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De Leonardis Giuseppe

June 2011

What is a water rocket?


It is based on the NEWTONs
THIRD LAW OF MOTION: For
every action there is an equal and
opposite reaction
Starting from Newtons third law of
motion we arrive at a complex
formula used for the modeling of
any type of rocket: Tsiolkovskijs
rocket equation

De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What is a water rocket?


Ideal Rocket Equation: Tsiolkovskijs equation

De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What is a water rocket?


The water rocket is a bottle that serves as a tank where
you can place both air and water, and its bottom acting
as a nozzle when it is open.
Prior to launch, the body of the rocket is filled with
water to some desired amount, typically about 40% of
the volume.
The volume of air press on the walls of the tank as on
the surface of the water which transmits the force on
the nozzle hole.

De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What is a water rocket?


A release mechanism open the
nozzle and the water is released, it
is violently ejected giving a push
in the opposite direction.
When the compressed air and
water are exhausted, the rocket
continue its motion towards the
sky, then falling to the ground due
to the friction force with the air
and the earth's gravitational force.
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What do you need?


Tools:
Drill
Pliers
Hacksaw
Scissors
Cutter
A lot of patches

De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What do you need?


Materials:
PVC bottles
Light material for fins
Duct tape
Glue
Air source
Idraulic accessories
Hardware store accessories
patience
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

How it is composed?
NOSE CONE: an extension of the
bottle that comes in a variety of
shapes and is used to improve the
aerodynamics of the rocket.
PAYLOAD SECTION: an optional
section that could hold a parachute
or a payload such as altimeter,
accelerometer, camera, etc...
BODY: 2 liter bottle(s) serves as the
propulsion compartment or "engine"
of the water rocket.
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

How it is composed?
NOZZLE: a part that fits into the
bottle opening to help in the
propulsion of the rocket and
provides a mounting point for
launcher.
FINS: a part that helps to stabilize
the water rocket.
BOOSTER SYSTEM: an optional
part composed by other bottles used
to improve the thrust
LAUNCHER.
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What are the performance?


The lightness of the empty rocket is

such that most of the total weight is


given by the water contained. So
applying equation of rocket
formulated by Tsiolkovskij, you have a
very favorable value for the ratio of the
masses.
An ordinary plastic bottle, charge onethird of its volume with water and air
at a pressure of 9-10 atmospheres can
push the rocket over one hundred
meters high, with a top speed
exceeding 100 km / h.
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What are the performance?


Even if the rocket is inflated only by

compressed air it can make


considerable distances, both in terms
of height and in terms of linear
distance from the launch site to the
impact point.
Many fans, in small groups or
individuals, compete in this race and
their results are regulated by specific
organization.
Covering the tank with special
materials such as Dyneema, carbon
fiber and resin can improve
performance.
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

What are the performance?


The current record for greatest

altitude achieved by a water and air


propelled rocket is 623 meters.
Word Guinness record is held by
U.S. Water Rockets team on June
2007.
This altitude was calculated by
averaging two flights.
The rocket also carried a video
camera as payload on both flights
as part of the verification required
by the competition rules.

De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

Thank you for your


attention

"It's time to face reality, my friends... We're not exactly rocket scientists."
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011

Q&A
De Leonardis Giuseppe

-Water Rocket-

June 2011