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M2 Transformers

M2
Unit 2
Unit2

Dr.Prabodh Bajpai
AssociateProfessor
Department of Electrical Engineering
DepartmentofElectricalEngineering
IndianInstituteofTechnologyKharagpur

M2 Transformer
U2 Practicalsinglephasetransformer
Takingfinitepermeabilityofcoreintoaccount
Takingcorelossintoaccount
Takingwindingresistancesandleakagefluxinto
account
Equivalentcircuitofanpracticaltransformer

U2 Practicalsinglephasetransformer

PracticalTransformer
Thecorematerialwillhavefinitepermeability,
p
y
Therewillbeeddycurrentandhysteresislosses
t ki
takingplaceinthecore,
l
i th
There will be leakage fluxes, and
Therewillbeleakagefluxes,and
Finitewindingresistances.

Finitepermeability
Afinitemagnetizingcurrentforestablishingflux
in the core
inthecore
Fluxlevelincoreisdecidedbyvoltage,frequency
andnumberofturnsofprimaryanddoesnot
dependuponthenatureofthecorematerial
max

V1
2 fN

Amountofmagnetizingcurrentdrawnwillbe
f
ii
d
ill b
differentfordifferentcorematerial
H max

N1 I m max
l

, Im

I m max
2

Finitepermeability
MagnetizingmmfImN1mustexistinthetransformer
coreallthetime,independentofthedegreeofloading.
Underloadedcondition,netmmf,actinginthe
magneticcircuitisonceagainImN1 asmmfsI2N1and
I2N2 canceleachother.
l
h h
Transformerhavingafinitemagnetizingcurrentcanbe
modeledbyanidealtransformerwithafixed
magnetizingreactanceXm acrosstheprimary.
im

m sin t
,
N1

Im

RMS value I m

V1
V1

N12 X m

2 N1

2 N1

V1
2 f N1

Phasor diagramwithmagnetizing
I
'
currenttakenintoaccount
k
I2 a

Magnetising reactancetotakeIm intoaccount

Corelosseffect
Magnitudeofthecorelossispracticallyindependent
of the degree of loading and this loss must be drawn
ofthedegreeofloadingandthislossmustbedrawn
fromthesupply
Th
Theeffectofcorelossismanifestedbyheatingofthe
ff t f
l
i
if t d b h ti
f th
coreandisarealpower(orenergy)loss.
Totakethisintoaccount,afixedresistanceRclis
connectedinparallelwiththemagnetizingreactance
ThenoloadcurrentdrawnfromthesupplyIo,(sumof
Icl and Im )isabout2to5%oftheratedcurrent

Phasor Diagramofatransformerhavingcore
loss and magnetising current.
lossandmagnetising
current.

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Takingcorelossintoaccount

Effectofwindingresistancesandleakageflux
Mutualfluxalonetakespartintheenergytransfer
fromtheprimarytothesecondary,theeffectofthe
leakage flux causes additional voltage drop
leakagefluxcausesadditionalvoltagedrop.
Thisdropcanberepresentedbyasmallreactance
d
dropcalledtheleakagereactancedrop.
ll d h l k
d
Theeffectofwindingresistancesaretakeninto
accountbywayofsmalllumpedresistances.
Resistance
Resistanceandleakagereactancedropswillbepresent
and leakage reactance drops will be present
onboththesides
The
Theparallelimpedanceismuchhigherthantheseries
parallel impedance is much higher than the series
leakageimpedanceofboththesides

Takingwindingresistancesandleakage
fluxintoaccount

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ExactEquivalentcircuitreferredto
primary and secondary sides
primaryandsecondarysides

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EquivalentCircuit
q
R1

V1

'
2

N1 N2

R2

X2

Io

I1
Ro

Xo

E1
E2
V1
V2

or
N1 N 2
N1
N2

E1

I2

E2

V2

load

X1

I 2 N 2 I N1 I 1 N1
'
2

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Referredimpedance
X1

R1

V1

'
2

N1 N2

R2

Io

I1
Ro

Xo

E1

I2

E2

N1
N1

E1
E2
I 2 R 2 jX
N2
N2

X2

V2

V 2

N1
N1 ' N 1
R2 jX 2 V2
E1
E2
I 2
N2
N2 N2

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N1
N1 ' N1
R2 jX 2 V2
E1
E2
I 2
N2
N2 N2

Define:
2

R'2

N1
N1
R2 jX 2
E1 I
V2
N2
N2
'
2

N1
R2

N2
2

N1

X 2
N2
' N1
V2
V2
N2
X '2

Then:

E1 I 2' R2' jjX 2' V2'


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EquivalentCircuitReferredto
SourceSide

X1

R1

V1

'
2

N1 N2 R2

Io
Ro

E1

Xo

R'2

Io

I1
Ro

Xo

E1

I 2'

X2

I2

E2

X1

R1

V1

I1

E1 I 2' R2' jX 2' V2'

V2
X '2

V2'

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Practical Considerations
PracticalConsiderations
X1

R1

V1

R1

X 1

X '2

R'2

Io

I1
Ro

'
Ro R2
'
X o X 2

Xo

E1

'
2

I1

V2'

'
I2 Io

'
I 2 I o

I1
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Approximateequivalentcircuit
X1

R1

V1

Io

I1
Ro

R1

V1

X '2

R '2

I 2'

V 2'

Xo

X1

R'2

I1

X '2

I 2'

Io
Ro

Xo

V2'

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Approximateequivalentcircuit
R1

V1

Define:

X1

'
2

X '2

I 1 I '2

'
Req R1 R2
'
X eq X 1 X 2

V2'

Req X eq

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Analysis of Transformer
AnalysisofTransformer
Req

V1

X eqq

'
I1 I 2

V2'

'
'
V1 V2 I 2 Req jX eq

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Req

V1

X eq

'
I1 I 2

V2'

V1 V2' I 2' Req j I 2' X eq

V1
I '2 Z eq

V 2'

I '2 X eq
I '2 R eq

'
I2
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Example
p
Atransformerhasthefollowingparameters:

N1
10
N2
Req R1 R2' 1;

Z l 0.530
o

X eq X 1 X 2' 10; Ro 1000;

X 0 5000

The rated voltage of the primary winding (V1) is 1000V.


Compute the load voltage.

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Solution

'
I1 I 2

N1
50
Z Z L
N2
'
L

X eq

Req

V1

V2'

0
V
1000

0
o
1

17
.
7

38
.
31
A
I 2'

'
o
Req j X eq Z L 1 j 10 50 30

V I Z 17.7 38.31
'
2

'
2

'
L

50 30 885 8.31
o

N2
1
V2 V
885 88.5 V
N1
10
'
2

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Terminologies
V2

LoadVoltage

LoadVoltagereferredtoSourceside
d l
f
d S
id

N1
V2
V
N2
'
2

Impedance referred to Source side


ImpedancereferredtoSourceside
2

L dC
LoadCurrent
t

I2

LoadcurrentreferredtoSourceside

N1
R2
R
N2
'
2

N1
X 2
X
N2
'
2

N2
I
I2
N1
'
2

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RatingsofActual3phaseTransformer
g
p
Apparent Power (3phase)
ApparentPower(3phase)
100MVA,13.8/138KV
'
2

linetoline
line
to line

V2
linetoline

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