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Fir st publi s h ed in Great Brit a in in 1982 by O sprey, an impr int of R ee d Co ns um e r Book s L i mited

,

  • Mi c h e lin H o u se , 8 1 Fulham R oa d ,

London SW3 6 RB a nd Au c kl a nd , M e lb o urn e, Singapore a nd

Tor o nto

© 1982 R ee d Int e rn at io n a l Boo ks Limit e d

R e print e d

1984 , 1985 , 1986 , 1987 ( twice ) , 1990 , ' 99 '

'992,

' 993·

' 994

A ll r ig ht s r ese r ved . Apart from

a

n y fair d ea lin g for the

purpose

of pri va t e s tud y, re sea r c h , c riti c ism o r

review ,

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P ate nt s

Act , 1988, no part of this public at io n m ay b e r e produ ce d , sto r e d in a r et ri eva l sys t e m , or tra n s mitt ed

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the Pu b li sher s .

Britis h L i brary Cataloguing in P u blication Data

Wilcox , P eter

R o m e's e n em i es. -

( M e n-at-arm s se r ies; 129 )

1.

Barb a ri a n

in vas io n s o f Rom e

2 . Germani

c

trib es

I.

Ti tie

II .

Serie s

2.

D ac ian s

937 ' .09

DG 5o4

Film se t in G r ea t Brit a in Print ed in H o n g K o n g

Author ' s Note :

Thi s book do es n ot pr With cer tain excep ti o

e tend to o ri g in a l sc ho larship.

n s, s u c h as l in e a rtwork , it w as

co mpi led from seco ndar y so ur ces. It s purpo se is to

give a

ge n era l s ur vey of th e

German and Da c ian

warrio rs

who foug ht aga in s t th e fo r ces of Rom e.

Rome's En emies: Germanics and Dacians

Clzronology

See Glossary of terms and names on page 38.

3oooB . C .

Indo-Europ ea ns spread into north- west Europe, where th ey sett le

a mong ea rli e r populations of Neo-

lithi c farm e

r s

and

O l d Stone-Age

2ooo B.C .

hunt e r s. Celto-Ligurian tribes are in co ntro l

oflarge a r eas of ce ntra l and w es t e rn

Europe.

R e pr ese nt e d by th e ' Bell-

Bea ke r Fo l k ', th ey b eg in

moving

int o the Briti s h Isl es. Oth e

r Indo-

Europeans mov e east, wher e the Thracians and Iranians form two la r ge g roup s. Th e Baits and S lavs occupy mo s t of what is now Germany. Tll yrian trib es occupy an area o f so uth e rn Europ e b e tw ee n the Itali a n p e ninsula and Greece. ( Itali c Indo-Europ ea ns had mov e d

int o their p e nin s ula , and warlike Greek trib es int o th e M e dit e rran ea n

a r ea, from the Danub e r eg ion. )

The Teu ton s of this p e riod are in possession o f mo st o f th e Scandin- av ia n p e nin s u la, where a r ac ia ll y

distinct Germanic Nordic ha s d e -

ve lo p e d fr o m a mixtur e o f

inv a ding

Indo-Europ ea n Nordics and O ld

Stone-Age s urvivors . Indo- European trib es now pos sess mo s t o f Europ e at the ex p e n se of th e ea rli e r stoc k who a r e now e ith e r

pu

s h ed into

p a

rt s

of the

th e mor e ina ccess ib le

co ntin e nt , or

b eco m e

th e low e r s trata of soc ie ty , the untou c h a b l es of Europ e.

Ge r ma n s, f rom Tr a j a n 's Column , d
Ge r ma n s, f rom Tr a j a n 's Column , d e di c ated in 11 3 A . D .;
th e ir
im pr ess i ve ph ys iqu e i s clearly illu s trated . One s port s th e
Su e bian hair-knot . Two cloak sty l es a re e viden t : one i s large ,
f o ld e d doubl e,
(to p
ri g ht ) i s a
with a thi c k fringe of ta s sel s,
circular type with a diagonal
whil e th e oth e r
head - opening .
10 2 B.C. Ambrones - a n ot h e r Celtic tribe - to their
10 2 B.C.
Ambrones - a n ot h e r Celtic tribe -
to their ranks, a nd destroy five
Rom a n a rmi es se nt against them
b e for e turning towards Italy .
Th e Cimbri, T e uton es and Am -
bron es a r e annihi late d by the n ew
model R o man army, which h ad
b ee n c r eate d , tr a in ed and was n ow
led to victory by Marius , a General
of obscure ba c kground.
100
B.C.
Th e Goth s cross the Balti c from the
Scandinavian
G e rmany .
p e nin s u l a to north e rn
58-
51
B.C.
Ju liu s
Celti c
Caesar
co
nqu e r s mo s t of
th e
tribes of Gau l a nd r e port e dly
repu lses an attempted invasion by
tran s -Rh e nian
27 -
12
B.C.
Rom
a n
for ces
tribes.
a dv a n ce
in
ce ntr a l
and easte rn Europe, to the D a nub e;
th e river thus form s, for most of it s
le n gt h , th e north e rn fronti er of the
Empir e. Th e ex
pansion
of
th e
T h e s kull
of an
old
ma n,
1s t
ce ntur y
A. D ., found
a
t
E c k e nn -
fo rd , Sc hl eswig- Hol s t ei n ; t h e reddi s h blonde hair i s c ombed
an d twiste d i n t o a neat S u e
b i an kno t.
Compare thi s w i th t h e
Fronti e r to the E l b e in th e north is
ca ll e d off after t h e disast e r in the
carve
d
h e ad
o f
a
G er m a n
c hi e ftain , po ss ibl y of one of
th e
D anu b ia n tri b es, fr om th e t omb of A . Juliu s Pompiliu s, on e of
Marc u
s
Au reli u s's
ge n er al s,
175
A . D .
(Na ti onal
Mu s eum ,
Terme)
6oo
B . C .
The co ntin e ntal Celts begin th e
A.D. 9·
T e utobur g For est. At about this
tim e Augu s tus c r ea t es a s tandin g
army of 25 leg ion s.
Th e ga rrison of north e rn Germanv,
H a lstatt pha se of
their magnifi ce nt
co nsisting of
th e XVII , XVIIl a nd
I
ron
Age c ultur e; at abo ut thi s tim e
they
over- run ce ntr a l Spain.
4 00 B.C.
The seco nd ph ase of Celtic
Iron
Age c u l ture
evo lv es; known as the
La Tene, it r e pr ese nts the flow e ring
of Celtic abstract art, see n , inter alia,
in the decoration of weapons. Ha l -
stall Cel l s mov e into Britain .
XIX L eg ion s are wiped out in a n
ambush in the T e utobur g Forest.
Th ese three l eg ion s n eve r again
appeared on th e army li st. The
R hin e -Danub e n ex u s now m ar ks
th e north e rn limit s of the R oma n
Empir e.
A. D. 43·
Rom a n
for ces
in va d e
Brit a in ,
La Tene Celts cross the Alps and
speedi l y o v er runnin g a third of th e
take co ntro l of north e rn It a ly.
Etruscan co lo ni es in the P o va
ll ey
A.D. 69- 79.
are ob lit erated, a nd Rom e is sac ke d
during a
protr acte d Celtic raid
co untry , from th e so uth e rn coas t.
Th e angle form e d by th e Rhin e a nd
Danub e i s rounded off. R oma n
o cc upation of th e British low l a nd s
down the p e nin s ula.
is ca
rri e d up to the highland s. A
35 0
B .C .
R
ome
defeats
the Ce l ts in It a ly .
furth e r two leg ion s a r e los t during a
300
B . C
.
R
ome
ga in s fu ll co ntr o l o flt a l y.
uxi l iar ies on th
e Rh i n e.
115
B . C.
Ce lti c tribes from the midd le
A.D.81 .
r evo l t of a
Several ca
mp a ig n s a r e mounted by
Danube a r ea, th e Cimbri a nd
t h e
R o man
a rmy on
th e
D a nub e,
Tcutones
invade Gau l ; during th e
exte n s i ve raid th ey attract the
parti c ularly against
kingdom of Da c ia.
th e Thr ac ian

A . D

. 410.

Britain fragm e nt s und er th e loca l

co ntrol of p e

tt y Romano-C e lti c

 

A.D . 412.

magnates. Th e Visigoths , le d by Alari c, sack Rom e. Th e Visigoths , in Imperial se rvi ce,

enter Gau l and d e pos e yet another Imp e rial usurp er.

A.D . 414·

Th e Visigoths c ross into

Spain ,

wher e th ey exterminate th e se ttl e d Si lin g Vandals and Sarmatian Alans (4 I 6 ) . Th e Asding Vandal s, Mar co manni and Quadi are s par e d , by R oman int ervention, in order to prev e nt the in c r ease of Vi sigothi c pow e r. A s th e r e ward for th e ir

exertions th e Visigoth s are invit ed by Roman authorities to sett l e in a l arge area of south - west Gaul.

A.D . 428.

German cloa k br ooc h es .

 

North Afri ca is invad e d by th e Asding Vandal s; th ey bui ld a

A.D.

402 .

The Goths invad e Italy , where they

e

 

pirat e Aee t and hold th e Rom a n

 

suffer d e feat at the hands of th

co rn s upply to ran so m .

A.D . 433·

A.D . 449·

A.D. 45

m e

R o m a no- Vandal Genera l Sti li c ho .

Attila th e Hun is born .

 

Sti li c ho

cr ush es

a

mixed army of

A.D . 436.

Th e Huns driv e d ee p into Germani c

 

Ostrogoths, Quadi and Asding Vanda ls with an army rai sed from

 

territory ; many tribe s b eco Hunni s h vassa ls.

the

fronti e r

for ces

of the

Rhin e,

G e rman tribes b eg in th e p e rman e nt

 

leav in g

this

sector dangerously

sett l ement of Brit a in .

 

weakened.

,

 

Attila l eads th e Huns and th e ir

A.D. 406.

A coa liti on of Asding Vandals

German vassa ls

into Gaul; th ey are

Si lin g Vanda ls, Mar co manni

,

met a nd driven ba c k by Roman

Quadi and a clan of Sarmatian

troops , Burgundians

, Sa l ian Frank s

A la n s cross

th e

froz e n

Rhin e n ea r

and Visigoths at th e Campu s

A.D . 452.

A.D. 407.

Mainz into Gaul. Britain is d e nud e d of

the Roman

Mauria c us . The Huns withdr a w to Hungary.

ga rri so n , which crosses th e Channe l

Atti la in vades It a l y, but th e Hun s

in

for ce in

a s ham

e ffort

to pa c ify

are brib e d

by R oman a uthoriti es to

the German inv a d e r s of Gaul.

In

 

fact th ey d e clar e one of th e ir

 

A.D. 453·

r e tir e . Attiladies.

The Vanda ls sack Rom e.

numb e r to b e Emperor and see k recogm t10n from the Franks, Bur g undian s and A l emanni who

A.D.

45 4 ·

G e rman vassa ls of th e Hun s over- throw th e ir mast e rs at the battl e of Nedao.

h ave occupied the le ft bank of th e

A.D.

469-78. The

Visigoths

c onquer

mo s t

of

Rhin e.

Spain . Th e German ge

n e ral

A.D. 409·

The g r ea t barbarian

coa lition

of

Odoa ce r b eco m es king of It a l y and

Vandals , Suevi a nd Sarmatians

is r ecog ni se d by th e Eastern Roman

 

which

h ad

r avage d Gau l for thr ee

Empir e .

 

years

c ro sses

th e

Pyren ees

into

A.D. 493·

of the

Ostrogoth s,

 

Spain.

Theodori c, king becomes Regent

of It a l y.

The Fr a nk s ex p

a nd

into

a

lar ge

a r ea of Gaul le d by their

king ,

Clovis.

  • A. Theodoric dies.

D . 5 26 .

  • A. the

D. 5 28.

After d e feat ing

Gepids

th e

Lorn bards, h e lp e d by Avar nomads ,

invad e Italy and mak e a perman e nt se ttl e m e nt in the north.

Introduction

In th e report se nt to hi s kin g from Acre in I 255 the Franciscan fri ar William ofRubruck, in reference

to his trav e l s in th e Crimea, says: 'All the

way from

the Kh erso n to th e mouth of th e Tanais there are

hi g h mountain p ea ks along th e coas t , and there

Celtic i ron s pe ar head s

o f

t h e

La T~ne pe r iod .

settlement, and, later , throughout th e planet - especially the Germans.

a r e forty of which

villages between Kh e rson and Soldaia, a lmo st every o n e ha s its own languag e.

 

Dw e llin g h ere were m a ny

Goths, whos e language

Th e period

ofGermani c migration , th e Volker-

is German

' Three ce nturies lat e r , in about

wandurung , does not begin properly until the grd

s b ec k ,

a

Fr e n

c h trav e ller ,

century. However , some see in th e eve ntually

ca m e across a peopl e h e des c ribed as Goths on the

s hor

es

of the

Bla c

k Sea in the Crimea. After

abortive invasion of Roman Italy by a marauding Celtic horde the first southward probe involving

ca r eful analysis of their languag e from examples

Germanic warriors. These Cimbri and

Teuton es

surv i v in g at th e tim e of th e ir dis cove ry , philol-

h a d d es troyed several Roman armies in a series of

ogis t s id e ntifi e d it as Gothic, with some

alteration

encounters throughout Gaul between B.C . 1 14

b

n

due

to

Slavonic influ e n ce. This peopl e

is now no

and I02. The series of migrations did not e nd until

longer

tra ceab le.

the adoption of Christianity by th e Norw eg ian s in

These c h a n ce r e fe r e n ces to all that remain e d of

th e I I th ce ntury A.D. Germani c homeland s

the once num e rous and powerful Gothic nation ca nnot now b e verified by the so phisti ca ted a nthropolo g i ca l methods available to us today.

comprised modern Denmark , southern and central Norway, the north German coas tal strip from th e mouth of the Elbe to the Baltic shore, and th e

Thankfully, how ever, ex tensiv e skeletal evidence, not o nly of the Goths but of many other ancient Germanic p eo pl es from th e migration p e riod ,

islands of Gotland and Bornho l m . It was from th ese breeding grounds that warlike trib es, driv e n b y pr ess ures brought about by ov e rpopulation ,

does ex ist. This

fa ct ha s allowed anthropologists to

ega n their wanderings. Some have lost th e ir

estab li s h th e ra c ial id

e ntity of peopl es we would

a me s, being quickly absorbed into bigg e r

ot h erw ise know b y n a m e only - co lourle ss wraiths

of the im ag in at ion. Durin g th e thous a nd years

b e fore the Christian

era two g r eat Indo -E urop ea n peopl es, the Celts a nd Scythians, ex p a nd e d into ce ntral and north e rn Europe - the Celts to th e wes t , th e S cy ths to th e east. They were follow e d by two mor e s u c h gro up s - the Germans to the w est, th e Slavs to the east. Both the latt er Indo-European groups w e re to h ave l ast in g effec t s on th e ir c hosen areas of

Germanic groupings during th e ensuing c hao s. P o pulating the dank and g loomy forests of north e rn Europe , th e German 'barbarians' who overran th e western Empire were d esce ndants of p easa nts who had taken up arms; at the tim e Ta c itus wrot e his Germania in the lat e 1s t ce ntury A.D., a large proportion of th e mal e population were warriors, tribal structure was in a state of flux , and their society was moving toward s a cris is. Su ccess ful war lead e rs , normally elected

o nl y for the dur a tion o f a sin g le c ampaign , w e r e

becoming acce pt e d in a p e rmanent ca pacity

as

c hi e ftain s. Th e success other tribal war band s

of many leaders attracted and, in an era of constant

warfare, th e tran sition from

trib e to s upertrib e,

g roup e d

und e r c unning warlords , was well under

way. Th ese v igo rous northern ' barbarians ' were th e destroyers of th e W es tern Empire ofRom e. It was they who deliver e d the co up de grace to the d y ing co los s u s in th e south , s ubsequently c reating m ed i eva l Europe, the fe udal system and c hivalry.

It was their dir ec t d esce ndant s who wer e th e

knights a nd m e n- a t- a

rm s.

In

eve ry se n se,

th ey

were the creato r s o f

that mo s t o f u s know

the mod e rn wo rld ; it is ironi c virtua ll y nothing about them.

The!Mrrior

An esse nti a l factor in ea rl y Germanic and C e lti c

warfare was

th e warrior's own l arge,

pow e rful

frame. The German prop e r was

a variant of th e

ear li e r

No rdi c

type

intr od u ce d

by

the

Indo-

E ur o p ea n

in

vas ion ;

h e

w as,

in general, l arger,

due

to

racia

l mixtur e with

th e great

north e rn

hunt ers st ill s urv1vm g in north e rn Europ e from

the last I ce

Age.

The

body

was

h eav i er

and

thi c k e r than

th e pur e Nordic type,

with

a lar ge

br ai

n

case.

H e

was

c hara c t e ri s ti

ca lly

blond

or

rufo

u s,

as

see n

in

hi s mod e rn d esce ndant s and

not e d by numerou s ea rly writers . Th e two

exceptions to

thi s

general

pi c

tur e

were

th e

Al e manni and the Frank s, who r ese mbl e d the

p eop l lil th ey eve ntu a ll y se ttl e d a m

th e Ce lt s.

Di e t

was

h ea vy a nd

ri c h

in

o n g, protein , broadly

including pork , b eef and fi s h

(fr es h and

sa lt

e d ) ,

be e r

and

d

mu t ton , venison, game,

br ea d ,

a ir y

produ ce . Everyday dr ess varied from group Th e overa ll cos tum e, how eve r , was

to group. th e same

thr o ughout the north - a simpl e tuni c, long trou se rs and cloak , which wa s u s ually of a bla c ki s h

or dark brown wool. Th e tuni c

r eac h e d the kn ees

and

h a d

e ith e r

long

or

s hort

sl eeves.

Sev e r a l

tuni cs co uld be worn at once, s upplem e nt e d with

fur

a nd

p e l ts of diffe r e nt

kind s in

co ld

weather.

In summer , of co urs e, upp e r garments wer e often

l e ft off a lt oget h e r.

Lin e n was known

but

wa s a n

Longbow s found at Nydam and dated to the late 4th century A.D . ; about 2m long and made of yew, they bear a close affinity to the great English warbow of the Middle Ages . The

arrows, of pinewood and hazel, rneasure betw ee n 8 5 em; they were found in bundles . ( No t to scale)

68cm and

expe n siv e imp o rt from

that

reason , on l y worn

the south, a nd was, for

by

the wea lthi er or far-

trave ll e d trib es m e n. Trouser s were held up by

rawhid e thongin g; some tim es cross -thonging h e ld

them int o th e lower l egs

o r a nkl es . Trou se r s were

mad e in wool , as we ll as fur and skins. Kn ee - le ngth br eec h es, wh e n worn , were co mbined with

a tight

leg cove ring . B e lt s

of varied thi c kn ess wer e

worn at t h e wa is t or across

th

e s houlder , so metim es

both . Str a p s co uld

b e u sed

for carry ing th e shi e ld .

Th e cloak was about five feet across, rectangular

or c i rc ul ar , of wov e n wool , some time s ha v ing a fur

lining. T h ey

C

loaks

e ntir e l y of skin s were

w e r e sec ur e d

with fibula e o r

also worn. broo c h es of

  • d i ffer

in g kind s, some typ es b e ing mor e popu l ar

amo n g so m e trib es than o th e rs . C lothin g of th e

lower cla ss wa s of th e roughest kind -

th e simplest

wove n tuni cs or dr esse d s kin s. Shoes w e r e of a very simpl e d es ig n , in so m e ways simil ar to the

mo ccas in s of th e Nort h American Indian , turned up over th e foot fro m the sole and tied at the ank le . H a ir was ofte n left lon g, being sometimes plait e d ,

gat h e r e d int o a top -knot or twi s t e d into th e curious knot pe c uli ar to th e Suebian trib es such as the

Mar co manni a nd Qu ad i. B ea rd s w e r e

u sua ll y

but not a l ways worn. Tribesmen norma ll y went bare h ea ded , but a wooll e n or fur ca p might b e worn in c o ld weat h e r . R azors, co mb s, sc i sso r s and tw eeze rs o f ea rl y date h ave been found in

Germa ni c t e rrit ory. Th e rough woollen cloth u se d by th e G e rmans was wov e n in p l ain co lours ,

B

~ [] [] ""' C> c [] E '' D ~
~
[]
[]
""'
C>
c
[]
E
'' D
~

Celt ic swords and hilts : ( A) ' Mu s hroom ' style pommel , from a la r ge Halstatt sword (B ) ' Mexican hat ' style pommel from an ea rly Hal s tatt sword , ro8cmlong , dated to the 8th century B . C . ( C ) Late Hal s tatt iron sword with ' antler' or ' antennae ' hilt , 72cm long , 7th century B.C . (D ) and (E) , La Tene iron s wo r ds and scabbard s, both 5th to 6th centurie s B.C ., one 90cm and the other 88cm long .

of st rip e d or ot h e r geometr i c d es ign . Dy e ing was

c

ultur e . Roman c u l ture play e d an ever -in c r eas in g

co llap se in Gaul.

In

their

ro l e

as

source of

ca rri e d w hi c h

h

o ut

a d

with ex is t e d

v ege t ab le

sub sta n

ces,

a

ski ll

in

th e north sin ce

th e Bronz e

part in northern Europ ea n soc i e ty after th e Ce l ti c

Age , if n ot b e for e. R

e d wa s obtained from madd e r

we a pons a nd l uxury goods

,

th

e

a Rom a n s b ega n

r oot, y e ll ow fr o m

sa

ffron fl owe r s a nd

the sta lk s or

th eir l ong inv o l vement with the Germans as th ey

leaves of we ld , blu e from woad , g r ee n fr om what is

fa ced th e m across th e north e rn frontiers.

 
 

ow n as ' dy ers' g r ee n

w ee d '. M

a n y ga rm e nt s

Of the Warrior

'

n ow kn were a

lso

le ft

in

th e ir

n at ur a l

hu e -

woo l ha s

a

number of n a tur a l s h a d es, ran gi ng from almost

Who th ese p eo p l e were a nd from w h at p a rt of th e world th ey had se t out, to fa ll on Gaul and

pur e white , thr o u g h fawn , brown and grey to

I

Laly lik e a thundercloud , no on e

th

ey

bl ac k .

h ad

no c on ta

c t with

the so uth e rn

kn e w; for ra ces, a nd

h

ad

Br ace le ts, ea rrin gs, a

rml e ts, n ec kl ets,

beads a nd

a

lr ea dy tr ave

g

ll e d

a

very g r ea t way.

Th e lik e li es t

rin gs were wo rn by both sexes, t o a grea t e r or

u ess see m e d

to

b e

that

th ey

were

so m e

of

th e

lesser d eg r ee, acco rdin g to t as t e.

 

G e rman trib es, who se territory ex t e nd s up to

th e

Stron g influ e n ces fr om

t h e

ri c h

Bronz e Ag e of

nor t h e rn ocean. This co nje c ture wa s ba se d on

north e rn

Europ e, a nd

a l so

th e influ ence

of

th e

th eir great siz e, th e l ight blu e co lour of th e ir eyes,

Ce lt s a nd S cy thian s, w e re pr esent in Germanic

and th e fact that th e G e rman word for plunderer s

wo uld

h ave

see n

th e ir

fir st

G e rm a n s

onl

y

if

aux ili a r y tr oo ps w ere p os t e d n ea r th e ir town or

had

a pp

ea r e d in

th e a

r e n a

.

Uiapons

Eco n o mi ca ll y th e G e rm a ni c trib es w e r e pea sant s,

li

v in g

m

a inl

y

fr o m

s to

c

k-r e arin g

(c attl e,

sh e ep

a nd g o a ts ) a nd fa rmin g . A s tim

e w e nt

by , isolat e d

fa rm s

b

eca m e

g r o up s

of fa rm

s,

a ll

y,

v illag es.

d e v e loping into

h a ml e ts

a nd ,

eve ntu

Th e skills

of

ea rl y

G e rm a n c r a ft s m e n showed unac c ountable

limit a ti o n s in

so m e

dir ec tion s. Thi s was always

ev id e nt

in

th e w ea p o nr

y

o f th e

e arly

trib es men.

R o m a n

exce

assess m e nt o f th e G e rmani c people s wa s,

a b ove

a ll ,

as

pti o n s,

w

a

a

rri o r s.

With

a h a d

writ e r s

few

no

notabl e p e rsonal

co nt ac t with

R o m th e m

n , a nd so m e

o f th e ir ob se rvation s

may

b e

Ar c h ae ol

ogy,

how

e v e r ,

ha

s

suppli e d

su sp ec t. a l a r ge a

nd

d e t a il e d a mount of G e rm a n

wea p o n hi s t o r y . Beca u se o f th e r e lativ e pau c ity of

n a ti ve inn ova ti o n th e G e rm a n s, parti c ularl y those

in

th e w es t , w e r e inA u e n ce d

to

a larg

e d e gr ee

by

t h e Ce lti c H a

A fte r

th e

R

ls t a tt a nd L a T e es t

n e

co nqu

of

p e riod s of c ultur e .

G a ul ,

Roman

wea p o n s

pl

o m a n aye d a n

in c

r eas in

g p a rt in

th e arming

of Ge rm a ni c wa r b a nd s, until , in th e lat e Empir e,

 

a s t ea d y Ro

w o f a

rm

s n o rthw a rd wa s s u s t a in e d by

illi c it

a rm s d

ea ls,

loo t

fr o m

Rom a n

ar se nals and

a rmi es, a nd e q ui pm e n t br o u g ht hom e by th e larg e

num

be rs

o f

G e rm a n s

wh o

had

se rv e d

in

th e

R o m a n a rm y . A br oa d a pproxim a tion of phas es in wea p o nr y a m o n g th e a n c i e nt G e rm a n s, ba se d on

rece

nt a r c h aeo

f-l alsta tl

log ica l ev

id e n ce,

7th

cent .

is as foll o w s:

 

CeLtic:

cul ture:

B .C.

Sword s of

br o n ze a nd

ir o

n ,

p e ri o d durin g

n a ti ve

ir o n

la n ces

ve r y

l a r ge

and

ax es;

a

whi c