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Syllabus
Mathematics
ECE
EE
IN
ME
CE
2013
10
12
10
15
N.A
2012
14
10
15
15
15
2011
10
10
13
13
2010
12
12
12
15
15
14.5%
14.33%
Over All
Percentage
11.25%
11.00% 11.75%
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Contents
Mathematics
CONTENTS
#1.
#2.
#3.
#4.
Chapter
Page No.
Linear Algebra
137
1  4
4  17
17  20
21  24
24 27
28
28  37
Matrix
Determinant
Eigen Vectors
Assignment1
Assignment2
Answer Keys
Explanations
3870
38
44
50
58
60
64
64
44
 50
 57
 60
 63
70
Numerical Methods
7190
71 77
77  80
80  82
83  84
85
86
86 90
Calculus
91  134
91  97
97  98
98 101
102  108
108  115
116 119
120  122
123
123 134
Indeterminate form
Derivative
Maximaminima
Integration
Vector calculus
Assignment1
Assignment2
Answer Keys
Explanations
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Page I
Contents
#5.
#6.
#7.
Mathematics
Differential Equations
135  172
135  145
145  153
153 160
161 163
164  165
166
166 172
Complex Variables
173  199
173  175
176  178
178 184
184 186
187  189
189  191
192
192 199
Complex Variables
Analytical Function
Cauchys Intergral Theorem
Residue Theorem
Assignment1
Assignment2
Answer Keys
Explanations
Laplace Transform
200  217
200
200  205
206 208
209  211
212
212 217
Introduction
Laplace Transform
Assignment1
Assignment2
Answer Keys
Explanations
Module Test
218235
Test Questions
218 224
Answer Keys
225
Explanations
225  235
Reference Books
236
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Page II
Chapter1
Mathematics
CHAPTER 1
Linear Algebra
Linear algebra comprises of the theory and applications of linear system of equations, linear
transformations and Eigenvalue problems.
Matrix
Definition
A system of m n numbers arranged along m rows and n columns
Conventionally, single capital letter is used to denote matrices
Thus,
A=[
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
Types of Matrices
1. Row and Column matrices
Row Matrices [ 2, 7, 8, 9]
Column Matrices
2. Square matrix
Same number of rows and columns.
Order of Square matrix no. of rows or columns
e.g. A = [
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Page 1
Chapter1
Mathematics
3. Rectangular Matrix
Number of rows Number of columns
4. Diagonal Matrix
A Square matrix in which all the elements except those in leading diagonal are zero.
e.g. [
5. Scalar Matrix
A Diagonal matrix in which all the leading diagonal elements are same.
e.g [
Symmetric Matrix
= A
=  A
9. Triangular matrix
A matrix is said to be upper triangular if all the elements below its principal diagonal
are zeros.
A matrix is said to be lower triangular if all the elements above its principal diagonal
are zeros.
a
a h g
[
[g b
]
b f]
f h c
c
Upper triangular matrix
Lower triangular matrix
10.
Chapter1
Mathematics
11.
12.
Unitary matrix
) = transpose of a conjugate of matrix A
If we define, A = (A
Then the matrix is unitary if A . A =
For example
A=[
13.
],A =[
Hermitian matrix
It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to its own conjugate transpose.
A = A or a = a
i
For example:
0
1
i
Note: In Hermitian matrix , diagonal elements
14.
always real
Skew Hermitian matrix : It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to the
negative of conjugate transpose.
A = A or a = a
i
For example = 0
1
i
Note: In SkewHermitian matrix , diagonal elements
15.
16.
17.
Periodic Matrix : If A
Equality of matrices
Two matrices can be equal if they are of
(a) Same order
(b) Each corresponding element in both the matrices are equal.
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Page 3
Chapter1
Mathematics
a
c
b
]
d
a
c
b
] =
d
a
c
a
c
b
d
b
]
d
Rules
1. Matrices of same order can be added
2. Addition is commutative A+B = B+A
3. Addition is associative (A+B) +C = A+ (B+C) = B + (C+A)
Multiplication of matrix by a Scalar
Every element of the matrix gets multiplied by that scalar.
Multiplication of matrices
Condition: Two matrices can be multiplied only when number of columns of the first matrix is
equal to the number of rows of the second matrix. Multiplication of (m n) and (n
m n
p) matrices results in matrix of (m p)dimension
0 n p = m p1.
To find Rank always remember to make matrix a triangular matrix (Upper triangular) or (lower
triangular)
[
] or
Try to make I, zero then II and then III in any Matrix to find Rank of Matrix, for easy execution of
question to find rank.
Determinant
An n order determinant is an expression associated with n
n square matrix.
a
D = det A = a
a
a  = (a
a
a )
Determinant of order n
D = A = det A = 
a
a
a
a


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Page 4
Chapter1
Mathematics
The minor of an element in a determinant is the determinant obtained by deleting the row
and the column which intersect that element.
a
a
a
b
b 
D= b
c
c
c
Minor of a = 
b
c
b

c
Cofactor is the minor with proper sign. The sign is given by (1)
belongs to ith row, jth column).
A2 = Cofactor of
= (1)
b

c
b

c
A
In general
=
=0
*
, ,
if i
=j
j
,
.+
Drill Problem
Can the determinant be expanded about the diagonal?
Properties of Determinants
1.
A determinant remains unaltered by changing its rows into columns and columns into
rows.
a
a
a
a
b
c
b
b 
b
c  =  b
 a
c
c
c
a
b
c
2.
3.
4.
Chapter1
5.
6.
Mathematics
c
a
c + a
c
a
b
b
b
d
d 
d
a
 a
a
b
b
b
e
e 
e
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
7.
Multiplication of determinants
The product of two determinants of same order is itself a determinant of that order.
In determinants we multiply row to row (instead of row to column which is done for
matrix).
Although looks similar, but actually determinant and matrix is totally different thing
and its technically unfair to even compare them. However just for readers
convenience, following comparative table has been prepared.
Determinant
Matrix
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Page 6