. ..

revk .

fl

fl

.

.

k 1

smn

pn

e Ti Sp 0

... 1 ...

s11

..

.

0

si1

..

.

sm1

...

...

...

fi

s1n

.. fi

p

.

.1

sin .. fl revi .

..

. fl pn

smn

24

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2B (5 MINUTES)

Enter these commands into SCILAB, MATLAB, etc and discuss their

meaning:

clear all;

sales=[500 520 128 58; 850 600 54 32]

prices=[1.55 2.35 1.5 3.5]

revshop=sales*prices

revtot=[1 1]*revshop

revshopfruit=sales(:,1:3)*prices(1:3)

revtotfruit=[1 1]*revshopfruit

25

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

Consider an electric circuit which takes input voltage Vin and current Iin

and produces output voltage Vout and current Iout .

For a series circuit:

V2 V1 I1 R1 and I2 I1 .

For a parallel circuit:

V3 V2 and I3 I2 V2 {R2 .

V

V2

A1 1 ,

I1

I2

V

V3

A2 2 ,

I2

I3

V

V3

A3 1

I1

I3

for the series circuit, parallel circuit, and combined circuit, respectively.

26

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 3

According to Ohms law and Kirchhoffs circuit laws:

1

The transfer matrix of a series circuit is A1

0

R1

1

1

The transfer matrix of a parallel circuit is A2

1{R2

0

.

1

V1

V

V3

,

A2 2 loAomo

2 Ao1n

I1

I2

I3

A3

1

1{R2

R1

1 ` R1 { R2

A3

27

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

AUGMENTED FORM

2

4

2

we call A

1

6

7

fi fi

fi

x1

5

1

0fl x2 fl 2fl ,

2

x3

9

b

4

2

1

6

7

1

0

2

fi

5

2fl

9

28

Elimination

Matrices

Original system:

(3)+(1)(3):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

4x1 6x2

Summary

5 (1)

2 (2)

9 (3)

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

8x2 ` 3x3

14

We proceed by forward

elimination:

(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12

1x3

29

Elimination

Matrices

Original system:

Summary

(3)+(1)(3):

1

fi

4 6 0 2fl

2 7 2 9

2

0

0

1

8

8

fi

1

2

3

5

12fl

14

1

2

1

5

12fl

2

We proceed by forward

elimination:

(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):

fi

0 8 2 12fl

2 7

2

9

2

0

0

1

8

0

fi

30

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

Using matrix notation, we started with the original system:

2

Ax 4

2

1

6

7

fi

fi

1

5

0fl x 2fl b ,

2

9

the equivalent system:

2

Ux 0

0

fi

1

8

0

fi

1

5

2fl x 12fl c .

2

1

way as before:

Rx 0

0

0

1

0

fi

fi

0

1

fl

0 x 1fl d .

1

2

31

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

Swap rows 2 3 and solve through elimination again.

32

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

Let s1 , s2 , and s3 be the time that each of the thrusters is fired. Using

matrix notation, the problem to solve may be written as:

1

2

3

1

3

6

2

6

10

fi

4

10fl

17

1

0

0

1

1

0

2

2

2

fi

4

2 fl

1

1

3

2

1

6

3

2

10

6

fi

4

17fl

10

1

0

0

1

3

0

fi

2

4

4

5 fl

2

3

1

3

Either way substitution then gives us the same solution:

ps1 , s2 , s3 q p2, 1, 1{2q.

33

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

of linear equations.

x1 `2x2 ` 8x3 7x4 2

3x1 `2x2 `12x3 5x4

x1 ` x2 `

x3 5x4 10

34

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 5: PRACTICE

1

3

1

2

2

1

8

12

1

p2q 3p1q

p 3 q ` p1 q

0 4 12

0

3

3p2q

4p3q

fi

7 2

5

6 fl

5 10

1

0

0

2

12

12

8

36

36

p 3q ` p 2q

fi

16

12

12 fl

12

1

0

0

2

12

0

8

36

0

fi

48

48

36 fl

48

48

0

36 fl

12

fi

therefore it has no solution!

35

Elimination

Matrices

Summary

SUMMARY

equations.

equation.

elimination.

36

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