#F#H###W##5#-##A

#9#O#T

###GTeli/Solar#H #G#H## EA01-000-2 05 Oct 1985

By Tesseract Enterprises Limited P.O. Box 25966 Colorado Springs, CO 80936 (303) 594-6199

(c) Copyright 1985 by Tesseract Enterprises Limited All Rights Reserved.

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#E#4PREFACE#5 #4#5#F There are a few actions that an architect, contractor, or homeowner can take to lessen the impact of the present energy situation. One is to conserve conventional fuels; another is to find economic alternatives; and yet a third is to design or retrofit buildings (homes) to make better use of renewable fuels. This program provides several tools that can be used to automate these actions -- tools that allow the user to understand energy-use patterns and change these patterns based on technical and economic decisions.

TRADEMARKS IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc.

Preface

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This version of Teli/Solar is released as "user-supported" software. If you are using this program and find it to be of value, your contribution of $50 will be appreciated. Regardless of whether you make a contribution, you are encouraged to copy and share this program. Your contribution, however, entitles you to the following: o o A letter-quality printed manual illustrations) in a 3-ring binder, Telephone support, and (with accompanying

o o

Inclusion on our mailing and new releases. One free version upgrade.

list for notification of bug fixes

User-supported software is an experiment in computer programs that is based on these beliefs: 1. 2. 3.

distributing the

The value and utility of software is best assessed by user on his/her own system,

The creation of personal computer software can and should be supported by the computing community, and Copying of restricted. programs should be encouraged, rather than

Anyone may order a copy of this program from The Public (Software) Library or other public software supplier. The program will carry a notice suggesting a contribution to the program's author. Making a contribution is completely voluntary on the part of each user. However, this program is copyrighted, and cannot, therefore, be sold for financial gain. Free distribution of software and voluntary payment for its use eliminates costs for advertising and copy protection schemes. Users obtain quality software at reduced cost. They can try it out before buying, and do so at their own pace and in their own home or office. The best programs will survive, based purely on their quality and usefulness. Please join the experiment and encourage the continuing effort of those software authors willing to participate. If you believe in these ideals, your contribution is solicited to help make them work.

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Preface

#E#41. #4#5#F

INTRODUCTION#5

The Teli/Solar package is a program which provides the user with an easy, quick method of evaluating energy-saving alternatives in the areas of hot water usage, building heating/cooling load, and solar collector design. Teli/Solar enables the average homeowner to make intelligent decisions about energy-related home improvements and/or investments. It is an interactive program that will quickly estimate: o o o o The hot energy; water usage of a family for in terms of dollars and collection at a specified

The solar energy available location and orientation;

The heating and cooling requirements for a building defined by the user (usually a house); and The economic investment. considerations involved with an energy-related

It is designed for direct use by architects, contractors, and homeowners. It is completely menu driven and easy to use even by someone with limited computer experience (however, the menus may be bypassed by experienced users).

#G1.1.

Characteristics and Advantages#H of the program are

Some of the characteristics and advantages the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Disk storage of building design for later use, Menu driven (with ability to bypass menus), Accepts American or metric units, Provides interactive response, Runs on IBM-PCs and compatibles.

Page 1.1

Introduction #G1.2. Electronic Computers#H

TeliSolar

The electronic computer has been around for some time and is widely used in all phases of industry and commerce. The use of the computer in solving everyday energy-related problems is a reality, and the architect or contractor who does not take advantage of the tremendous potential of the computer will soon find himself outdated and professionally handicapped. However, the average architectural or small contracting company cannot justify a large "in-house" computer. With the advent of the microcomputer, it is no longer necessary to own a large several hundred-thousand dollar computer in order to solve many, if not all, the problems the average architect or contractor needs to solve. In fact, most small businesses probably already own, or should own, a microcomputer system for other purposes, such as: accounting, customer billing, project management, inventory, and a host of other general business purposes.

#G1.3. Manual Style#H We have attempted to make this manual clear and consistent. If there are steps that must be followed to accomplish a task, they are numbered to make it easier to follow them. Whenever it is necessary for you to type a specific string of characters, that string will be highlighted in bold print. When it is useful for you to see what is displayed on the console screen, a copy of the screen display will be provided and it will be enclosed in a box. This manual is divided into several parts or chapters. It is written assuming the reader is familiar with the operation of the computer and its operating system (either PC-DOS or MS-DOS); however, there is an appendix which covers operational aspects in detail for those of you who are just beginning. Where necessary, the reader will be referred to the appropriate section in the appendix. The chapters are: Introduction. This chapter discusses the background of the Teli/Solar program, the intended user, and how the manual is organized (it is the chapter you are currently reading). Getting Started. This chapter discusses the operational aspects of the computer and DOS, the backup procedures for the supplied disks, how to format diskettes, and how to "bring up" the Teli/Solar system. Hot Water Usage. This chapter describes the usage and application of the "Hot Water Usage" option of the program.

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TeliSolar Solar Flux Striking Collector. This chapter describes the usage "Solar Flux" option of the program.

Introduction

and

application of the

Heat Loss. This chapter describes the usage and application "Building Heat Loss" option of the program.

of the

Economic Considerations. This chapter describes the usage and application of "Discounted Cash Payback" option of the program. Solar Sizing. This chapter describes the usage and application "Solar Collector Sizing" option of the program. of

the

the

Appendix - Detailed Operations. This appendix explains in detail such things as powering on and off the computer system, booting DOS, formatting diskettes, and making backup copies of the supplied disk. It is included as an appendix so that those users who already know this stuff will not have to wade through it in the body of the manual, but those who are not familiar with the operation of the system will have a handy reference. Appendix - General Weather Data. This appendix lists the percent sunshine, heating and cooling degree days, and latitude for numerous American and Canadian cities. Appendix - R-values. This appendix lists the R-values surfaces. for numerous materials and

Appendix - Further Reading. This appendix lists several books and references used in the design and theory of this program. Glossary. The Glossary defines a few of the energy-related encountered in the manual or program output. -----+----The chapters dealing with the option selected (Chapters 3 - 7) terms

are, in general, divided into five sections as follows: Introduction which describes the option and generally what it does.

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Introduction Usage which describes are needed. Help

TeliSolar

how

to use the option and what input values

which describes the on-line help available for the option. Application which describes how the option real-world problems. can be used to solve various

Theory which describes the mathematical equations involved.

#G1.4. In General#H It is important that you fill out and return the Product Registration. If you have not yet done so, please take a few minutes now to read the Registration Plan and fill out the form included. It is also important to make backup copies of the master diskette supplied with the Teli/Solar package. If you do not know how to make a backup copy of a diskette, refer to the appendix "Detailed Operations". This program is not copy protected, installed on, and run from, a hard disk. so it may easily be

Throughout this manual, whenever there is a reference to a graphics display of results, this applies only if the graphics adapter card is installed. Also, in the examples, the term "Enter ___" means type the value indicated and press the 'Return' key. On the other hand, the term "Press ___" means that the value indicated should be

typed and no 'Return' is necessary. (The 'Return' key is the one on the left side of the keyboard that looks something like this: "<--'".) We suggest you familiarize yourself with the computer and the IBM supplied software before using Teli/Solar. This will make you more comfortable about using an application on the computer and will make the manual a little easier to understand. You may, however, use the program without prior knowledge of the computer system by following the procedures outlined in this manual.

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#E#42. GETTING STARTED#5 #4#5#F

#G2.1. Configuration#H The configuration needed to run this program is: o o o o o o o IBM PC, IBM XT, COMPAQ, or compatible, A Disk Operating System 2.x) BASICA, 128K bytes of RAM, either color or monochrome display (80 column), at least one DSDD floppy disk drive, and optionally, a printer and/or hard-disk. a blank double-sided, double-density (PC-DOS 1.1, 2.x, 3.x or MS-DOS 1.x,

You will also need diskette for backup.

The Teli/Solar package, as delivered to you, contains several items. You should make sure that you have the entire package. It consists of the following:

User's Manual The manual is a loose-leaf binder containing the manual are currently reading. Disks The Teli/Solar package consists containing the following files: o TELISOL.EXE o INITVAL.SOL of one (1)

you

diskette

- The solar program. - A file containing initial values needed by SOLAR.EXE. o SINSTALL.BAS - A BASICA program to setup your customized INITVAL.SOL file o HOUSE.DAT - A file containing a default definition of a set of building elements for a house. Registration Plan This consists of several pages which describe the Limited Warranty, the Registration page, and the Replacement policy.

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Getting Started #G2.2. Keyboard Information#H Your keys: o o o computer keyboard should contain three main

TeliSolar

groups

of

one group of typewriter keys, one group of function keys, and one group of keypad keys.

The Teli/Solar system uses all three groups of keys to perform its various functions and commands. The 'Shift' key can be held down while you press another key to give you uppercase letters, symbols, or functions - just like the Shift or Caps keys on a typewriter.

#G2.3. Function Keys#H The function keys are located on the left of the keyboard. They are numbered 'F1' through 'F10'. They are used alone to perform one function. Whenever reference is made in this manual to one of these keys, an "F" will precede the number. Following is the description of the use of each of the function keys. o o F1 - provides the help 'Main Menu' is active. screen for the 'Main Menu' when the

F2 - returns the user to the 'Main Menu' from almost any point in the program. Use of this feature should be limited since it uses up memory that cannot be used for anything else and cannot be recovered. F3 - skips remaining input prompts during data input for options 1 and 4. If, while inputting data for these options, the F3 key is used, the program will not prompt for further input and will, instead, immediately calculate and display Page 2.2

o

TeliSolar

Getting Started

the results using the default values for the remaining input items. For example, suppose that during the second selection of option 1 (hot water usage), only the second input item needed to be changed. When prompted for the third item, the user may press the F3 key to skip the remaining input and see the results immediately. o o o F4 - not used. F5 - causes the program to assume subsequent input will be in American units (feet, ft^2, ft^3, F, etc). F6 - causes the program to assume subsequent input will be in metric units (meters, m^2, m^3, C, etc).

o o o o

F7 - not used. F8 - not used. F9 - not used. F10 - exits the program. Pressing this key during the 'Main Menu' display will cause the program to ask you if you are sure you want to exit. Entering a "y" will terminate the program. Entering any other key will return you to the 'Main Menu'. This is useful in the event you forgot to save your work before exitting.

The keys on the right of the keyboard are sometimes referred to as the numeric keypad. If the 'Shift' key is held down, or if the 'Num Lock' key has been pressed, the keys will type numbers instead of working as cursor control keys. Pressing 'Num Lock' a second time unlocks them - allows them to be used as cursor control keys. This is the mode that is needed for operation of this program. The cursor movement keys needed for the R-value help usage are the four directional-arrow keys (on the 2, 4, 6, and 8 keys).

Most of the keys on the keyboard are labeled with the specific key name or an abbreviation of the name. Others are not Page 2.3

Getting Started

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(depending on the keyboard). Below are shown a representative sample of those keys which may be marked only with symbols.

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TeliSolar

Getting Started

#G2.4. Menu Driven#H Teli/Solar is a 'menu-driven' system. This means you select the function that you wish to perform from a menu of options. You begin at the "Main Menu" and select the option that you want to do. You will then be "prompted" for the necessary input data. After supplying the input data, the program will generate the results, display them to you, and then return to the "Main Menu". The program also provides use of the function keys to perform various operations -- as described in the previous section. The program usually offers a "default" value for most input prompts. You can accept a system default by simply pressing the 'Return' key or you can provide your own by typing the value you want. The default values are contained in square brackets ([..]) following the input prompt. The menu-driven feature of the program may be over-ridden by experienced users if desired. When the program is at the "Graphic display of results" prompt or "Press any key to continue" prompt waiting for user input, you may enter a number between 1 and 9. Doing so will bypass the "Main Menu" and go directly to the input prompts for the option represented by that number. For example, suppose you have just completed a "Hot water usage" calculation (Option 1) and see the "Graphic display of results" prompt. If you know the next thing you want to do is an economic analysis and that this is option 4, you may simply enter a "4" for the prompt and the economic analysis option is entered immediately with no "Main Menu" selection necessary.

#G2.5. Status Line#H The "Status Line" is the line at the bottom of the display. It indicates how to get help, the current setting for input units (American or metric), and the current option you have selected. It is always displayed at the bottom of the screen, with two exceptions. Prompts for graphic displays or returning to the "Main Menu" temporary overwrite the Status Line. It is also not present during the R-value help session.

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Getting Started #G2.6. Preparing Your System#H

TeliSolar

The Disk Operating System (either PC-DOS or MS-DOS) instructs the computer on how to perform its functions. It consists of a set of commands which allow you to manage information and the hardware resources. The DOS program may be stored on either floppy or hard disk. You can give commands directly to the computer through the set of DOS commands. A prompt, either "A>" or "B>" or "C>", appears on the screen to indicate you are in DOS. You type commands after the prompt to perform such functions as formatting a diskette or copying a file. You will be using some of the DOS commands to perform some of the functions discussed in the following section. See the DOS Reference Manual for more information. Appendix A contains a detailed discussion of starting the IBM PC, booting the DOS system, and making a backup copy of the release disk. If you have not yet made a backup of the diskette supplied in the Teli/Solar package, you should do so now. (See Appendix A if you don't know how to do this) After making a backup copy (or installing the program on the hard disk), you should put the master diskette away in a safe place and use the backup copy for all future use. Before using the Teli/Solar package, you need to set up your own INITVAL.SOL file. To install your own INITVAL.SOL file: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Load DOS. Be sure BASICA is on the DOS disk. Insert your working copy of the Teli/Solar disk in drive B. At the "A>" prompt, enter "B:". Rename the supplied INITVAL.SOL file, just in case. At the "B>" prompt, enter: "RENAME INITVAL.SOL OLDVAL.SOL". At the "B>" prompt, enter: "A:BASICA SINSTALL". Answer each of the questions. The number of sunny days per month and heating degree days you need may be in Appendix B. Find your city or the one nearest to you in the table to get these values. To use the Teli/Solar program: From floppy drives -

1. 2. 3. 4.

Load DOS, Insert the backup disk in drive B, At the "A>" prompt, enter "B:", At the "B>" prompt, enter "TELISOL".

From hard disk Page 2.6

TeliSolar

Getting Started

1. DOS should already be loaded, 2. At the "C>" prompt, enter "TELISOL". A screen will appear containing the name of the program, the version number, and, if you have a graphics card, the company logo. Press any key to proceed. The MAIN MENU will then following: appear. It will look similar to the

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Teli/Solar (Ver. 1.20) 07-03-1985 07:54:07 | | | | | | | | 1 - Weekly hot water usage & solar requirements | | 2 - Solar flux striking solar collector | | 3 - Heat loss from a building | | 4 - Return on energy-saving investments | | 5 - Solar collector sizing calculation | | 6 - Reserved for future use | | 7 - Reserved for future use | | 8 - Save program element data | | 9 - Load program element data | | | | F1 - Main Menu Help F2 - MAIN MENU | | F3 - Skip remaining input | | F5 - American Units F6 - Metric Units | | | | F10 - Exit from program | | | | Choose an option: | | | | | | -1 = help. Units = American. Mode = Main Menu | +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

Choose the option desired. Options 1 through 5 have built-in default values which may be chosen by simply pressing the 'Return' key. This allows the user to step through each of the options by pressing the 'Return' key to see some representative input and the results of that input. This should give the user a "feel" for how the program works without the necessity of determining the specific input for his or her application. To do this: 1. 2. Press the "1" key. When the 'Weekly hot water usage & solar requirements' menu Page 2.7

Getting Started

TeliSolar

appears, press the 'Return' key until the 'Graphic display of usage (Y or N)' message appears. To see a pie chart graph of the hot water usage, enter a "Y". Entering any other key causes a return to the Main Menu. 3. 4. Press the "2" key. When the 'Solar flux striking solar collector' menu appears, press the 'Return' key three (3) times. A display should appear showing the number of BTUs that can theoretically be collected by a flat plate collector during each month for a collector with the orientation defined by the default values. A 'Graphic display of flux (Y or N)?' message should appear. Enter a "Y" to see it, or any other key to return to the Main Menu. Press the "3" key. When the 'Heat loss from a building' menu appears, press the "C" key. A display of the amount and percent of total heat loss through each of the default building elements defined in the "HOUSE.DAT" file should appear, along with the total yearly heating and cooling requirements for the house. A 'Graphic display of load' message should appear. Enter a "Y" to see it, or any other key to return to the Main Menu. Press the "4" key. When the 'Return on energy-saving investments' menu appears, press the 'Return' key until the display showing the net savings due to energy investment appears. This shows the number of years it takes to "pay for" an energy-related

5. 6.

7. 8.

investment. Menu. 9.

When

ready, press any key to return to the Main

Press the "5" key.

10. When the 'Solar collector sizing calculation' menu appears, press the 'ENTER' key three (3) times. The total collector area needed to heat the hot water usage determined in step one should be displayed. When ready, press any key to return to the Main Menu. Following the above steps should have given you a "feel" for how the program works and the kind of results that you can expect. Now its time to move on to the real thing.

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#E#43. HOT WATER USAGE#5 #4#5#F

#G3.1. Introduction#H The hot water that a family uses is a necessary use of energy in any household. However, there are means of minimizing that use and reducing the cost necessary to provide the hot water. The "Hot water usage and solar requirements" option allows the user to calculate the yearly hot water usage and cost in terms of energy and dollars. It gives the user an approximation of how many gallons of hot water is used each year and how much energy and money that hot water costs. Using the methods presented here, assess the effect of: o o you can easily and rapidly

Turning down the thermostat on your hot water heater, Putting a flow restrictor in your shower head,

o o

Using cold water for laundry, or Taking fewer or shorter showers each week.

The values determined won't be precise because estimates and assumptions have been made either for simplicity's sake or because not enough is known about actual costs. However, the results should be accurate enough to help you evaluate alternatives.

#G3.2. Usage#H At the Main Menu screen, select option '1' when prompted for the option that you want. The program will then prompt you for the necessary input values. For all input prompts, a default value is shown in square brackets ( [...] ) following the usage description. This value is either the built-in default or the last value entered by you. To use the value shown, simply press the 'Return' key. To override this value with your own, simply type your value following the prompt. You start by entering the number of times each week that the members of your household use hot water for the purpose stated. If the usage varies from the amount shown below, adjust the estimate accordingly. (For instance, if each member of your four member household takes a 5 minute shower every night, the Page 3.1

Hot Water Usage

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estimate would be 7 showers times 4 members for a total of 28 five minute showers per week. However, if one member takes 10 minute showers, the estimate would be 7 showers times 3 members plus 7 showers times the equivalent of 2 members for a total of 35 five minute showers per week.) After answering the hot should look similar to this: water usage questions, the screen

+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | FOR EACH OF THE ITEMS BELOW, INDICATE THE NUMBER OF USES/WEEK. | | | | BATH/SHOWER [ 21.00 ] | | LAUNDRY (HOT WATER) [ 3.00 ] |

| LAUNDRY (WARM WATER) [ 4.00 ] | | DISHWASHER [ 12.00 ] | | WASHING DISHES BY HAND [ 2.00 ] | | HAND AND FACE WASHING [ 18.00 ] | | FOOD PREPARATION USING HOT WATER [ 2.00 ] | | OTHER HOT WATER USAGE (IN GAL.) [ 50.00 ] | | | | Total weekly hot water use in gallons is 730 | | | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

The last line shows the amount of hot water used each week. Next, you must enter the input and output water temperature for your hot water heater. The temperature of the input water depends on the season of the year and the location of your house. Typically, it is about 50 to 55 degrees. The temperature of the water leaving the hot water heater is controlled by the thermostat on the heater. This is usually set at about 140 degrees by the factory or installer. Then, you must enter the type of fuel used to heat the water. The choices are 'E' for electricity, 'O' for fuel oil, 'G' for natural gas, or 'P' for propane. Lastly, you must enter the price you pay for a kilowatt-hour (for electricity), 100 cubic feet (for gas), or gallon (for oil or propane). This price should be on your utility bill. National averages are $0.07 per kilowatt-hour, $0.59 per 100 cubic feet, $1.20 per gallon of oil, and $0.50 per gallon of propane (as of December 1982). After answering these questions, the screen should look similar to this:

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Hot Water Usage

+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | FOR EACH OF THE ITEMS BELOW, INDICATE THE NUMBER OF USES/WEEK. | | | | BATH/SHOWER [ 21.00 ] | | LAUNDRY (HOT WATER) [ 3.00 ] | | LAUNDRY (WARM WATER) [ 4.00 ] | | DISHWASHER [ 12.00 ] |

| WASHING DISHES BY HAND [ 2.00 ] | | HAND AND FACE WASHING [ 18.00 ] | | FOOD PREPARATION USING HOT WATER [ 2.00 ] | | OTHER HOT WATER USAGE (IN GAL.) [ 50.00 ] | | | | Total weekly hot water use in gallons is 730 | | | | Temperature of inlet water [ 50.00 ] | | Temperature of hot water outlet [ 140.00 ] | | Enter fuel type : (E)lectricty,(O)il,(G)as, or (P)ropane [G]? | | Enter fuel cost ($/100 cu ft) [ .35 ] | | | | | | Estimated total annual BTU's used is 36,070,000 | | Estimated total annual cost to heat hot water is $184.11 | | | | | | Graphic display of usage (Y or N)? Mode is HOT WATER. | | | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

#G3.3. Help#H At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1" for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this point, you will see a display which contains the following information: This mode is used to calculate the yearly hot water usage and cost based on the hot water usage habits of your family. Simply answer each query with the estimated number of times each week that hot water is used for the purpose indicated. The program will then total up the gallons used for the week, multipy by 52 to get a yearly total (since the hot water usage should be fairly constant week to week), and calculate the yearly BTU usage and dollar cost using a cost factor which depends on the fuel type (gas, oil, or electricity) and the dollar cost per unit. The dollar cost per unit is typically as follows: Page 3.3

Hot Water Usage

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Electricity Gas Oil Propane

-

$0.070/KWHR $0.590/therm $1.200/gal. $0.500/gal.

The inlet temperature is the water temperature entering your water heater. This depends on your location and the season of the year; among other things. The outlet temperature is the water temperature coming out of the heater. This is controlled by the thermostat on the water heater and is usually set to about 140 degrees by the manufacturer or installer. When ready, hit any key.

#G3.4. Application#H If you are considering installing a hot water solar pre-heater, a major factor to consider is the cost of the solar equipment. An equally important factor to consider, however, is the amount you now spend to own and operate a conventional water heater. The amount that can be saved by switching to solar will depend on what you now spend. This section of the program will help you estimate the current costs and potential yearly savings. By choosing this option multiple times and changing the appropriate values, you can easily see the impact of higher energy costs, taking shorter showers, using cold water to wash with, turning down the thermostat on your hot water heater, or taking any number of other energy-conserving measures. The values determined here may be used in conjunction with the "Solar flux striking a solar collector" option (No. 2) and the "Solar collector sizing calculation" option (No. 5) to calculate the approximate size of solar collector panels needed if you are considering installing a solar hot water pre-heater system. You can also use them in conjunction with the 'Return on energy-saving investment' option (No. 4) to determine how long it will take to "pay for" an investment made in upgrading or improving your hot water heating system.

Page 3.4

TeliSolar #G3.5. Theory#H

Hot Water Usage

This section details the mathematical model used in determining the amount of energy needed to heat hot water and the resulting cost.

No. of Uses Wu = + + + + + + + Bath/shower Laundry (hot) Laundry (warm) Dishwasher Washing dishes by hand Washing face & hands Food preparation Other x x x x x x x

Gallons/ Use 15 25 15 15 4 2 3

where: Wu is hot water used in gallons Then the energy used is given by: Fu where: Fu = Fuel used (energy used) Wu = Hot water used from above Hu = Heat units or thousands of BTUs needed each week to heat one gallon of water from 50 F to 140 F. It is 0.75 Es = Energy to store the hot water. It is the heat units needed to maintain the temperature in the hot water heater and to account for heat loss from the tank and pipes. It is 5000 for an electric heater and 7600 otherwise. Ff = Fuel Factor or the number that takes into account the different amounts of heat produced by the different fuels. It is 0.293 for electricity, 0.010 for oil, 0.013 for natural gas, and 0.015 for propane. The annual cost can then be determined: Cost = Fu x Fc where: = [ (Wu x Hu x 52) + Es ] x Ff

Fu = Fuel used from above Fc = Fuel cost or the price per basic unit of fuel

Page 3.5

Hot Water Usage

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Page 3.6

#E#44. SOLAR FLUX STRIKING COLLECTOR#5 #4#5#F

#G4.1. Introduction#H As the cost of fuel skyrockets, many people are looking for ways to conserve fuel or use alternate methods for heating and cooling. This option, used in conjunction with other options contained in this package, can be used to evaluate the desirability of harnessing some of the sun's energy. The most immediately noticeable and cheapest use of solar energy will be the heating of hot water. The technology currently exists for the average homeowner to afford and install a solar hot water pre-heater. For the homeowner living in an area of high energy costs, the cost of a solar hot water pre-heater may be recovered in a few years; especially considering the current federal and state tax credits available. The solar collectors in common use today consist of a thin plate of metal (usually copper, stainless steel, or aluminum sealed behind a glass panel and thermally bonded to metal tubes. A fluid such as water or antifreeze passes through the tubes and absorbs heat from the tubes which are heated by the flat plates. This heated water is then pumped through a heat exchanger which transfers the heat from the solar heated medium to water stored in a hot water heater. In areas with very high fuel costs, such as the Northeast and Midwest, the cost of a solar hot water pre-heater can be a very worthwhile investment. For instance, a solar hot water pre-heater can be purchased (exclusive of installation) for about $2500 at

the time of this writing. Federal and state tax credits can save you $1200 to $1500; which means the after tax cost of the solar system is $1000 to $1500. The most important factor relating to the installation of a solar collector is its orientation. It is very important that it be oriented to face as close to south as possible. The position of the house, sun availability, heating load periods, and the earth latitude of the house must all be considered when designing the system. Trade-offs must be made among all these factors. Also, information regarding the timing and amount of solar energy available is required during the design and trade-off study. It is particularly helpful to be able to predict the amount of heat collected based on the various factors described above when it comes to the determination of collector placement. The most heat can be collected when the surface of the collector exactly faces (i.e., is perpendicular to) the light from the sun. This means that the proper orientation of the collectors (i.e., tilt angle with respect to horizontal and the azimuth angle with respect to true south) is extremely important. There are other factors to Page 4.1

Solar Flux Striking Collector consider during the design and trade-off studies, placement is probably the single most important factor.

TeliSolar but the

This option is included to make the placement trade-off study as easy as possible. It uses a simulation model of the theoretical maximum amount of direct sunlight striking a tilted flat plate collector. It calculates the number of Btu's per square foot per hour striking a flat plate based on the tilt angle and azimuth. The three inputs needed to use the model are: o Latitude. If you don't know the degrees latitude of your city, an easy way to get it is either from a map containing latitude/longitude lines or by calling the nearest airport and asking for it. The latitudes of several major U.S. and Canadian cities are listed in Appendix B. Tilt angle. This is the angle measured from the horizontal to the surface of the collector. An upright wall (vertical surface) has a tilt angle of 90 degrees. Azimuth. This is the angle that the surface makes with respect to true south. Degrees east is entered as a positive number and degrees west is entered as a negative number.

o

o

In addition to the above inputs, the program also needs the average number of sunny days for each month for your area. These values are stored in the file 'INITVAL.SOL' (along with other values needed by the program). These values should be installed to match the values determined for your area before using the program.

#G4.2. Usage#H At the Main Menu screen, select option '2' when prompted for the option that you want. The program will then ask for each of the three inputs described above in order. At each prompt, either enter the value which applies to your situation or press the 'Return' key to use the default value shown in brackets. Entering a "-1" for a value for any of the three prompts will display the same "HELP" screen which provides a short description of the values needed for input. The program will then calculate the daily and monthly heat available to be collected by a flat plate collector based on your location and the defined orientation of the collector.

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TeliSolar #G4.3. Help#H

Solar Flux Striking Collector

At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1" for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this point, you will see a display which contains the following information: This mode is used to calculate the amount of heat (BTUs) collected on a solar flat plate collector per hour-ft^2. The calculations depend on your latitude, the tilt angle of the collector (see below), and the angle from true south. It is used in conjunction with the hot water usage mode and the yearly heating load to determine the size of solar panel collector area needed. This is a 3 step process:

Step 1 - Run either the hot water mode or the yearly heating load mode to get BTUs needed. Step 2 - Run this mode to calculate the solar radiation hitting a collector. Step 3 - Run the collector sizing mode to calculate ft^2. \ ^ True S. Collector / Azimuth \ | | / | \ | ---->/ Tilt angle. ------> \ | / \ | /________Horiz. \ | _______\__|_________ | House | When ready, hit any key.

#G4.4. Application#H This option may be used in conjunction with options 1 and 5 or 3 and 5 to design a solar collector. It will give you the first item of necessary information; namely, how much sunlight may be collected in your area. Using an example house with the following values: o o o Latitude = 39.5 Tilt angle = 35 degrees Azimuth = 10 degrees east

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Solar Flux Striking Collector you get the following output:

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+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | FOR FOLLOWING QUERIES, ANSWER WITH DECIMAL VALUES: | | | | Latitude of your position [ 39.00 ] | | Tilt angle relative to horizonal [ 35.00 ] | | Azimuth with respect to true south [ 18.00 ] |

| | | Solar radiation on a flat collector | | | | Month Btus/ Average sunny Btus/ | | day-ft^2 days/month month-ft^2 | | | | Jan 1468 25 36700 | | Feb 1816 25 45400 | | Mar 2109 25 52725 | | Apr 2255 25 56375 | | May 2253 25 56325 | | Jun 2222 25 55550 | | Jul 2236 25 55900 | | Aug 2232 25 55800 | | Sep 2091 25 52275 | | Oct 1787 25 44675 | | Nov 1449 25 36225 | | Dec 1322 25 33050 | | | | Graphic display of flux (Y or N)? Mode is SOLAR ENERGY | | | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

Then, using the default values in option 3 for the example house, you get the heat-load value of approximately 93 million BTUs. Next, use 'Solar collector sizing calculation' (option 5) to get the collector size needed to heat the example house. Here, you will need the collector efficiency. In many states, each manufacturer is required to state an efficiency factor for its product (a good estimate is between 60 - 75%). Using the default setting of 75% and an average case calculation, the desired collector size is calculated: about 185 square feet. Experiment with the model using different tilt angles or azimuth values to calculate results for various schemes. You can easily see how varying these values changes the amount of collector size needed. Since the collectors are the single largest cost factor in a complete solar system, you should optimize these parameters to get the smallest collector size Page 4.4

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Solar Flux Striking Collector

#G4.5. Theory#H The solar flux calculations presented in this section of the program are for the 21st day of each month. The model used here was derived from #4Principles of Solar#5 #4Engineering #5 by Kreith and Kreider (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978). The mathematical equations for the model follow. 1. Solar incidence outside the earth's atmosphere (the solar constant) Io = 429(1 + 0.034 x cos(360 x N / 365)) where: N = day number 2. Solar declination D = 23.45 x sin(360 x (284 + N) / 365) where: N = day number 3. Mass of air along the path of light M = [ (1229 + (614 x sin(alpha)^2)) ^ 1/2 - [ 614 x sin(alpha) ] where: alpha sin(alpha) L D H = = = = = solar altitude sin(L) x sin(D) + cos(L) x cos(D) x cos(H) latitude solar declination (from above) solar hour angle

4. Solar incidence attenuated by air mass Is = Io x 0.56 x (e^(-0.65M) + e^(-.095M)) where: e = base of natural logarithm M = Mass of air along the path of light (from above) 5. Solar power on a tilted flat plate Ip = Is x cos(i) where: Page 4.5

Solar Flux Striking Collector i = angle of incidence cos(i) = sin(D) x sin(L) x cos(T) - cos(L) x sin(T) x cos(A) + cos(D) x cos(H) x cos(L) x cos(T) + sin(L) x sin(T) x cos(A) + cos(D) x sin(T) x sin(A) x sin(H) T = tilt angle A = azimuth (true south = 0)

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#E#45. HEAT LOSS#5 #4#5#F

#G5.1. Introduction#H Heat is lost from or enters into a building by two principal methods: transmission and infiltration. Transmission is the movement of energy (heat) through a solid from the hotter side to the colder side. Typically in a building, this movement (flow) is through surfaces such as floors, walls, ceilings, doors, and windows. The rate at which the heat moves through the surface depends on the difference in temperature between the two sides of the surface and the material from which it is made. Different materials have different resistances to the flow of heat through them. This resistance to heat flow is known as R-value. The greater the R-value, the greater the resistance, or in other words, the less the heat flow through the material. R-value ratings for common building materials are well known and can be used to determine the heat loss for a surface. R-values are expressed in units of Btu/sq ft/hr/degree F. A surface with a R-value of 20 is losing heat at the rate of 0.05 (1/R-value) Btu/sq ft/hr/degree F. If the area of the surface through which the heat is flowing is 250 square feet, and the difference in temperature between the two sides is 10 degree F, the heat loss is 125 Btu/hour. Since it is not possible to calculate the heat loss constantly as the outside temperature changes during the day, an average difference between the inside and outside temperatures is needed in order to calculate the heat loss through a building surface. A generally available figure for this average is known as a degree-day. A degree-day is the temperature difference between 65 F and the average temperature of the day. For example, on a given day for which the high is 40 F and the low is 20 F, the average temperature is 30 F. The day, then contains 35 degree-days. A building's heat loss is then calculated as the number of Btus/hr/degree F multiplied by 24 hours, multiplied by the number of degree-days.

Infiltration is defined as the movement of air through openings in the building. These usually consist of cracks around ill-fitting doors and windows, or fireplace openings. Movement of air also occurs when outside doors are opened. Infiltration is most easily calculated in terms of "air changes per hour", which describes the number of times each hour that the air in the building is replaced with outside air. This air must then be heated or cooled anew which adds significantly to the energy requirements. Most buildings designed today have from 0.2 Page 5.1

Heat loss to 1.0 air changes per hour (AC/hr).

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Infiltration losses can also be due to running fans which vent to the outside. These fans pull air from inside the building and vent it to the outside. The air lost through these fans is then replaced with air that must again be heated or cooled, thus adding still more to the energy requirements. Fans are usually located in the kitchen over the stove and in the bathrooms. For solar heat loss calculations, a good number to choose would be 1.0 AC/hr. For a structure having a volume of 10,000 cubic feet and 1.0 AC/hr., and a day having 35 heating degree-days, the heat loss due to infiltration would be 151,200 Btus. Adding all transmission losses through the building elements and the infiltration losses will give the total heat loss of the structure. This option of the program provides a convenient method to calculate this heat loss for a building of your design.

#G5.2. Usage#H At the Main Menu screen, select option '3' when prompted for the option that you want. The program will then present you with a choice of three different options from which to choose. The 'C' option will use the current values of the building elements (the default values built into the database if you haven't defined any yet and show you an example output. The 'E' option will allow you to edit the building elements currently defined to the program. The third option, 'N' allows you to define your own house or building. To use this option to model a house or building, you must first define the building to the program. This definition may be as complicated or as simple as you wish. Basically, the definition

consists of the R-value and area (in square feet) for each of the surfaces that are exposed to the outside air or through which heat may be lost. For purposes of illustration, we will define a hypothetical house (see figures 1 and 2): It has two 3' by 7' doors; six 3' by 3' windows; two 8' by 30' walls; two 8' by 50' walls; and one 30' by 50' ceiling/roof. The following page shows hypothetical house which will manual. a front and top view of the be used in the examples in this

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Figure 1

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Figure 2

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Figure 2 shows a detail of how the walls, ceiling, and roof of the house is constructed. We must first calculate through which heat flows: the area of each of the surfaces

Windows Doors Walls

- 3'x3' - 3'x7' - 8'x50' 8'x30'

= = = =

9ft^2 times 6 windows 21ft^2 times 2 doors 400ft^2 times 2 walls + 240ft^2 times 2 walls -

= =

48 ft^2 42 ft^2

Walls Roof

windows and doors - 3'x47' brick front - 30'x50' (includes ceiling and attic)

= 550 ft^2 = 141 ft^2 = 1500ft^2

Next, we need to determine the R-value of each of the surfaces. This may be done manually using the Table of R-values given in Appendix C, or may be done with program assistance by entering a '-1' when prompted for the R-value for each surface. See Section 4, 'HELP', for information on how to use the program assistance.

Windows - (assuming dual pane) Doors - (assuming 1 1/4" wooden door) Walls - Air film 1/2" Gypsum board 3 1/2" fiberglass batts 1/2" plywood 1" wood siding Walls - (brick fronting) Roof - (assuming roof and ceiling) air film 1/2" gypsum board 3 1/2" fiberglass batts still air Air film 1/2 plywood tar paper Asphalt shingles

= = = 0.68 = 0.45 =11.00 = 0.62 = 1.00 = 0.60 = 0.45 =11.00 = 1.14 = 0.60 = 0.62 = 0.05 = 0.44

1.67 1.56

= 13.75 = 14.05

= 14.90

Then, determine the infiltration load on the house. This occurs in two different fashions: one is the use of a ventilating fan (in the bathroom, for instance); and the other is due to air changes because of leaks, opening of doors, etc. The first one, forced ventilation, is straight-forward. It is simply the rated capacity of the fan(s) in cubic feet per minute (CPM) times the estimated on-time. The second one, however, is considerably more difficult. All buildings have some unwanted outside air infiltration. The simplest way to think of this infiltration is the number of total air changes per hour. This can be thought of Page 5.5

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as the number of times per hour that all of the air in the building is replaced with new air from outside. These air changes per hour (AC/hr) can vary from as low as 0.2 to as high as 2.0. See the following table for rough guidelines for AC/hr of typical

houses. The AC/hr is difficult to measure or estimate, so your own best educated guess is probably as good as any. Table I lists typical AC/hr values for several differently constructed houses.

Table I ------------------------------------------------------| Construction | AC/hour | ------------------------------------------------------| Super insulated - Special design | 0.2 | | to limit infiltration. | | | Tight constructed - new storm doors| 0.7 | | & windows, caulking around doors,| | | windows, & foundation. | | | Average - old doors & windows, old | 1.0 | | caulking & weatherstripping | | | 10 to 25 years old - no storm | 1.5 | | windows,caulking, or stripping | | | Older than 25 years - drafty, | 2.0 | | windows & doors loose | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------The last two items needed are the volume of the building and the number of heating degree-days and cooling degree-days. The volume can be calculated by multiplying the length of the building by its width by its height. For example, the volume for our hypothetical house is 12000 cubic feet. For a tri-level house, calculate the volume for each level separately and then add the volumes together. The heating/cooling degree-days depend on the climatological environment where the building is located. Typical values for several cities in the U.S. and Canada are given in Appendix B. Degree-day data is also available for various U.S. cities from the U.S. Weather Service (see references 1-4).

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After providing the necessary inputs, the screen should look similar to the following (some lines may have scrolled off the top of the screen): +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | Enter title of this run. | | ? Test case with 5 building elements and basement | | Enter air changes/hour [ 1.00 ] | | Fan capacity in cubic ft/minute [ 10.00 ] 0.0 | | What is the heating degree-days [ 6473.00 ] | | What is the cooling degree-days [ 1075.00 ] | | Enter volume of building [ 12000.00 ] | | Do you want to consider basement floors? yes | | Enter width of basement [ 0.00 ] 30.0 | | Enter length of basement [ 0.00 ] 50.0 | | Enter depth of basement [ 0.00 ] 8.0 | | Do you want to consider below-grade walls? yes | | Enter width of basement [ 30.00 ] | | Enter length of basement [ 50.00 ] | | Enter depth of basement [ 8.00 ] | | Enter depth of wall insulation [ 0.00 ] 2.0 | | Enter R-value of wall insulation [ 0.00 ] 19.6 | | Press 'ENTER' for 'Surface Name' when done. | | Enter surface name ? Windows | | Enter surface area 48 | | Enter R-value of surface 1.67 | | Enter surface name ? Doors | | Enter surface area 42 | | Enter R-value of surface 1.56 | | Enter surface name ? Walls | | Enter surface area 550 | | Enter R-value of surface 13.75 | | Enter surface name ? Walls - brick | | Enter surface area 141 | | Enter R-value of surface 14.05 | | Enter surface name ? Roof | | Enter surface area 1500 | | Enter R-value of surface 14.90 | | Enter surface name ? | | | | -1 = help. Units = American. Mode is ENERGY LOAD. | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

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After defining the last building surface, the program will calculate the heat loss through each building element (shown on the output in the "UA" column) and the percentage of the total heat that is lost through that element (shown on the output in the "LOAD %" column). The program will then produce a display similar to the following: +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | | | SURFACE AREA R UA LOAD | | NAME (FT^2) BTU/HR-DEG F % | | --------------------+-------------+--------+------------+------- | | Windows 48.00 1.67 28.74 5.17 | | Doors 42.00 1.56 26.92 4.84 | | Walls 550.00 13.75 40.00 7.20 | | Walls - brick 141.00 14.05 10.04 1.81 | | Roof 1500.00 14.90 100.67 18.12 | | Basement floor 1500.00 50.00 30.00 5.40 | | Below-grade walls 1120.00 10.54 106.24 19.12 | | | | | | AIR EXCHANGE SOURCE AC RATE VENT RATE ENERGY LOAD | | AC/HR FT^3/HR BTU/HR-DEG F % | | --------------------+-------------+--------+------------+------- | | Air infiltration 1.00 12000.0 213.12 38.35 | | Forced ventilation 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.00 | | | | | | Yearly heating requirement is 86.33413 million BTU's | | Yearly cooling requirement is 14.33789 million BTU's | | | | | | Do you want a graphic display of load? Mode is HEATING LOAD | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

After defining the building elements and seeing the results of the heat loss calculations, you should return to the Main Menu and choose option 7 to save your building definition. When you choose option 7, the program will prompt you for a filename into which it will store the necessary information to recover the building elements. Then, on subsequent runs, you choose option 8

to re-load your previously defined building. At any time, you can edit the building definition (see next section), but you must then re-save it using option 7.

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TeliSolar #G5.3. Editting#H

Heat loss

As described earlier in the 'Usage' section, you may choose to display the currently defined building, define a new building, or edit the existing building definition. If you choose the latter option, a display will appear with a list of the currently defined building elements preceded by a number in parenthesis. For the following, assume the number "n". o of building elements is

Entering a "-1" will allow you to add new building elements to the currently defined list. You will be asked for the name of the surface to be added, its area, and its R-value. For the R-value, you may enter a "-1" to use the advanced help features described in the next section. Entering a "0" accepts the editting you have done and displays the results as if you had chosen the "C" option. Entering a "1" to "n" from the list of elements shown will edit that building element. After choosing this option, you will be asked if you want to edit the Area or the R-value of the element. Type either an "A" or an "R". If you type an "A", the program will then prompt you for the new area to replace the currently defined one for that element. If you type an "R", the program will prompt you for the new R-value to replace the currently defined one for that element. You may respond with a "-1" to get the advanced help capabilities described in the next section. After exitting 'Help' mode, press 'Return' to accept the R-value generated. Entering a "n+1" value will allow you to edit the number of heating/cooling degree-days, the fan run time, etc. You may edit or add as many elements as you wish.

o o

o

#G5.4. Help#H At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1" for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this point, you will see a display which contains the following information: This mode is used to calculate the amount of energy needed to heat or cool a building (usually a house) defined by the user. After inputting a number of loading and weather related factors, the user inputs the area and R-value for each of the different kinds of building surfaces (i.e., walls, roof/ceiling, doors, windows, etc). When inputting the R-values, a -1 will Page 5.9

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provide a list of materials from which to choose. Simply move the hi-lite to the material desired using the cursor keys and press the '+' key. If you made a mistake, use the '-' key to subtract out the R-value. If the thickness is not sufficient for your needs, use the '*' to multiply the given R-value by the necessary number to get the R-value needed. To provide a known R-value for a material not listed, use the '?' key. It will ask for a value to be entered. When all materials and/or R-values have been chosen and entered, use the '=' key to accept the accumulated R-value. The items needed for this option are as follows: a) The number of times that all of the air in the building is replaced with new air from outside (air changes per hour). b) The total capacity of all fans in the building (CPM) c) The number of minutes per day that the fans run. d) The number of heating degree-days for your area (available from a number of solar energy books). e) The number of cooling degree-days for your area. f) The total volume of the building being defined (ft^3). When ready, hit any key.

This option contains some advanced help capabilities to assist the user in getting R-values for the surfaces being defined. When prompted for the R-value when defining the structure for the first time or when editing a surface element, entering a '-1' for the R-value will cause a 'Help' screen containing R-values for several of the more common building materials to appear. The first R-value, in the upper left hand corner of the screen will be hi-lighted, and the accumulated R-value (namely, 0.0) will appear in the upper right hand corner of the screen. As each R-value is chosen, this value will increase to show the latest summation. To get the total R-value for any given surface, you must move the cursor to each of the materials composing that surface and cause it to be added in to the accumulating total. The cursor is moved to the material of choice by using the cursor positioning keys (i.e., the up, down, left, and right arrow keys) until the material is hi-lighted. When the desired material is hi-lighted, any of the following options are available: 1. Add the selected R-value to the accumulated R-value. You do this by using the '+' key. It will add the R-value of the Page 5.10

TeliSolar material hi-lighted to upper right hand corner. 2. the

Heat loss accumulated value shown in the

Subtract the selected R-value from the accumulated R-value. You do this by using the '-' key. It will subtract the R-value of the material hi-lighted from the accumulated value shown in the upper right hand corner. This is useful when you make a mistake and add one in you don't want. Add in your own R-value. You do this by using the '?' key. It will prompt you for an R-value which it will then add to the accumulated value shown in the upper right hand corner. You can use this to add in values for materials which are not listed and for which you have determined the R-value from other sources. (This value may be negative, which would, in effect, subtract the R-value out of the accumulated value). Multiply the hi-lighted R-value by a factor. You do this by using the '*' key. It will multiply the R-value of the material hi-lighted by a factor which the program prompts you for and adds it to the accumulated R-value. You would use this when the given thickness of the material is not right

3.

4.

for your application. For instance, suppose you used 2 inches of plaster on one of your walls. Since no 2 inch plaster option is available, you must position the cursor to the '1 in. plaster' option and then press the '*' key. When prompted for the multiply factor, you would enter a '2'. The R-value (0.2) would be multiplied by two and added to the accumulated value. (Again, this value may be a negative number). 5. Accept the accumulated R-value for the value You do this by using the '=' key. This will the screen at which you entered the '-1' value following the prompt. To accept this as the surface, simply press the 'Return' key. of the surface. put you back to and display the the R-value for

For an example, let's use the house we defined earlier. Specifically, let's use the 'Help' screen to calculate the R-value for the lower portion of the wall (that portion with the brick front). To do this, we would type in a '-1' when prompted for the R-value. The 'Help' will appear with the '1/4 in. Plywood 0.31' hi-lighted. Then: 1. Using the right arrow key, move the cursor over to the right column. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor down to the material 'Inside vertical air film'. Press the '+' key. Using the left arrow key, move the cursor over to the left column. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor down to the '1/2 in. Gypsum board'. Press the '+' key. Using the up arrow key, move the cursor up to the Plywood'. Press the '+' key. '1/2 in.

2.

3.

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Using the down arrow key, move the cursor down to the 'Wooden siding shingles'. Press the '+' key. Using the up arrow key, move the cursor up to the '1 in. brick'. Press the '*' key. When asked for the multiply factor, enter '2.5' since the brick siding is 2 and 1/2 inches thick and the given R-value is for only one inch thick brick. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor Fiberglass batts'. Press the '+' key. to the '6 in.

6. 7.

8.

The accumulated R-value shown in the upper right hand corner should now be 21.93. Press the '=' key to accept this as the necessary R-value.

#G5.5. Application#H Heat, of course, tends to flow from hot places to cold places. Therefore, in summer heat flows into our living or working environment and must be "pumped" back outdoors with a type of heat pump called an air conditioner. In winter, the heat flows out of our environment and must be replaced by burning some form of fuel to run a furnace or heater. Both of these methods have one thing in common: they cost money to implement and operate. Alarming increases in the price of fuel and electricity have caused the energy portion of our cost of living to rival rent or mortgage payments. In an attempt to reduce these costs, the homeowner must first decide where to concentrate the energy-saving effort. This option automates the calculations needed to determine the energy requirements of a building. Once all of the building components have been modelled and major areas of winter heat loss or summer heat gain have been determined, it is then obvious which areas deserve attention. Using this option, along with option 4, allows one to determine heating and cooling load savings by changing building designs, such as adding more insulation in the ceiling or weatherstripping doors and windows to reduce air infiltration. It also shows the areas where one should not spend time nor money. For example, if the heating/cooling load through the doors of a building amount to 2.3% of the total load, it would probably not be cost effective to spend money upgrading the door to a more energy-efficient door to reduce the load due to the door to 1.7%. The money would be better spent reducing the load in other areas; such as more insulation and weatherstripping, for instance. See the "Application" section in the "Economic Considerations" chapter for an example application of the "Heat Loss" option. Page 5.12

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Experiment with your house definition using different R-values, air changes, and fan run times to calculate results for various schemes. You can quickly and easily see how varying these values changes the heating/cooling load and percent loss through the different components.

#G5.6. Theory#H There are four factors which contribute to the heating cooling load of a structure. These are: o o o o Conduction Convection Radiation Infiltration show how and

We will consider each of these separately and then they are related to the heating and cooling load. Conduction

Conduction is the flow of heat through a solid material. The heat transfer rate due to conduction is determined using the formula:

Qc = K x A x (Ti - To)/(delta X) where: Qc A (Ti-To) (delta X) K = = = = =

(1)

Heat transfer rate in BTU/hr Cross sectional area in square feet (ft^2) Temperature difference in degrees Fahrenheit Material thickness in feet Thermal conductivity in BTU/hr-ft^2-F

As described earlier, R-value is the resistance of a material to heat flow through it. R-value is another way of describing thermal conductivity for a given thickness of material. R = R-value = (delta X)/K (2)

By substituting, we get the following equation which is easier to use since building materials have R-value ratings instead of Page 5.13

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thermal conductivities: Qc = A x (Ti - To) / R (3)

If we build a wall with fiberglass insulation sandwiched between a sheet of gypsum board and a sheet of asphalt-impregnated plywood, the total R-value will be the sum of the R-values for all three materials since the heat must flow through all three materials. Rt = Rg + Ri + Rp (4)

Convection Convection may be either free or forced, depending on whether the medium (gas or liquid) is in motion or not. Convective heat transfer is a complicated process that is beyond the scope of this manual (and program) to explain, so we use a simplified equation to determine the heat flow:

Qv = h x A x (Tair - Tsurface) where: h A (Ta-Ts) = Heat transfer coefficient = Cross sectional area = Temperature difference

(5)

R-values have been calculated for the areas of convective heat flow associated with building analysis (inside horizontal and vertical air films, attic air spaces, and outside air films). These R-values are equivalent to 1/h. Hence, equation (5) becomes:

Qv = A x (Tair - Tsurface) / R which looks just like that for conduction. Radiation

(6)

Radiation transfer proceeds unimpeded in a vacuum. It is emitted by all surfaces whose temperatures are above absolute zero. The equation for determining the heat flow due to radiation is:

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TeliSolar Qr = e x A x s x (Ti^4 - To^4) where:

Heat loss (7)

= emissivity which is a measure of the ability of a surface to emit radiant heat A = Cross sectional area s = Constant of proportionality (Ti^4-To^4) = Temperature difference In cases where radiation is important in building heat flow, convection is also involved, so that the radiation effect may be added to the convective R-value. The R-values listed here include the radiant heat flow value where necessary. Infiltration Infiltration is the unwanted loss of heated air to the outside and the subsequent replacement of that air with cold air from the outside. When the outside air enters a conditioned space, it must be heated (or cooled) to the temperature of the conditioned space. The energy, Qi, necessary to do this is given by:

e

Qi = V x D x SH x (Ti - To) where: V = Volume of air displaced in ft^3 D = Density (air = 0.074) lb/ft^3 SH = Specific Heat (air = 0.24) BTU/lb-F

(8)

The volume of infiltration is given in cubic feet per minute (CPM). This gives: Qi = 1.07 x CFM x (Ti - To) (9)

Heat Loss To calculate the total heat loss (Qt) from a building, then, we need to add all the heat loss values through all the possible paths (walls, doors, windows, ceiling, etc).

Qt = Qw + Qd + . . . = (Aw / Rw) x (Tiw - Tow) + . . . where: Qt = Total heat loss Page 5.15

(10) (11)

Heat loss Qw Qd Aw Rw Tiw Tow = = = = = =

TeliSolar Heat loss through walls Heat loss through doors Area of walls R-value of walls Temperature of inside wall surface Temperature of outside wall surface

Since the temperature difference is simply the difference between the inside and outside temperatures, and is essentially the same for all paths, equation (9) becomes:

Qt = ( Aw/Rw + Ad/Rd + . . . ) x (Ti - To)

(12)

Since it is nearly impossible to get the temperature difference all the time for a building to use in the determination of the heat loss, it becomes necessary to use an average value determined over a long period of time. This value is available for various U.S. cities and is called the degree-day. Heating degree-days are usually based on an inside temperature of 65 F and is a measure of the average temperature difference between the inside and outside temperatures which are needed for several of the calculations presented here. Using degree-days, our equation for heat loss now becomes: Qt = (SUM(Asurface/Rsurface) + Qi) x degree-days x 24 (13)

Page 5.16

#E#46. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS#5 #4#5#F

#G6.1. Introduction#H The first three options give you a simplified method of calculating heat loss and energy usage, but you may well be wondering if it would be worth while to do anything about the energy consumption. With the high cost of energy these days, the most obvious answer would seem to be an unqualified YES! However, you may find, from a purely financial point of view, that investing your money in some high-yield investment will provide more return than the energy savings due to a capital investment on an energy saving home improvement. The fourth option, "Return on energy-saving investments", provides the user with a means of evaluating an energy saving home improvement against investing an equal amount in some other investment, such as savings account, stocks, T-bills, etc. After using either option 1 or 3 two or more times to get the energy savings due to some change such as adding storm windows or insulation or a solar hot water pre-heater, this option can then be used to determine if the amount of capital needed to purchase the material and labor is a good investment financially. (Remember, this option can only determine if the investment is good or bad in financial terms, not on whether you should or shouldn't because you are or aren't an energy conservationist). A fairly simple method of determining the financial soundness of an investment of this type is one called discounted payback.

This method takes into account the amount of capital invested, the savings effected by that investment, the fuel escalation rate, the general inflation rate, and the income from investing the capital in other investments. This method allows you to calculate how long it would take for the money saved each year on energy cost savings to pay back the amount of capital invested on the energy saving improvement.

#G6.2. Usage#H At the Main Menu screen, select option the desired option. The program will then values. At each prompt, enter the value situation or press the 'Return' key (<--') value shown in brackets. The following inputs are needed: 1. General inflation rate (percent) - This is the current general inflation rate. Enter it as a percent (i.e., 75). Page 6.1 '4' when prompted for request several input which applies to your to accept the default

Economic Considerations 2.

TeliSolar

Investment yield rate (percent) - This is the yield that could be obtain if you invested the same amount of capital in some other investment (stocks, money markets, etc). Fuel escalation rate (percent) - This is the rate at which fuel costs are going up each year. Energy-saving investment cost ($) - This is the amount of money which you spent on the energy saving improvement. Heating load savings (million btus) - This is the amount of energy saved as determined by using option 1 or 3 two times (once before the improvement and once after the improvement). Cost of heating ($/fuel unit) costs for heating. - This is the amount that fuel to heat the

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

Fuel type - This is the type of fuel used building (electricity, oil, gas, or propane)

Cooling load savings (million btus)- This is the amount of energy needed for cooling that is saved (as described in step 5 above).

9.

Cost of cooling ($/fuel unit) - This is the amount that fuel costs for cooling.

10. Fuel type - Same as step 7 above except used for cooling. After providing the necessary input, the screen should similar to the following: look

+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | General inflation rate (percent) [ 6.00 ] | | Investment yield rate (percent) [ 9.00 ] | | Fuel escalation rate (percent) [ 11.00 ] | | Energy-saving investment cost ($) [ 450.00 ] | | Heating load savings (million btus [ 8.00 ] | | Cost of heating ($/unit) [ 7.50 ] 0.08 | | Enter fuel type : (E)lec,(O)il,(G)as,(P)ropane [G]? e | | Cooling load savings (million btus [ 4.00 ] | | Cost of cooling ($/unit) [ 6.00 ] 0.08 | | Enter fuel type : (E)lec,(O)il,(G)as,(P)ropane [G]? e | | | | | | | | | | | | -1 = help. Units = American. Mode is INVESTMENT RETURN. | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

Page 6.2

TeliSolar The program then following: produces an output

Economic Considerations that looks like the

+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | Present value of Present value if Net savings of | | energy savings. capital were energy | | Year (cumulative) invested investment | | | | 1 294.63 462.74 -168.10 | | 2 603.16 475.83 127.33 | | 3 926.25 489.30 436.95 | | 4 1264.57 503.15 761.42 | | 5 1618.85 517.39 1101.46 | | 6 1989.85 532.03 1457.81 |

| 7 2378.34 547.09 1831.25 | | 8 2785.16 562.57 2222.59 | | 9 3211.17 578.49 2632.67 | | 10 3657.27 594.87 3062.40 | | | | | | | | | | Energy investment payed for in first year. | | | | | | When ready, hit any key. Mode is INVESTMENT RETURN. | | | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

#G6.3. Help#H At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1" for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this point, you will see a display which contains the following information: This option is used to calculate how long it would take for the money saved on energy costs due to an improvement to pay for the capital invested on the improvement. It takes into account the income that would be derived from investing the capital in savings, stocks, etc., the escalation of fuel costs, and the general inflation rate. The following input is needed: a) The current general inflation rate (such as 5.5%) b) The yield that could be attained if the capital were invested in other investments such as savings, stocks, T-bills, etc. c) The current rate at which Page 6.3

Economic Considerations

TeliSolar

fuel costs are going up each year. d) The amount invested in the energy-saving improvement. e) The amount of energy saved as calculated by using option 1 or 3. f) The cost of fuel to provide one million Btus for heating purposes. g) The amount of energy saved for cooling purposes. h) The cost of fuel to provide one million Btus for cooling purposes.

After providing all the above inputs when requested, the program will calculate the present value of the energy savings, the present value of the capital if you had invested it instead, and the net savings due to the energy-saving improvement.

When ready, hit any key.

#G6.4. Application#H Using the 'Heat loss from a building' option (No. 3) and this option, you can determine if investing your money in an energy-saving upgrade is profitable. Assume you want to add more insulation to the ceiling. Assume also that the of R19 fiberglass is $0.50 per square foot and that you install the material yourself. Based on the hypothetical house described earlier with a ceiling area of 1200 square feet, the cost of insulation is $600.00. At the Main Menu, choose option 3 and set the R-value roof to 15: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Press "E" to edit the current values for the building. Enter a "5" to choose editting of the roof. Press "R" to change the R-value. Enter "15" to set the new R-value. Enter a "0" to stop editting. The number of BTUs used per year 79.98005 million. The number of cooling should be 13.25264 million. for heating should be BTUs used per year for Write these down. of the

7.

Enter a "N" to return to the Main Menu. Choose option 3 again and this time set the R-value to 34: Page 6.4

TeliSolar

Economic Considerations

1. 2. 3.

Follow steps 1-3 above. Enter "34" to set the new R-value. Follow steps 5-7 above. (The 11.84088) values should be 71.29862 and

Choose option 4 to determine the payback period: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enter "6.0" for the general inflation rate. Enter "9.0" for the investment yield. Enter "10.0" for the fuel escalation rate. Enter "600" for the investment cost (calculated above). Calculate the difference in BTU usage for heating from the two steps above (79.98005-71.29862 million BTUs). Enter "8.68". Enter the cost of heating. Use "0.08". Enter the fuel type. Use "E". Calculate the difference in BTU usage for cooling from the two steps above (13.25264-11.84088 million BTUs). Enter "1.41". Enter the cost of cooling. Use "0.08".

6. 7. 8.

9.

10. Enter the fuel type. Use "E". 11. The display shows the accumulated amount of payback for each year, and the number of years it will take to "pay off" the $600 energy-saving investment.

#G6.5. Theory#H Any number of economic models may have been used for this program. A semi-sophisticated model is the "discounted payback" method. It takes into account: o o o Income derived from investing the capital instead of using it for energy- saving costs. Fuel escalation rates. Inflation rate.

From the "Theory" section in the previous chapter, you can calculate the annual heating and cooling costs before and after Page 6.5

Economic Considerations an energy-saving also known. upgrade. The amount

TeliSolar spent on the upgrade is

The simple payback model would be: Years to recover By adding used: = Investment/Savings may be

a few more terms, a more accurate equation

PV = [ A ] * [ (1+E)/(1+I) ] * [ 1 - ((1+E)/(1+I))^N ] where: PV A E I N = = = = = Present Value Annual savings Fuel escalation rate General inflation rate Year in question

This equation allows the user to determine, based on conditions now (such as inflation rate, etc), how much of the energy-saving cost is "payed off" each year. The pay off occurs in the year in which the sign changes.

Page 6.6

#E#47. SOLAR SIZING#5 #4#5#F

#G7.1. Introduction#H This option is used with the 'Weekly hot water usage & solar requirements' option (# 1) or the 'Heat loss from a building' option (# 3), and the 'Solar flux striking solar collector' option (# 2) to determine the size of flat plate solar collector needed to generate the heating requirements determined in options 1 or 3. The amount of energy that may be collected in your situation was determined using option 2. Option 2 and either option 1 or 3 must have been previously selected in order to obtain the information necessary for the calculations made in this section.

#G7.2. Usage#H At the Main Menu screen, select option '5' when prompted for the desired option. The program will then request several input values. At each prompt, enter the value which applies to your situation or press the 'Return' key (<--') to accept the default value shown in brackets. The following inputs are needed: 1. The efficiency of the selected flat plate collectors. This information can usually be obtained from the manufacturer of the collectors you are considering purchasing. A good estimate would be in the range 60 to 75. Whether you are sizing the 'hot water usage' requirements or the 'Heat loss' requirements. You must have previously chosen either option 1 or 3 and determined the energy requirements for that situation. Whether you want to determine the size requirements for the average case (for the average of all the months) or the worst

2.

3.

case (the month which receives the least sunshine). For the average case, there may be months in which there is not enough sunshine for the collectors to collect enough energy to meet the heating requirements. After providing the above inputs, the program will calculate the approximate number of square feet of flat plate collector needed to provide the necessary heating requirements. The screen should look similar to this:

Page 7.1

Solar Sizing

TeliSolar

+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | Efficiency of selected solar panel [ 0.75 ]? | | Calculate for Hot water(W) or Heat load(H) [ W ]? | | Calculate for (W)orst case or (A)verage [ A ] ? | | | | | | | | | | | | Estimated collector size needed is 66.86307 ft^2 | | or approximately 2 panels. | | | | | | | | | | | | When ready, hit any key. Mode is SOLAR SIZING | | | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

#G7.3. Help#H At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1" for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this point, you will see a display which contains the following information: This option square feet can be used to calculate the number of of a flat plate solar collector needed to

produce the BTUs calculated in either the 'Weekly hot water usage' or the 'Heat loss from a building' options. One or both of the above mentioned options and the 'Solar flux striking solar collector' option MUST have been previously run in order for the necessary values to be available. The efficiency is dependent on the solar collector panel being evaluated. You should be able to get it from the manufacturers literature. If not, a value in the range of 0.65 to 0.80 should be a fairly good guess. Use the 'Hot water(W)' choice to calculate the area needed for a solar hot water preheater based on usage information calculated in Option 1. Use the 'yearly Heat load(H)' choice to calculate the Page 7.2

TeliSolar area needed for heating your building information calculated in Option 3.

Solar Sizing based on

Worst case applies to either choice, and calculates the area for the month with the least amount of sunshine. Average case calculates the area for the average amount of heat collected by the collectors. When ready, hit any key.

#G7.4. Application#H The amount of heat a solar energy collector system can supply depends mainly on the number of square feet of flat plate collector exposed to the sun. If cost were no object, one could simply connect one or more large storage tanks to a large array of collectors and use the sun to heat all the hot water necessary and to also heat the house in which he/she lived. However, this approach is extremely expensive and in most cases, cost is an object. Designers and homeowners usually have to make trade-offs between cost and performance. This option, used with the others

supplied in this program, is used to speedup and trade-off study.

simplify

that

Experiment with this model, and the others provided in this program, to determine the most cost effective method of providing your family with the hot water and space heating necessary, based on your needs and location.

#G7.5. Theory#H The mathematics for this model is very straight forward. To get the average heat collection value, add the heat collected per month-ft^2 for all months and divide by 12. To get the worst case value, use the smallest value for all the months.

Then, the size needed is calculated as follows: Size = Hu x 1/Hc x 1/E where: Hu = Heat used. Calculated in option 1 or 3 in BTU/yr. Hc = Heat collected by flat plate collector. Calculated Page 7.3

Solar Sizing in option 2. BTU/yr-ft^2. = Collector efficiency

TeliSolar

E

Page 7.4

#E#4APPENDIX A. DETAILED OPERATIONS#5 #4#5#F

#GA.1. Handling and Storage of Diskettes#H Diskettes are very sensitive and must be handled with care. The magnetically coated recording surface of the diskette is visible through the oval holes in the permanent, black plastic jacket.

You must never touch any part of the exposed recording surface. Touching this surface could destroy the diskette. Instead, always handle it by the edge where the label is located.

When you place the diskette into the drive, label edge is facing up and closest to you.

hold

it so the

Be sure that the lift lever of the disk drive is pushed up in the open position. Hold the diskette as described above, insert it into the drive, and carefully push it all the way in until it stops. Close the disk drive door by pushing down on the lift lever until it clicks shut.

Page A.1

Detailed Operations

TeliSolar

Because the diskette is magnetic, it must be kept away from electrical appliances and other equipment that have a magnetic

field, such as office paper clip containers or copy-holders. Over-exposure to fluorescent lights can also damage diskettes. Very high or low temperatures can damage a diskette. The acceptable range is about 50 F to 125 F (10 C to 52 C). So don't leave them in your car for too long on a warm or cold day, and don't put them near a radiator, stove, heater, etc. Diskettes are also sensitive to physical damage. Do not bend or staple the plastic cover. If you write on the label or paper envelope while the diskette is inside it, use only a soft felt-tip pen - never a pencil or ballpoint. Whenever possible, write on the label before putting it on the diskette. When not in use, diskettes should always be stored in their paper envelopes to protect them from dust and other elements. They should be stored in an upright position in a hard-cover box. Never put anything on top of a diskette, such as food, drinks, the family cat, etc.

#GA.2. Write-Protecting Diskettes#H Some diskettes contain important data that should not be altered or destroyed. By placing a small foil tab over the square write-protect notch of the diskette, you can be assured that information can be read from, but not written to or erased from, that diskette. See below. The diskettes supplied with this package already have the foil tab placed over the write-protect notch. Do not put a tab over the notch on your working copy of the program.

Page A.2

TeliSolar #GA.3. Helpful Hints#H DO: o o o

Detailed Operations

Remove diskettes before you turn off the computer. Make regular backup copies of the files you generate. Date and label your files written to them. diskettes, including the names of the

DON'T: o o o Remove the diskettes from the disk drives without saving any files created during the run. Remove the diskette from the drive while the red "in-use" light is on or the drive motor is running. Insert foreign objects into the disk drives.

#GA.4. Cold Starting#H Following is the procedure OFF: 1. to begin when the computer power is

Put the DOS diskette in Drive A (usually the left drive). Don't forget to shut the door. Be sure you insert the diskette correctly! The label side should be facing up, exposed area away form you. (Note: if the diskette has an untabbed write-protect notch on the left side of it and it is your master diskette, put a metallic write-protect tab over it. You should not put a write-enabled diskette into a drive unless you expect to write on it.)

2. 3. 4.

Flip the RED power to ON. Turn on switch. your

switch (or

on the right side (near the back) TV) if it has a separate power

monitor

The IBM-PC does a memory check during the power-up procedure, so it may take several seconds before you notice anything. If you have just turned it off before starting this procedure, it may not start up properly. Be sure the power is

5.

off for at least 30 seconds or so before powering up.

Page A.3

Detailed Operations 6. 7.

TeliSolar

The screen clears and drive A whirs with its red light on. If the PC is working correcting, you will get the "Enter today's date (mm-dd-yy)" message. :il.Proceed from here as with the Warm Start procedure described below starting at Step 5.

#GA.5. Warm Starting#H Following on: 1. 2. is the procedure to use if the PC's power is already A (usually the one on the

Put the DOS diskette in Drive left). Be sure to close the door.

Using your left hand, hold down both the "Alt" and "Ctrl" keys (on the left side of the keyboard). Then press the "Del" key (on the lower right of the keyboard), while still holding down the "Alt" and "Ctrl" keys. The screen clears and drive A whirs with its red light on. If everything worked OK, the message (mm-dd-yy)" appears "Enter today's date

3. 4. 5.

Using the numbers on the top row of the keyboard, type in the date in numeric form (March 10, 1983 is entered as 3-10-83). Press the 'Return' key (the one to the right side of the keyboard that looks something like "<--'") If you attempt to enter a date that doesn't make sense, the DOS will catch it and ask you to enter the date again. It will not prevent you from entering the wrong date. If all goes well, you will see a copyright notice, the DOS version number, and a prompt that looks like "A>" ("C>" if you have a hard disk). Whenever you see this prompt, the DOS system is ready to accept a command. Once you program. are at this point, you are ready to run the your

6.

7.

8.

Page A.4

TeliSolar #GA.6. Diskette Formatting#H

Detailed Operations

Follow the procedure below to format a blank diskette. 1. 2. Put a blank diskette in Drive shut the door. B (the one on the right) and

Type in "DIR B:". Press 'Return'. If the diskette has not been formatted, you should get the message "Disk error reading drive B" followed by "Abort, Retry, Ignore?". Type "A" to abort. Press 'Return'. If the diskette has been formatted, but contains no files, the message "No Files" should appear. In either of these cases it is OK to proceed. If a list of file names appears, you must decide at this point if you really want to use this diskette. PROCEEDING ON WILL CAUSE ALL DATA ON THE DISKETTE TO BE LOST!. Type in 'FORMAT B:'. Press 'Return'. You'll get the message "Insert new diskette for drive B: and strike any key when ready". Press the space bar. You will see the message "Formatting...Format complete". It will display some information about the capacity of the diskette, and then ask "Format another (Y/N)". Type in "N"

3.

4.

#GA.7. Diskette Backup#H The first thing you should do after opening the release package, is to make a backup copy of your master diskette and then put the master away in a safe place. To do this: 1. Start the IBM-PC system (see above for the Cold Start or Warm Start procedures).

2.

Format a blank diskette to receive the backup copy. (See above procedure for formatting the diskette if you do not know how to do this.) Remove the DOS diskette from Drive A. Insert the master diskette in Drive A and close the door. Type in "COPY A:*.* B:" (notice the spaces between the arguments). Press 'Return'. You will see the names of the files as they are copied to your newly formatted diskette. When the "A>" prompt appears, your backup copy Take it out and label it appropriately. is complete.

3.

4.

Page A.5

Detailed Operations #GA.8. Using a Hard Disk#H

TeliSolar

If you are using a new computer with a hard disk, you must make sure it is properly formatted and initialized before you begin. See your computer dealer or use the computer's DOS Reference manual to format it properly and install DOS on the hard disk. When using a hard disk, programs are usually stored in and run from subdirectories. We recommend creating a separate subdirectory for this program and it's data files. So, to install this package on a hard disk: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Type: "cd \" Press the 'Return' key. Type: "md <name>", where "<name>" is a subdirectory your choosing. Press the 'Return' key. Type: "cd \<name>". Press the 'Return' key. Insert the master diskette supplied the "A" drive, and close the door. with this package into name of

8. 9.

Type: "COPY A:*.* C:" Press the 'Return' key. As the system copies the files from the master diskette onto the hard disk, the file names appear on the screen. When the copying process is complete, the DOS prompt "C>" appears. master disk from the "A" drive and store it in a

10. Remove the safe place.

11. You can now execute the program from the hard disk.

#GA.9. Power Off#H Follow these steps to power off your IBM-PC: 1. 2. 3. When you power off the PC, you lose whatever is on the screen and in memory. Be careful about powering off! Be sure to remove any and all diskettes and leave the drive doors open. Power off the PC by flipping the RED power switch down. Page A.6

TeliSolar 4. 5.

Detailed Operations

Turn off the monitor (or TV) and the printer if you have one. Avoid turning the PC on and off too often. The power surges and temperature changes due to power up/down cycles are not good for the electronic components and shorten their lives.

Page A.7

Detailed Operations

TeliSolar

Page A.8

#E#4APPENDIX B. GENERAL INFO. BY CITY#5 #4#5#F

State ----Alabama Alaska

City ---Birmingham Montgomery Anchorage Fairbanks Juneau Nome Phoenix Yuma Little Rock Eureka Fresno Los Angeles Red Bluff Sacramento San Diego San Francisco Denver Grand Junct Hartford Washington Jacksonville Key West Miami Beach Tampa Atlanta Hilo Honolulu Lihue Boise Pocatello Chicago Springfield Ft. Wayne Indianapolis

Ja 13 16 12 11 9 14 24 26 14 12 14 22 16 14 21 16 21 18 14 14 18 21 20 20 15 15 19 15 12 11 14 15 12 13

Fe 14 15 13 14 9 13 22 24 15 12 18 19 17 16 19 16 19 17 15 15 17 21 20 19 15 12 18 13 13 13 14 14 12 13

Ma 17 19 17 19 12 15 26 28 18 16 22 22 20 21 21 20 20 20 17 17 20 24 23 22 18 13 19 15 18 18 16 17 16 15

Number of sunny days in Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se 19 21 17 20 11 16 26 28 19 16 25 20 23 23 20 21 19 20 16 17 21 23 22 22 20 10 19 14 20 19 17 17 17 17 20 23 16 17 11 16 29 30 21 17 28 21 24 25 19 22 19 22 18 19 22 24 21 23 21 10 20 16 21 20 20 20 19 19 20 22 15 16 11 14 28 29 22 17 28 21 26 27 18 23 21 24 18 19 19 21 19 20 20 12 20 18 23 22 21 21 21 20 19 20 14 14 9 10 26 29 22 16 30 25 29 30 21 21 21 24 19 20 19 21 20 19 19 14 21 18 28 25 23 24 23 23 20 21 12 11 9 8 26 28 23 14 30 25 29 29 22 20 21 22 19 19 20 22 21 20 20 12 22 18 27 25 22 22 21 22 20 21 11 9 8 10 27 28 21 16 28 24 27 28 21 21 21 23 17 19 17 20 19 19 20 13 21 20 24 23 20 22 19 20

Oc 21 22 10 9 6 11 27 29 23 15 27 24 24 25 22 22 22 23 17 19 18 20 19 21 21 13 21 18 20 20 19 20 18 20

No 17 19 10 11 6 11 25 27 17 13 22 24 19 20 23 19 20 20 14 16 18 21 20 20 18 10 19 15 14 14 14 16 12 14

De 14 15 9 9 6 9 24 26 15 12 15 22 16 14 22 17 20 18 14 15 16 20 20 19 15 11 19 15 11 11 13 14 12 12

Arizona Arkansas California

Colorado Conn. D.C. Florida

Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana

Page B.1

General Info. by City

TeliSolar Number of sunny days in Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se 18 18 20 19 17 19 18 16 17 16 16 16 17 17 19 18 18 18 18 17 18 19 20 24 23 16 18 23 16 15 18 18 19 17 17 17 16 16 19 15 17 17 15 17 22 19 20 21 20 20 20 21 16 18 18 19 16 18 19 21 20 20 20 18 18 20 20 21 26 24 16 19 24 18 18 19 20 21 18 19 19 19 20 20 16 19 19 18 18 23 20 20 22 22 20 19 23 16 19 20 20 17 18 19 22 21 20 21 19 18 21 22 24 27 25 17 20 25 19 20 20 19 20 18 19 21 20 20 22 17 20 19 19 18 21 23 23 24 25 22 18 24 17 20 21 22 20 21 22 21 24 22 24 24 24 24 24 24 26 28 18 21 24 20 22 20 18 19 23 23 22 22 22 24 22 21 20 20 19 20 22 22 24 24 21 19 25 18 20 20 21 18 20 21 22 23 21 22 23 23 22 23 25 27 28 18 20 23 19 21 20 18 19 21 21 21 21 21 24 20 20 19 19 19 20 19 20 23 22 20 19 24 16 18 18 17 14 16 18 22 21 20 21 19 18 20 22 24 28 26 17 20 24 17 18 19 19 19 19 18 20 19 20 22 17 19 19 19 18 20

State ----Iowa

City ----

Ja 17 17 21 19 13 15 15 14 15 11 8 10 15 15 14 17 15 15 14 9 18 20 19 23 18 15 16 22 13 10 15 15 16 16 15 13 9 11 18 8 13 14 10 14 18

Fe 16 16 18 18 13 14 15 14 16 12 10 11 15 15 14 16 14 15 15 11 17 18 18 22 18 15 16 20 14 11 16 15 16 16 15 13 10 12 17 10 15 16 11 15 17

Ma 17 18 21 20 16 18 18 16 18 15 15 15 19 17 18 18 17 18 18 15 19 20 21 24 21 17 18 22 16 15 18 17 18 17 17 16 14 15 20 13 17 18 14 15 20

Oc 20 20 23 21 20 22 24 16 18 17 16 12 15 17 22 21 20 20 18 16 20 22 23 26 24 16 17 25 17 16 19 20 20 18 18 19 17 19 21 13 18 19 17 18 21

No 16 16 21 20 15 18 20 11 14 11 9 7 11 12 18 18 16 17 14 8 18 19 20 25 20 13 17 24 12 9 16 18 19 15 12 14 10 13 19 8 14 16 12 15 20

De 15 16 21 18 12 14 19 12 15 9 7 7 12 12 14 16 14 15 13 6 17 18 19 23 17 13 16 22 12 9 16 15 16 15 14 12 8 11 18 7 13 15 9 14 18

Des Moines Sioux City Kansas Dodge City Wichita Kentucky Louisville Louisiana New Orleans Shreveport Maine Eastport Massachusetts Boston Michigan Detroit Grand Rapids Marquette Minnesota Duluth Minneapolis Mississippi Vicksburg Missouri Kansas City St. Louis Springfield Montana Helena Kalispell Nebraska Lincoln North Platte Nevada Ely Las Vegas Reno New Hampshire Concord New Jersey Atlantic City New Mexico Albuquerque New York Albany Buffalo New York N. Carolina Asheville Raleigh N. Dakota Bismarck Fargo Ohio Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Oklahoma Oklahoma City Oregon Portland Pennsylvania Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh Rhode Island Block Island S. Carolina Charleston

Page B.2

TeliSolar

General Info. by City Number of sunny days in Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se 20 19 19 18 19 18 20 18 26 20 18 20 14 19 19 14 19 15 17 17 18 20 12 14 16 15 13 12 14 14 14 15 13 12 12 8 8 12 12 13 14 13 21 20 19 20 21 20 23 19 27 21 21 23 16 21 21 16 20 17 18 19 18 18 13 15 17 17 16 16 18 16 16 16 14 14 13 10 11 14 14 17 16 16 20 20 20 20 22 21 26 22 26 23 23 23 18 20 20 14 20 18 19 20 20 19 12 15 17 17 16 16 17 15 15 16 14 14 13 10 11 13 13 17 15 15 20 24 23 20 23 21 26 24 24 24 22 25 19 20 20 19 25 20 22 23 22 20 13 15 17 17 16 16 18 16 16 16 14 14 13 10 11 14 14 17 16 16 20 22 23 18 23 21 26 24 24 24 22 25 18 20 19 17 24 19 20 21 21 21 13 15 17 17 16 16 18 16 16 16 14 14 13 10 11 14 14 17 16 16 19 20 21 19 21 21 22 21 24 22 21 25 15 19 19 16 20 18 17 19 21 18 14 15 15 14 12 14 17 15 13 14 14 13 14 11 12 14 13 15 13 14

State ----S. Dakota

City ----

Ja 16 17 18 13 14 13 20 14 23 17 16 15 11 16 15 8 8 9 14 14 20 20 7 12 11 10 7 6 8 12 10 13 12 11 12 8 8 10 9 11 11 11

Fe 16 17 17 14 14 13 19 14 22 16 14 15 12 16 15 10 11 10 14 13 18 19 9 12 11 11 9 9 10 13 12 14 12 11 12 8 8 11 10 11 13 11

Ma 19 19 20 16 18 17 23 18 25 20 17 19 15 19 18 13 16 13 17 16 20 22 11 13 15 14 12 11 13 14 14 19 12 11 13 9 8 12 11 12 13 13

Oc 21 19 20 20 21 20 22 22 25 22 23 23 13 20 20 11 16 16 16 17 21 20 12 16 15 13 10 11 13 15 13 15 13 13 14 10 10 14 13 14 11 12

No 19 16 17 16 17 17 22 17 24 19 19 17 8 18 17 8 8 11 12 13 20 19 9 13 12 10 7 8 9 9 6 9 10 9 9 7 7 10 8 9 6 8

De 16 15 17 13 14 13 20 15 23 18 15 15 7 16 16 7 7 9 12 12 20 20 5 12 11 8 5 6 7 11 9 11 11 10 12 7 7 10 8 9 8 9

Columbia Huron Rapid City Tennessee Knoxville Memphis Nashville Texas Abilene Austin El Paso Ft. Worth Galveston Utah Salt Lake Cit Vermont Burlington Virginia Norfork Richmond Washington Seattle Spokane W. Virginia Parkersburg Wisconsin Green Bay Milwaukee Wyoming Cheyenne Puerto Rico San Juan Alberta Banff Calgary Edmonton British Colum Dawson Creek Prince George Vancouver Victoria Manitoba Brandon The Pas Winnipeg New Brunswick Chatham Moncton Saint John Newfoundland Gander St. John's Nova Scotia Halifax Sydney Ontario Kingston North Bay Ottawa

Sault Ste Mar Thunder Bay Toronto

8 13 9

11 15 10

13 16 12

14 15 13

16 16 15

16 15 14

16 16 15

16 16 15

13 14 16

11 11 14

7 9 8

8 11 9

Page B.3

General Info. by City

TeliSolar Number of sunny days in Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se 11 14 14 13 12 15 15 16 15 15 16 13 14 16 14 13 14 17 17 16 18 18 13 14 16 14 13 14 17 17 16 17 17 13 14 16 14 13 14 17 17 16 18 17 13 14 16 14 13 14 17 17 16 17 17 14 11 16 11 13 11 17 16 14 15 16

State -----

City ----

Ja 9 9 11 11 9 11 12 12 11 11 12

Fe 10 11 12 11 10 11 13 11 12 11 13

Ma 11 13 14 13 12 13 15 14 14 13 16

Oc 12 8 14 10 11 8 15 16 13 16 16

No 8 5 8 7 7 6 11 11 9 11 11

De 7 8 9 9 8 9 10 10 10 10 11

Prince Edward Charlottetown Quebec Amos Montreal Normandin Quebec St. Ambroise Saskatchewan Indian Head Moose Jaw Prince Albert Regina Saskatoon

Page B.4

TeliSolar

General Info. by City Degree-days Heating Cooling ------------2780 1954 10789 14279 8187 14086 1492 951 2982 4632 2532 2015 2546 2600 1574 3069 5673 5796 6139 4333 1239 108 141 683 2983 0 1928 0 0 52 0 0 3508 0 1925 0 1671 1185 0 1159 722 39 625 1140 584 1415 0 0 4038 3366 1589 3066

State ----Alabama Alaska

City ---Birmingham Montgomery Anchorage Fairbanks Juneau Nome Phoenix Yuma Little Rock Eureka Fresno Los Angeles Red Bluff Sacramento San Diego San Francisco Denver Grand Junct Hartford Washington Jacksonville Key West Miami Beach Tampa Atlanta Hilo

Lat. ---33.5 32.4 61.2 64.8 58.3 64.5 33.4 0.0 34.7 0.0 36.8 33.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.8 39.7 39.1 41.8 38.9 30.3 0.0 25.8 27.9 33.7 0.0

Arizona Arkansas California

Colorado Conn. D.C. Florida

Georgia Hawaii

Honolulu Lihue Idaho Boise Pocatello Illinois Chicago Springfield Indiana Ft. Wayne Indianapolis Iowa Des Moines Sioux City Kansas Dodge City Wichita Kentucky Louisville Louisiana New Orleans Shreveport Maine Eastport Massachusetts Boston Michigan Detroit Grand Rapids

0 0 5809 7033 6155 5429 6205 5699 6808 6951 4986 4620 4660 1385 2184 8246 5634 6232 6894

4221 0 714 0 925 1116 0 974 928 0 0 1673 1268 2706 2538 0 661 743 575

21.3 0.0 43.6 42.9 41.9 0.0 41.1 39.7 41.6 0.0 37.8 37.7 38.2 30.0 32.5 0.0 42.4 42.3 43.0

Page B.5

General Info. by City Degree-days Heating Cooling ------------8393 10000 8382 2041 4711 4900 4561 8128 8191 5864 6684 7733 2709 6332 7383 4812 4348 6875 216 176 585 0 1420 1475 0 256 0 0 802 0 2946 0 349 864 1316 574

TeliSolar

State ----Minnesota

City ----

Lat. ---0.0 46.8 45.0 0.0 39.1 38.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 40.8 0.0 39.3 36.1 39.5 43.2 0.0 35.1 42.7

Marquette Duluth Minneapolis Mississippi Vicksburg Missouri Kansas City St. Louis Springfield Montana Helena Kalispell Nebraska Lincoln North Platte Nevada Ely Las Vegas Reno New Hampshire Concord New Jersey Atlantic City New Mexico Albuquerque New York Albany

N. Carolina N. Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island S. Carolina S. Dakota Tennessee Texas

Buffalo New York Asheville Raleigh Bismarck Fargo Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Oklahoma City Portland Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh Block Island Charleston Columbia Huron Rapid City Knoxville Memphis Nashville Abilene Austin El Paso Ft. Worth Galveston

7062 4850 4042 3393 8851 9226 4806 6351 5660 3725 4635 5251 5101 5987 5804 2033 2484 8223 7345 3494 3232 3578 2624 1711 2700 2405 1235

437 1068 872 1394 0 473 1188 613 809 1876 300 1025 1104 948 359 2078 0 0 661 1569 2029 1694 0 0 2098 2587 0

42.9 40.8 35.6 0.0 46.8 46.9 39.1 41.4 40.0 35.4 45.5 40.2 40.0 40.4 0.0 32.9 0.0 0.0 44.2 36.0 35.2 36.1 0.0 30.3 31.8 32.8 29.3

Page B.6

TeliSolar

General Info. by City Degree-days Heating Cooling ------------6052 8269 3421 3865 4424 6655 4754 8029 7635 7278 927 396 1441 1353 129 388 0 0 450 327

State ----Utah Vermont Virginia Washington W. Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

City ---Salt Lake Cit Burlington Norfork Richmond Seattle Spokane Parkersburg Green Bay Milwaukee Cheyenne

Lat. ---40.8 0.0 36.8 37.5 47.5 47.7 0.0 44.5 43.0 41.1

Puerto Rico Alberta

San Juan Banff Calgary Edmonton British Colum Dawson Creek Prince George Vancouver Victoria Manitoba Brandon The Pas Winnipeg New Brunswick Chatham Moncton Saint John Newfoundland Gander St. John's Nova Scotia Halifax Sydney Ontario Kingston North Bay Ottawa Sault Ste Mar Thunder Bay Toronto Prince Edward Charlottetown Quebec Amos Montreal Normandin Quebec St. Ambroise Saskatchewan Indian Head Moose Jaw Prince Albert Regina Saskatoon

0 9611 9204 9768 10467 9145 4924 4874 10722 11882 10461 8632 8281 7303 8567 7735 6835 7729 7494 8884 8162 8931 10028 6558 7877 10880 7933 10824 8561 10458 10404 9621 11519 10474 10486

4982 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Page B.7

General Info. by City

TeliSolar

Page B.8

#E#4APPENDIX C. R-VALUES OF SELECTED MATERIALS#5 #4#5#F 1/8" Asbestos-cement board 3/8" Gypsum 1/2" Gypsum 25/32" Sheathing fiber 1" Wood fiber board 1/4" Wood fiber 00.98 subfloor 3/4" Hardwood Felt building paper Carpet & fiber pad Carpet & rubber pad 1/8" Cork tile 1" Terrazzo Tile 1/2" Gypsumboard Hardwood flooring 1" Cement mortar 1" Gypsum-fiber concrete 1" Stucco 1" Common Brick 1" Face Brick 8" Concrete block 1" Stone 1" Marble 1" Cement plaster 1/2" Gypsum plaster Asbestos shingles Asphalt roll Built-up roofing 1/2" Slate roofing Wood shingle roofing Wood shingle siding Wood insulated siding Asphalt insulated siding 1/2" Plywood 1" Hardwoods 1" Softwoods 1" Solid-core wood door 0.03 0.32 0.45 2.06 0.00 2.38 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.68 0.06 2.08 1.23 0.28 0.08 0.05 0.45 0.68 0.20 0.60 0.20 0.20 0.11 1.04 0.08 0.05 0.20 0.32 0.21 0.15 0.44 0.05 0.94 0.80 1.40 1.46 0.62 0.91 1.25 1.56

Page C.1

R-values of Selected Materials

TeliSolar

Page C.2

#E#4APPENDIX D. FURTHER READING#5 #4#5#F The Solar Decision Book, A Guide for Heating Your Home with Solar Energy Richard H. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons, 1978 The Solar Home Book Bruce Anderson, Brick House Publishing, 1976 The Passive Solar Energy Book Edward Mazria, Rodale Press, 1979 Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume 2 (DOE/cs-0127/2), Los Alamos Complete Book of Insulating L. Gay (editor), Stephen Green Press, 1980 Simplified Energy Design Economics Marshall H. and R. Ruegg (editors), U.S. Government Printing Office

Page D.1

Further Reading

TeliSolar

Page D.2

#E#4GLOSSARY#5 #4#5#F Active solar system A system that has equipment to trap the sun's energy and mechanically move that energy to its point of intended use for water heating, space heating, and possibly space cooling. Usually has storage capabilities. Angle of incidence Angle at which solar energy strikes a surface. Azimuth The angle between solar south and the direction in which the collectors are faced. Used in solar flux calculations. British thermal unit (Btu) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (pint) of water one degree Fahrenheit. Collector A device used to collect solar radiation (energy) and convert it to usable heat.

Collector efficiency The performance of a collector, measured as a ratio of useful energy collected to the available energy striking the collector. Usually expressed as a percent. Collector tilt angle The angle between surface. the collector and a horizontal or level

Conduction The process by which heat energy is transferred through materials (solids, liquids, or gases) by molecular excitation of adjacent molecules. Conductivity(k) The quantity of heat (BTUs) that will flow through one square foot of material, one inch thick, in one hour, when there is a temperature difference of 1 degree F between its surfaces. Convection The transfer of heat between a moving fluid medium (liquid or gas) and a surface, or the transfer of heat within a fluid by movements within the fluid. Degree-day A unit of measurement used in heat-loss calculations and solar system sizing. Shows degrees difference between 65 degrees F and the day's mean (average) outdoor temperature. A 25 degree-day would have a mean temperature of 40 degree F. Page E.1

Glossary Two such days would add up to 50 degree-days. Direct radiation Composed of parallel rays coming Casts shadows on clear days. Emissivity The property of emitting heat materials to a varying extent. straight from

TeliSolar

the

sun.

radiation;

possessed

by all

Flat plate collector Converts the sun's radiation into heat on a flat surface within a simple box. Does not use reflecting surfaces, or lens arrangements. Flux

The intensity of heat flow. Heat exchanger A device which transfers heat from one substance to another substance without mixing the two. Heat loss A decrease in the amount of heat contained in a space, resulting from heat flow through walls, windows, roof, and other building envelope components. Infiltration The uncontrolled movement of outdoor air into the interior of a building through cracks around windows and doors or in walls, roofs, and floors. This may work by cold air leaking in during the winter, or hot air leaking in during the summer. Insolation The total amount of solar radiation striking a collector cover plate. Includes direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation. kwh Kilowatt-hour. Equals 1000 watt-hours. Electricity is sold in kwh. means to move or

Passive system A solar system which has no mechanical regulate the release of collected energy.

Payback period The amount of time (usually years) needed for a building owner to recover the system investment in fuel-cost savings.

Page E.2

TeliSolar Radiation The heat movement from a warm surface.

Glossary

R-value The tested insulation value which is used to calculate U-factor. "R" is the resistance to heat flow. Solar radiation

the

The sun's energy that comes diffuse, and reflected rays.

to earth in the form of direct,

U-factor The number of Btus which pass through one square foot of solid in one hour if there is a one degree Fahrenheit difference between the two sides. Used to express heat transmission. The reciprocal of "R-value" (U=1/R).

Page E.3

Glossary

TeliSolar

Page E.4

#E#4SERVICE INFORMATION#5 #4#5#F

Product Registration Tesseract believes that customer service is very important for customer satisfaction. We want you to be happy with the product that you have purchased and have you as a repeat customer for future products that we might offer. Therefore, you have our assurance of customer service and product support. To take advantage of Tesseract's Customer Service Plan, you must first register your product with Tesseract Enterprises Limited. The Product Registration Form is included following this section. Tesseract encourages you to complete and mail the form as soon as possible. The $50.00 registration fee entitles you to: o o o o o o o The replacing of your purchased product defective within the warranty period. if it proves

The replacing of your purchased product for a small charge if it proves defective after the warranty has expired. The providing product. of substantial savings on new releases of the

The answering of technical questions about the product. The supplying are available. of enhancement information when new releases manual (with accompanying

A letter-quality, indexed, printed illustrations) in a 3-ring binder. A free version upgrade.

Product Warranty The diskette(s) on which your Tesseract program is recorded is warranted to be free of defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a period of 90 days from date of purchase.

This warranty applies only to the original buyer and only to the recording medium (diskette), not to the information recorded on it.

Service Information

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Tesseract makes no representations or warranties, either express or implied, with respect to the software described hereof, its quality or performance and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. All programs have been thoroughly tested, but there may be bugs for which Tesseract cannot be responsible. Tesseract assumes no responsibility to the customer or any other person for any application or use of any software or documentation, sold by it or any of its dealers. This program is the result of many man-years of development and testing, but it is an engineering tool and as such contains simplifying assumptions and approximations that may render it unsuitable for certain applications. Product Upgrade Plan The Tesseract Product Upgrade Plan entitles you you one free version upgrade using the enclosed "REDEMPTION COUPON". Simply provide the product Version Number and Serial Number in the space provided and return it to Tesseract Enterprises Limited for the latest version of the product. This is a once only offer. Subsequent version upgrades may be purchased at a fraction of the original price, commensurate with the nature of the revision. Tesseract Enterprises Limited may, from time to time, enhance or improve the program or documentation of its products. Tesseract incurs no obligation to furnish revision notices to customers who have purchased Tesseract products; Tesseract, nonetheless, intends to inform licensees for whom a Product Registration Form is on file of any substantial improvements or enhancements. Limited Warranty and License All Tesseract programs and documentation are materials and may not be sold for financial gain. copyrighted

This product is the result of several man-years of effort and considerable money. It is priced low enough so that all computer owners can afford to buy it. Making a copy and selling it for financial gain is a violation of copyright laws. We at Tesseract do not believe in copy protection because of the problems it causes the end user who would like to make backup copies (which we consider very important) or use this product with a hard disk. So, please, protect a vital, useful, and important industry and those companies that are trying to provide useful products that all can afford.

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Service Information

Teli/Solar Registration Form Please fill out this form and return it to Tesseract Enterprises Limited (along with the registration fee) in order to register your ownership of Teli/Solar. Name: __________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Firm: __________________________________________ Version#4______ Serial Number#5___________

-------------------------------------------------------------------Type of business: ___________________________________________ I learned of Teli/Solar through: _____________________________ Primary Uses: Comments: Business __ Personal__ Home __ Other __

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TeliSolar Product Evaluation

Service Information

----------------------------------------------------------------------(Cut along dotted line) R E D E M P T I O N C O U P O N

This coupon is good for one free version update for the Teli/Solar package by Tesseract Enterprises Limited. When this coupon is returned by a registered owner of the Teli/Solar package, the latest version of the package will be sent to the person(s) sending in this coupon absolutely free of charge. Teli/Solar Version _________ Serial Number ______________

Service Information

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Service Information

Version 1.20 Error Report Form Your Name: ___________________________________________________ Address : ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Computer: ___________________________________________________ Version of DOS : _____________________________________________ Memory of your Computer : ____________________________________ Error Description : __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Did the error : 1. Halt the program and print an error message or 2. Cause incorrect results? List the incorrect results if any : __________________________ _______________________________________ Error Message if Any : _______________________________________ Which Option Was the Error in ? ______________________________ Were you able to correct the Error ? Yes ___ No ___ How did you correct the Error ? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Any other comments : __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Does the error always occur or does the error only occur under certain conditions? __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Mail to : Attn : Error Tesseract Enterprises Inc. Post Office Box 25966 Colorado Springs, CO 80936

Please send us information on any errors you encounter. Please read the manual before submitting an error report form. The bugs in this program do not occur very often. If you run into an error during the first few hours you are using the software you are probably doing something wrong.

Service Information

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Service Information

UPDATE ORDER FORM

Your Name : Street : City/State: Zip Code :

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _______________

Computer : ___________________________________________________ Version of DOS : ______________________________________________ What version of Teli/Solar do you have ? ________ What is the serial number ? _______________ What version of Teli/Solar do you want ? ________ New order (unregistered user) .............. Updated version ............................ Updated version (with coupon) .............. $50.00 $15.00 Free

Oversea orders add $5. Colorado Residents add 5% sales tax. First Class Mail is included. We ship your order in less than 7 days. Allow 2 to 3 weeks for postal delivery. Mail to : Attn : Update Tesseract Enterprises Inc. Post Office Box 25966 Colorado Springs, CO 80936

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#E#4TABLE OF CONTENTS#5 #4#5#F #G1. Introduction.......................................... 1.1#H 1.1. Characteristics and Advantages.................... 1.1 1.2. Electronic Computers............................... 1.2 1.3. Manual Style....................................... 1.2 1.4. In General......................................... 1.4 #G2. Getting Started........................................ 2.1#H 2.1. Configuration...................................... 2.1 2.2. Keyboard Information............................... 2.2 2.3. Function Keys...................................... 2.2 2.4. Menu Driven........................................ 2.5 2.5. Status Line........................................ 2.5 2.6. Preparing Your System.............................. 2.6 #G3. Hot Water Usage........................................ 3.1#H 3.1. Introduction....................................... 3.1 3.2. Usage.............................................. 3.1 3.3. Help............................................... 3.3 3.4. Application........................................ 3.4 3.5. Theory............................................. 3.5 #G4. Solar Flux Striking Collector.......................... 4.1#H 4.1. Introduction....................................... 4.1 4.2. Usage.............................................. 4.2

4.3. Help............................................... 4.4. Application........................................ 4.5. Theory.............................................

4.3 4.3 4.5

#G5. Heat loss.............................................. 5.1#H 5.1. Introduction....................................... 5.1 5.2. Usage.............................................. 5.2 5.3. Editting........................................... 5.9 5.4. Help............................................... 5.9 5.5. Application........................................ 5.12 5.6. Theory............................................. 5.13 #G6. Economic Considerations................................ 6.1#H 6.1. Introduction....................................... 6.1 6.2. Usage.............................................. 6.1 6.3. Help............................................... 6.3 6.4. Application........................................ 6.4 6.5. Theory............................................. 6.5 #G7. Solar Sizing........................................... 7.1#H 7.1. Introduction....................................... 7.1 7.2. Usage.............................................. 7.1 7.3. Help............................................... 7.2 7.4. Application........................................ 7.3 7.5. Theory............................................. 7.3

Table of Contents

TeliSolar

#GAppendix A. Detailed Operations........................... A.1#H A.1. Handling and Storage of Diskettes.................. A.1 A.2. Write-Protecting Diskettes......................... A.2 A.3. Helpful Hints...................................... A.3 A.4. Cold Starting...................................... A.3 A.5. Warm Starting...................................... A.4 A.6. Diskette Formatting................................ A.5 A.7. Diskette Backup.................................... A.5 A.8. Using a Hard Disk.................................. A.6 A.9. Power Off.......................................... A.6 #GAppendix B. General Info. by City......................... #GAppendix C. R-values of Selected Materials................ #GAppendix D. Further Reading............................... #GGlossary.................................................. #GService Information....................................... B.1#H C.1#H D.1#H E.1#H F.1#H

#F#H###W##5#-#

----------------end-of-author's-documentation---------------

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