You are on page 1of 230

750MW PAPALANTO COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT INIGERIA

DEPARTMENT

HRSG

HRSG Operation &Maitenance Manual

Compiled: Yang Xuefeng

Verified Shan Zheng

ApprovedTai Dechun

18th May , 2010

HRSG Operation Instruction


1.153

HRSG Maintenance Instruction


154....208

Chapter 1. 4
Article 1 Brief Introduction. 5
Article 2 Design Criterion of HRSG.. 8
Article 3 Boiler Protection Set Value. 20
Chapter 2. 23
Article 1 LP steam and water system.. 24
Article 2 HP steam and water system.. 35
Article 3 Deaerator system.. 46
Article 4 HP bypass system.. 49
Article 5 LP bypass system.. 60
Article 6 Water drain and steam exhaust system.. 70
Article 7 Service water system.. 76
Article 8 Intermittent blowdown flash tank system.. 78
Article 9 Local boiler drum level meter wash. 81
Chapter 3. 84
Article 1 Accidents disposal principles 85
Article 2 Emergency shutdown. 87
Article 3 Accident shutdown. 88
Article 4 Accidents disposal 89
Chapter 4. 109
Article 1 Hydraulic boiler set 110
Article 2 Safety valves floating. 120
Article 3 Maintenance after shutdown. 123
Chapter 5. 140
Appendix 1: Sketch Map of HP and LP Drum Water Level Fixed Value 141
Appendix 2: Sketch Map of Deaerator Water Level Fixed Value 142
Appendix 3: The control set value of HP Drum Positive Pressure Gradient 143
Appendix 4. Check List of Steam Saturated Temperature. 144
Appendix 5 Common Unit Conversion Table. 147
Appendix 6 Equipments Periodical Tests and Periodical Transferring Table 150

Chapter 1
Brief Introduction and Design Criterion of HRSG

Article 1 Brief Introduction


1. General Situations
Model: UG-PG9171E-R
Type: Double-pressure, no afterburning and reheating, self integrative vertical
natural circulation HRSG
Manufacturer: Wuxi Boiler Factory
Assorted Turbine: PG9171E
Size: Height: 29.6m (97.76ft), Width 13.05m (42.81ft)
The elevation of HP steam drum center is 22.95m;
The elevation of LP steam drum center is 22.70m;
The elevation of deaerator center is 23.20m;
The elevation of boiler chimney is 45 m (148.5ft) and the bypass chimney elevation is
40m;

2. Illumination of Boiler Structure


The boiler is double-pressure, no afterburning and reheating, outdoor self integrative
vertical natural circulation HRSG, whose pipes on heating surface located horizontally and
the flue flow is vertical; the water and the steam flow are finished in heating surface through
natural circulation.
The flue goes in from inlet flue duct and the direction from horizontal to vertical and from
down to upper, to flush each stage heating surface orderly and finally will be exhausted
from outlet flue duct and chimney.

3. Flue gas process:


3.1 Simple cycle
Exhaust from turbine, into bypass inlet flue ductthree way
dampersbypass mufflesbypass chimney of HRSG
3.2 Combined cycle
Exhausted from turbine, the flue gas into bypass inlet flue duct three way dampers

bypass outlet flue ductinlet flue duct of HRSG. In the inlet flue duct, the flue flow is
changed from horizontal to vertical, up into boiler body to flush the 3 rd layer modules, 2nd
layer modules and 1st layer modules and finally exhausted to the air through the outlet flue
duct and chimney.
3rd layer modules: HP superheater 2 (SHP2), HP superheaters 1 (SHP1);
2nd layer modules: HP vaporizer (VHP), HP coal economizer 3 (EHP3), LP superheater
(SLP), HP coal economizer 2 (EHP2)
1st layer modules: LP vaporizer (VLP), HP coal economizer 1 (EHP1), preheater (PREH)

4. Steam and water process


The HRSG has three pressure stages; According to the pressure, it can be divided as the
following:
4.1 DEAE system: after passing preheater, the cooling condensing water from
condenser goes into deaerator to deoxygenate;
4.2 LP system: a part of water from deaerator through LP FDW pump goes into LP drum
to separate water and steam; after separated, the saturated water will be back to
downcomers. LP saturated steam will be led out from LP saturated steam outlet pipe at
upper LP drum and then into LP superheaters and finally into turbine LP cylinder for
power;
4.3 HP system: the HP FDW pump will supply another part of feeding water from
deaerator into HP coal economizer 1 (EHP1), HP coal economizer 2 (EHP2) and HP coal
economizer 3 (EHP3); after heated, the water into HP drum. The water, which into HP
drum, will be led into HP vaporizer through VHP downcomers; after evaporated and heat
absorbed, up into HP drum for steam and water separation. Then the separated
saturated water will be back to downcomer. The HP saturated steam will be led out from
HP saturated steam outlet pipe at upper HP drum and then into HP superheater 1,
desuperheater 1 and into HP superheater 2 and finally into turbine HP cylinder for power
as the HP overheated steam.

Article 2 Design Criterion of HRSG


1.
Thermodynamic calculation
guaranteed working condition).

of

HRSG

(performance

The designed working condition is 15 and 100% load.


Heat
balance at
flue gas
side

unit

Flue gas
flow

kg/h

SHP2

SHP1

VHP1

EHP3

SLP1

EHP2

VLP1

EHP1

PREH

149500 149500 149500 149500 149500 149500 149500 149500 149500


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Flue gas
7912
heat output Mcal/h

23077

64533

4561

1903

16963

21806

5168

25936

Inlet flue
temp.

541.1

521.6

465.2

304.0

292.4

287.5

244.0

187.4

173.9

Outlet flue
temp.

521.6

465.2

304.0

292.4

287.5

244.0

187.4

173.9

105.3

Flue gas
temp. drop

19.5

56.4

161.2

11.6

4.9

43.5

56.6

13.5

68.6

Flue gas
pressure
drop

Pa

220.2

204.6

788.3

136.8

37.3

246.3

302.1

203.6

306.4

Flue gas
flow speed

m/s

16.20

15.85

17.51

12.32

12.94

11.99

11.15

9.90

10.05

SHP2

SHP1

VHP1

EHP3

SLP1

EHP2

VLP1

EHP1

PREH

Heat
balance at
steam side

Steam
140000
181179 179953
179953 39509.5 179953 330000 179953 278198
(water) flow kg/h
0
Heat absorb
at steam Mcal/h 7872
side

22962

64211

4538

1894

16878

21698

5142

25807

Heat
exchanging
rate

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

Stem
(water) inlet
temp.

449.6

292.0

292.4

266.0

172.8

180.9

172.9

153.3

55.0

Stem
(water)
outlet temp.

523.0

457.3

292.4

286.4

258.5

266.0

172.9

180.9

147.0

Steam
(water)
temp. rise

74.0

165.2

0.0

20.5

86.5

85.0

0.0

27.6

92.0

Node
temp.

17.1

64.4

11.6

17.5

33.1

21.5

14.5

6.5

26.9

Approachin
g point
temp.

Stem
(water) inlet bara
pressure

5.9

29.3

75.3

76.8

77.4

89.3

8.5

89.8

9.1

90.2

10.0

Stem
(water)
outlet
pressure

bara

73.0

76.1

77.1

89.1

7.5

89.3

8.5

89.8

8.7

Stem
(water)
pressure
drop

bara

0.84

0.65

0.34

0.25

0.46

0.44

0.58

0.41

1.29

m/s

15.74

13.51

3.30

1.31

43.44

1.25

14.10

1.09

1.63

Stem
(water) flow

speed

Cubage rate
of flue gas
content

N2

74.87

O2

13.72

H2O

7.19

Ar

0.89

CO2

3.33

2. Turbine exhausting flue gas parameter (design working condition)


Environmental temp.

25.7

Atmosphere pressure

1.005bar

Humidity

74%

Turbine fuel

Natural gas

Turbine backpressure

3980 Pa

Turbine exhaust flow

2370.25 t/h

Boiler inlet flue gas temp.

541.1

Boiler outlet flue gas temp.

113

Turbine exhaust content (V%)


N2

74.87

CO2

3.33

H2O

7.19

O2

13.72

SO2

0.00

Ar

0.89

3. Steam parameter
HP part
Max. continuous rating

179.11 t/h

Rated steam outlet pressure

7.3 MPa

Rated steam outlet temp.

523

LP part
Max. continuous rating

39.5 t/h

Rated steam outlet pressure

0.75 MPa

Rated steam outlet temp.

257.5

Condensing water temp.

31

LP coal economizer inlet temp.

55

LP coal economizer recirculation flow 207.938 t/h


Deaerator
Temp.

213.7

Flow

240 t/h

4. Main pressure-containing members and heating surfaces


4.1 Drums
4.1.1 Illuminations
In order to ensure the qualified steam during boiler normal running, according to N/E
standard, 2 stage steam and water separators are set in drum. 1 st stage one is baffle

separator and the 2nd stage one is wire demister. Also inside the drum, the feeding water
distribution pipes, emergency water draining pipes, intermittent and continuous blowdown
pipes are set. On drum, local water meters, balance tank, electric contact water meters,
pressure gauges, safety valves and other necessary appurtenances and instruments.
Under boiler max. continuous output, the time from normal drum water level to low low
level is:
HP: 3min;
LP: 8min.
4.1.2

HP
drum

Design parameter:
Designed pressure (MPa)

7.2

Working pressure (Mpa)

7.2

Designed temp. ()

321

Working temp. ()

313

Drum center elevation (m)

30

Straight length (mm)

6380

Outside diameter (mm)

2480mm

Wall thickness (mm)

90

Spec.

248090

Material

SA299

LP drum Designed pressure (MPa)

2.83

Working pressure (Mpa)

2.35

Designed temp. ()

235

Deaerat
or

4.1.3

Working temp. ()

223

Drum center elevation (m)

29.6

Straight length (mm)

6700

Outside diameter (mm)

2040mm

Wall thickness (mm)

20

Spec.

125020

Material

SA-516Gr70

Designed pressure (MPa)

0.97

Working pressure (Mpa)

0.36

Designed temp. ()

140

Working temp. ()

177

Drum center elevation (m)

30.19

Straight length (mm)

7780

Outside diameter (mm)

3040mm

Wall thickness (mm)

20

Spec.

304020

Material

16MnR

Water level set value

HP drum

0
Normal level

Drum as central line


-100mm

Low level I

650mm

Low level

800mm

High level I

500mm

High level

550mm

High level

650mm

LP drum

Deaerator

Drum as central line

Normal level

-100mm

Low level I

500mm

Low level

650mm

High level I

350mm

High level

400mm

High level

500mm

500mm over drum central line,


deaerator central line

Normal level

-100mm

Low level I

1600mm

Low level

1750mm

High level I

500mm

High level

700mm

4.2 Modules heating surface


Fin

Fin

type

materials

SA213- T91

No
tooth

SUH409L

38x2.9

SA213- T22

No
tooth

SUH409L

Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

HP coal
economizer 3
(EHP3)

Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

HP coal
economizer 2
(EHP2)

Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

HP coal
economizer 1
(EHP1)

Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

LP superheater
(SLP)

Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

LP vaporizer
(VLP)

Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

Preheater (PREH) Stagger

44.5x2.6

SA210- A1

Open
tooth

08AL

Location
Type

Pipes
Spec.

Pipes
Materials

HP superheater 2
(SHP1)

Stagger

38x2.9

HP superheater 1
(SHP1)

Stagger

HP Vaporizer
(VHP)

Name

4.3 Boiler water capacity

HP system
No.

Parts Names

Capacity m3

HP superheaters system

23.8

HP vaporizing system

63.7

HP coal economizer system

44.6

HP drums

41

HP system pipes

10

Total water capacity of HP system

183.1

Deaerator
No.

Parts Names

Capacity m3
32.4

1
2

Deaerator superheater system

2.4

Deaerator vaporizing system

22.4

Deaerator coal economizer system

3.7

Deaerator HP drums

15.1

Deaerator system pipes

15

Total water capacity of deaerator system

91

LP system
No.

Parts Names

Capacity m3

LP superheater system

10.3

LP vaporizing system

30.7

LP coal economizer system

53.1

LP drums

60.2

LP system pipes

Total water capacity of LP system

162.3

4.4 Flue gas system


4.4.1 Flue gas dampers Spec.:
4.4.1.1 Basic size
Equipments Model

YD30.25-H

3-way flue duct inlet

5500mm5500mm

Bypass side outlet

5500mm5500mm

Boiler side outlet

5500mm5500mm

Bypass horizontal central line to bypass side flange


Bypass vertical central line to turbine side flange
Bypass vertical central line to boiler side flange

3800mm
3200mm
3800mm

4.4.1.2 Design parameter


Pressure drop during unit combined cycle:

P=30mmH2O

Pressure drop during unit single cycle:


Designed structure pressure:

P=8mmH2O

600mmH2O

Design temperature:

600

Design damper life:

30 years

Max. operation time:

8500h/year

Max. Startup & Stop period:

330times/year

4.4.1.3 Actuator (Hydraulic control system)


Model
Oil tanks:

CGC-290K-HYDR-SCH
4

Normal Time of complete open /close: 60S (continuous adjustment available)


Emergency close time:
Motor Power:

30S (continuous adjustment available)


11Kw2

4.4.1.4 Air seal system


Seal fans model:
Flow:

9-26
6762m3 /h

Total pressure:
Motor Power:
Protection level:

5180 Pa
18.5kw2
IP55

4.4.1.5 Location detecting system


Stroke switch

JKXL1-411

Valve position transmitter

RIC(B)-02

4.4.2 Exhaust process of Flue gas system


4.4.2.1 During simple cycle, the flue gas at outlet of gas turbine will be exhausted to the air
through bypass chimney after passing the bypass inlet flue gas duct;
4.4.2.2 During combined cycle, the flue gas at outlet of gas turbine will be supplied to HRSG
after passing bypass inlet flue gas duct and finally exhausted into air through the main
chimney of HRSG;
4.4.3 Main parts illumination of flue gas system
4.4.3.1 Bypass inlet flue gas duct
The bypass inlet flue gas duct connects the gas turbine outlet spread section with
HRSG bypass system and at the dividing point, a nonmetal soft expansion joint is set
to absorb the displacement during hot running;
4.4.3.2 3-way dampers
3-way damper will divide the flue gas into bypass chimney or HRSG according to
operating mode requirements and at the same time, connect the inlet and outlet flue
duct with bypass flue gas muffle;

4.4.3.3 Bypass flue gas muffle


Bypass flue gas muffle connects 3-way dampers and bypass chimney, which is made
up of stainless steel sheet with damping material inside. The muffle can reduce the
gas turbine exhaust noise created during simple cycle;
4.4.3.4 Bypass chimney
When simple cycle adopted, the waste gas from gas turbine will be exhausted into air
through bypass chimney. The chimney adopts inner heat preservation structure and
carbon steel plates are used in outside shell. Also the steps and platforms for
maintenance are equipped;
4.4.3.5 Bypass outlet flue duct/dead plate
Bypass outlet flue duct/ dead plate connects bypass system and inlet flue duct of
HRSG. The flue duct adopts inner heat preservation structure. When turbine under
running but the boiler needs maintenance, for safety, the dead plates are erected to
isolate flue gas at the end of bypass outlet flue duct. During combined cycle normal
running, the dead plates will be isolated from flue ducts;
4.4.3.6 Boiler flue duct
Boiler flue duct connects GT outlet flue duct and HRSG and distribute the flue gas to
all heating surfaces of boiler equably. At the dividing point, a nonmetal soft expansion
joint is set to absorb adown and ahead displacement created in boiler hot running,
which has large absorbing capacity, shock insulation, noise reduction and other
advantages;
4.4.3.7 Boiler outlet flue duct
Boiler outlet flue duct connects the HRSG flue duct and its chimney;
4.4.3.8 Boiler Chimney
Boiler chimney can exhaust the waste gas into the air, and on which the survey
points are located to sample and supervise the waste gas content;
The steel chimney inner diameter is 5000mm and made up of 16mm~10mm steel
plates;
4.4.3.9 Climate damper

In boiler chimney, the electric chimney dampers are erected to isolate HRSG from
atmosphere to retain the HRSG temperature as long as possible after shutdown. At
the same time, the climate dampers can prevent rain and release the pressure.
The electric chimney dampers have mechanical safety functions to prevent damaging
HRSG and GT. If over pressure appears in HRSG, the dampers can be opened;
4.4.3.10 Structure illumination of boiler flue duct
Boiler adopts complete seal structure. The inlet flue duct, vertical flue duct and outlet
duct of boiler are frame cover made up of U shape steel plates. The frame cover is
connected with HRSG steal structure to hold the boiler seal performance and also
increase the rigidity of HRSG.
At the bottom frame cover of horizontal flue duct, an exhaust port is set. When HRSG
stopped, we can check the leakage of HRSG pressure-containing members through
exhaust port;
At the place where header goes through frame cover, an expansion joint is set to
maintain the tightness and overall performance of frame cover and allow the header
to have some expansion displacement compared to frame cover.

5 Boiler FDW and Makeup Water Quality Requirements (GB/T12145-99)


5.1 FDW quality
Rigidity

2.0mol/L

Oxygen

7g/L

Ferrum

30g/L

Copper

5g/L

Oil

0.3mg/L

PH (25)

9.09.

Hydrazine \

1050g/L

5.2

Makeup Water Quality


Rigidity

0mol/L

SiO2

20g/kg

Conductivity (25)

0.2s/cm

6 Boiler water and Steam Quality (GB/T12145-99)


6.1 Boiler water quality
phosphate radical

210mg/L

Salt content

100mg/L

Conductivity (25)

150s/cm

SiO2

2.0mg/kg

PH (25)

9.010.5

6.2 Boiler Steam Quality


Sodium

10g /kg

SiO2

20g/kg

Ferrum

20g/kg

Copper

5g/kg

Conductivity (25)

0.3s/cm

Article 3 Boiler Protection Set Value


1. Boiler protection set value

No.

Description

Set
value

Unit

Action

Inlet flue gas pressure of


HRSG

600

mmwc

Alarm

Inlet flue gas Temp. of


HRSG

600

Alarm

Exhaust flue gas Temp. of


HRSG

180

Alarm

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

HP FDW isolating
valves open
automatically

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

HP FDW bypass
isolating valves open
automatically

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

HP FDW adjusting
isolating valves open
automatically (startup)

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

LP FDW adjusting
isolating valves open
automatically (startup)

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

HP main steam
drainage valves open
automatically

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

LP main steam drainage


valves open
automatically

10

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

Preheater inlet isolating


valves open
automatically

11

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

100

RPM

Deaerator regulating
valves and isolating
valves open

automatically

RPM

HP main steam
drainage valves open
automatically (if level
low)

100

RPM

LP main steam drainage


valves open
automatically (if level
low)

GT speed
MIN2(Combined Cycle)

20

RPM

Climate dampers Close


allowed

15

HP steam temp. high


value I

540

Alarm

16

HP drum water level low


value I

650

mm

Alarm

17

HP drum water level high


value I

500

mm

Alarm

18

HP drum water level high


value

550

mm

Alarm

19

LP drum water level low


value I

600

mm

Alarm

20

LP drum water level high


value I

350

mm

Alarm

21

LP drum water level high


value

400

mm

Alarm

22

Deaerator water level low


1600
value I

mm

Alarm

mm

Alarm

12

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

13

GT speed
MIN1(Combined Cycle)

14

23

Deaerator water level


high value I

100

+700

24

HP drum water level low


value II

800

mm

Trip

25

HP drum water level high


value II

650

mm

Trip

26

LP drum water level low


value II

650

mm

Trip

27

LP drum water level high


value II

500

mm

Trip

28

Deaerator water level low


1750
value II

mm

Trip

29

Deaerator water level


high value II

700

mm

Trip

30

HRSG outlet flue gas


pressure high

0.498

KPa

Trip

31

HP superheater outlet
temp. high value II

550

Trip

Chapter 2
HRSG System Operation

Article 1 LP steam and water system


1. General Situation
LP steam and water system makes the FDW from LP FDW system circulation in drum. The
saturated steam by vaporizing goes into superheaters to create superheating steam for
turbine LP cylinder, which includes LP FDW system, CV system and LP steam superheating
system. LP FWD system feeds water to LP drum through LP FDW pump which also
provides the backwash water to LP boiler steam headers.
At the outlet of preheater, a recirculation loop and 2 recirculation pumps are equipped, one
for service, one for backup, which can increase the inlet water temp. of preheater to prevent
the condensation on the surface of fin pipes. LP circulating steam system is made up of
drum, one downcomer, LP vaporizer and 12 risers, whose min. circulating times >15.

2. Recirculation pump of preheater


2x 100% constant speed recirculation pump of preheaters: The min. flow for continuous
running but not damaging is 25% of rated flow (the 1 st critical speed of FDW pump should
be 150% higher than the speed corresponding to design working point)
Cooling water quality: the working oil coolers for FDW pumps motors and lub oil coolers
adopt closed cooling water. Under design working conditions, the cooling water temp. is
19 ; under check working conditions, the cooling water temp. is 32 and under hot
season working condition, the cooling water temp. is 46 .
2.1 Design parameter
Manufacture

Shenyang Industrial Pump Product


Co., Ltd.

Model

GR320-60

Type

single stage single suction


cantilever type volute pump

Qty.

2 for each unit

Rated flow

320m3/h

Lift

60m

Speed

2950r/min

Necessary net positive suction


head

4.8m

Motor power

65KW

Direction

Seeing from Hydraulic coupler to


pump, counter-clockwise

Efficiency

80%

2.2 Cold startup of preheater recirculation pump


2.2.1 Check all bolts and pipes firm;
2.2.2 Check all instruments, valves and meters normal;
2.2.3 Check lub oil pressure normal and oil return smooth;
2.2.4 Open air relief valve and observe the oil slinger on right position;
2.2.5 Check the suction valves and reject valves closed;
2.2.6 Open suction and reject valves to fulfill the liquid into pump (air exhausted in pump
automatically) and then close the reject valve;
2.2.7 Start machine (after startup, stop the PMVR), observe the pump shaft rolling direction
(counter-clockwise); if the direction not correct, change any two polar leads in 3-phase motor;
2.2.8

On DCS or in site, start recirculation pump and open the reject valves of the pump.

The reject valves are not allowed to be closed for long time to prevent pump damaged caused
by overheating;
2.3 Normal startup of preheater recirculation pump
2.3.1 Check all bolts and pipes firm;
2.3.2 Check all instruments, valves and meters normal;

2.3.3 Check lub oil pressure normal and oil return smooth;
2.3.4 Open air relief valve and observe the oil slinger on right position;
2.3.5 Check the suction valves opened;
2.3.6 When conditions satisfied, start the recirculation pump on DCS or in site and open the
reject valves at once. The reject valves are not allowed to be closed for long time to prevent
pump damaged caused by overheating;
2.4 Stop of preheater recirculation pump
2.4.1

Close the reject valves of the pump to min flow and pay attention that the suction

valves are not allowed to be closed to prevent the idle running;


2.4.2 Stop the pump on DCS or in site;
2.4.3 When the pump stopped, close the suction valves tightly;
2.5 LP FDW pump unit
3 x 50% horizontal multi-stage sub-sectional centrifugal constant speed LP FDW pump:
The min. flow for continuous running but not damaging is 25% of rated flow (the 1 st
critical speed of FDW pump should be 150% higher than the speed corresponding to
design working point. At the inlet pipe of FDW pump, Y type fine filters are equipped
whose resistance scope is within 0.020.03MPa).
Cooling water quality: the working oil coolers for FDW pumps motors and lub oil coolers
adopt closed cooling water. Under design working conditions, the cooling water temp. is
19 ; under check working conditions, the cooling water temp. is 32 and under hot
season working condition, the cooling water temp. is 46 .
Lub oil system of pump unit
In pump unit design, there is a perfect lub oil system and the seller should provide
complete lub oil equipments. The lub oil system includes working oil pump, lub oil
pump, AUX. AC oil pump, working oil cooler, lub oil cooler and oil filter instruments and
meters. The system can ensure all shafts and pads not damaged when auxiliary power
lost;

The thermal resistance adopts Pt100 3-line system (two parse insulation), the thrust
bearing has independent survey points (single Pt100); the analogue signal is 4 20mA
DC (the accepted analogue signal by buyer should have isolation functions); the
discrete is dry contact point without resources, and the contact point type is DPDT,
whose capacity is 230V AC, 5A, 220V DC, 3A.
Transporting Medium Characteristics
Medium:

Boiler FDW

PH value of water:

8.8-9.3

Boiler FDW water rigidity:


Conductivity:
SiO2:

0umol/L

< 0.2s/cm (20)


< 20g/L

2.5.1 Hydraulic coupler Parameter:


Manufacturer

Voith Turbo, Crailsheim

Type

562 SVTL 12

Output power

1306KW

Input power

1355KW

Output speed

2925rpm

Input speed

2985rpm

Slid difference

2%

Rolling direction

Clockwise, seeing from motor to turbo

Oil cooler

Flat cooler

Cooling water temp.

Max. 39 at inlet

20.9m3/h

Cooling water flow


2.5.2 LP FDW pump parameter:
Type

Horizontal ring type FDW pump

Model

HGC 5/7

Driven

motors with speed governing


hydraulic coupler

Rolling direction

Clockwise seeing from hydraulic


coupler to pump

PH value of FDW (25)

>9.0

Oxygen content of FDW

0.02

Inlet water temp. of pump

152

Density

0.9149 kg/dm3

Inlet pressure

0.616 MPa(g)

Outlet pressure

11.87 MPa(g)

Outlet flow

311.07 t/h

NPSHr

6.937m

Capacity

340.0 m3/h

Min capacity

89.87 m3/h

Efficiency

81.47%

Pump input power resource

1305.4KW

Pump speed

2925 rpm

Min permissive speed

1011rpm

3. Checks before LP FDW system startup


3.1 Cold startup checks:
3.1.1 Confirm the instruments air pressure normal, all relative valves verification qualified and
the power resource of electric valves supplied. The primary and secondary valves of all
meters are opened and the relative control power is supplied;
3.1.2 All interlock protection test in the system qualified;
3.1.3 Open all stop valves on LP FDW pipes and all air valves as well as sampling doors;
3.1.4 If there is no backwash on LP boiler steam header, the backwash valves should be on
close position;
3.2 Checks under warm/hot state:
3.2.1 Confirm instruments air pressure normal;
3.2.2 The deoxygenate system under backup state
3.2.3 If no backwash on LP boiler steam header, close the backwash valves;

4. Startup of LP FDW system


4.1 Cold startup
4.1.1 On LP FDW system display, start LP FDW pump and open the pump outlet;
4.1.2 On LP FDW system display, open LP FDW 3-way valves to LP FDW preheater;
4.1.3 Set the automatic adjustment setting value of FDW at startup value and on auto
position;
4.1.4 Put the automatic adjustment to LP FDW bypass on auto position;
4.1.5 After water comes out from all air valves, close all air valves;
4.1.6 When LP drums at startup water level, FDW is finished;
4.1.7 Start preheater recirculation pump and shift the temp. regulating valve on auto position;
4.2 Warm/hot startup

4.2.1 On LP FDW system display, start LP FDW pump and open the outlet;
4.2.2 On LP FDW system display, open LP FDW 3-way valves to LP FDW preheater;
4.2.3 Start preheater recirculation pump and open the outlet;
4.2.4 Set the automatic adjustment setting value of FDW at startup value and on auto
position;
4.2.5 When LP drums at startup water level, FDW is finished;

5 Stop of LP FDW system


5.1 Stop sequence:
5.1.1 Confirm that the LP FDW can be stopped;
5.1.2 When the LP drum at normal level, on LP FDW system display, stop LP FDW pump and
close the pump outlet;
5.1.3 After the inlet flue temp. of FDW preheater down to 35 , stop the recirculation pump;
5.1.4 If water draining needed, when LP drum pressure below 0.07MPa, open the water
draining valves;

6. Startup and stop of LP circulating vapor system


Started and stopped with GT startup and stop

7. Startup and stop of LP superheating steam system


Started and stopped with GT startup and stop; details on water draining and steam
exhaust system

8. Operation checks of LP steam and water system


8.1 Check all instruments and transmitters wiring of LP steam and water system correct and
the indication on DCS corresponding to the local one;
8.2 Check the pressure gauges indication of LP steam and water system correct;
8.3 Check the remote and local switches of all electric valves and regulating valves on remote
position;
8.4 Check no leakage or tube burst on LP steam and water system;

8.5 The parameter within normal scope;


8.6 Check whether all safety valves, LP atmospheric relief valves leakage heavy;
8.7 Check whether CW pump and recirculation pump motor current, inlet filter pressure
difference, all bearings temp., packing seal and vibration normal;

9. Protection set value of LP system


9.1 Interlock set value of preheater recirculation pump protection:
No.

Description

Set
value

Unit

Action

Driven end bearing temp. high


value I of Preheater recirculation
pump

105

Alarm

Driven end bearing temp. high


value II of Preheater recirculation
pump

110

Preheater
recirculation pump
trip

Driving end bearing temp. high


value I of Preheater recirculation
pump

105

Alarm

Driving end bearing temp. high


value II of Preheater recirculation
pump

110

Preheater
recirculation pump
trip

Seal water temp. high value I of


Preheater recirculation pump

75

Alarm

Seal water temp. high value II of


Preheater recirculation pump

80

Preheater
recirculation pump
trip

Speed and reversal rotation


protection of preheater recirculation
pump

RPM

Preheater
recirculation pump
trip

9.2 Interlock set value of LP FDW pump protection:


No.

Description

Set

Unit

Action

value
1

Driven end bearing temp. high value


I of LP FWD pump

105

Alarm

Driven end bearing temp. high value


II of LP FWD pump

110

LP FDW pump trip

Driving end bearing temp. high


value I of LP FWD pump

105

Alarm

Driving end bearing temp. high


value II of LP FWD pump

110

LP FDW pump trip

Seal water temp. high value I at


driven end of LP FWD pump

75

Alarm

Seal water temp. high value II at


driven end of LP FWD pump

80

LP FDW pump trip

Seal water temp. high value I at


driving end of LP FWD pump

75

Alarm

Seal water temp. high value II at


driving end of LP FWD pump

80

LP FDW pump trip

Speed and reversal rotation


protection of LP FWD pump

RPM LP FDW pump trip

9.3 LP steam and water system protection interlock


No.

Description

Set
value

Unit

Action

Pressure low value I of LP


FDW wood pipes

10

bar

Automatically start one spare


LP FDW pump

LP FDW pressure

13

bar

Allow to open LP FDW


regulating valves and
isolating valves

LP drum high level I

350

mm

Automatically open LP drum

intermittent blowdown
valves; safely close LP FDW
regulating valves

LP drum high level II

400

mm

Safely close LP FDW


regulating valves and
isolating valves

LP drum high level III

500

mm

HRSG trip

LP drum normal level

mm

LP drum startup level

-450

mm

LP drum low level I

-500

mm

Safely close LP drum


intermittent blowdown valves

LP drum low level II

-650

mm

HRSG trip

10

LP drum pressure high


value I

11

bar

Alarm

11

LP drum pressure over low


value I

bar

Automatically close LP drum


air relief valves

12

LP drum pressure below


low value II

0.5

bar

Automatically close LP drum


air relief valves (when
startup)

13

LP main steam pressure


high value I

8.5

bar

Alarm

14

LP main steam pressure


high value II

9.0

bar

HRSG trip

15

LP main steam flow high


value I

t/h

Single element control to


three element control

16

Water draining pipe level


high of LP main steam

800

mm

Automatically open LP main


steam draining valves

17

Water draining pipe level

50

mm

Automatically open LP main

low of LP main steam


18

Preheater pressure high

steam draining valves


16

bar

Alarm

Article 2 HP steam and water system


1 General situation
HP steam and water system makes the FDW from HP FDW system circulation in drum.
The saturated steam by vaporizing goes into superheaters to create superheating steam
for turbine HP cylinder, which includes HP FDW system, CV system and HP steam
superheating system. HP FWD system feeds water to HP drum through HP FDW pump
which also provides the backwash water to LP boiler steam headers.
HP FDW system feeds water to HP drums and provides the desuperheating water and
water resources for HP main steam system and HP boiler steam header backwash
respectively;
HP circulating vaporizing system is made up of downcomers, HP vaporizer and risers,
whose min. circulating times >8.

2. Equipments Spec.
2.1 HP FDW pump unit
3 x 50% horizontal multi-stage sub-sectional centrifugal constant speed LP FDW pump:
one is for backup. At the inlet pipe of FDW pump, Y type fine filters are equipped whose
resistance scope is within 0.020.03MPa).
Cooling water quality: the working oil coolers for FDW pumps motors and lub oil coolers
adopt closed cooling water. Under design working conditions, the cooling water temp. is
19 ; under check working conditions, the cooling water temp. is 32 and under hot
season working condition, the cooling water temp. is 46 .
Lub oil system of pump unit
In pump unit design, there is a perfect lub oil system and the seller should provide
complete lub oil equipments. The lub oil system includes working oil pump, lub oil pump,
AUX. AC oil pump, working oil cooler, lub oil cooler and oil filter instruments and meters.
The system can ensure all shafts and pads not damaged when auxiliary power lost;
The thermal resistance adopts Pt100 3-line system (two parse insulation), the thrust

bearing has independent survey points (single Pt100); the analogue signal is 4 20mA
DC (the accepted analogue signal by buyer should have isolation functions); the
discrete is dry contact point without resources, and the contact point type is DPDT,
whose capacity is 230V AC, 5A, 220V DC, 3A.
2.2Transporting Medium Characteristics
Medium:

Boiler FDW

PH value of water:

8.8-9.3

Boiler FDW water rigidity:

< 0.2s/cm (20)

Conductivity:
SiO2:

0umol/L

< 20g/L

2.2.1 Hydraulic coupler Parameter:

Manufacturer

Voith Turbo,Crailsheim

Type

562 SVTL 12

Output power

1306KW

Input power

1355KW

Output speed

2925rpm

Input speed

2985rpm

Slid difference

2%

Rolling direction

Clockwise, seeing from motor to turbo

Oil cooler

Flat cooler

Cooling water temp.

Max. 39 at inlet

Cooling water flow

20.9m3/h

2.2.2 HP FDW pump parameter:


Type

Horizontal ring type FDW pump

Model

HGC 5/7

Driven

motors with speed governing


hydraulic coupler

Rolling direction

Clockwise seeing from hydraulic


coupler to pump

PH value of FDW (25)

>9.0

Oxygen content of FDW

0.02

Inlet water temp. of pump

152

Density

0.9149 kg/dm3

Inlet pressure

0.616 MPa(g)

Outlet pressure

11.87 MPa(g)

Outlet flow

311.07 t/h

NPSHr

6.937m

Capacity

340.0 m3/h

Min capacity

89.87 m3/h

Efficiency

81.47%

Pump input power resource

1305.4KW

Pump speed

2925 rpm

Min permissive speed

1011rpm

3 Checks before HP FDW system startup


3.1 Cold startup checks:
3.1.1 Confirm the maintenance finished, work sheet terminated, safety facilities removed and
the site is clean;
3.1.2 The primary and secondary valves of all meters are opened and the relative control
power is supplied; the primary and secondary valves of all meters are opened and the
relative control power is supplied;
3.1.3 All interlock protection test in the system qualified;
3.1.4 HP FDW pump motor insulation qualified and power supplied;
3.1.5 Open all stop valves on HP FDW pipes and all air valves as well as sampling doors;
3.1.6 The inlet filter of FDW pump installed and the pressure difference of filter below 0.6bar;
3.1.7 Open the isolating valves on min. flow pipes;
3.1.8 Lub oil has been filled into FDW pump and the oil level is normal;
3.1.9 Put the cooling water of the FDW pump, the hydraulic coupler oil cooler and the FDW
pump bearings into service; the water pressure should be normal and the water return is
smooth;
3.1.10 If there is no backwash on HP boiler steam header, the backwash valves should be on
close position;
3.1.11 Check LP drum water level normal and the water level adjustment on auto position;
3.2 Checks under warm/hot state:
3.2.1 Confirm instruments air pressure normal;
3.2.2 The FDW pump and hydraulic coupler oil level normal;
3.2.3 Put the cooling water of the FDW pump, the hydraulic coupler oil cooler and the FDW
pump bearings into service; the water pressure should be normal and the water return is
smooth;
3.2.4 Start hydraulic coupler auxiliary oil pump; check the FDW pump, hydraulic coupler and

driving motor bearing oil level normal, and the lub oil pressure over 0.1MPa;
3.2.5 Check the LP drum water level normal and the water level adjustment on auto position;
3.2.6 If there is no backwash on HP boiler steam header, the backwash valves should be on
close position;

4 Startup of HP FDW system


4.1 Cold startup
4.1.1 On HP FDW system display, open the isolating valves from HP FDW pump outlet pipe to
LP drum;
4.1.2 On HP FDW system display, start HP FDW pump; pay attention to current return time
and stable current value and then open the outlet valves gradually;
4.1.3 Check the motor current, axial displacement, rotating parts vibration and sound normal;
4.1.4 Check he lub oil temp. normal;
4.1.5 On HP FDW system display, set the automatic adjustment setting value of FDW at
startup value and on auto position;
4.1.6 Set the automatic adjustment setting value of FDW at startup value and on auto
position;
4.1.7 Check whether the LP drum level is normal;
4.1.8 When HP drum to startup water level, FDW is finished
4.2 Warm/hot startup
4.2.1 On HP FDW system display, start HP FDW pump; pay attention to current return time
and stable current value and then open the outlet valves gradually;
4.2.2 Check the motor current, axial displacement, rotating parts vibration and sound normal;
4.2.3 When the lub oil pressure over 1.8bar, stop hydraulic coupler
auxiliary oil pump; pay attention to lub oil pressure change and
check the oil pressure should be normal;
4.2.4 Adjust the scoop tube open of HP FDW pump and check the rev should be accelerating;

4.2.5 On HP FDW system display, set the automatic adjustment setting value of FDW at
startup value and on auto position;
4.2.6 On HP FDW system display, put the adjustment valve from HP FDW pipes to LP boiler
on auto position;
4.2.7 Check whether the LP drum water level is normal;
4.2.8 When HP drums at startup water level, FDW is finished;

5 Stop of HP FDW system


5.1 Stop sequence:
5.1.1 Confirm that HP drums need no more FDW;
5.1.2 On HP FDW system display, click the Stop button to stop HP FDW pump on DCS and
then the pump electric outlet valves will be closed automatically;
5.1.3 When lub oil pressure below 1.5bar;
5.1.4 If water draining needed, when LP drum pressure below 0.07MPa, open the water
draining valves;

6. Startup and stop of HP circulating vapor system


Started and stopped with GT startup and stop

7. Startup and stop of HP superheating steam system


Started and stopped with GT startup and stop; details on water draining and steam
exhaust system

8. Operation checks of HP steam and water system


8.1 Check all instruments and transmitters wiring of HP steam and water system correct and
the indication on DCS corresponding to the local one;
8.2 Check the pressure gauges indication of HP steam and water system correct;
8.3 Check the remote and local switches of all electric valves and regulating valves on remote
position;
8.4 Check no leakage or tube burst on HP steam and water system;

8.5 The parameter within normal scope;


8.6 Check whether all safety valves, LP atmospheric relief valves leakage heavy;
8.7 Check whether CW pump and recirculation pump motor current, inlet filter pressure
difference, all bearings temp., packing seal and vibration normal;
8.8 Check the FDW pump rotor position;
8.9 Check the inlet and outlet pressure and oil temp. of HP FDW pump oil cooler normal;

9. Protection set value of HP FDW system


9.1 Interlock set value of HP FDW pump protection
No.

Description

Set
value

Unit

Action

Driven end bearing temp. high


value I of HP FWD pump

105

Alarm

Driven end bearing temp. high


value II of HP FWD pump

110

HP FDW pump trip

Driving end bearing temp. high


value I of HP FWD pump

105

Alarm

Driving end bearing temp. high


value II of HP FWD pump

110

HP FDW pump trip

Front bearing temp. high value I of


HP FDW pump motor

90

Alarm

Front bearing temp. high value II


of HP FDW pump motor

95

HP FDW pump trip

Back bearing temp. high value I of


HP FDW pump motor

90

Alarm

Back bearing temp. high value II


of HP FDW pump motor

95

HP FDW pump trip

3-phase winding temp. high value

150

Alarm

I of HP FDW pump motor


10

3-phase winding temp. high value


II of HP FDW pump motor

155

HP FDW pump trip

11

Seal water temp. high value I at


driven end of HP FWD pump

75

Alarm

12

Seal water temp. high value II at


driven end of HP FWD pump

80

HP FDW pump trip

13

Seal water temp. high value I at


driving end of HP FWD pump

75

Alarm

14

Seal water temp. high value II at


driving end of HP FWD pump

80

HP FDW pump trip

15

Vibration at driven end of HP


FWD pump

um

Alarm

16

Vibration at driven end of HP


FWD pump

7.1

um

HP FDW pump trip

17

Vibration at driving end of HP


FWD pump

um

Alarm

18

Vibration at driving end of HP


FWD pump

7.1

um

HP FDW pump trip

19

Speed and reversal rotation


protection of HP FWD pump

RPM HP FDW pump trip

9.2 HP steam and water system interlock set value


Set
Unit
value

No.

Description

Pressure low value I of


HP FDW wood pipes

69

bar

HP FDW pressure

90

bar

Action
Automatically start one
spare HP FDW pump
Allow to open HP FDW
regulating valves and

isolating valves

Pressure difference
between front and back
of HP FDW main isolating
valves

bar

Alarm

P drum high level I

500

Automatically open HP
drum intermittent
mm blowdown valves; safely
close HP FDW
regulating valves

HP drum high level II

550

mm

Safely close HP FDW


regulating valves and
isolating valves

HP drum high level III

650

mm

HRSG trip

HP drum normal level

mm

HP drum startup level

-600

mm

HP drum low level I

-650

mm

Safely close HP drum


intermittent blowdown
valves

10

HP drum low level II

-800

mm

HRSG trip

11

HP drum pressure high


value I

83

bar

Alarm

12

HP drum pressure over


low value I

bar

Automatically close HP
drum air relief valves

13

HP drum pressure below


low value II

0.5

bar

Automatically close HP
drum air relief valves
(when startup)

14

HP main steam pressure


high value I

77

bar

Alarm

15

HP main steam pressure


high value II

79

bar

HRSG trip

16

HP main steam flow over


min. value I

36

t/h

Single element control


to three element control

17

HP main steam flow


below min. value I

36

t/h

Safely close HP
desuperheating water
regulating valves and
automatically close HP
desuperheating water
isolating valves

18

HPS 2 Inlet draining pipe


level high

800

mm

Automatically open
HPS2 inlet draining
valves

19

HPS 2 Inlet draining pipe


level low

50

mm

Automatically close
HPS2 inlet draining
valves

20

HP desuperheating inlet
steam temp. high

470

Unloading turbine load


and delay for 30min;

21

HP main steam temp


high value I

529

Unloading turbine load


and delay for 30min;

22

HP main steam temp


high value II

550

HRSG trip

23

HP main steam draining


pipe level high

800

mm

Automatically open HP
main steam draining
valve

24

HP main steam draining


pipe level low

mm

Automatically close HP
main steam draining
valve

50

Article 3 Deaerator system


1. General introduction
The deaerator and water tanks are erected on the top of HRSG. During normal running,
the steam resource of deaerator will be provided by HRSG;
2. The configuration of deaerator system
The deaerator and the supplementary equipments should include deaerator head, water
tank, FDW heaters, FD and makeup steam loop, FDW and makeup water, startup heating
recirculation loop, the necessary pumps, valves and connecting lines for proper safety
valves exhaust and water drainage, steel shelves, platform, staircase and necessary local
pressure gauges, thermometers, local magnetic tripper level meters and other primary
instruments

for

deaerator

safety

operation

(including

instruments,

valves

and

supplementary), and also the remote signal interfaces of pressure, temp., and level
(including balance tanks) should be obligated. The deaerator has one suit of magnetic
tripper level meter (for camera and TV) and one suit of electric contact level meter.
3. Design requirements of deaerator system
Under 100% HRSG performance guaranteed working condition, the deaerator max.
output should be not less than FDW when HP and LP vaporizing sections are 105%;
The design pressure of deaerator and its water tank will ensure the deaerator operation
safely, and the pressure will not be more than max. heating steam pressure 1.25 times.
The water tank capacity can satisfy the max. continuous vaporizing of HRSG for 10min.
The safety valves are erected on the top of deaerator head and water tank. The max burst
size and reaction force can be calculated according to Power Plant Pressure Type
Deaerator Safety Technology Regulations. The max. burst size should not be less than the
max. input of deaerator.
At the inlet of deaerator, if no oxygen content limit, under startup and various other
operation working conditions, when the output of deaerator within 25%-100% of max.
output scope, the outlet oxygen content of deaerator should be7g/l
4. Deaerator system equipments materials
The deaerator head and water tank materials should meet ASME standard and the same

level standard;
(1) Drum materials of deaerator head:
(2) Drum materials of water tank:
(3) Breakwater materials:
(4) Nozzle materials:
(5) clapboard materials:

16MnR

16MnR
16MnR

1Cr18Ni9Ti
carbon steel

(6) Interface materials: the contact head of water pipe is steel 20, the contact head of
steam pipe which is over 430, is alloy steel;
(7) The spray tray deaerator adopted, the heated tray is stainless steel.

5. Deaerator system interlock set value


No.

Description

Set
value

Unit

Action

Deaerator temp.
over set value I

105

Deaerator level set at normal value

Deaerator temp.
below set value I

105

Deaerator level set at startup value

Deaerator pressure
high value I

4.5

bar

Alarm

Deaerator pressure
high value

4.7

bar

Safely close deaerator auxiliary


steam adjustment valve

Deaerator level high


value

550

mm

Automatically open deaerator


emergency draining valve

Deaerator at normal
level

mm

Deaerator at startup
-1550
level

Deaerator level over -1600


low value I

mm
mm

Allow to start HP and LP FDW


pump

Deaerator level
below low value I

-1600

mm

Safely close deaerator emergency


draining valves

10

Deaerator level
below low value II

-1750

mm

HRSG trip; HP FDW pump trip;


safely close deaerator aux. steam
regulating valves

Article 4 HP bypass system


1. General introduction of HP bypass system
HP bypass system device is made up of hydraulic HP bypass valves (HP bypass valves
include desuperheater), hydraulic spray regulating valves, hydraulic spray isolating valves;
GT HP bypass system is designed that under all operating conditions, the 100% steam from
HRSG can be supplied to condenser directly. Pressure control valves of HP bypass steam
system allow HP steam into condenser through steam pipes to adjust the HRSG steam flow;
1.1 HP bypass functions
1.1.1 At earlier period of unit startup, control HP pipes steam pressure;
1.1.2 During stop, through bypassing HP steam into condenser, control HP pipes steam
pressure;
1.1.3 Hold backup state under normal operating conditions; if GT steam inlet valves closed
suddenly, through bypassing HRSG steam into condenser, control steam pipes
pressure;
1.2 HP bypass devices have the following protective functions:
1.2.1 Bypass safety protective functions against main steam pipes system
When the following situations happen, bypass can be opened fast automatically in 2s:
1.2.1.1 Main steam pressure over set value; when pressure back to rated value or below,
bypass valves will be closed automatically;
1.2.1.2 Turbine trips; auto main steam valves closed;
1.2.1.3 The generator oil switches trip;
1.2.1.4 GT trips and out of synchronization;
1.2.2 Bypass safety protective functions against condenser
When the following situations happen, bypass can be closed fast automatically in 2s:
1.2.2.1 Vacuum of condenser down to set value;
1.2.2.2 Condenser temp. higher than set value;

1.2.2.3 Hot well level of condenser higher than set value;


1.2.2.4 Bypass vales outlet pressure or temp. higher than set value;
1.2.2.5 Bypass valves desuperheating water pressure lower than set value (bypass outlet
steam pressure)
1.2.3 Bypass devices have the following interlock protections:
1.2.3.1 If bypass spray regulating valves can not be opened, the bypass valves will be closed;
1.2.3.2 When bypass valves closed fast, the spray regulating valves will be closed at the
same time or delayed, and the temp. auto control system will be interlocked automatically;

2. HP bypass system parameter


2.1 Equipments parameter
2.1.1 HP bypass system technology parameter

Bypass valves

Spray
regulating
valves

Spray
isolating
valves

C7z61Y-P537.7V Tp7Z64Y-4.0I Tp764Y-4.0I

Model
Type

angle

Driving mode

hydraulic

hydraulic

hydraulic

Design pressure

7.7

Design temp.

528

60

60

Test pressure

11.6

Valves materials

12Cr1MoV

15CrMo

15CrMo

Nozzle materials

0Cr18Ni10Ti

State after power


lost

closed

open

Hold

MPa

2.2

2.2

520

29

29

MPa

0.6

1.6

2.2

160

29

29

MPa

2.2

2.2

t/h

174.1

47.3

47.3

t/h

205

55

55

inlet

outlet

Close
difference
pressure
Rated
value
flow
Max.

Rem
a
r
k
s

2.1.2 Driving devices of HP bypass devices


Bypass valves, spray regulating valves, spray
isolating valves servomotors
Name

Unit
Bypass valves

spray
regulating
valves

spray isolating
valves

Manufacturer

Xinhua Huiyi

Xinhua Huiyi

Xinhua Huiyi

model

YG200

YG64

YG64

Oil pressure

MPa

16

16

16

diameter

mm

200

64

64

transect square

mm2

21800

2250

2250

Working force

KN

350

36

36

stroke

mm

105

45

45

400

114

100

Reacting
time of
complete
stroke

Fast
Open
S
Fast
close

Weight

Kg

2.1.3 Oil station equipment technology parameter


The hydraulic actuator oil feeding device of each unit bypass device are equipped with
one. The automatic available time of each oil station spare device is 2s. After in service
for 60s, the working oil pressure will be approached. The oil station equipments
technological parameter is as follow table:
No.
1

name

Item

Unit

Oil pump

Model

PV15/PV028I1K1T1VMM

Value

C
Type

Constant pressure
variable

Qty.

Set

Rated oil pressure

MPa

16

Rated flow

l/min

45

Speed

r/min

1450

Manufacturer

Denison/Parker

Model

Oil tank

Qty.

set

Working pressure

MPa

0.1

Working capacity

350

Max oil storage

400

Model
Materials
3

filter

Oil pump
motor

Fabric

Aperture

10

Permissive
pressure difference

MPa

0.35

Appearance Size

mm

100*200

Set

Model
Qty.

Power

kw

15

Voltage

400

Frequency

Hz

50

Speed

r/min

1450

Manufacturer

ABB (Shanghai)

Model/Spec.

L/Set

Qty.

Set

Capacity

10/25

Working pressure

MPa

16

Safety valves
action pressure

MPa

21

Buffer
medium\pressure

/MPa

Retain time after


power lost

Min

Regeneration
materials

Set

Regeneration time

Qty.

unit

Power

KW

1.5

Voltage/Power

V/Hz

400/50

Charger

Buffer
6

Regeneration
equipments

Electric heater

2.1.4 Oil station oil quality parameter


Organic phosphate fire resistance oil is the working medium of hydraulic actuator. The oil
system is made up of 16MPa control oil (driving oil) and 16MPa governing oil. The oil
quality parameter is as the following table:
Unit

Oil quality
requirements

No.

Name

Oil name

No.

FRYQUEL/EHC

Fyrquel

proportion 20

kg/l

1.12-1.21

viscosity 40

mm2/s

45-50

Viscosity index

Flash point

235

Burning point

352

Auto flashing
temperature

595

Organic
phosphate

EHC

Freezing point

-21

10

Water content
(weight)

0.15Max

11

chloride content
(cl)

ppm

150

12

Mechanical
impurity content

mg/l

Nas1383
Class7

3 Checks before startup


3.1 Checks before cold startup (overhaul):
3.1.1 Confirm all equipments cleaned and labels resigned;
3.1.2 Confirm all instruments, electric and DCS system normal;
3.1.3 Confirm oil pressure system normal;
3.1.4 Confirm user blowdown system normal;
3.1.5 Confirm all necessary conditions on the display agreed;
3.1.6 Verify the mechanical system components in each running valves adjusting table;
3.1.7 Verify the electric system components in each running electric table;
3.1.8 Check management system to verify the completeness of mechanical equipments;
3.2 Warm and hot state checks
3.2.1 Confirm instruments, electric and DCS system normal;
3.2.2 Confirm instruments and oil pressure system normal;
3.2.3 Confirm user blowdown system normal;
3.2.4 Confirm all necessary conditions on the display agreed;
3.2.5 Verify the mechanical system components in each running valves adjusting table;
3.2.6 Verify the electric system components in each running electric table;
3.2.7 Check management system to verify the completeness of mechanical equipments;

4. HP bypass system during startup


4.1 When HP drum pressure at set value, HP bypass pressure regulating valves will be
opened to control HP drum pressure. The pressure set value is the bigger one between
the following two: basic pressure (about 566psi, viz. 39bar) and initial HP pressure plus
44psi (3bar);
4.2 During sequence startup, if HP bypass pressure regulating valves open over 90% at any
moment, the pressure set value of HP bypass pressure regulating valves will be risen
gradually to limit HP bypass pressure regulating valves open to 90%;

4.3 When turbine HP cylinder loading load, if the turbine main control valves are located
before inlet pressure control mode and the main control valves open over 95%, the set
value of HP bypass pressure regulating valves will be risen gradually to prevent the main
control valves open fully;
4.4 When HP bypass pressure regulating valves open at 10%, DCS transfers GT control
mode from stress control to inlet pressure control and the HP bypass pressure regulating
valves will be closed to 10% open at constant speed;

5. Bypass system actions during shutdown


5.1 When DCS receives signals: when turbine quit inlet pressure control mode, the pressure
set value of the local HP bypass pressure regulating valves is the operating pressure.
With main control valves close, HP steam bypass pressure regulating valves will be
opened to control pressure;

6. Bypass system action during load rejection


Turbine load is set at zero to close main control valves. HP steam bypass pressure
controller will change track mode to pressure control mode. The real HP pressure during
load rejection will be sampled and saved as the set value of HP steam bypass pressure
control.

7. Bypass system action during trip


HP steam bypass pressure controller will be changed from track mode to pressure control
mode. The real HP pressure at trip will be sampled and saved as the set value of pressure
control.

8. Alarm and interlocks


8.1 Alarms at the following conditions:
8.1.1 Condenser vacuum low (pressure high) alarm;
8.1.2 HP bypass outlet temp. high, delay alarm;
8.1.3 HP outlet temp. low alarm when HP outlet temp. equals to or below saturated temp.
over 5s;

8.2 HP bypass will be closed at the following conditions:


8.2.1 Condenser vacuum low;
8.2.2 No desuperheating water;
8.2.3 Superheating steam temp. high value II;
8.2.4 Condenser water level high value II;
8.3 HP bypass system interlocks and set value:
No.

Description

Functions

Set value

Unit

HP bypass downstream
steam pressure

HP bypass pressure control


valves override close

0.07

MPa

Drain tank level high before


HP steam bypass valve

Open drain valves

500

mm

Drain tank level low before


HP steam bypass valve

Close drain valves

50

mm

HP pipe drain valves at HP


Open of HP bypass regulating
bypass pressure regulating
valves over certain value
valves inlet closed

20%

HP bypass downstream
steam temp. high high

Override close HP bypass


control valve

160

Drain tank temp. over


saturation before HP steam
bypass valve

One of conditions to
automatically close
pneumatic drain valves
before HP bypass valves

50

Drain tank temp. over


saturation before HP steam
pipes main steam valves

One of conditions to
automatically close or open
drain valves before HP
pipes main steam valves

50

9. Operating valves adjustment

No.

Description

Position

HP bypass steam pressure control valve

Auto

HP bypass spray desuperheater control valve

Auto

Electric isolating valve of HP steam bypass condenser


for desuperheating water

Auto

Inverted valve of HP steam bypass condenser for


desuperheating water

Auto

Oil pressure supply isolating valve of HP steam bypass


pressure control instruments

Open

Oil pressure supply isolating valve of HP steam bypass


spray desuperheating water temp. control instruments

Open

LP side isolating valve of HP steam bypass condenser


for desuperheating water flow transmitter

Open

HP side isolating valve of HP steam bypass condenser


for desuperheating water flow transmitter

Open

Manual bypass valve of HP steam bypass pressure


control valve

Close

10

HP steam bypass pressure transmitter isolating valve

Open

11

HP steam bypass pressure transmitter isolating valve

Open

Article 5 LP bypass system


1. General Introduction
LP bypass system device is made up of hydraulic LP bypass valves (LP bypass valves
include desuperheater), hydraulic spray regulating valves, hydraulic spray isolating valves;
GT LP bypass system is designed that under all operating conditions, the 100% steam
from HRSG can be supplied to condenser directly. Pressure control valves of LP bypass
steam system allow LP steam into condenser through steam pipes to adjust the HRSG
steam flow;
1.1 LP bypass functions
1.1.1 At earlier period of unit startup, control LP pipes steam pressure;
1.1.2 During stop, through bypassing LP steam into condenser, control LP pipes steam
pressure;
1.1.3 Hold backup state under normal operating conditions; if GT steam inlet valves closed
suddenly, through bypassing HRSG steam into condenser, control steam pipes
pressure;
1.2 LP bypass devices have the following protective functions:
1.2.1 Bypass safety protective functions against main steam pipes system
When the following situations happen, bypass can be opened fast automatically in 2s:
1.2.1.1 Main steam pressure over set value; when pressure back to rated value or below,
bypass valves will be closed automatically;
1.2.1.2 Turbine trips; auto main steam valves closed;
1.2.1.3 The generator oil switches trip;
1.2.1.4 GT trips and out of synchronization;
1.2.2 Bypass safety protective functions against condenser
When the following situations happen, bypass can be closed fast automatically in 2s;
1.2.2.1 Vacuum of condenser down to set value;

1.2.2.2 Condenser temp. higher than set value;


1.2.2.3 Hot well level of condenser higher than set value;
1.2.2.4 Bypass vales outlet pressure or temp. higher than set value;
1.2.2.5 Bypass valves desuperheating water pressure lower than set value (bypass outlet
steam pressure)
1.2.3 Bypass devices have the following interlock protections:
1.2.3.1 If bypass spray regulating valves can not be opened, the bypass valves will be closed;
1.2.3.2 When bypass valves closed fast, the spray regulating valves will be closed at the
same time or delayed, and the temp. auto control system will be interlocked
automatically;

2. LP bypass system parameter


2.1 Equipments parameter
2.1.1 LP bypass system technology parameter

Electric shutoff valve,


bypass valve

Spray adjusting Spray isolating


valve
valve

Model

C7z63Y-PN1.6

Tp7Z64Y-4.0C

Tp764Y-4.0C

Type

angle

Straight

Straight

Driving mode

hydraulic

hydraulic

hydraulic

Design pressure

0.8

Design temp.

262.5

60

60

Test pressure

1.2

Valves materials

20

20

20

Nozzle materials

0Cr18Ni10Ti

State after power lost

closed

closed

Hold

MPa

0.65

2.2

2.2

255.5

29

29

MPa

0.15

1.3

2.2

115

29

29

2.2

2.2

inlet

outle
t

Close
difference
pressure

MPa

Rated
value

t/h

36.8

3.9

3.9

Max.
value

t/h

46

4.8

4.8

flow

2.1.2 Driving devices of LP bypass devices


Bypass valves, spray regulating valves,
spray isolating valves servomotors
Name

Unit
Bypass
valves

spray
regulating
valves

spray
isolating
valves

Manufacturer

Xinhua or
Huiyi

Xinhua or
Huiyi

Xinhua or
Huiyi

model

YG84

YG64

YG64

Oil pressure

MPa

16

16

16

diameter

mm

84

64

64

2250

2250

transect square

mm2

3450

Working force

KN

55

36

36

stroke

mm

85

55

25

Reacting
time of
complete
stroke

Fast
Open
S
Fast
close

2.1.3 Oil station equipment technology parameter


The hydraulic actuator oil feeding device of each unit bypass device are equipped with
one. The automatic available time of each oil station spare device is 2s. After in service
for 60s, the working oil pressure will be approached. The oil station equipments
technological parameter is as follow table:
No.

name

Item

Unit

Oil pump

Model

PV15/PV028I1K1T1VM

Value

MC
Type

Constant pressure
variable

Qty.

Set

Rated oil
pressure

MPa

16

Rated flow

l/min

45

Speed

r/min

1450

Manufacturer

Denison/Parker

Model
Qty.

Oil tank

set

MPa

0.1

Working
capacity

350

Max oil storage

400

Working
pressure

Model
Materials

Fabric

Aperture

10

Permissive
pressure
difference

MPa

0.35

Appearance
Size

mm

100*200

filter

Model

Oil pump
motor

Qty.

set

Power

kw

15

Voltage

400

Frequency

Hz

50

Speed

r/min

1450

Manufacturer

ABB (Shanghai)

Model/Spec.

L/Set

Qty.

set

Capacity

10/25

MPa

16

Safety valves
action pressure

MPa

21

Buffer
medium\pressur
e

/MPa

Retain time
after power lost

Min

Regeneration
materials

set

Regeneration
time

Working
pressure
5

Charger

Buffer

Regeneration
equipments

Qty.

unit

Power

kw

1.5

Voltage/Power

V/Hz

400/50

Electric
heater

2.1.4 Oil station oil quality parameter


Organic phosphate fire resistance oil is the working medium of hydraulic actuator. The oil
system is made up of 16MPa control oil (driving oil) and 16MPa governing oil. The oil
quality parameter is as the following table:
Unit

Oil quality
requirements

No.

Name

Oil name

No.

FRYQUEL/EHC

Fyrquel

proportion 20

kg/l

1.12-1.21

viscosity 40

mm2/s

45-50

Viscosity index

Flash point

235

Burning point

352

Auto flashing
temperature

595

Organic
phosphate

EHC

Freezing point

-21

10

Water content (weight)

0.15Max

11

chloride content (cl)

ppm

150

12

Mechanical impurity
content

mg/l

Nas1383; Class7

3. Checks before startup


3.1 Checks before cold startup (overhaul):
3.1.1 Confirm all equipments cleaned and labels resigned;
3.1.2 Confirm all instruments, electric and DCS system normal;
3.1.3 Confirm oil pressure system normal;
3.1.4 Confirm user blowdown system normal;
3.1.5 Confirm all necessary conditions on the display agreed;
3.1.6 Verify the mechanical system components in each running valves adjusting table;
3.1.7 Verify the mechanical system components in each running valves adjusting table;
3.1.8 Check management system to verify the completeness of mechanical equipments;
3.2 Warm and hot state checks
3.2.1 Confirm instruments, electric and DCS system normal;
3.2.2 Confirm instruments and oil pressure system normal;
3.2.3 Confirm user blowdown system normal;
3.2.4 Confirm all necessary conditions agreed on the display;
3.2.5 Verify the mechanical system components in each running valves adjusting table;
3.2.6 Verify the electric system components in each running electric table;
3.2.7 Check management system to verify the completeness of mechanical equipments;

4 LP bypass system during startup


4.1 When LP drum pressure up to LV basic pressure, LP bypass pressure regulating valves
will be opened;
4.2 When LP main isolating valves opened fully over 60s, LP bypass pressure adjusting valve
set value will be risen gradually from startup value to the value which is higher than the
operating value related to the pressure when turbine LP control valves open fully;

4.3 When LP bypass pressure adjusting valve set value up to the value over max normal
operating pressure, LP bypass pressure adjusting valve is on close position;

5. LP bypass system actions during shutdown


5.1 When turbine speed is down and below 66%, LP bypass pressure adjusting valve set
value will be reduced from operating value to startup value;

6. LP bypass system action during load rejection


When pressure up to LP bypass pressure adjusting valve set value (over LP steam system
normal operating pressure), LP bypass pressure regulating valves will act;

7. LP bypass system action during trip


If pressure up to LP bypass pressure adjusting valve set value, viz. over LP steam system
normal operating pressure, LP bypass pressure adjusting valve will act;

8 Alarm and interlock


8.1 Alarm
8.1.1 Condenser vacuum low (pressure high) alarm;
8.1.2 LP bypass outlet temp. high, delay alarm;
8.1.3 LP outlet temp. low alarm when LP outlet temp. equals to or below saturated temp.
over 5s;
8.2 LP bypass will be closed at the following conditions:
8.2.1 Condenser vacuum low;
8.2.2 No desuperheating water;
8.2.3 Superheating steam temp. high value II;
8.2.4 Condenser water level high value II;
8.3 LP bypass system interlocks and set value
Set
No.

Description

Functions

Unit
value

Drain tank level high before LP


steam bypass valve

Open drain valves

500

mm

Drain tank level low before LP


steam bypass valve

Close drain valves

50

mm

Open of LP bypass regulating


valves over certain value

HRSG LP superheater
drain isolating valve close

20%

LP bypass downstream steam


temp. high high

Override close LP bypass


control valve

160

9. Operating valves adjustment


No.

Description

Position

LP bypass steam pressure control valve

Auto

LP bypass spray desuperheater control valve

Auto

Electric isolating valve of LP steam bypass


condenser for desuperheating water

Auto

Inverted valve of LP steam bypass condenser for


desuperheating water

Auto

Oil pressure supply isolating valve of LP steam


bypass pressure control instruments

Open

Oil pressure supply isolating valve of LP steam


bypass spray desuperheating water temp. control
instruments

Open

LP side isolating valve of LP steam bypass


condenser for desuperheating water flow
transmitter

Open

LP side isolating valve of LP steam bypass


condenser for desuperheating water flow
transmitter

Open

Manual bypass valve of LP steam bypass pressure

Close

control valve
10

LP steam bypass pressure transmitter isolating


valve

Open

11

LP steam bypass pressure transmitter isolating


valve

Open

Article 6 Water drain and steam exhaust system


1. General Introduction
The functions of water drain and steam exhaust is to prevent water or air in pipes,
cavitations and steam with water damaging equipments during unit startup, stop and
operating.

2. Water drain and steam exhaust system operation during cold startup:
2.1 Operations before GT ignition:
Atmosphere steam exhaust valves of HPS header open;
Atmosphere steam exhaust valves of LPS header open;
HPS drain valve open;
LPS drain valve open;
2.2 Operations after warming-up finished (on DCS)
2.2.1When HP (deae.) drum pressure over 0.5bar, HP (deae.) superheaters air valves will be
opened, which will be closed while the pressure over 2.0bar.
2.2.2Open HPS drain valves and HPS desuperheater drain valve in turn;
2.2.3 When HP drum pressure over 1.5bar, the HP pipe drain valves at HP bypass pressure
regulating valves inlet will be opened;
2.2.4When HP drum pressure over 10bar, HPS and HPS desuperheater drain valves are on
half open state;
2.2.5 When HP drum pressure over 1.5bar and HPS drain valves already on half open
position or fully open position over 3min at least, HP pipe drain valves at superheater
outlet, HP pipe drain valves at HP steam flow element inlet, HP pipe drain valves at
main steam downstream of HP bypass contact and HP pipe drain valves at turbine main
control valves inlet will be opened;
2.2.6 When HP drum pressure over 10bar, HP pipe drain valves at HP steam flow element
inlet and main steam downstream of HP bypass contact are on half open position;
2.2.7 When HP drum pressure over 17bar and HPS drain valves, HPS desuperheater drain

valves and superheater outlet drain valves on half or full open position over 3min at
least, close them in turn (HP pressure at 0.07MPa or steam flow meets requirements,
superheater drain valves can be closed according to Hangzhou Boiler documents)
2.2.8 When HP pipe drain valves at HP bypass HP valve inlet opened over 3min at least and
HP bypass HP valves open over 20%, close the valves;
2.2.9 When HP pipes drain valves at HP bypass pressure regulating valves and turbine main
control valves inlet opened 3min at least and HP pipes drain valves at superheaters
outlet, HP steam flow element inlet, HP bypass contact main steam flow downstream on
half open or full open position for 2.5min at least, HP water draining is finished;
2.2.10 When main control valves open over 30%, the following drain valves turn to full close
position gradually;
2.2.11 When turbine main control valves open at 20% at least, the HP pipe drain valves at
main control valves inlet, HP steam flow elements inlet and main steam flow downstream of
HP bypass contact and the drain isolating valves at reheating system will be closed in turn
and there is 30s delay within every two valves close;
2.2.12 With HP main control valves opening and HP steam into turbine HP cylinder and
deaerator cylinder, LP cylinder inlet pressure will be up too. When LP cylinder inlet pressure
over cooling steam pressure set value, the cooling steam pressure regulating valves will be
closed; with cooling steam pressure regulating valves closing, LP main steam pressure will be
down and turbine LP control valves will be closed. When turbine LP control valves closed to
min position, the inlet drain valves will be opened;
2.2.13 After GT warming-up finished, LPS drain valves, LPS outlet drain valves and LP
bypass pipe drain valves at bypass pressure regulating valves inlet will opened;
2.2.14 After GT warming-up finished, when LP drum pressure over 1bar and LPS drain valves
and LPS outlet drain valves opened for 3min at least, the drain valves at LP steam flow
element inlet and LP steam inverted valves inlet will be opened;
2.2.15 After GT warming-up finished, when LP drum pressure over 0.5barg, LPS air valves
will be opened and after the LP drum pressure over 1.0barg, the air valves will be closed;
2.2.16 When LPS drain valves open for 3min at least and LP bypass pressure regulating
valves open at 20% at least, HRSG LPS drain isolating valves will be closed;

2.2.17 After LPS outlet drain valves and LP steam flow element inlet drain valves opened for
3min at least and LP bypass pressure regulating valves open at 20% at least, they are
allowed to be closed;
2.2.18 When HRSG LPS drain valves, LPS outlet drain valves and LP steam flow element
inlet drain valves opened for 3min at least, LP draining is finished;
2.2.19 After LP main isolating valves opened fully, drain valves at LP inverted valves inlet will
be closed;
2.2.20 When turbine LP control valves open at 20% at least, drain valves at turbine LP control
valves inlet will be closed;

3 warm/hot water drain and steam exhaust operations


3.1 When GT flue gas temp. at boiler HP drum saturated temp., open all pressure system
superheaters drain valves;
3.2 When condensing water in superheaters out, after about 5-10min, close superheaters
drain valves;
3.3 When GT load loaded, open steam exhaust valves widely to control temp. rise rate
(2.67/min at HP part and 22/min at LP part);
3.4 When HP and LP main steam pressure and temp. over set value, the atmosphere air
exhaust valves can be closed separately;

4 Water drain and steam exhaust operations during shutdown


4.1 When main control valves open below 30%, the following turbine drain valves will be
open: drain valves in back of main control valves seats
4.2 After GT cuts off fuel, the following drain valves will be closed if they are open:
HPS drain valves;
drain valves at superheaters outlets, HP steam flow elements inlets and main steam flow
downstream of HP bypass contact
LPS outlets drain valves;
LP pipes drain valves

4.3 When HP drum pressure below 0.07MPa, boiler steam exhaust and water discharge can
be operated;

5 Water drain and steam exhaust system during load rejection


5.1 When main control valves open below 15%, the drain valves in front of ST HP main
control valves seats will be opened;

6 Water drain and steam exhaust system during trip


6.1 When main control valves open below 30%, the following turbine drain valves will be
opened:
drain valves in back of main control valves seats;
6.2 When main control valves open below 20%, drain valves in back of
main control valves seats will be opened;
6.3 After GT cuts off fuel, the following drain valves will be closed if they are open:
HP pipes drain valves;
drain valves at superheaters outlets, HP steam flow elements inlets and main steam flow
downstream of HP bypass contact
HPS outlets drain valves;
6.4 On each pressure system, intermittent blowdown valves are used to reduce boiler water
level to min. water level where the level meters can be seen. Close the blowdown valves
and after 5min, feed hot deaerated water coal economizers at every pressure level till the
drum level at highest level. After 5min, repeat the operations;
6.5 When pressure at 0.07MPa, open steam exhaust valves to prevent boiler vacuumized. At
this time, superheaters, vaporizers and coal economizers can start water draining. If the
draining pipes jammed, disposal should take at once.

Article 7 Service water system


1. General Introductions
Service water system is providing the desuperheating water for daring water from
intermittent blowdown flash tank and pipe drain flash tank to circulating water draining pit.

2. Equipments parameter
2.1 Service water pump

3. Service water pump startup after maintenance


3.1 Check all bolts and pipes firm;
3.2 Check all instruments, valves and meters normal
3.3 Check grounding good and motors insulation qualified;
3.4 Check opening CW operation normal;
3.5 Check inlet and outlet valves closed;
3.6 Open suction and reject valves to fulfill the liquid into pump (air exhausted in pump
automatically) and then close the reject valve;
3.7 Start machine (after startup, stop the PMVR), observe the pump shaft rolling direction
(counter-clockwise); if the direction not correct, change any two polar leads in 3-phase
motor;
3.8 On DCS or in site, start discharging water return pump and open the reject valves of the
pump. The reject valves are not allowed to be closed for long time to prevent pump
damaged caused by overheating;
3.9 Check pump outlet pressure and flow normal;

4. Normal startup of service water pump


4.1 Check all bolts and pipes firm;
4.2 Check all instruments, valves and meters normal;
4.3 Check grounding good and motors insulation qualified;

4.4 Check opening CW operation normal;


4.5 Check grounding good and motors insulation qualified;
4.6 Check grounding good and motors insulation qualified;
4.7 Check pump outlet pressure and flow normal;

5 Checks during service water in service


5.1 Check the outlet pressure and flow normal;
5.2 Check the pump vibration within normal scope;

Article 8 Intermittent blowdown flash tank system


1. General Introduction
Cubage: 8m3
The flash tank is used to collect HP drum continuous blowdown, HPV inlet draining water,
HPE inlet draining water, HPE inlet safety valves draining water, HPE outlet draining water,
HP FDW regulating valves, LP drum continuous blowdown, LP drum intermittent blowdown,
deae. emergency draining water, LPE inlet draining water, LP FDW draining water, LP ST
draining water, preheater CP outlet draining water, preheater bypass draining water,
preheater inlet safety valves draining water, preheater inlet draining water, deae. level meter
draining water, deae. safety valves draining water, LP drum electric contact level meter
draining water, LP drum level indicator draining water, HP drum level indicator draining
water, HP drum electric contact level meter draining water, LP drum safety valve 1 draining
water, LP drum safety valve 2 draining water, HP drum safety valve 1 draining water, HP
drum safety valve 2 draining water, HP ST downstream draining water, HPS 2 inlet draining
water and other pipes draining water;
After all draining water passing intermittent blowdown flash tank, except the steam part
exhausted to the air, other draining water is collected into water collection pit and cooled by
cooling water from service water pumps;

2. Equipment parameter
Parameter
Design
pressure
Design temp.
Working
pressure
Working temp.

Unit

MPa

MPa

Intermittent blowdown flash


tank

cubage

m3

Action
pressure of
safety valves

MPa

Model

---

3 Availability of Intermittent blowdown system


3.1 Check maintenance finished, equipments good and site clean;
3.2 Check water level meters, pressure gauges, water level transmitters in service and good;
3.3 Check intermittent blowdown pipes and water discharging bypass complete and good;
3.4 Check service water system operation normal and service water pressure and temp.
proper;
3.5 Open the bottom water discharging valves of intermittent blowdown flash tank and put the
desuperheating valves of intermittent blowdown flash tank water discharging pipes on
auto position;
3.6 Check auto draining valves operating normal;

4 Stop of intermittent blowdown system


4.1 Check HP, IP and LP drum continuous blowdown regulating valves on 0 position;
4.2 Close HP and LP drum continuous blowdown manual isolating valves;
4.3 Close boiler HP, IP and LP system blowdown and water draining;
4.4 When intermittent blowdown flash tank water discharged out, the water discharged valves
of intermittent blowdown flash tank can be closed;
4.5 Close the discharging water temp. regulating valves of intermittent blowdown;

5. Checks and adjustment during normal operation


5.1 Check the discharging water temp. of intermittent blowdown flash tank below 40 ;
5.2 Check the open of intermittent blowdown flash tank level regulating valves and drum
continuous blowdown regulating valves on DCS agrees with the open in site;

5.3 Check the intermittent blowdown flash tank level on DCS agrees with the indication in site;
5.4 Check the intermittent blowdown flash tank pressure;
5.5 Check the service water temp. and pressure normal;
5.7 Take one intermittent blowdown in every shift;
5.8 Before blowdown, check the intermittent blowdown flash tank level normal. Open
blowdown valves gradually and focus on FDW pressure, drum water level and water flow
variety to ensure the drum level normal;
5.9 During blowdown, if boiler accidents happen, stop blowdown at once (except drum level
high or priming)

Article 9 Local boiler drum level meter wash


1.

Regulations of periodical local level meter wash:


In order to ensure the local boiler drum level meter indication clear and correct, the steam
and water connecting pipes smooth, the level meters should be washed periodically.
When level meters indication not clear or level held, the meters should be wash in time. At
present, the regulations are as the following:

2. Wash period of local level meters:


The local boiler drum level meters should be washed periodically in each month. If boiler
shutdown, postpone the time and make record;

3. The wash principles and procedures:


3.1 Open the water discharging valves slowly to wash the steam connecting pipes,
water connecting pipes and level meters by steam and water;
3.2 Close the water side connecting valves of level meter to make the steam connecting
pipe and level meters be washed by steam;
3.3 Open the water side connecting valves of level meter and close the steam side
connecting valves to make the water connecting pipes be washed by water;
3.4 Open steam side connecting valves and close water discharge valves to recover the
level meters normal operation;

4. Precautions of local level meters wash:


4.1 It is forbidden to close steam and water side connecting valves at the same time. If closed
at the same time, the steam and water can not be into level meters at the same time and
the level meters will be cooled fast. When cooling air back sucked into level meter
through water discharge valves, the cooling speed will be faster. When open steam or
water side connecting valves again, the level meters will be damaged caused by heavy
differential temp.
4.2 When flush level meters under working pressure, the water discharge valves should be
opened small; because pressure in level meter is very different with environmental
pressure, if the water discharge valves opened widely, the steam and water flow will be
very fast caused by expansion and results the mica lamination damage or level meters
explosion;
4.3 When wash meters, pay attention to human safety and prevent steam and water burning
human. The personnel should stand at side of meter and forecast the dodge direction
and way;
4.4 The level should be washed one by one and the washing personnel should strengthen the
communication with supervisors; and the supervisors should focus on drum level variety
and make accidents forecast about drum level high, low and HRSG trip;

5. Demonstration of level flush:


There are 3 local level meters on HP and LP drum of HRSG respectively but the wash
steps are the same. Now we take local Lv. meter C on HP drum #1 as an example:
5.1 Open local Lv. meter C primary drain valve on HP drum #1 fully and slowly open local Lv.
meter C secondary drain valves on HP drum #1 to make steam side and water side
connecting pipes and local Lv. meter C be washed by steam and water for 1min;
5.2 Close local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve at steam side on HP drum #1 and then
local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve at water side on HP drum #1. Pay attention to the
time to ensure the valves closed at the same time.
5.3 Open local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve at steam side on HP drum #1 slightly to
make the steam connecting pipes and level meter be washed by steam for 30s.

5.4 Close local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve at steam side on HP drum #1 and open
local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve at water side on HP drum #1 slightly to wash
water connecting pipes for 30s.
5.5 Open local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve at steam side on HP drum #1 and local Lv.
meter C secondary drain valve at water side on HP drum #1. Pay attention to the time to
ensure the valves closed at the same time.
5.6 Close local Lv. meter C secondary drain valve on HP drum #1 and then the primary drain
valves on HP drum #1. After the wash finished, recover Lv. meter normal operation.

Chapter 3
Accidents and Faults Disposal of HRSG

Article 1 Accidents disposal principles


1 If accidents happen, the operators should dispose the accidents as soon as possible
according to shift engineer command;
2 After accidents happen, take any method to prevent accidents expansion and to limit
accidents scope or remove real causes;
3 If any faults not on regulations happen, the operators should judge the faults correctly
according to meters and instruments and equipments reflection adding the operation
experience and then take some effective measures to dispose the faults in time;
4 According to the characteristics of combined gas-steam cycle unit, when accidents happen,
the operators should notice the situations to and cooperate with each other and then report
to shift engineer and the relative leaders;
5 When accidents happen, except operators, only the following personnel are allowed to be
into the site, but who can not affect the accidents disposal:
5.1Plant leaders and relative directors, engineers, technicians and safety men;
5.2 Firemen (if fire on);
5.3 Medical staff (if human injured);
5.4 Relative maintainers (if equipments need emergency repair).
6. After accidents disposed, the operators should record the accidents time, phenomena and
disposal measures on Log Books clearly and explain to the next shift personnel. And the
relative unit should organize an accident analysis.

Article 2 Emergency shutdown


If any of the following conditions satisfied, shutdown the boiler emergency, GT emergently
and steam turbine interlocked, and then close HP main steam valves and LP regulating
valves, open steam turbine HP and LP bypass:
1. Overfeed of water into boiler heavily;
2. Lack of water in boiler heavily;
3. All Lv. meters or safety valves of boiler unavailable;
4. All Lv. meters or safety valves of boiler unavailable;
5. GT steam exhaust abnormal, which may risk boiler safety operation;
6. Boiler steam and water pipes burst and elements damaged, which may risk equipments
and human safety;
7. Boiler steel frame and casing damaged heavily;
8. Boiler emergency shutdown caused by steam turbine protection;
9. Flue gas pressure high at flue gas duct outlet;
10. Protection not act when boiler trip conditions satisfied;
11. HP steam temp. high value II satisfied.

Article 3 Accident shutdown


If any of the following conditions satisfied, take normal boiler shutdown process: reduce
turbine load to zero and then reduce GT load to take normal shutdown:
1. HPV and LPV, HPE and LPE, HPS and LPS pipes leak;
2. Boiler FDW, boiler water and steam quality exceeds standard and can not be recovered
after various regulation;
3. HP and LP drum level transmitters damaged and only local Lv. meters under running;
4. Main steam, FDW pipes or other pressure-containing members leak heavily;
5. Superheater safety valves not back to seat or leak heavily;
6. Superheaters drain valves can not be opened and cause superheaters water drain not
good;
7. Coal economizers vaporization appears due to pressure down suddenly and not
disappears after working conditions regulated.

Article 4 Accidents disposal


1 Overfeed of water into boiler
1.1 Causes:
1.1.1 Auto regulating devices of FDW unavailable or regulating actuators on fault, which not
found and disposed in time;
1.1.2 Steam and FDW flow sensors not accurate;
1.1.3 Load increased suddenly which results in boiler steam pressure down and water level
up;
1.2 Phenomena:
1.2.1 Boiler Lv. meter and Lv. meter sensors indicate too high value and high water level
signals alarm;
1.2.2 Steam conductivity indication increased;
1.2.3 Superheated steam flow reduced;
1.2.4 When overfeed heavily, steam temp. is linear decreased and steam pipes have water
surge;
1.3 Disposal:
1.3.1 When level up to +75mm (compared with normal level), level high value I alarms; focus
on the level and if necessary transfer auto regulation to manual to reduce FDW flow
properly;
1.3.2 When level up to 150mm, level high value I alarms; the emergency water discharge
valves should be opened automatically. The operators should go to the site to confirm
the valves opened;
1.3.3 If the disposal is not useful and level up to high value III, boiler high Lv. protection will
act automatically and trip turbine interlocked; if the protection not act, shut down the
boiler manually;
1.3.4 Open the drain valves on turbine main steam pipes and at the same time, open electric
drum intermittent blowdown valves and focus on drum level;

1.3.5 If the water level indicates on level meter again, close the electric drum intermittent
blowdown valves properly or fully. Maintain normal level and after causes found and
removed, recover the boiler normal operation;

2 Lack of water
2.1 Causes:
2.1.1 Auto regulating devices of FDW unavailable or regulating actuators on fault, which is not
found and disposed in time;
2.1.2 FDW pumps trip;
2.1.3 FDW pressure too low;
2.1.4 FDW or coal economizers pipes burst;
2.1.5 Boiler pressure up and safety valves not back to seat after turbine load rejection;
2.1.6 Boiler blowdown pipes valves leak and blowdown is heavy;
2.2 Phenomena:
2.2.1 Water level indicates low and water level low signals alarm;
2.2.2 FDW flow abnormal lower than steam flow;
2.3 Disposal:
2.3.1 When level down to -75mm (compared with normal level), send out level low alarm; at
this time, the operators should judge the causes and take disposal;
2.3.2 Transfer auto regulations to manual to increase FDW flow if necessary;
2.3.3 If the disposal not available, when level down to low value II, level protection will act and
boiler trips first and then trips turbine and GT interlocked;
2.3.4 If the protection not acts, shut down the boiler manually;

3 Priming
3.1 Causes:
3.1.1 Boiler water quality not satisfies the standard: too much suspended substance or salt
content;

3.1.2 Blowdown not taken as regulation;


3.2 Phenomena:
3.2.1 Drum level waves hurried and when heavily, the drum level can not be seen clearly;
3.2.2 Superheating steam temp. down hurried;
3.2.3 When heavily, steam pipes have water surge inside;
3.3 Disposal:
3.3.1 Reduce boiler vaporization properly and maintain stable;
3.3.2 Open continuous blowdown valves fully and if necessary open emergency water
discharge valves and other blowdown valves;
3.3.3 Maintain drum level below normal level a bit (-150mm);
3.3.4 Open superheaters and steam pipes drain valves and relative turbine drain valves;
3.3.5 Inform chemical operators sample, analyze and take measures to improve boiler water
quality;
3.3.6 Before boiler water quality not improved, it is forbidden to increase boiler load;
3.3.7 After fault removed, the boiler drum level meters should be washed;

4 Water surge in boiler


4.1 Phenomena:
4.1.1 There is water surge sound in boiler drum;
4.1.2 Water level of level meter is down;
4.2 Causes:
4.2.1 Before steam fed, water draining is not taken in steam pipes which results in water
surge;
4.2.2 During feeding steam, the valves are opened too fast;
4.2.3 Main steam pipes vibration caused by the brackets loosened;
4.2.4 The coal economizers inlet flue temp. too high, which causes FDW temp. too high and
results in water vaporized and boiled and then the water surge;

4.3 Disposal:
4.3.1 If water surge sound heard during feeding steam, close the valves to stop feeding
steam; then drain water in pipes and finally open valves slowly to feed steam;
4.3.2 If the vibration caused by horizontal pipes brackets loosened, fix the pipes brackets and
straps;
4.3.3 If the water boiled in coal economizers, reduce GT flue temp. and increase FDW
properly.

5 Auxiliaries faults
5.1 General disposal principles
5.1.1 After auxiliaries trip on fault, check whether all auxiliaries in service automatically; if not,
put the auxiliaries into service manually;
5.1.2 If the auxiliaries abnormal in operation, such as abnormal sound, vibration heavy,
bearing temp. high, output deficit, lub oil leakage and so on, report to shift engineer at
once, transfer the spare auxiliaries and inform the maintainers to take disposal;
5.1.3 After auxiliaries trip, the operators should go to the site the check the equipments and
restart the equipments after no abnormity confirmed;
5.1.4 It is forbidden to take startup if the following situations happen:
5.1.4.1 Trip causes not clear;
5.1.4.2 Equipments faults not removed;
5.1.4.3 Continually trip operation;
5.2 HP and LP FDW pumps faults
Causes and disposal measures:
No.

faults

disposal

Pressure difference at inlet and Open valves till rated operation


outlet of pumps
conditions;

Too much backpressure

Change larger impeller; check


whether impurities in pumps

No.

faults

disposal
when erected

Steam exhaust or watering in Ensure steam exhaust or


pumps and pipes system not watering in pumps and pipes
sufficiently
system sufficiently

Suction pipes
jammed

Bubble in pipes

Check suction water storage


pool level; open isolating valves
in suction pipelines; if pressure
loss in suction pipes too large,
NPSHa too low (when positive
change the suction system
static suction lift erected)
pipelines location; check suction
filters
and
confirm
the
permissive pressure drop not
exceeded;

Suction resistance too large

Clean suction filters and pipes;


check storage pool level and if
necessary, take modification;
change suction pipes system;

Pumps reverse

Change positive and negative


polar wiring of the motors power

10

Speed too low

Accelerate
pressure

11

Inner parts of pumps worn


Change the worn parts
heavily

12

or

impellers

Clean pumps and pipes


Change pipelines location and
fix exhaust valves if necessary

and

increase

Backpressure of water pumps Regulate outlet valves to arrive


too low
at rated running conditions
accurately; if running with
overload for long time, cut

No.

faults

disposal
impellers (b)

13

Proportion and viscosity of


transporting
medium
over (b)
regulations

15

Speed too high

(b)(c)

16

Seal damaged

Change the seal

17

Shaft seal damaged

Decide whether the shaft seal


need changed according to worn
degree

18

Nicks, granulations or flutes on


Change new shaft housing
shaft housing surface

19

Increase cooling water flow;


Cooling water not enough or
clean cooling water pipes; pure
cooling pipes jammed
cooling medium;

20

The seal end cover pressed too


Modify;
tightly

21

Modify the water feeding


conditions;
check
pumps
alignment and if necessary take
Water pumps running too noise
alignment again; balance pump
rotor; increase pump feeding
water pressure

22

Alignment not good

Check the coupler alignment


and if necessary, take alignment
again;

23

Pumps proper bend

Check the pipes connection and


pump fixed bolts;

24

Axial thrust force too large

Install new pump seal ring

No.

faults

disposal

25

Lub oil less or not qualified

Reduce or increase lub


quantity or improve lub
quality

oil
oil

26

Coupler gap not as regulated

Regulate the coupler gap as


erection regulation

27

Voltage too low

28

Motors running under 2 phases Change fuse; check circuits;

29

Connecting bolts loosened

Tight bolts; change new plates;

30

Rotor not balanced

Clean rotor; take


balancing on rotor

31

Bearing damaged

Change new bearing

32

Flow not sufficient

Increase min flow

34

Balance seating leaks, cross


section of the balancing return
pipes
changes,
balancing
devices worn, pressure drop
too large and pipelines located
adjacent to pumps;

Check the pumps running mode;


check balancing water return
system; check pumps pressure;
check rotor gap and balancing
devices;

35

Contact pressure of seal gap Check installation size of seal


too large, seal cooling liquid not (Re.
to
manufacturers
enough
requirements)

dynamic

Notice:
(a) Before disposed, no pressure must be ensured on the pumps pressure-containing
members;
(b) Contact with KSB;
(c) The fault can be removed through modify the impellers diameter;
5.3 LP preheaters circulation pumps faults

Fault

Causes

Disposal
a.

Reduce lub oil;

b.

Feed lub oil;

lub oil too much;

Bearing
heating

a.

lub oil too less;

b.

lub oil not qualified;

c.

CW flow not enough;

d.

unit not concentric;

e.

f. vibration

c.

Discharge lub oil and


clean the oil tank and
then feed new oil

d.

ensure CW flow at
normal requirements;

e.

check and regulate


alignments of pumps
and motors

f.

f. check rotor balance


or rotate at small flow;

a.
seal plates of shaft housing
a.
change new parts;
Shaft
damaged;
housing
leaks
b.
take annealing and
b.
seal plates too hard or not
inside
rubdown
flat;

a.

Pumps not started;

b.

Speed too low;

c.

Impellers jammed;

No water
out from
d.
pumps
e.

a.

Start pumps;

b.

Check motors;

c.
Clean impellers flow
passage

Suction inlet jammed;

d.
Clean
pipelines;

Impellers damaged;
e.

f.
Rotating
correct

Flow or a.
output
pressure b.
too low

suction

directions

Change impellers;

not

There is air at suction inlet;

f.
Change
rotating direction

direction

a. Check suction pipelines


to prevent air leakage;

Speed too low;


b. Check motors;

c.

NPSHA too low;

d.

Suction inlet jammed;

e.

Impellers jammed;

c. Check suction parts;


d. Clean suction pipelines;
e.

Clean impellers flow


passage

Change impellers or
f.
Impellers damaged or seal f.
seal rings;
rings worn;
g.

Impellers damaged

g.

a.

Concentricity not the same;

a.
Regulate the pumps
and motors concentricity;

b.

Proportion larger;

b.

Motors c.
Grating happens at rotating
c.
overload parts;

Change
direction
rotating direction

Change operation;
Repair grating parts;

d.
Check suction and
d. Devices resistance becomes
exhaust pipes pressure
lower and rotating points deviates
variety
compared
with
to big flow point;
original pressure;
Notice: NPSH means pure suction head. The suction head is higher than
the value of hydraulic vaporization pressure transported by pumps. So
when pumps under running, the NPSH of devices are not allowed to be
smaller than pump NPSH.

6 Secondary combustion on flue duct tail


6.1 Phenomena:
6.1.1 At flue outlet, there is hot wave surge and the flue temp. increased abnormally and over
200;
6.1.2 There is scorch on furnace wall heat preservation shells;
6.1.3 The temp. detected by flue thermocouples increased abnormally;
6.2 causes:
6.2.1 Natural gas not combusted adequately caused by GT fault;
6.2.2 After shutdown, the fuel stop valves and isolating valves not closed tightly;

6.3 Protective measures against secondary combustion:


6.3.1 GT is not allowed to be running with low load for long time and focus on flue temp.;
6.3.2 After GT shutdown, cut off inlet natural gas resource;
6.3.2 After GT shutdown, check whether fuel leaks into flue duct;
6.3.3 After GT shutdown, supervise flue duct temp. variety closely. If the flue temp. up to
200, take analysis and judgment at once. If temp. increased rapidly, take fire
extinguishing.
6.4 Disposal:
6.4.1 Shut down boiler at once;
6.4.2 Stop GT;
6.4.3 Open flue duct dampers;

7 Superheaters and vaporizers pipes damaged


7.1 Phenomena:
7.1.1 Superheated steam flow decreased and smaller than FDW flow;
7.1.2 If heavily, boiler steam pressure down;
7.1.3 Superheated steam temp. increased caused by flow decrease;
7.1.4 There is steam flow surge sound near superheaters and vaporizers and if heavily, there
is white smoke at flue outlet;
7.2 Causes:
7.2.1 Supervision is not good; the steam and water separators structures are not good or
have bugs, which result in steam not qualified and scaling in superheaters which is not
cleaned thoroughly and cause pipes walls temp. increasing;
7.2.3 The pipe materials welding of superheaters and vaporizers not qualified: there are
impurities jammed in pipes;
7.2.4 Due to run for long time, so the pipes creep;
7.3 Disposal:

7.3.1 Report at once and strengthen the checks and focus on accidents development;
7.3.2 If not damaged heavily, it is allowed to maintain normal running for a short time and
apply for boiler shutdown for maintenance;
7.3.3 If damaged heavily, shutdown the boiler to prevent from damaging adjacent pipes and
accidents developing by lots of steam sprayed out from crevasse.
7.3.4 After shut down boiler, the normal drum level should be retained;

8 Damage of coal economizers


8.1 Phenomena:
8.1.1 FDW flow is abnormal more than steam flow and when it is heavy, boiler drum level will
be down;
8.1.2 There is steam (water) surge sound in coal economizers flue duct;
8.1.3 Flue temp. is down; there is white smoke at flue outlet;
8.1.4 There is leakage sound at burst place on economizers and steam spraying out from
unsealed place and even water leaks from bottom of flue duct if it is heavy;
8.2 Causes:
8.2.1 FDW not qualified which results in scaling and rusting in coal economizers pipes;
8.2.2 FDW temp. is changed frequently, so there are endurance cracks on metal which results
in pipes burst;
8.2.3 Unqualified pipes materials or welding also may cause damage;
8.3 Disposal:
8.3.1 If the leakage is slight, strengthen FDW to maintain normal level and apply for boiler
shutdown;
8.3.2 If it is heavy and normal level can not be maintained, dispose the problem after shut
down the problem;

9. Steam and FDW pipes damage


9.1 Phenomena:

9.1.1 When the pipes leak slightly, there is some sound and heat preservation layer will be
wet, leak steam or water drop;
9.1.2 If pipes burst, there is loud sound and steam and water sprayed out;
9.1.3 Steam and FDW flow is changed abnormally. If the burst place in front of flow meter, the
meter indication will be decreased; if in back of the meter, the indication will be
increased;
9.1.4 Steam or FDW pressure is down;
9.2 Causes:
9.2.1 Heavily water surge caused by inadequately steam pipes warming-up;
9.2.2 Steam pipes are running with over temp. and the creep exceeds the limit or the
operation time is too long, the metal intensity is down;
9.2.3 Unqualified FDW results in pipes walls rust;
9.2.4 Parts of FDW pipes surged and walls become thin;
9.2.5 The brackets of pipes are not erected correctly which affect free expansion of pipes;
9.2.6 The pipes are not erected correctly or pipes have bugs, materials or welding not
qualified;
9.3 Disposal:
9.3.1 When the steam and FDW pipes leak slightly, if the boiler FDW can be held and the
faults wont be extended, the shot-time operation can be taken;
9.3.2 If the faults even worse and may risk human or equipments safety, the disposal should
be taken after shut down boiler;

10 Safety valves fault


10.1 Phenomena:
10.1.1 Safety valves not act when action pressure is arrived at;
10.1.2 Safety valves not back to seat after popping;
10.2 Causes:
10.2.1 Mechanical set value is not correct;

10.2.2 Mechanical parts are stuck or rusted;


10.2.3 Safety valves pallets not removed;
10.3 Disposal:
10.3.1 Disposal of safety valves not popping:
10.3.1.1 Open atmosphere steam exhaust valves at once and if necessary, open turbine
bypass and reduce GT load;
10.3.1.2 Inform maintainers to take maintenance;
10.3.1.3 If the pressure increasing speed too fast and can not be controlled, shut down the
boiler at once;
10.3.2 Disposal of safety valves not back to seat after popping:
10.3.2.1 Reduce GT load and then reduce steam pressure to make safety valves back to
seat;
10.3.2.2 Inform maintainers to check and dispose the problems in site;
10.3.2.3 If safety valves still not back to seat and not result in boiler trip, apply for boiler
shutdown for disposal;
10.3.2.4 If safety valves still not back to seat and result in boiler trip, dispose the problem as
boiler emergency shutdown caused by unit trip;
10.3.2.5 During disposal, focus on drum level, steam temp. and temp. difference between up
and down drum walls;

11 400V auxiliary power lost


11.1 Phenomena:
11.1.1 400V ammeters and voltage meters indicate zero;
11.1.2 The 400V running motors stopped, LV protection act and send out alarm;
11.1.3 The I&C and electric instruments related to 400V indicate abnormally; electric valves
and regulating valves can not be operated;
11.2 Normal causes:
11.2.1 LV Aux. Trans. or aux. busbar on fault;

11.2.2 The aux. power switches trip caused by cable faults;


11.2.3 Faulty operation by operators;
11.3 Disposal:
11.3.1 Confirm 400V Aux. power lost, stop GT emergently and report to shift engineer and
relative leaders;
11.3.2 Reset tripped auxiliaries switches and transfer all auto regulation to manual; the
electric valves and electric actuators should be operated manually;
11.3.3 Focus on boiler level, steam temp. and pressure and take the corresponding
operations in time;

12 Boiler I&C power lost


12.1 Phenomena:
12.1.1 Electric actuators abnormal; opening back to zero and the remote control not available;
12.1.2 Instruments indication abnormal; alarm signals light and sound not on;
12.1.3 Boiler regulation abnormal even trip;
12.2 Causes:
12.2.1 Electric system and power busbar on fault;
12.2.2 Switches and knife-switches on fault; spare power not in service automatically;
12.2.3 General power resource or component power resource fuses off;
12.3 Disposal:
12.3.1 Keep load stable to prevent overmuch regulation;
12.3.2 Transfer the equipments to manual control, observe instruments and meters in site and
take communication in time;
12.3.3 Request I&C and electric personnel dispose the problem fast and recover the power
supply as soon as possible;
12.3.4 Supervise drum level closely and shut down boiler emergently if necessary;
12.3.5 If I&C power resource can not be recovered in time, shut down boiler;

13. DCS on fault


13.1 Phenomena:
13.1.1 No display or display abnormally;
13.1.2 All valves and instruments indicate abnormal and can not be regulated;
13.1.3 All auto regulation unavailable;
13.2 Causes:
13.2.1 DCS power on fault and UPS abnormal;
13.2.2 DCS ring net on fault;
13.2.3 Parts of DCS cards on fault;
13.3 Disposal:
13.3.1 Check alarm information to confirm DCS fault type;
13.3.2 If DCS ring net on fault, take shutdown at once: except pressing emergency boiler
shutdown button, the operators should go to the site to decide whether the FDW pumps
should be stopped according to local level meters to prevent from equipments damage by
water overfed or lack of water in boiler drum;
13.3.3 If it is DCS parts cards on fault, regulate the operation mode or transfer to spare
equipments according to fault situations;
13.3.4 Inform maintainers to remove faults in time;
13.3.5 Supervise drum level, main steam temp., pressure closely and shut down boiler if
necessary;
13.3.6 If DCS faults can not be removed in time and may affect normal operation, apply for
fault shutdown;

14. 6KV aux. power lost


14.1 Causes:
14.1.1 HV Aux. Trans., generator or aux. power busbar on fault;
14.1.2 The aux. power switches trip caused by cable faults; spare power resource not in
service automatically;

14.1.3 Faulty operation by operators;


14.2 Disposal:
14.2.1 If 6KV aux. power lost and boiler not trip:
14.2.1.1 Transfer to spare pumps and regulate boiler parameters and if necessary, reduce
load;
14.2.1.2 Check spare pumps operation and if needed, the original operating pump should be
isolated;
14.2.1.3 Control drum level strictly; if water level low value II caused by FDW pumps trip, shut
down boiler emergently;
14.2.1.4 Regulate desuperheating water to retain steam temp. stable;
14.2.2 If all 6KV aux. power lost or boiler trip already:
14.2.2.1 Reset all 6KV auxiliaries on stop position.

Chapter 4
HRSG Tests and Maintenance after Shutdown

Article 1 Hydraulic boiler set


1. Necessity of boiler Hydraulic boiler set
Boiler Hydraulic boiler set is one test to check bearing strength and tightness of boiler
pressure-containing members which is one of the most important measures to ensure
whether the pressure-containing members can be running safely for long time;

2. Pressure of boiler Hydraulic boiler set


After boiler overhauled or minor repaired or heating surface repaired temporarily, the max.
permissive working pressure test must be taken: HP system (8.89MPa), LP (0.76MPa).

3. Boiler pressure test regulations:


The boiler overpressure test should be carried out as manufacturers relative regulations.
The test pressure is 1.5 times design pressure: HP (11.34MPa), LP (1.14 MPa). After
overhaul and minor repair finished, if overpressure test should be undertaken according to
relative regulations of Electric Industrial Boiler Supervision Regulations or considered
being necessary after boiler maintenance, the test plan should be compiled specially and
authorized by general engineers and then the test can be taken;

4. Participants
The hydraulic boiler set should be taken according to Electric Industrial Boiler Supervision
Regulations, which is charged by maintenance director or some appointed personnel. The
relative personnel should participate in and the shift engineer command operators; but the
overpressure test should be presided over by general engineer and relative personnel
should participate in;

5. Hydraulic set scope


5.1 HP system hydraulic set scope: all heating surface system from HP FDW pipes operation
panel to electric valves and bypass valves on HP main steam outlet pipes, including HPE
1, HPE 2, HP drum, downcomers, HPV, HPS 1, HPS 2 and supplementary pipe system
of HP system;
5.2 LP system hydraulic set scope: all heating surface system from LP FDW pipes operation
panel to electric valves and bypass valves on LP main steam outlet pipes, including FDW

preheater, LP drum, LPV, LPS and supplementary pipe system of LP system;


5.3 During overpressure test, close continuous blowdown primary and secondary valves, deparalleled level meters and level transmitters and then isolate safety valves (removed or
replaced with blind flange);
5.4 During overpressure test, close isolating secondary valves of survey meters; after the test,
wash the instruments pipes to prevent sundries into pipes;

6 Before hydraulic set, the following work should be done:


6.1 Confirm the maintenance of steam and water system related to hydraulic boiler set has
been finished, work sheet terminated and the hydraulic set contact sheet from all relative
units already ready;
6.2 The sundries in boiler heating surface modules, boiler top, flat, ladders, 0m ground,
furnace and flue duct have been cleaned and the chunnels are expedite without sundries;
6.3 The scaffolds and lighting for checks in boiler have been finished and qualified;
6.4 The hydraulic test instruments and meters are prepared and qualified in precision and Lv.
6.5 Check the expansion indicators on drum have been installed correct and the indicating
panel is convenient for observation and the finger at zero;
6.6 The expansion gaps of boiler heating surface have been regulated as diagram size and
requirements; moreover, the survey record available;
6.7 The shift engineer commands the hydraulic set preparation and takes some measures to
prevent water into turbine;
6.8 The temporary facilities for hydraulic set finished and the isolating boards erected;
6.9 Prepare enough DM water and if in winter, the DM water should be heated to 45 ;
6.10 If the pressure resource at downstream of inverted valves, the core of inverted valves
should be removed;
6.11 Inform maintainers to put all meters related to test and all meters have been verified
advanced;

7 Flush and FDW before hydraulic set

7.1 Flush boiler with water;


7.2 After flush qualified, close bottom water discharge valves and open the air relief valves;
7.3 Hydraulic set is taken from HP system to LP system: MPaMPaMPa4MPa;
7.4 Check the expansion indicators and make record;
7.5 Startup condensing water pumps to make up water to condenser;
7.6 Make up water to condenser to normal level and stop condensing water pump;
7.7 Start condensing water pump, open condensing pump outlet electric valves, regulating
valves on condensing pump recirculation pipes to control FDW speed to LP drum;
7.8 When LP drum at affusion level, start HP and LP FDW pump to feed water to HP and LP
drum;
7.9 When all system full of water and water leak from air relief valves, close air relief valves
one by one. Stop FDW pump, condensing pump and close condensing water regulating
valves and electric valves to stop FDW;
7.10 Check boiler hydraulic system completely and check whether leakage and abnormity
exist and then make record;

8 HP hydraulic set:
8.1 Re. to hydraulic set system valves status table, operate valves to hydraulic set position;
8.2 Start condensing pumps, HP FDW pumps, open isolating valves and isolating valves in
front and back of FDW bypass regulating valves to boost pressure to HP system;
8.3 Regulate opening of valves and control boosting speed 0.3MPa/min;
8.4 When pressure up to 10% of test pressure, HP system is 1.634MPa, pause boost to take
primary checks; if no leakage or abnormity, keep on boosting; if slight leakage found,
record the leakage parts and then continue boosting;
8.5 When pressure up to working pressure, HP system is 10.89MPa; stop boosting to check
completely; make signs and record the found bugs and leakage and then report to
leaders; if no leakage or other abnormity, keep on boosting;
8.6 Before overpressure test, the following work should be done:

8.6.1 All test participants should stop pressure-containing members checks and be out of
furnace or dangerous zones;
8.6.2 Check DCS display and boiler top pressure gauges indication: HP system test pressure
takes HP drum pressure as standard;
8.6.3 Supervise drum wall temp. on DCS and ensure the temp. 21 ;
8.7 When pressure up to overpressure test pressure, HP system is 11.34MPa; close outlet
valves of HP FDW pumps as well as FDW pump at the same time and record time; hold
the pressure for 5min to observe pressure drop;
8.8 After test pressure held for 5min, reduce pressure to working value, then take a complete
check and make record; after checks finished, reduce pressure slowly and then the HP
hydraulic set finished;

9. Deae. hydraulic set


9.1 Re. to hydraulic set system valves status table, operate valves to hydraulic set position;
9.2 Start condensing pumps, Deae. FDW pumps, open isolating valves and isolating valves in
front and back of FDW bypass regulating valves to boost pressure to Deae. system;
9.3 Regulate opening of valves and control boosting speed 0.3MPa/min
9.4 When pressure up to 10% of test pressure, Deae. system is 0.414MPa, pause boost to
take primary checks; if no leakage or abnormity, keep on boosting; if slight leakage
found, record the leakage parts and then continue boosting;
9.5 When pressure up to working pressure, HP system is 2.76MPa; stop boosting to check
completely; make signs and record the found bugs and leakage and then report to
leaders; if no leakage or other abnormity, keep on boosting;
9.6 Before overpressure test, the following work should be done:
9.6.1 All test participants should stop pressure-containing members checks and be out of
furnace or dangerous zones;
9.6.2 Check DCS display and boiler top pressure gauges indication: Deae. system test
pressure takes Deae. drum pressure as standard;

9.6.3 Supervise drum wall temp. on DCS and ensure the temp.21
9.7 When pressure up to overpressure test pressure, Deae. system is 4.14MPa; close outlet
valves of Deae. FDW pumps as well as FDW pump at the same time and record time;
hold the pressure for 5min to observe pressure drop;
9.8 After test pressure held for 5min, reduce pressure to working value, then take a complete
check and make record; after checks finished, reduce pressure slowly and then the HP
hydraulic set finished;

10 LP system hydraulic set


10.1 Re. to hydraulic set system valves status table, operate valves to hydraulic set position;
10.2 Start condensing pumps boost pressure to LP system;
10.3 Regulate opening of valves and control boosting speed0.3MPa/min
10.4 When pressure up to working pressure, LP system is 0.76MPa; stop boosting to check
completely; make signs and record the found bugs and leakage and then report to
leaders; if no leakage or other abnormity, keep on boosting;
10.5 Before overpressure test, the following work should be done:
10.5.1 All test participants should stop pressure-constraining members checks and be out of
furnace or dangerous zones;
10.5.2 Check DCS display and boiler top pressure gauges indication: LP system test pressure
takes LP drum pressure as standard;
10.5.3 Supervise drum wall temp. on DCS and ensure the temp. 21
10.6 When pressure up to overpressure test pressure, LP system is 1.14MPa; close outlet
valves of LP FDW pumps as well as FDW pump at the same time and record time; hold
the pressure for 5min to observe pressure drop;
10.7 After test pressure held for 5min, reduce pressure to working value, then take a complete
check and make record; after checks finished, reduce pressure slowly and then the LP
hydraulic set finished;

11 Boiler water treatments after hydraulic boiler set:

After the test successful, either discharging water or making up water to startup level is
available;

12 Precaution of boiler water discharge after hydraulic boiler set:


12.1 After hydraulic boiler set, the water can be discharged to pit through intermittent
blowdown;
12.2 After water discharged, dispose the found bugs in test according to criterion and make
record;
12.3 After test finished and when boiler water discharged out, add bag type driers in HP, IP
and LP drums to protect drums;

13 After hydraulic boiler set, the boiler need not anti-freeze;


Because boiler is complete drain structure, the water can be discharged out;

14 Precautions in test:
The test can not be taken in rainy days;
During the test, it is forbidden to open valves at random or knock pressure-containing
members;
During a system hydraulic test, the relative valves should be hanged with warning signs,
locked or removed with handle wheels;
During pressure holding, pressure rising should be defended which caused by thermal
expansion;
The test pressure should not be over rated test value;
When leakage points found out, take signs and then take maintenance after pressure
release; when the maintenance finished, take the hydraulic set;
After hydraulic set, record test procedures and results;
During the hydraulic set, the inspectors can not stand in front of welded end cap, side face
or welding line of flange;
After hydraulic set finished, the water for the test should be diluted by water to PH value
within 6-9 and then the blowdown can be taken to prevent environment pollution;

Before overpressure test, the parts which not in the test must be de-paralleled and some
measures should be take to prevent safety valves open;

15 Qualified standards:
15.1 After FDW stopped, pressure drop value is 0.098MPa/min and preheater pressure drop
value is 0.049MPa/min;
15.2 There is no moisture, bead or leakage on metal walls and welding lines of pressurecontaining members;
15.3 There is no residual deformation on pressure-containing members.

Article 2 Safety valves floating


1. Conditions:
1.1 Boiler overhauled;
1.2 Safety valves overhauled;
1.3 When operators or maintainers consider it is necessary;

2. Participants of safety valves floating


The safety valves floating should be commanded by shift engineer; the maintenance
director or appointed special personnel should joint in and I&C personnel take cooperation.
The floating should be operated by operators and supervised in site by supervision and
relative technical leaders.

3. Checks before floating and operation precautions:


3.1 The maintenance of boiler finished and the work sheet terminated;
3.2 Take a check on equipments as boiler startup requirements;
3.3 The safety valves floating takes the local pressure gauges as standard;
3.4 The local personnel should wear safety helmets, gloves and earplugs;
3.5 Check the communicating facilities good and the relative personnel have good
communicating signals;
3.6 Close the electric valves of boiler main steam header pipes;
3.7 Vacuumize turbine and put condensing water system into service;
3.8 Control boiler drum level at normal value;
3.9 Control boiler boosting within regulated value; during floating, keep pressure up and down
gradual and if the pressure approaching to action pressure, it should be more gradual;
3.10 After pressure 2bar more than floating value, if the safety valves not act, open bypass to
take disposal;

4. Process:
4.1 The maintainers should set the action pressure at floating value according to relationship
between spring stroke and pressure under cold state;

4.2 Except verified safety valves, other safety valves should be locked by thimbles to prevent
faulty action;
4.3 The safety valves floating sequence is from high floating value to low one;
4.4 After safety valves floating finished, record the floating results and release pressure as
normal speed (<1bar/min);
4.5 During safety valves floating, if abnormity found, stop the test at once and after the faults
removed, keep on the floating;

5. Safety valves floating value:

Syste
m

No.

Deae.

LP
part

Designed
Acting
pressure

Designed
Reseating
pressure

Release
value

HPS outlet safety


valves

7.62 MPa

7.5MPa

88 kg/h

HP drum safety
valve 1

8.5 MPa

8.156MPa

88t/h

HP drum safety
valve 2

8.57MPa

8.348MPa

90t/h

safety valve 1

0.53 MPa

2.421t/h

safety valve 2

0.53 MPa

2.421t/h

safety valve 3

0.5 MPa

2.815t/h

10

LPS outlet safety


valves

0.97MPa

0.903MPa

15t/h

1.2 MPa

1.148MPa

15.64t/h

HP
part

Name

11

LP drum safety
valve 1

12

LP drum safety
valve 2

1.3MPa

1.244 MPa

26.319t/h

Article 3 Maintenance after shutdown


1. Purpose
1.1 If the intervals of unit startup is longer (over a week), the valid measures must be taken to
prevent thermal equipments damaged by rust, rotating machines stuck and so on to make the
unit under normal cold backup state;
Notice: RH will be changed with environmental temp., so it should be surveyed or
concluded according to survey charts at min. temp.

2. Scope and measures


2.1 Maintenance
2.1.1 Scope
1) Boiler drum, heating surface and other contacting pipes;
2) FDW system
Measures:
<1> Partial wet/ Nitrogen blanketing protection;
<2> Dry Nitrogen blanketing protection
<3> Completely wet protection (available after hydraulic set);
2.2 Safety Key points
Nitrogen is very dangerous; human maybe die if into fulfilled nitrogen drum;
When drum need clean, open all manholes and before into drum the drum should be
blew by air for 2 days;
When check in drums, the one should accompanied by some others, so if some
problems, the alarm can be reported at any time;
Pay attention that Nitrogen can be spread, so the operators in plant should take
relative safety measures;
If there is no proper maintenance during boiler shutdown, it will be eroded heavily. If
there is a ferric oxide layer, the metal surface wont be rusted easily;
The boiler corrosion is oxygen corrosion whose type is the anomalistic oxidized

streak located on metal surface;


During boiler shutdown, if the maintenance not proper, the electrochemical reaction
will be acting:
- Oxidation: Fe>Fe2+ +2e-

(1)

- Reduction: 2H+ +2e- >H2

(2)

O2+4e- +2H2O>4 OH-

(3)

When ferrum contacts water, the reaction (1) will be acting. When metal (anode)
absorb negative electron, Fe 2+ will be water-soluble and after the metal polar has
polarity, the reaction will be stopped;
On surface of metal (cathode), reaction (2) and (3) will be acting;
The balance of the reactions will be decided by OH - concentration (water pH value) in
the water. Moreover, reaction (3) can be decided by oxygen content;
The electron from anode (reaction 1) has tendency to into metal cathode: reaction (1)
balance will be broken and the ion will be water-soluble continuously to be Fe 2+;

2.3. General principles


According to above theories, only when water and oxygen exist at the same time, the
corrosion will happen. The two below measures can remove one of the two factors:
Corrosion
Speed

- Nitrogen blanketing wet maintenance


- Nitrogen blanketing dry maintenance
Which maintenance measure will be adopted is decided by purpose and boiler
shutdown time;
If it is shut down for short time, such as weekend shutdown, because certain
pressure kept, no maintenance is needed;
When temp. below zero, in order to anti-freeze, dry protection must be adopted. From
other view points, dry protection has a special disadvantage, viz. refeed water into
boiler before boiler startup. So the water demand is huge and it will take long time to
recover original boiler load. This measure will be adopted for long time shutdown;
Partial wet protection has obvious advantage: no drain water in boiler, so it is easy to
recover the original load;
The general principle of shutdown maintenance is to prevent boiler water causing
metal oxidizing. If partial wet protection adopted, according to boiler water quality,
when over certain period, take water draining and then adopt dry protection;
For scheduled shutdown, the proper maintenance should be chosen according to
shutdown time before shutdown and then confirm the preparation: chemical dosing
for boiler water, Nitrogen supply and so on;
Important Notice: No matter wet or dry protection adopted, hot flue gas is not allowed into
HRSG.

3 Wet protection
Two Types:
Complete wet protection and partial wet Nitrogen blanketing protection
3.1 Complete wet protection
3.1.1 Standard:

Only used after hydraulic set;


3.1.2 Time limit
It is properly used when shutdown time within 6 weeks and pH value over 10.5, so it is
better to take DM water and dosing ammonia as (150ppm, to rise pH value) hydraulic set
water;
If the succedent boiler commissioning takes place after 6 weeks, water drain must be
taken and then adopt dry Nitrogen blanketing protection;
3.2 partial wet Nitrogen blanketing protection
3.2.1 Standard:
It is properly used after shutdown or maintenance (examines and repairs) and the climate
conditions permitted (if air temp. low, dry protection adopted)
3.2.2 Time limit
In order to prevent static water stayed in boiler for long time, the protection time limit is 2
weeks normally according to boiler water chemical characteristics;
Main parameters are the pH value and oxygen content in FDW and boiler drum water.
The protection limit is as the following table:
pH value

Oxygen content

limit

<20ppb

2 weeks

>20ppb

Dry Nitrogen blanketing


protection

9<pH<10

If the shutdown time over above limit, water drain must be taken and dry Nitrogen blanketing
protection should be adopted.

4. Nitrogen blanketing
During Nitrogen blanketing, the furnace pressure should be 10-50 mbar more than
atmosphere pressure;
Whether Nitrogen blanketing will be adopted can be decided before
boiler shutdown, so Nitrogen blanketing will be started boiler hot
state;

If Nitrogen blanketing started under cold state (unintended shutdown), special Nitrogen
blanketing in instruction book should be undertaken;
4.1 Nitrogen blanketing operation under boiler hot state
4.1.1 Before boiler unloading
At 2h before boiler unloading, dose NH 3 to ensure boiler water pH value over 10, so the
being shutdown boiler water quality will be good. Pay attention that if condenser
materials have aldary, pH value should be controlled at 9.2, so the partial wet nitrogen
blanketing maintenance time just is 2 weeks. Moreover, if aluminum contained in any part
of condenser or steam and water circulation, the chemicals should be decided by
chemical personnel research because of special requirements;
The secondary operation at 2h before boiler unloading is open continuous blowdown
valves of drums to remove the slat and alkali dissolved in boiler water furthest before
boiler maintenance;
Continuous blowdown valves of HP drum: 11HAA10 AA408
Continuous blowdown valves of LP drum: 11HAA30 AA408
4.1.2 Boiler shutdown
Reduce GT load and isolate HRSG and turbine through steam bypass station;
4.1.3 Boiler cooling down
Through steam bypass, control HP and LP drum pressure drop gradient (max.:
-2bar/min, make the inner pressure of shutdown boiler drum down to 10bar (psig);
4.1.4 Isolation of boiler
In boiler control room, operators transfer boiler to shutdown maintenance to prevent
water draining and air relief during pressure down. During boiler shutdown, water
draining and air relief valves should be closed and the drums should be isolated from
phosphate dosing system;
During shutdown, the following water drain and air relief valves should be kept on
close position:
Inlet water drain valve of HPS 2: 11HAH11AA402
HP steam water drain valve: 11LBA70AA402

LP steam water drain valve: 11LBA80AA402


Main steam isolating valves must be closed:
HP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA70AA001
LP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA80AA001
FDW isolating valves must be closed:
HP FDW pump outlet isolating valves: 11LAB11AA003, 11LAB12AA003, 11LAB13AA003
LP

FDW

pump

outlet

isolating

valves:

11LAB31AA003,

11LAB32AA003,

11LAB33AA003
Drums continuous blowdown valves must be closed:
HP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA10 AA408
LP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA30 AA408
4.1.5 Nitrogen blanketing
The nitrogen blanketed can be supplied by fixed or mobile devices which should be
connected with nitrogen blanketing pipes and at the nitrogen supply side, pressure
reducing valves should be equipped;
If the safety can be ensured, the soft pipes which can support 10-50 mbar nitrogen
pressure can be used to connect nitrogen valves with boiler proper nitrogen blanketing
points. When boiler pressure within 2-5bar (psig), the nitrogen pipes should be fixed
and nitrogen blanketing isolating valves should be opened to prevent air in when boiler
pressure and temp. down;
Open HP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH10 AA452
Open LP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH30 AA452
Open deaerator nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA90 AA452
Open preheater nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA70 AA452
Open HPE nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LAB20 AA002
With steam condensed and furnace pressure down, nitrogen will be sucked into
equipments;

The most important point of succeeding nitrogen blanketing is ensuring the boiler
sealed completely. If seal not good, nitrogen will be lost due to leakage;
Moreover, nitrogen content should be 1% lower than oxygen content (as volume ratio);
In order to get the above requirements, keep drum nitrogen pressure over atmosphere
a little bit (10-50mbar);
4.1.6 Operation during boiler shutdown
During HRSG shutdown maintenance, check the water quality and nitrogen periodically;
As far as boiler under warm state, steam in superheaters and steam pipes will be kept
on condensed; due to the volatility of ammonia, condensing water pH value is lower than
drum water pH value, so the anti-corrosion ability against superheaters is weak;
Open the following superheaters drain valves for a few minutes to drain out the
condensing water and then close the valves:
HPS 2 inlet drain valve: 11HAH11 AA402
HP main steam drain valve: 11LBA70 AA402
LP main steam drain valve: 11LBA80 AA402
4.1.7 Transferred to dry nitrogen blanketing protection
If the shutdown time of HRSG exceeds above max. period (2 weeks according to
chemical characteristics of boiler water), the boiler is required to discharge water
completely and to be kept under dry nitrogen blanketing state. At this time, we suggest
closing all manual isolating valves for instruments, water drain and steam exhaust pipes
to ensure boiler air tightness;
4.1.8 Water quality requirements
This partial wet maintenance mode is adequate for short-time shutdown and the
sampling and analysis should be taken every week;
The water quality requirements during boiler shutdown:
4.1.8.1 pH value over 10 or within 9 and 10 and oxygen content lower than 20ppb;
4.1.8.2 CL-<2ppm
4.1.8.3 SO41ppm

4.1.8.4 NaOH<0.5ppm
It should be avoided to deviate from above target heavily or long time to ensure good
protection for boiler;
4.2 Partial wet nitrogen blanketing protection under cold state
When this protection used under cold state, the following steps should be taken to ensure
boiler air exhausted out:
4.2.1 Feed DM water (pH value over 10) into drum to high high level;
4.2.2 Blanket Nitrogen into superheaters and air exhausted from main steam drain pipes:
blanket nitrogen intermittently till oxygen content below 1%. Enough nitrogen pressure is
required during the operations;
4.3 Steps of dry nitrogen blanketing under cold state
4.3.1 Used standard: it is used in long-time shutdown situation, which can not only be used
directly after boiler shutdown, also can be used after partial wet protection or boiler
maintenance;
If environmental temp. below zero and boiler parts are easy to be frozen to affect safety,
dry protection can be used;
4.3.2 Dry protection is not limited by shutdown time;
4.4 Operations sequence:
4.4.1

Before shutdown:
At 2h before boiler unloading, open drum continuous blowdown valves fully to
discharge water-soluble slat and alkali. Before boiler shutdown, dose phosphate all
the time into drums;
HP drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA10 AA408
LP drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA30 AA408

4.4.2 Boiler shutdown


Reduce GT load and isolate HRSG and turbine through steam bypass station;
4.4.3 Boiler cooling down

Through steam bypass, control HP and LP drum pressure drop gradient (max.:
-2bar/min, make the inner pressure of shutdown boiler drum down to 10bar (psig);
4.4.4 Isolation of boiler
In boiler control room, operators transfer boiler to shutdown maintenance to prevent
water draining and air relief during pressure down. During boiler shutdown, water
draining and air relief valves should be closed and the drums should be isolated from
phosphate dosing system;
During shutdown, the following water drain and air relief valves should be kept on close
position:
Inlet water drain valve of HPS 2: 11HAH11 AA402
HP steam water drain valve: 11LBA70 AA402
LP steam water drain valve: 11LBA80 AA402
Main steam isolating valves must be closed:
HP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA70 AA001
LP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA80 AA001
FDW isolating valves must be closed:
HP FDW pump outlet isolating valves: 11LAB11AA003, 11LAB12AA003, 11LAB13AA003
LP

FDW

pump

outlet

isolating

valves:

11LAB31AA003,

11LAB32AA003,

11LAB33AA003
Drums continuous blowdown valves must be closed:
HP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA10 AA408
LP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA30 AA408
4.4.5 Nitrogen blanketing
The nitrogen blanketed can be supplied by fixed or mobile devices which should be
connected with nitrogen blanketing pipes and at the nitrogen supply side, pressure
reducing valves should be equipped;
If the safety can be ensured, the soft pipes which can support 10-50 mbar nitrogen

pressure can be used to connect nitrogen valves with boiler proper nitrogen blanketing
points. When boiler pressure within 2-5bar (psig), the nitrogen pipes should be fixed
and nitrogen blanketing isolating valves should be opened to prevent air in when boiler
pressure and temp. down;
Open HP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH10 AA452
Open LP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH30 AA452
Open deaerator nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA90 AA452
Open preheater nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA70 AA452
Open HPE nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LAB20 AA002
With steam condensed and furnace pressure down, nitrogen will be sucked into
equipments;
The most important point of succeeding nitrogen blanketing is ensuring the boiler sealed
completely. If seal not good, nitrogen will be lost due to leakage;
Moreover, nitrogen content should be 1% lower than oxygen content (as volume ratio);
In order to get the above requirements, keep drum nitrogen pressure over atmosphere a
little bit (10-50mbar);
4.4.6. Boiler water drain
When boiler pressure a little low (psig <2bar), drain boil water out. In order to ensure
draining smooth, open all regulating valves and drain valves of heat exchangers. Then
the boiler water will be drained out and replaced by nitrogen. What keep certain nitrogen
pressure in drums can prevent air in.
HP FDW regulating valves: 11HAC10 AA101, 11HAC10 AA102, 11HAC10 AA103
LP FDW regulating valves: 11LAB40 AA101, 11LAB40 AA102, 11LAB40 AA103
3-way regulating valve: 11LCA70 AA101
4.4.7 Operation during boiler shutdown
During HRSG shutdown maintenance, check the water quality and nitrogen periodically;
As far as boiler under warm state, steam in superheaters and steam pipes will be kept
on condensed; due to the volatility of ammonia, condensing water pH value is lower

than drum water pH value, so the anti-corrosion ability against superheaters is weak;
Open the following superheaters drain valves for a few minutes to drain out the
condensing water and then close the valves:
HPS 2 inlet drain valve: 11HAH11 AA402
HP main steam drain valve: 11LBA70 AA402
HP main steam drain valve: 11LBA80 AA402
4.4.8 Steps of dry nitrogen blanketing under cold state
When take dry nitrogen blanketing protection under cold state, the following methods
should be taken to ensure no residual air in boiler parts:
4.4.9 Feed DM water (pH value over 10) into drum to high high level;
4.4.10 Blanket Nitrogen into coal economizers and superheaters, then air or water
discharged from main steam drain valves: blanket nitrogen intermittently till oxygen
content below 1%. Enough nitrogen pressure is required during the operations;
4.4.11 Keep nitrogen pressure and take coal economizers and drums water draining.

5. Maintenance after repair


If repair is needed during boiler shutdown maintenance and boiler wont be in service at once,
recover the boiler maintenance state after repaired;
Reduce the times into boiler during shutdown maintenance; moreover, arrange maintenance
schedule well to reduce the time of air into all pressure parts. Actually, there is no protection
when boiler opens to the air;
If boiler will be in service in 2 days after repaired, refeed the treated water into boiler and the
water quality should be controlled strictly;
If the boiler will not be in service in 2 days after repaired, some proper measures should be
taken to protect boiler: according to local conditions, choosing dry or wet nitrogen blanketing
protection;
If partial wet nitrogen blanketing protection is adopted, refeed treated water into boiler (water
pH value over 10, because oxygen contained in the water). But the limit of this method is 4
weeks. If time exceeds, dry nitrogen blanketing protection should be used;

6. Boiler reverted to service


Close the following isolating valves on nitrogen blanketing pipes, open isolating
valves on phosphate dosing pipes of drums, and then FDW to boiler:
HP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH10 AA452
LP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH30 AA452
Deaerator nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA90 AA452
Preheater nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA70 AA452
Coal economizer nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LAB20 AA002

Chapter 5
Appendix

Appendix 1: Sketch Map of HP and LP Drum Water Level Fixed Value

Appendix 2: Sketch Map of Deaerator Water Level Fixed Value

Appendix 3: The control set value of HP Drum Positive Pressure


Gradient
In 1s, DCS will calculate average pressure 15s ago and the pressure gradient (bar/min) is
calculated according to 2 average pressure value in 30s;

Appendix 4. Check List of Steam Saturated Temperature


Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

0.0009

6.699

0.0015

12.737

0.0019

17.204

0.0024

20.779

0.0029

23.755

0.0034

26.362

0.0039

28.645

0.0044

30.69

0.0049

32.53

0.0058

35.83

0.0069

38.66

0.0078

41.16

0.0088

43.41

0.0098

45.45

0.0108

47.33

0.0118

49.06

0.0127

50.67

0.0137

52.18

Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

0.0147

56.60

0.0196

59.67

0.0245

64.56

0.029

68.68

0.039

75.42

0.049

80.86

0.0588

85.45

0.0686

89.45

0.0784

92.99

0.088

96.18

0.098

99.09

0.108

101.76

0.118

104.25

0.127

106.56

0.137

180.74

0.147

110.79

0.157

112.73

0.167

114.5

0.176

116.33

Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

0.186

118.01

0.196

119.62

0.206

121.16

0.216

122.64

0.225

124.08

0.235

125.45

0.245

126.79

0.255

128.08

0.265

129.34

0.275

130.55

0.284

131.73

0.29

132.88

0.30

134.00

0.31

135.08

0.32

136.14

0.33

137.18

0.34

138.19

0.35

139.18

Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

0.36

140.15

0.37

141.09

0.38

142.02

0.39

142.92

0.4

143.81

0.41

144.68

0.42

145.54

0.43

146.38

0.44

147.20

0.49

151.11

0.588

158.08

0.686

164.17

0.784

169.61

0.88

174.53

0.98

179.04

1.078

183.21

1.176

187.08

1.27

190.71

Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

1.37

194.13

1.47

197.37

1.57

200.43

1.67

203.36

1.76

206.15

1.86

208.82

1.96

211.39

2.06

213.85

2.16

216.24

2.25

218.53

2.35

220.76

2.45

222.90

2.55

224.99

2.65

227.01

2.75

228.98

2.84

230.89

2.94

232.76

3.14

236.35

Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

3.33

239.77

3.53

243.04

3.73

246.17

3.92

249.18

4.12

252.07

4.31

254.87

4.51

257.56

4.71

260.17

4.90

262.90

5.39

268.69

5.88

274.28

6.37

279.54

6.86

284.17

7.35

289.17

7.87

293.61

8.33

297.86

8.82

301.91

9.31

305.80

Steam pressure Mpa

Saturated temperature

9.80

309.53

10.78

316.53

11.76

323.15

12.75

329.31

13.73

335.10

14.71

340.57

15.69

345.75

16.67

350.67

17.65

355.35

18.63

359.81

19.61

364.10

Appendix 5 Common Unit Conversion Table


Technical
Normal
MM of
atmospher
MM of Hg
atmosphere water
e

Poun

Pa

bar

N/m2

Bar

kgf/cm2

atm

mmH2
O

mmHg

psi

0.00001

0.0000102

0.0000099

0.102

0.0075

0.000145

100000

1.02

0.99

10200

750

14.5

/inch2

98000

0.98

0.9678

10000

735.56

14.2233

101325

1.01325

1.033

10330

760

14.696

9.8

0.000098

0.0001

0.00009678

0.07356

0.001422
33

133.322

0.001333
22

0.00136

0.001316

13.6

0.019336

6890

0.0689

0.07031

0.06805

701

51.715

Power Unit Conversion Table


w=J/s

erg/s

kgfm/s

hp

kcal/h

btu/h

ftlbf/s

1E7

0.102

0.00136

0.86

3.412

0.73756

1E-7

1.02E-8

1.36E-10

8.6E-8

3.412E-7

7.38E-8

9.807 9807E7

0.01333

8.4322

33.4617

7.233

735.5

7.355E
9

75

632.415

2509.6

542.476

163

163E7

0.1186

0.00158

3.9683

0.8578

0.293 2.93E6

0.0299

0.000398
0.251996
5

0.21616

1.3558 1.356E
2 7

0.1383

0.001843

4.6263

erg

kgfm

hph

1E7

0.102

3.777E-7

1E-7

1.02E-8 3.78E-14

kwh

1658

kcal

2.778E-7 0.000239

btu

ftlbf

0.000947
8

0.73756

2.78E-14 2.39E-11 9.478E-11 7.376E-6

9.81

9.81E7

3.704E-6

264780
2.65E13 270000
0

2.724E-6 0.002342 0.009295

7.233

0.7355

632.415

2509.63

1.953E6

360000
0

3.6E13

367100

1.36

860

3412.14

2.655E6

4186.8

4.187E1
0

427

0.00158

0.001163

3.9684

3088

1055

1.055E1
0

107.6

0.0003985

778.17

1.35582 1.356E7

0.1383

5.12E-7

0.000293
0.251196
1
3.77E-7

0.000324 0.001285

Cubage Unit conversion


m3

cm3

ft3

in3

lmp.gal

u.s.gal

bbl

1E6

1000

35.315

61024

220

264.2

6.874151

1E-6

0.001

1000

0.0035335
6

61.013

0.21997

0.2642 6.874E-3

0.0283

28300

28.3

1728

6.2288

7.4805 0.194539

0.0000163
9

16.39

0.004546

4546

4.546

0.1605

277.42

1.201

0.03125

0.003785

3785

3.785

0.1337

231

0.8327

0.02381

0.145472

159100

159.1

5.14

8875.656

32

42

0.001 3.53356E-5

0.0163
0.0005787
9

0.061

2.2E-4 2.642E-4 6.874E-6

0.003604 0.004329 127E-4

Length Unit conversion


m

cm

mm

ft

in

scruple

yd

100

1000

3.2808

39.37

314.96

0.01

10

0.032808

0.3937

3.1496 0.0109361

0.001

0.1

3.28083E-3

0.03937

0.3149 1.09361E6 3

0.3048

30.48

304.8

12

96

0,3333

0.0254

2.54

25.4

0.02778

0.00317
5

0.3175

3.175

0.0104166

0.125

3.47222E3

0.9144

91.44

914.4

36

288

Unit mass conversion


1 (lb)=0.4536 (kg)
1 (kg) =2.2046 (lb)
Temperature unit conversion
0K=+273.15

0R=+459.67

=5/9(-32)

=9/5+32

1.0936

Appendix 6 Equipments Periodical Tests and Periodical Transferring


Table
1

Purpose

Regulate operators to take spare and running equipments test and transferring
periodically to find out equipments faults and potential problems and test the correctness
of main equipments and auxiliaries protections in and out to ensure equipments normal
backup and long-time safe and reliable running according to 3 sheets and 2 systems;

2. Scope
The system is adequate for main equipments and periodically test and transferred
equipments in Zhangjiagang Huaxing Electric Power Co., Ltd.

3. System Execution
According to detail test items, test methods, operation steps, relative rules and requirements
of relative operation regulations, the trial operation department lists periodically transferred
and test items table. After authorized by all relative departments and general engineer, the
operators should carry out as this system;

4. Executing process
4.1 Periodical test and transferring should be compiled according to operation times and
healthy conditions of spare and running equipments and also the intervals of last
equipments maintenance;
4.2 Before equipments periodical test and transferring, detail transferring and test plans
should be made. Also the accidents forecasting and protective measures should be
taken.
4.3 Before periodical test, the test plan should be compiled according to test equipments, last
test sequence, contents and results. The important tests must be reported to relative
leaders and departments for authority;
4.4 During equipments transferred, start important equipments firstly and then stop them, viz.
transferring load, to prevent system waving and unstable;
4.5 Important equipments transferring and test should be arranged at low load period;
4.6The periodical tests and transferring which need maintenance and other departments

cooperation should be informed to relative departments before operation. After the


departments get ready, the tests or transferring can be done;
4.7 All periodical tests and transferring should be recorded on Periodical Tests and
Transferring Record (including tests results and transferring mode);
4.8 After periodical tests and transferring finished, take detailed checks and parameters
analysis on transferred equipments and relative system;
4.9 If there is abnormity during equipments periodical transferring or test, stop the operations
at once and try to correct or remover original safety running mode and then record the
equipments running state, abnormal phenomena and disposal process on Appendix
column on Periodical Tests and Transferring Record; at the same time, report the
problems step by step and contact relative departments for disposal. If the problems can
not be removed in short time and the normal running mode can not be recovered, take
necessary safety measures and accidents forecast;
4.10 After disposed, the equipments periodical tests and transferring abnormity should be
analyzed and the relative protective measures should be undertaken;
4.11 During periodical tests and transferring, Operation Supervision Regulations and relative
regulations of safety work rules should be carried out strictly; the operations should be
taken according to items on periodical tests and transferring record;
4.12 The relative temporary safety measures should be compiled and carried out after
authorized by relative leaders for periodical tests and transferring under special running
conditions;
4.13 The operations of equipments periodical tests and transferring should be taken by two
persons in principle and the important equipments tests and transferring should be
operated by shift engineer;
4.14 For some reasons, if the equipments can not be tested or transferred as scheduled, after
authorized by shift engineer, the operations can be delayed properly (not over 3 days
normally) but the detailed reasons should be recorded on appendix column on period test
and transferring record. When test and transferring conditions satisfied, take the
operations as soon as possible as well as the record;
4.15 If some spare equipments which are on fault or under maintenance state can not be

tested or transferred on time, the operators should strengthen the inspection and check
on running equipments which are waiting for test or transferring;

5. Monthly Test and Transferring Table


No.

Name

Date
1st day

HP FDW pump
16th day
2nd day

LP FDW pump
17th day

Recirculation Pump of
Preheater

Local level meters of


HP and LP drum of
boiler #1 and
deaerator

Local level meters of


HP and LP drum of
boiler #2 and
deaerator

Local level meters of


HP and LP drum of
boiler #3 and
deaerator

Local level meters of


HP and LP drum of

3rd
18th day
Wash on
4th day
Wash on
19th day
Wash on
5th day
Wash on
20th day
Wash on
6th day
Wash on
21st day
Wash on

Results

Operator

Remarks

7th day
boiler #4 and
deaerator

Wash on
22nd day

HRSG Maintenance Manual

Chapter 1 Boiler General Introduction. 156


Chapter 2 Preparation before Operation. 160
Chapter 3 Hydraulic Boiler Set 163
Chapter 4 Chemical Cleaning before Operation. 166
Chapter 5 Steam pipes flush. 176
Chapter 6 Safety valves calibration. 184
Chapter 7 Startup program of HRSG.. 188
Chapter 8 Safety measures of boiler operation. 197
Chapter 9 Control and regulating of boiler operation. 205
Chapter 10 HRSG Performance parameters. 213
Chapter 11 HRSG Shutdown operations. 215
Chapter 12 HRSG maintenance after boiler shutdown. 220
Chapter 13 HRSG Daily Maintenance. 236
Chapter 14 HRSG maintenance process. 247

Chapter 1 Boiler General Introduction

1. Model: UG-PG9171E-R
Type: Double-pressure, no afterburning and reheating, self integrative vertical natural
circulation HRSG
Manufacturer: Wuxi Boiler Factory
Assorted Turbine: PG9171E
Size: Height: 29.6m, Width 13.05m;
The elevation of HP steam drum center is 22.95m;
The elevation of LP steam drum center is 22.70m;
The elevation of deaerator center is 23.20m;
The elevation of boiler chimney is 45 m and the bypass chimney elevation is 40m;

2. Illumination of Boiler Structure


The boiler is double-pressure, no afterburning and reheating, outdoor self integrative
vertical natural circulation HRSG, whose pipes on heating surface located horizontally and
the flue flow is vertical; the water and the steam flow are finished in heating surface through
natural circulation.
The flue goes in from inlet flue duct and the direction from horizontal to vertical and from
down to upper, to flush each stage heating surface orderly and finally will be exhausted
from outlet flue duct and chimney.

3. Flue gas process:


3.1 Simple cycle
Exhaust from turbine, into bypass inlet flue ductthree way dampersbypass
mufflesbypass chimney of HRSG
3.2 Combined cycle
Exhausted from turbine, the flue gas into bypass inlet flue duct three way dampers
bypass outlet flue ductinlet flue duct of HRSG. In the inlet flue duct, the flue flow is
changed from horizontal to vertical, up into boiler body to flush the 3 rd layer modules, 2nd
layer modules and 1st layer modules and finally exhausted to the air through the outlet flue
duct and chimney.

3rd layer modules: HP superheater 2 (SHP2), HP superheaters 1 (SHP1);


2nd layer modules: HP vaporizer (VHP), HP coal economizer 3 (EHP3), LP superheater
(SLP), HP coal economizer 2 (EHP2)
1st layer modules: LP vaporizer (VLP), HP coal economizer 1 (EHP1), preheater (PREH)

4. Steam and water process


The HRSG has three pressure stages; According to the pressure, it can be divided as the
following:
4.1 DEAE system: after passing preheater, the cooling condensing water from condenser
goes into deaerator to deoxygenate;
4.2 LP system: a part of water from deaerator through LP FDW pump goes into LP drum to
separate water and steam; after separated, the saturated water will be back to
downcomers. LP saturated steam will be led out from LP saturated steam outlet pipe at
upper LP drum and then into LP superheaters and finally into turbine LP cylinder for
power;
4.3 HP system: the HP FDW pump will supply another part of feeding water from deaerator
into HP coal economizer 1 (EHP1), HP coal economizer 2 (EHP2) and HP coal
economizer 3 (EHP3); after heated, the water into HP drum. The water, which into HP
drum, will be led into HP vaporizer through VHP downcomers; after evaporated and heat
absorbed, up into HP drum for steam and water separation. Then the separated
saturated water will be back to downcomer. The HP saturated steam will be led out from
HP saturated steam outlet pipe at upper HP drum and then into HP superheater 1,
desuperheater 1 and into HP superheater 2 and finally into turbine HP cylinder for power
as the HP overheated steam.

Chapter 2 Preparation before Operation

1. Checks before operation


After boiler erected but not started yet, a series of checks should be taken to ensure boiler
and GT primary startup successful. The checks do not request all equipments erected but
the instruments, electric and compressed air system is necessary. The needed main
checks are as following according to power plant equipment erection.

2. Summarization
Check whether all parts and zones erected, flue gas ducts connected well, inner lining,
flue dampers and pressure members expand freely and all scrap iron and other rubbish
cleaned out; check whether separators in drum erected correctly and internals, such as
pipes supported firmly; check whether all pipes supports fixed correctly, boiler weight
loaded by base completely and all bolts of steel structure erected firmly; the pipes
supports should be signed with cold and hot state set value, after boiler at basic load,
recheck and confirm the thermal state set value;

3. Valves
Check whether all valves erected in right position; then check the valves stroke, valves
seats and gland packing tightness. Before boiler startup, all electric and pneumatic valves
and equipments should be trial operated to remove all electric or mechanical problems.
Check electric and instruments air; the exhausted steam and drained water from safety
valves should be led to discharge place where valves free expansion wont be disturbed;

4. Control equipments
Check all control equipments erected correctly, properly and reliably; check maneuverability
of electric system (electric and control) and control air supply system; regulate valves
opening and electric signals relationship within valves full stroke through control panel.
Check whether the signals sent out from the electric transmitters (flow, level, pressure and
temp.) accepted by terminal equipments (controllers and monitors). Check the polar and
transmitting correctness of water meter column/level meters components which should be
taken when level transmitters are being checked; check local pressure gauges/temp.
meters applicability and erection correctness;

5. Level control and display

The level indicating devices are used to display drum level, alarm and shut down boiler.
Alarm and shutdown setting is on Inner Devices Diagrams of each drum. Before put into
service normally, check whether they are set correctly;
Warning: it may damage boiler if drum at low low level, so the boiler should be shut down
emergently;

Chapter 3 Hydraulic Boiler Set

1. General Introduction
After erected, hydraulic set must by taken on each pressure stage of boiler and all inner
connecting pipes regulated in ASME criterion by install department and supervised by AI;
Within boiler life, if any modification or recovery taken within the scope regulated by ASME
criterion, after the modification or recovery, the test should be done;

2. Hydraulic set measures


2.1 Ensure instruments isolated during hydraulic set and the level meters also should be
isolated during overpressure test;
2.2 Check the hydraulic set regulations from pressure safety valves manufacturer. When test
pressure over design pressure, the valves must be isolated (removed or replaced by
blind flange);
2.3 If test pressure not over design pressure, the safety valves can be tested at the same
time, but SEPCO III will not take the responsibilities about safety valves damage;
Warning: if hydraulic set includes safety valves, when test pressure
over design pressure, the valves will be damaged;
2.4 Use best quality water to take test. We suggest taking softened, deoxidized or refined
cooling condensing water (treated by antiseptic, such as 10mg/l ammonia or
200mg/lhydrazine). The medicals should be dosed with complete mixing up; if stainless
steel parts contact hydraulic set medium, the chloride content can not be more than
30ppm or the parts are excluded in hydraulic set;
2.5

The large capacity feeding equipments should be used to finish FDW into boiler as fast
as possible and then exhaust air with best mode.

2.6

During FDW, all air relief valves should be opened to exhaust system air;

2.7

If it is a potential icy day, feed hot water (Notice: there are max. permissive metal temp.
regulations for hydraulic set in ASME criterion); in order to prevent freezing, we can adopt
inner heating or other measures. Anti-freeze measures are not considered in the 2 nd
phase project in Nigeria;

2.8

After the test, correct boiler maintenance must be taken to prevent rusting or freezing;

unless treated water adopted during hydraulic set and chemical maintenance adopted
during maintenance, boiler water must be drained out to keep boiler quit dry;
2.9

During boiler water draining, the correct protective measures should be taken to ensure
water drained out completely;

Warning: hydraulic set water may cause boiler rusting or freezing damage if it is remained in
boiler;

Chapter 4 Chemical Cleaning before Operation

1 General Introduction
To clean pipes inner is to make inner surface of pipes clean and be passivated equably.
Passivation is forming a Fe3O4 protective layer on wet surface which can prevent inner
surface from eroding during normal running;
Oil, grease and rust may cause Fe 3O4 layers unequal or flaking away. So before running,
they must be cleaned;

2 Clean mode
According to boiler conditions, operating scopes and local equipments, there are various
clean techniques. But the general cleaning methods are as following and the final
cleaning can be parts or all of them:
2.1 Manual clean
It the first step of cleaning. Open manholes of all headers and drums and try to clean out
grease, oil and other sundries. Careful manual clean can reduce other clean time;
2.2 Organic clean
After manual clean, any other residual organic matters (such as oil, grease or pipes
protective layers) must be cleaned from inner surface of boiler, otherwise the residual
organic matters will disturb the heat exchanging, metal normal passivation and acid clean.
Moreover, the sundries left on pipes inner surface must be washed. If there is oil or
grease, acid cleaning can not be used and alkali clean is necessary before acid clean;
Some pipes which human can go into can be cleaned with mechanical method, such as
vaporizers, HP water gun or scraper;

3. Alkali Clean
3.1 Feed alkali solution into boiler and coal economizers to normal running level: 1.8KG
Na2HPO4-7H2O, 3.6KG Na4PO4-12H2O and scaler (prepared according to capacity
0.05-0.1%) in 454KG water. The scaler usage on precautions;
3.2 Start GT and load to rotary load and according to boiler selected pressure, it may be
1.0Mpa in 4 hours. During this time, the drum level will be up, so the blowdown value
should be controlled to prevent water level over level meter top. During complete alkali
cleaning, the drums pressure should be remained at 1.0Mpa and sample saturated
steam from sampling nozzles to supervise steam purity (conductivity) that low indication
means there is no water in steam. The alkali solution should be sampled every hour and
analysis about alkalinity, phosphate and dissolved solid should be taken as well as oil
content in sampling. If boiler water alkalinity and phosphate concentration down to half of
original value, dose alkali cleaning chemicals to remover original concentration;
3.3 If alkali solution analysis shows that alkalinity, phosphate and dissolved solid get balance
and no oil content in sampling, stop GT and release HRSG pressure;
3.4 HRSG pressure down to zero and alkali solution cooled down to normal temp. and then
take water draining. After alkali solution discharged completely, feed heated 77 82
clean water into boiler to top of level meters glass. During feeding clean water into boiler,
take backwash on superheaters through superheaters outlet headers with condensing
water or DM water (Precautions) till water overflows to drums. Because there are residual
chemicals, superheaters should be fed with condensing water or DM water and the wash
water can be discharged after being cooled down enough in boiler;
3.5 Precautions of alkali cleaning
Solid chemicals should be avoided for cleaning. From heat transmitting and rusting
viewpoints, it is harmful if there are settled solids in superheaters. If there are hydrate and
chloride in stainless steel superheaters, there is obvious damage on the stress corrosion;
If alkali cleaning failed and grease still exists, then the following acid cleaning will be
invalid. So after alkali cleaning failed, check boiler drums and down water drums inner; if
not clean enough, repeat the alkali cleaning;

4. Acid cleaning
4.1 The acid cleaning takes diluted (about 5% weight ratio) anticorrosive hydrochloric acid as
base;
We suggest that the acid cleaning is started as soon as alkali cleaning and checks
finished. Feed clean water into boiler o normal level. Because of unequal cooling speed
between thin pipes, thick drums and thick headers, considering thermal capacity and loss
of boiler metal, before acid solution into boiler, the metal temp. should be controlled at
82. After boiler water discharged, close all furnace doors apertures and dampers to
keep heat;
4.2 Before acid cleaning, the following items should be checked:
4.2.1 Superheaters are full of cooling condensing water or DM water and no residual alkali
cleaning matters sampled at superheaters water draining and vent outlet;
4.2.2 Furnace door apertures and dampers closed;
4.2.3 Open all steam exhaust valves on drums; except special illumination, the positions of
valves should be as the same as in alkali cleaning;
4.2.4 Recirculation pipes valves of coal economizers opened;
4.2.5 All boiler blowdown valves and dosing valves closed;
4.3 When metal temp. at 77, feed anticorrosive acid solution (5-6% hydrochloric acid) into
to boiler. We suggest that according to poidometer, dose 0.25% hydrofluoric acid
(NH4HF2) into anticorrosive acid solution as energizing agent and silica scavenging
agent. The mixed up solution temp. by diluted acid water and steam should be kept
within 7177;
4.4 Acid cleaning precautions
4.4.1 Although nitrogen is not harmful, human breath can not be satisfied. After nitrogen used
during boiler discharging water, if human into boiler, ventilation must be taken firstly;
4.4.2 After cleaning finished, start boiler at once. If inner devices and orifice plates of boiler
not started at once after erected, the condensing water which contains 200PPm
hydrazine at least should be dosed into boiler and superheaters and then regulate PH

value to 10 through ammonia; moreover, boiler should be fed with positive pressure
nitrogen (0.020.034Mpa psig);
4.4.3 Before dosing acid into boiler, the validity of anticorrosive agent in acid should be
checked. One method is a simple test: soak a lucidus carbon steel card in acid whose
concentration is properly regulated and temp. at 82 ; if there are one or more bunches
of air bubbles but not dissociative air bubbles appearing, the acid is not available till
enough anticorrosive agents supplied and test qualified. Another method is that soak one
artifactitious surface square known boiler steel test sample in anticorrosive acid whose
concentration and temp. are the same as cleaning acid for 30min; then survey the weight
loss and the weight loss in each square centimeter should not be more than 1mg. The
acid cleaning must be operated by experienced personnel;
4.4.4 Potential accident in acid cleaning is partial metal temp. may be too high. Most
hydrochloric anticorrosive agents are not available if temp. over 88 ; moreover, too high
temp. also will increase corrosion. The valid cleaning temp. is at 66 at least, so pay
attention to confirm proper metal and solution temp.;
4.4.5 The steam exhausted from GT may transmit heat to parts of boiler and even establishes
boiler water circulation, which may cause partial metals of inner pipes over heated. So if
the boiler contains any acid solution, it is forbidden to start GT;
4.4.6 Take chemical analysis (conductivity, PH value) on using water to prevent pollution;
4.4.7 After cleaning finished and before GT startup, sample and check draining water at HPS,
LPS and steam pipes to prevent pollution;
4.4.8 During chemical cleaning, if alkali or acid solution overflowed into superheaters by
mistake, before ignition permitted, it must be backwashed with enough flow to ensure all
residual acid and alkali solution cleaned out;
4.4.9 During alkali cleaning, commercial detergent is used mostly, when whose concentration
over 0.1% (as cubage), the formed bubbles may bring alkali solution into superheaters.
Because stainless steel may create stress crack, pay attention and prevent lots of alkali
solution from being brought into. Because there are too many concentrations (water
dilution) in commercial detergent, if suggested concentration by manufacturer over 0.1%,
take negotiation with manufacturer;

4.4.10 All external pipes used during cleaning, including FDW storage/treatment equipments
should be cleaned when boiler being cleaned; if they can not be cleaned, it is better to
clean oxide skins after unconsolidated sediment in FDW removed;
4.4.11 The regulating valves, orifice plates, and other equipments which may be damaged in
cleaning process should be removed or bypassed during cleaning;
4.4.12 The cleaning contractor should provide necessary glass level meter for cleaning and
also they should be informed the max. working temp. and pressure of the temporary level
meter;
Warning: the glass level meters for cleaning commonly can not be used in operation, which
may hurt people caused by breaking up or damage due to pressure;
4.4.13 Because the cleaning solution circulated in boiler may be cooled down, supervise
control the cleaning solution temp. at inlet and outlet of boiler to keep valid temp. and
prevent external air into flue ducts (cover chimney and close manholes) to reduce boiler
heat loss. The cleaning medium is heated by outlaid heaters by cleaning contractor;
4.4.14 The cleaning contractor must ensure cleaning solution circulated in all boiler parts,
especially avoid the solution in vaporizers passing low resistance pipes, such as
downcomers, but not the correct pipes, so it is requested to silt up the downcomers
during chemical cleaning;
4.4.15 During chemical cleaning, the inner parts of drums can be cleaned with drums, but pay
attention that the metal mesh is made up of stainless steel plates; if the cleaning solution
is harmful to the metal mesh, it should be taken out before cleaning and then put in
before steam blowing and operating; chevron separators should be erected as the same
way if they are taken out for checks or additional cleaning;
4.4.16 The sampling pipes must be closed during steam blowing or chemical cleaning to
prevent from jamming;
4.4.17 The records of all cleaning techniques including chemicals should be saved well by
users;
4.4.18 After cleaning finished, the owners and cleaning contractors should check whether the
unit cleaned out and all tube windows water drained out;
4.4.19 The disposal cost about cleaning solution is one of important parts. The cost may be

changed when weak cleaning solution into a long-time circulation, so there may be more
corrosion/acid solution discharging fees;
4.4.20 When dispose any dangerous liquid and take acid cleaning, pay attention to human
safety specially;
Warning: after acid cleaning, flush with water thoroughly to avoid damage;

5. Preparation of boiler into service after chemical cleaning


5.1 Check drums
1) Blow the connecting terminals of inner level meters and instruments;
2) Flush dosing pipes and continuous blowdown pipes;
3) Flush any loose deposits on drums inner surface and in centrifugal separators inlet box
with water from drums to collecting headers and the drain water will be discharged through
acid cleaning pipes;
5.2 Check drums and wash any sediment in drums with water through drums blowdown
pipes;
5.3 As required, check any opened header and wash them with water from opening end;
5.4 When inner surface clean, erect the following equipments:
5.4.1 Erect primary and secondary separators in drums;
5.4.2 Install restriction orifice and perforated enclosures;
5.4.3 Install and weld all handholes covers of headers;
5.4.4 Remove or close all acid cleaning connecting pipes with valves;
5.4.5 Remove all temporary acid cleaning pipes connected from drums;
5.4.6 After drums cleaning finished, take a complete check to ensure there is no external
impurities staying in drums;
5.4.7 Feed water into drums, coal economizers and but only DM water or condensing water
can be fed into superheaters, superheaters;
5.4.8 Reduce drums level to suggesting value and then sample boiler water and analyze
sodium, chloride, all solids. If sodium over 5PPm, chloride over 5PPm or all solids over

10PPm, then take boiler water draining and refeed water into boiler. After that, repeat
sample and analysis till required value reached;
5.4.9 When blowing steam pipes, dispose boiler water with volatilizable chemicals and keep
boiler water pH value within 8.5 and 9.0 with ammonia and all solids below 2.0PPm.

Chapter 5 Steam pipes flush

1. Purpose:
In order to remove all external impurities left in superheaters and steam pipes after they
are erected, we flush main steam pipes and reheating steam pipes before boiler startup.
The impurities will cause heavy accident if they are into turbine during initial operating;
Some external impurities may be left in pipes during pressure parts maintenance, so the
pipes should be flushed too after maintenance;

2. Responsibilities
Because pipes flush is taken to avoid turbine accidents, the complete flush techniques
should be confirmed by users. The temporary pipe system design, produce, erection and
protections of overpressure or over temperature of pipe flush are the users
responsibilities;

3. General principles of ASME


In order to get best working conditions, the flow working conditions in flush system should
equal to normal running condition under max. load: LP steam flow during pipe flush
multiplied by LP flow speed is the max. load working condition. The pipe flush designers
calculate the whole system flow resistance including temporary pipes to confirm total flow;
Steam blow adopts high speed steam passing steam pipes to get enough cleaning rate
(CR: flush coefficient is the rate of CR: steam density () and steam speed squared (V 2)
under steam flush condition and basic design condition)
(V2) steam flush
CR=----------------(V2)design
Because the shearing force is in direct proportion to flow speed drop of common medium
passing pipes, the larger the cleaning rate is, the larger the shearing force is (the better
the pipes are cleaned). Generally, the generating boiler request 1.6 times cleaning rate at
least, sometimes LP system accepts smaller cleaning rate but not below 1.2;
If LP high speed flow adopted, the water consumption can be reduced, so LP medium is

better when cleaning pipes;


Also all steam pipe branches should have correct cleaning rate and steam pipes at
different positions have different cleaning rate;

4. Precautions
4.1 There are some abnormity in boiler and steam pipes during flush. The rapid temp. variety
during flushing will cause heavier damage than during normal running, such as that there
is over heat stress in thick wall parts of drums, headers and pipes;
4.2 During flushing stop all main fuel burning, but the combustion of igniters or boiler
warming-up oil guns can be held, to recover flushing pressure fast;
4.3 The temporary steam pipes design pressure may be below the boiler vaporizing section
pressure, so the overpressure should be avoided during flushing operations. We suggest
taking overpressure protective measures on flushing pipes, such as take safety valves
floating as temporary pipes design pressure;
4.4 During steam pipes flush, it is hard to avoid water and solid impurities in drums into
superheaters during steam flushing. If the impurities settled down in superheaters, from
heat transmitting and corrosion viewpoints, it is harmful. Even caustic alkali (corrosive)
and chloride contained a few, the stainless steel is easy to be damaged; so the boiler
must be disposed with volatilizable chemicals, including keeping boiler water pH value
within 8.5 and 9.0 with ammonia and all solids below 2.0PPm. The boiler water analysis
should be taken to ensure the above conditions can be satisfied when flushing steam
pressure reached;

5. Type and application of steam flushing


If GT under running and treated water enough, steam flushing can be taken, which is
divided into two; intermittent and continuous flush;
After all equipments checked and expansion displacement supervised, take slower boiler
startup than normal startup. After GT is started, the furnace outlet flue gas temp. should
not be risen too fast, not over 538 before turbine rolling. During pipes flush, the drums
level will have heaviest wave: when temporary flush blowdown valves opened, the drums
level will be risen fast, even over level meters glass top till out of sight; but when flush is
kept going, the drums level will appear again and even down to the glass bottom of level

meters till out of sight;


5.1 Intermittent steam flush:
Firstly, rise relative drums pressure to preset value, and then open the fast flush valves at
pipe tail end to create high speed steam through reducing drum pressure. When drum
pressure recovered and below calculated design value (1.6 min. cleaning rate), close
flush valves to boost boiler pressure and then repeat the operations. The intermittent
steam flush is adopted over 100 times when makeup water not enough during continuous
steam flush. Generally speaking, intermittent steam flushing coasts more time and
humans;
5.2 Continuous steam flush:
Continuous steam flush is making boiler under decompressing running in certain period.
During decompressing running, high speed steam will pass steam pipes continuously, so
at the end of temporary steam flush pipes, there is a valve erected to hold the required
pressure. Compared with intermittent steam flush, continuous steam flush can
economize the time and humans, but this type flush need a lot of treated water. During 4hour flushing, the FDW can be interrupted;
Notice: steam flush should be taken even GT not in service. Under this situation, an
auxiliary boiler must be prepared to create enough steam (flow, temp. and pressure);

6. Precautions of steam flush


In order to gent best effect, the steam flush valves should adopt butterfly valves or
brake valves;
If there is no makeup water for long time and the soft water demand not satisfied
for steam flush, we suggest renting auxiliary soften equipments;
Generally, steam flush pipes can not reach basic load steam temp. But
superheating steam parameter should be below boiler design value and temporary
pipes design value;
The power plant can adopt flexible methods to optimize steam flush, such as rise
HP drums pressure possibly to transmit more heat into LPE during LP system flush.
But all pressure system pipes should be cooled down enough during steam flush;

The temporary desuperheaters in steam flush pipes can help with controlling
temporary pipes not over design temp. At the same time, through desuperheating
medium discharged from boiler and reducing steam flow, the temporary pipes noise
can be reduced;
Boiler steam flush running is a short operation, which requests boiler operators pay
more attention. The drum level will be waved heavily if valves opening changed
during intermittent and continuous steam flush;
When two units running under header pipes system, two boilers may be under
running at the same time to satisfy the header pipes cleaning rate. And be careful,
there are no large pressure difference between two units;
During steam flush, the main steam valves must be opened 100% to prevent seal
surface worn away. The check valve core should be taken out during steam flush. If
the core not taken out and results in the check valves damaged, Wuxi Boiler Factory
will not take any responsibility;
If possible, the steam sampling devices should be taken out from steam pipes to
prevent sampling pipes jammed and the devices damaged;
If the temp. not request to be controlled in steam flush, isolate the desuperheaters
in steam pipes during steam flush;
Venturi steam flow meters (or other steam survey equipments) should be taken out
and replaced with other temporary pipes before steam flush;
Insert target plates to test whether boiler cleaning qualified; if not, insert the plates
and then restart boiler to take steam flush till it is qualified;
During steam flush, the steam can not be exhausted through main startup valves,
viz. spheroidal regulating valves which
may be damaged when dirty steam is passing them. When create steam through
startup boiler, there a temporary steam flush valve should be erected to control
pressure boosting speed;

7. Acceptance of steam flush


When required cleaning rate satisfied, insert steam target into temporary steam pipes for

test, then take it out to make signs and marks. The cleaning requirements (flag data and
deepness on target) are decided by users;

8. Precautions:
8.1 An important principle of boiler blowing is that: at the outlet of vaporizers, the mixing up
speed of steam and water should not be over 35m/s at any situation to prevent cavitation;
The operating restricted area of drums is as the following chart: these running limit lines
will limit GT load in pipes flush;
8.2 During flush, the pressure drop of superheaters and steam pipes will become larger;
8.3 During complete steam flush operations, the design pressure and temp. of temporary
steam exhaust pipes and valves can not be exceeded;

After flush finished, take safety valves floating, suspension bracket tightening and other
debugging according to relative operating regulations.

Chapter 6 Safety valves calibration

1. Conditions:
1.1 Boiler overhauled;
1.2 Safety valves overhauled;
1.3 When operators or maintainers consider it is necessary;

2. Participants of safety valves floating


The safety valves floating should be commanded by shift engineer; the maintenance
director or appointed special personnel should joint inand I&C personnel take cooperation.
The floating should be operated by operators and supervised in site by supervision and
relative technical leaders.

3. Checks before floating and operation precautions:


3.1 The maintenance of boiler finished and the work sheet terminated;
3.2 Take a check on equipments as boiler startup requirements;
3.3 The safety valves floating takes the local pressure gauges as standard;
3.4 The local personnel should wear safety helmets, gloves and earplugs;
3.5 Check the communicating facilities good and the relative personnel have good
communicating signals;
3.6 Close the electric valves of boiler main steam header pipes;
3.7 Vacuumize turbine and put condensing water system into service;
3.8 Control boiler drum level at normal value;
3.9 Control boiler boosting within regulated value; during floating, keep pressure up and down
gradual and if the pressure approaching to action pressure, it should be more gradual;
3.10 After pressure 2bar more than floating value, if the safety valves not act, open bypass to
take disposal;

4. Process:
4.1 The maintainers should set the action pressure at floating value according to relationship
between spring stroke and pressure under cold state;

4.2 Except verified safety valves, other safety valves should be locked by thimbles to prevent
faulty action;
4.3 The safety valves floating sequence is from high floating value to low one;
4.4 After safety valves floating finished, record the floating results and release pressure as
normal speed (<1bar/min);
4.5 During safety valves floating, if abnormity found, stop the test at once and after the faults
removed, keep on the floating;

5. Safety valves floating value:


System

HP part

Deae.

No.

Name

Designed
Acting
pressure

Designed
Reseating
pressure

Release value

HPS outlet safety


valves

7.62 MPa

7.5MPa

88 kg/h

HP drum safety
valve 1

8.5 MPa

8.156MPa

88t/h

HP drum safety
valve 2

8.57MPa

8.348MPa

90t/h

safety valve 1

0.53 MPa

2.421t/h

safety valve 2

0.53 MPa

2.421t/h

safety valve 3

0.5 MPa

2.815t/h

LP part

10

LPS outlet safety


valves

0.97MPa

0.903MPa

15t/h

11

LP drum safety
valve 1

1.2 MPa

1.148MPa

15.64t/h

12

LP drum safety
valve 2

1.3MPa

1.244 MPa

26.319t/h

Chapter 7 Startup program of HRSG

When all equipments of GT/boiler satisfy operation conditions, the unit can be started, but the
following boiler equipments and services must be reliable and proper:
Boiler control system;
Water level indicators and transmitters;
Regulating valves;
Electric valves;
Chemical dosing system;
Blowdown system;
FDW system;
Electric and air resource service;
Cooling air fans (if flue duct burners system);
During startup, certain parameters are required to be retained, so the operators should joint
in;

1 General Introduction
During boiler startup and stop, the heat stress will be created: the faster the temp. is rising,
the larger the stress will be created, so if not controlled, the boiler will be fatigue and the
life also be reduced;
1.1 The boiler input heat is controlled according to supervision of saturated temp. rising
speed (temp. rising speed) in drums of boiler each pressure system. The temp. rising
speed will be controlled by the following factors: 1) through steam exhausting during
startup or on main steam pipes or other pipes; 2) through limiting GT load, control heat
flow into boiler;
1.2 Start GT when boiler temp. at highest value. Before startup, circulate hot deoxidized
water in boiler to rise temp. approaching to saturated temp.;
1.3 The key point of boiler startup and operation is to keep correct drum level. High level
operation may cause superheaters damage but low level operation will cause vaporizers
walls overheating and damage or even forced shutdown;
1.4 The startup steam exhaust valves must be opened fully during cold startup and GT

ignited and closed after the temp. rising speed over regulated value; the startup valves
can be closed during fast startup but temp. rising speed not over value and are forbidden
to be running under any situation when the opening below 10%;
Warning: the regulating valves can not be operated when the opening below 10% to
prevent the seal surface of valves damaged;
1.5 The startup regulations of boiler service depend on the situations before unit startup. The
three situations are as the following:
Cold startup: water temp. in drums is down and below 100 (not positive pressure in
drums);
Warm startup: water temp. in drums equals to or is 55 lower than saturated temp.
under basic load normal working pressure but the water temp. still over 100 (positive
pressure);
Hot startup: the water temp. in drums has been 55 higher than saturated temp. under
basic load normal working pressure;
To adopt startup regulation according to different situations, which can reduce startup
time, protect system from damage caused by responding heat stress;

2 Startup preparation and suggestion


Suppose that the unit has not been fed with water in this article;
2.1 Check and clean sundries in boiler flue ducts and chimney; all manholes, flue gas ducts
connection and inspection doors must be tight and firm;
2.2 Check whether the boiler is ready; compare DCS display with local value; check manual
valves in site, especially the isolating valves which may affect certain important function
of boiler;
Notice: Some high temp. units have draining bypass pipes between HPS (hot) drain valves,
so the valves must be opened to ensure the draining pipes can be cooled down
sufficiently;
2.3 High quality water (thoroughly deoxidized, softened, heated and pretreated water) should
be fed into HP, IP and LP system and the large capacity pumps for boiler FDW as fast as
possible can help to exhaust the air in pipe; during boiler feeding water, the temp.

difference of water and pipes walls should be low and must be below 55 . Make for
startup, the initial water feeding must be cold to satisfy the temp. difference of water and
pipes walls; but during the complete feeding process, the water temp. should be raise
and when the drums full of water, the water temp. should be over 100 ;
2.4 Open Startup steam exhaust valves to release air; feed water continuously till water level
just in bottom observed scope or over low low level;
2.5 If there is any maintenance after lat hydraulic set, the leakage test must be taken;
2.6 If the manholes have been removed, when pressure at 0.15Mpa, they must be tightened
again and sealed completely;
2.7 If there is chimney dampers, before GT primary startup, the dampers must be opened,
otherwise they may cause boiler expansion joints damage or human injury;
Warning: if the boiler damaged during running caused by chimney dampers closed, Wuxi
Boiler Factory will not taken any responsibility;
2.8 Look up the startup limit requirements in all boiler safety measures;
Notice: in order to prevent steam pipes creating heat vibration, at the primary period of
startup, the downstream steam pipes in Wuxi Boiler Factory supply scope should be
preheated;

3. Cold startup
The article states the unit cold startup regulations when boiler under
water feeding but water temperature below boiling point;
3.1 If the unit has been fed with water for a while, consider opening the drain valves of coal
economizers and vaporizers till the settled slugs discharged out; check drums level alarm
system and set points, open superheaters drain valves to ensure all condensing water
discharged;
3.2 Start FDW pump and open the HP, IP and LP FDW shutoff valves, observe drums level at
normal value and open HP, IP and LP startup steam exhaust valves completely;
3.3 Regulate any necessary valves position according to power plant regulations;
3.4 At this moment, boiler satisfies the operation conditions and GT can be ignited and load

minimum load;
3.5 Supervise HP, IP and LP drums temp. and level; when each stage pressure system get
boiling, the drums level will be up which means the steam has been created. During
boiler primary startup, the drums level control is on auto position and the level is set at
200mm below normal level to ensure the max. level not over high high value after boiler
started. In future startup, regulate the primary startup level of drums to make the max.
value of drums level wave approaching to normal level;
3.6 After boiler started, LP part can reach rated pressure first and then IP part, HP part will be
the last one. The boiling time is about 10-45min, which depends on the startup temp. and
GT speed whereas the time reaching basic load depends on startup temp., GT speed
and unit load variety ratio;
3.7 When HP and IP part pressure at 0.07Mpa and LP part pressure at 0.035Mpa or steam
flows of each part satisfy the requirements, the operators can increase load; at this
moment, the drain valves of superheaters can be closed;
3.8 GT loading regulations and startup auto steam exhaust valves adjustment should be
taken base on the same temp. rising speed: HP part below 3.5 /min, IP part below
16.5/min and LP part below 22/min;
Warning: when auto steam exhaust valves opening below 10%, it will result in seal surface
worn which may cause leakage;
3.9 The isolating valves of desuperheaters should be opened as steam output reaching 25%
of basic load, which can ensure the steam heat can vaporize the spray water;
3.10 According to power plant facilities, there are a few methods to load full load. The most
important point is to control boiler parameters not exceeding above parameters limit. The
full load reaching time depends on GT loading arrangement whereas steam exhaust
valves position regulation depends on the power plant;
3.11 When boiler under stable operation, check the whole boiler. During running, steam flow,
pressure and temp. can not exceed design conditions regulated by design institute;
3.12 At primary startup, pay attention to parameters variety to take improvement in future
startup, especially the system boiling time and highest expansion value of drums water
level, which will be the standard for next FDW level;

4. Warm startup
In this article, we talk about the startup regulations when drums have positive pressure
and water temp. in drums is 55 higher than saturated temp. under basic load conditions;
also article 2.7-2.8 must be satisfied;
In order to reduce the startup pressure to min., before heating unit, the startup steam
exhaust valves and superheaters drain valves are not suggested to be opened;
4.1

Check water level alarm system functions and all drums level; start FDW pump and
open HP, IP and LP FDW stop valves then according to power plant regulations, regulate
the valves position;

4.2

Start GT igniting; GT starts cranking and then decelerate to flameout speed; once GT
fired, it starts full speed with no load condition (FSNL). When GT flue temp. at saturated
temp. of boiler HP drums, open superheaters drain valves in all pressure system. The
system pressure will discharge the condensing water out from superheaters. After that,
about 5-10min, close the superheaters drain valves and at the same time, open valves to
the opening where steam can be created;

4.3

Warning: cooling steam must pass superheater before boiler inlet flue temp over 370 ;

4.4

When superheaters drain valves and startup steam exhaust valves opened, the drums
may be expanded, so the operators should observe the drums level closely during
operating;

4.5

According to startup conditions, drums pressure may be down with FSNL; at this time,
load more GT load till the drums pressure falling stopped;

4.6

Start increasing load and regulate the startup steam exhaust vales to satisfy the basic
load; at the same time, observe HP, IP and LP drums temp. rising speed at 3.5 , 16.5
and 22 respectively. When GT load is increased, the opening of startup steam exhaust
valves should be wider to control startup temp. rising and ensure more cooling steam
through superheaters;

4.7

After unit taking basic load, operate according to Article 3.10-3.13 in cold startup ;

5. Hot startup
In this article, we talk about the startup regulations when drums have positive pressure

and water temp. in drums is 55 lower than saturated temp. under basic load conditions;
also article 2.7-2.8 must be satisfied;
5.1 The same as Article 4.1-4.5;
5.2 During hot startup, the boiler drums water temp. speed has no limit and the unit permits
instantaneous temp. rising at 55, however, the unit wont be damaged. But the enough
steam flow should be ensured to pass superheaters;
Warning: cooling steam must pass superheater before boiler inlet flue temp over 370 ;
5.3 Take loading up to basic load should be operated as Article 3.10-3.13;

Startup after long time shelving


This operation is out of the manual scope. The shelving time, inner and external
conditions, valves and instruments will affect the work; the boiler can be started only after
complete checks. Wuxi Boiler Factory can help with checks and compiling this procedure.

Chapter 8 Safety measures of boiler operation

In this chapter, we will talk about general safety principles and detailed
design limit. The responsibilities of owners are to ensure operators,
system and control devices within design parameters. During actual
operation, we need additional safety measures. On boiler, we have
additional alarm, trip and interlocks to protect other devices and
operators safety;

General Introduction

1.1

FDW must be enough to maintain drums level within permissive scope;

1.2

There must be a equipments accepting the created steam by boiler;

1.3

There must be a logic control system controlling boiler and shutting down equipments
automatically when design parameters exceeded;

1.4

The necessary instruments which provide control system with accurate data must be
under good working condition;

1.5

The relative operation and design requirements in O&M Manuals must be obeyed;

Detailed introduction
The follow is the protective requirements during boiler under running. If the requirements
deviate from protective requirements, the boiler guarantee by Wuxi Boiler Factory will be
invalid. The operators must know other equipments performance and human safety
requirements. On the other side, the requests for equipments and human safety should
be compiled specially according to local conditions;

2.1

Drums level
During operation, when one drum level below low low and cause pipes and headers
overheated, GT must be shut down;
When low level alarms, operators should take some measures to avoid low low level;
When operating drums level over high high level, it may cause superheaters pipes and
other downstream equipments polluted (scaled); when high high level reached, start auto
regulating devices should be started to reduce water level;

When high level alarms, operators should take measures to avoid high high level;
Warning: when drums level below low low or over high high value, it may cause boiler
damage and quality guarantee invalid;
2.2

Working pressure
Operators should ensure working pressure below design pressure;
Warning: when design pressure exceeded during running, it may cause the quality
guarantee invalid and the pressure parts damaged;

2.3

Working temp.
The outlet temp. of HPS 1 can not be over 457.3 whereas HPS 2 outlet steam temp.
must be controlled by desuperheaters but not over 523.0 ;
Warning: if the temp. over above value, it may cause the quality guarantee invalid and
the pressure parts damaged;

2.4

Backpressure of steam exhaust


The steam exhaust static pressure between GT and flue duct inlet can not be more than
500mmH2O whereas the steam exhaust static pressure in chimney can not be over
125mmH2O. When above values reached, GT must be shut down forced. Consider
installing the alarm devices, so the devices can alert operators when values reached;
Warning: during running, when exhaust steam pressure over design value, it may cause
the quality guarantee invalid and the expansion joints or other boiler parts damaged;
A part of pipes resistance may exceed design value but the total backpressure can not
exceed above limit. So during operations, the total backpressure must be supervised
and recorded. If pressure up, take checks at once: first the instruments, then inner
checks or resistance test to confirm blocking position. Once position confirmed, continue
supervising resistance in blocking zone. When the whole pipes resistance over 2 times
of designed steam side pressure drop, GT must be shutdown;
Warning: too much steam side pressure drop may damage pipes supporting parts, so it
may cause the quality guarantee invalid under this running condition;

2.5

Chimney dampers

Before GT startup, the dampers must be opened 100% and the dampers position must
be connected to DCS by hard-wiring as the necessary condition of GT startup,
otherwise the dampers will be damaged, especially the expansion joints at flue gas
sides;
Warning: When boiler running with dampers closing, the boiler casing, expansion joints
and other parts may damaged and the quality guarantee will be invalid;
2.6

Limit switch of electric valves


Moment switches and position switches have already been erected and there is no need
taking further adjustment;
Notice: If the valves, motors and relative parts damage caused by default set value
adjusting in site, Wuxi Boiler Factory will not take any responsibility;

2.7

Vibration insulation bracket


The vibration insulation bracket is used to reduce pipes vibration caused by flue gas
flowing, which can not be used as hanging or other fixed load supports;
Notice: Wuxi Boiler Factory will not take any responsibility, if humans, brackets, pipes
damaged caused by incorrect using vibration insulation brackets;

2.8

Desuperheaters faults
The design of superheaters pipes and connecting pipes do not consider the
overtemperature caused by desuperheaters fault. All desuperheaters must be
supervised to confirm whether they are normal running. When same level
desuperheaters located paralleled, if one is on fault, we can not increase another
desuperheaters output to control total outlet steam temp. When desuperheaters are on
fault, GT load must be controlled to ensure heating surface temp. within normal scope;

2.9

HPS startup
When GT flue temp. is rising, HPS pipes can not be in dry combustion. When temp. over
370, there must be steam passing HPS pipes for cooling down pipes walls. If steam
flow inadequate, the short-time overtemperature may be caused and finally the pipes
invalid;
Notice: when flue temp. of GT over 370, if no steam passing HPS pipes to cool

down pipes walls and cause pipes overtemperature and gradual deformation,
Wuxi Boiler Factory will not take any responsibility;
2.10

9%Cr material
In this boiler, some parts materials contain 9%Cr (SA-213 T91, SA-335 P91, SA-387
Grade P91, SA-234 F91 and so on). Check relative diagrams to confirm where these
materials used;
Because the materials have special welding, manufacturing and thermal treatment
techniques, unless you have ASME certificate and authorized welding skills, the
materials are not allowed to be welded (including spot welding and temporary auxiliaries
welding). DC Prod magnetic powder inspection are not allowed as well as the incorrect
unqualified welding on them, otherwise Wuxi Boiler Factory will not take any
responsibility; If there are unexpected arc welding craters, they should be rubbed and
then take nondestructive evaluation (NDE) confirm the materials not damaged;
Warning: DC Prod magnetic powder inspection are not allowed as well as the incorrect
unqualified welding on them, otherwise Wuxi Boiler Factory will not take any
responsibility;

2.11 Blowdown flash tank


The undissolving scale and sediments in boiler will be discharged into blowdown flash
tanks, which should be washed and drained very often to prevent sediments damaging
the tanks;
2.12

Control logics of recirculation pumps


When boiler started, we advise recirculation pumps into service after GT load loaded up
(95% load). The recirculation pumps are designed to be running under steady working
condition whereas under load changing condition, they are not allowed to be put into
service. The reasons are as following:

2.12.1 During boiler startup, GT exhausting heat will be absorbed by boiler front parts but the
temp. in FDW preheaters is not increased. The relative recirculation regulating valves
opening is 100% to control water temp. in preheater at 60 ;
2.12.2 The recirculation pumps are designed to be operated under

certain outlet

pressure which equals to working substance static pressure plugging pressure drop at

preheaters working substance static pressure side. At primary period of startup, the working
substance flow passing preheaters will be small and the relative pressure drop also is small;
At primary period of startup, due to 100% opening of recirculation regulating valves and
small preheaters passing-by working substance flow, the recirculation pumps will
deviate from power curves and damage recirculation pumps motors;
If put recirculation pumps during load changing, even the motors can adapt the
condition but may be damaged, too. Go to further, recirculation operation in this period
will increase power plant additional load but no benefit;
2.12.3During boiler running, recirculation pumps can not be running with full load. At this time,
the unit has been on steady running state for enough time and the boiler even the boiler tail
has been heated completely, which is adaptable. The outlet temp. of preheaters has been
risen and higher than inlet temp. and then regulate the relative recirculation regulating valves
to supply enough outlet pressure, ensure the pumps can be operated on safety state. Wuxi
Boiler Factory suggests recirculation regulating valves opening over 10; At load
continuously reducing period, according to partial load running conditions, the boiler tail have
more heat to absorb, so the preheaters outlet temp. can be raise and over normal running
value. The recirculation pumps are designed to running better within certain temp. scope.
When over design temp., the pumps will have cavitation (details on water pumps factory
information). In such as case, the pumps should be closed;
2.13 Water treatment
Select proper blowdown rate correctly to held qualified boiler water quality and take
changing with local FDW quality and chemical treatment. The blowdown rate is the rate
of TDS in water and drums (i.e.: if drums max. permissive TDS is 50ppm and 1ppm in
water, the blowdown rate is 2%);
Water treatment: the water treatment tests should be taken to confirm blowdown rate,
intermittent blowdown time and sampling time according to TDS and purity in water and
max. TDS in drums;
Notice: different stage pressure may request different dosing valueit is very important;
Warning: All pressure-stages adopt one water treatment that will not satisfy the

requirements, which may cause boiler inner surface damage; some certificated
personnel check drums inner and other access zones to ensure crashing water
treatment. We suggest supervising ferrum content on line to know boiler
corrosion degree.

Chapter 9 Control and regulating of boiler operation

1. General Situation
The steadying of boiler running parameters are closely related to external load changing
and boiler inner factors variety. Any of above factors changed, the boiler running
stabilization and safety will be affected. So a series of control and regulating should be
taken to make the boiler parameters be adapted to external or inner changing to ensure
the boiler running safely and economically;

2. Regulation of GT load
GT load affect the safety and economy of boiler and even the whole power plant, so the
regulation should be adapted to external load requirements;
2.1 Purpose:
2.1.1 Ensure boiler steam temp., pressure and evaporation capacity stable and normal;
2.1.2 GT should take basic load possibly. If due to grid system or other reasons, the preselect
load should be as high as possible to take sufficient heat;
2.1.3 Keep most economic boiler operation;
2.2 Main contents and methods of regulation:
2.2.1 According to grid system load, keep GT base load to ensure max. HRSG thermal
efficiency and also keep the general efficiency of combined cycle max.
2.2.2 Control outlet steam temp. of superheaters not overtemperature;
2.2.3 When load changed, pay attention to regulate HRSG drums level within normal scope
and prevent trips caused by water level over set value;
2.2.4 When load changed, pay attention to regulate deaerator level of HRSG within normal
scope and prevent trips caused by water level over set value;
2.2.5 When GT transferred from base load to preselect load, pay attention to regulate HPS
steam outlet temp. not overtemperature;

3. Control and regulating of FDW


FDW regulation is to ensure the FDW quantity satisfies the unit load evaporation capacity
and keep drums level stable (within 100mm);

3.1 The indications of local double colored level meters at both sides should be the same. If
not, take wash in time and find out causes;
3.2 All level meters must indicate correct. If there two or more in service, they should be
compared with local indication in each hour. The drums high and low level instruments
and alarm (alarm signals) should be reliable and verified periodically;
3.3 During normal running, when FDW in service automatically, strengthen supervising water
level meters; if FDW changed heavily, transfer to manual regulation to prevent lack of
water or water overfed;
3.4 When take boiler intermittent blowdown, strengthen supervising and regulating water
level;

4. Regulation of steam temp.


The steam temp. is affected by boiler load, FDW temp., fuel characteristics, excess air
coefficient, combustion, so it must be regulated according to the relationships;
4.1 Main purpose of steam temp. regulation
4.1.1 During normal running, make temp. wave within required scope; within 70%~100% of
evaporation capacity, the superheater outlet steam temp. is 523+5;
4.1.2 Ensure superheaters and pipes walls at each section not over alarm value regulated by
protective setting value;
4.2 Regulations of superheaters steam temp.
4.2.1Regulate superheating steam temp. through spray desuperheaters at steam side which
have simple structure, small thermal lag, flexible regulation, easy auto control and other
advantages;
4.2.2 In design, control the superheating steam temp. just through the spray desuperheaters.
But in actual running, when coal changed heavily, the superheating steam temp. also
can be changed through changing furnace flame center;
4.3 Protection
In order to ensure that there is steam for cooling inside and boiler safety during boiler
startup and shutdown, the unit is equipped with independent 100% HP bypass protective
system and LP bypass protective system to ensure enough steam passing by during

startup and shutdown, to ensure boiler safety and reliable and even accelerate startup
and shutdown speed and emergency disposal ability;

5. Control of steam quality


Methods
5.1 Ensure FDW quality;
5.2 Control continuous and intermittent blowdown valves and ensure boiler water salt content
below its critical salt content at steam parameter;
5.3 Control drums level 100mm in normal scope and supervise the variety of drums level to
avoid abnormal level;
5.4 Avoid unit load loading up and steam pressure falling down heavily and suddenly;

6. Operators patrol and inspection and regulations


The boiler operators should know boiler very well. Wuxi Boiler Factory suggests that at 2
hours, a patrol and inspection should be taken as well as when each shift started and
ended. The appearance checks by qualified boiler operators are improtant and
irreplaceable;
6.1 Patrol and inspection
During the patrol and inspection, the unit state should be known, at
least the following contents must be checked:
6.1.1 Check whether all closed valves tightly; when valves seal closed, pay attention to avoid
leakage which may cause corrosion. The leakage from valves stems through gland
should be repaired as fast as possible;
6.1.2 Find out any water and steam leakage resource and take maintenance at once;
6.1.3 Check whether startup steam exhaust valves leak, because the valves are used more
often than other valves;
6.1.4 Compare the pressure and temp. indication recorded in control room with local meters,
record the difference and take adjustment;
6.1.5 The unit and the complete structure of auxiliaries should be checked;

6.1.6 The glass level meters should be blown down twice in each shift to prevent scaling;
6.1.7 Pay attention to whether there is flue gas leakage and arrange the maintenance in next
shutdown period. Especially, the headers outlets and inlets and the drain pipes which are
through boiler casing should be check to confirm whether there is leakage over there;

7. Usage of O&M Manuals


The operators should take responsibilities to ensure the whole unit good, including
compiling periodical maintenance schedules and performance supervision and control;
7.1.1 The intermittent blowdown time is decided according to boiler water sampling results;
we advise each shift to take blowdown once;
7.1.2 All pipes should be drained and blown down periodically to check whether they are
clean;
7.1.3 Boiler startup and shutdown parameters (i.e.: startup water level) acquisition and
reduction should be taken to improve startup and shutdown parameters setting;
7.1.4 The control room log books which record main maintenance, operation and running data
should be saved. DCS running parameter can show some problems such as pollution
and turbine recession. The operators should check data periodically to find out any
changes of unit running performance;
7.1.5 Before shutdown, notice maintainer for maintenance. The operator should look up
shutdown maintenance manuals. If the unit shut down for long time, read shutdown
chapter and articles;
7.1.6 Organize reviewing complete O&M Manuals, including auxiliaries once in each year.

Chapter 10 HRSG Performance parameters

The design performance of this boiler will be satisfied when external input conditions
satisfied. The influence of some external conditions variety will be talked about hereinafter.
The unit and auxiliaries running and mechanical conditions can not be confirmed if there is
not complete analysis on system;
CTG is the primary heat resource of boiler. The steam exhausting flow and temperature can
affect boiler heavily. In order to reduce NO X, steam feeding flow, GV adjustment under part
load, fuel content, atmosphere pressure, humidity and CTG mechanical conditions will
affect running conditions and even boiler. Other auxiliaries, such as GT rotors coolers and
fuel heaters, may increase or reduce heat from GT into boiler. Any of above conditions may
cause boiler heat output changing;
Generally speaking, GT exhaust flow or temp. reduction may cause boiler steam flow and
temp. decreasing. Rising one parameter and reducing another will cause steam flow
increasing or decreasing;
The boiler running parameters and equipments conditions may affect performance
differently. Especially when running pressure down, steam flow will be increased but the
superheating temp. will be down. The FDW temp. must approach to design temp. to avoid
problems. Steam/water leakage or drain valves opened may reduce certain steam value
although it is not obvious. The superheating steam leakage can not be seen commonly but
it is very dangerous. The leakage at flue gas side will reduce boiler performance heavily.
Besides that, the pollution on pipes surface will reduce the heat exchanging and then
reduce steam flow.

Chapter 11 HRSG Shutdown operations

The shutdown speed depends on whether immediate maintenance is needed. The normal
shutdown procedure should be used for those boilers which have normal maintenance,
long-time shutdown or shutdown but without maintenance. If immediate maintenance is
needed, take emergency shutdown procedure. In any case, cool down boiler rapidly will
cause boiler heat stress, so it should be avoided possibly. Other factor which may cause
shutdown speed/modes are: local water draining and FDW devices, environmental temp.
and boiler antifreeze protection;
If the unit will be shut down for long time, the shutdown maintenance contents in this
manual should be looked up. In any case, boiler should held positive pressure which may
be realized through steam or nitrogen blanketing;
Sometimes, unexpected accidents may cause the whole power plant shutdown. In this
case, the following measures which mentioned in advanced shutdown chapters can not be
carried out. In any case, take water draining and blowdown while boiler has positive
pressure to ensure draining and blowdown pipes not jammed.

1. Prior period of boiler shutdown


When boiler water circulates, the sludge and other matters are suspended whereas when
circulation finished, solid matters may accumulated and attached to inner surface, which
may affect heat exchanging and accelerate corrosion. All of these can be avoided through
the following steps in prior period:
1.1 Increase 10% continuous blowdown and double bottom blowdown frequency;
1.2 According to water treatment professors suggestion, increase boiler eater alkalinity and
chemicals dosing;
1.3 Under pressurized, open each blowdown valves shortly to discharge accumulated
sludge to check whether the pipes jammed;
1.4 Before cut off boiler heat resource, guarantee the correct deoxidizing of FDW system;

2. Normal shutdown
When GT is shut down, boiler begins cooling down. Unless boiler maintenance required,
reduce boiler heat radiated and keep working substance side pressure. If the boiler
requires maintenance after normal shutdown, take the following procedures:

2.1 After CTG shutdown, close boiler main steam valves. Keep drums level over low low level
till HP drums pressure down to 0.07Mpa;
2.2 Through self ventilation cooling boiler from CGT to boiler, the startup motor of GT can
keep low speed or be shut down at the same time. The chimney dampers should be
closed as well;
2.3 In above casing, within about 24 hours, HP drums pressure may be down to 0.07Mpa;
2.4 When HP drums pressure below 0.07Mpa, boiler air relief and water draining can be
taken and if some jammed blowdown pipes found in detection before boiler shutdown,
take maintenance at this time;

3. Emergent shutdown
Only the boiler which requests intermediate maintenance can be shut down emergently.
Normal maintenance does not require emergency shutdown because emergency shutdown
will increase boiler heat stress;
3.1 Close climate flue dampers, open bypass flue dampers and isolate boiler water side;
3.2 In each pressure system, intermittent blowdown valves are used to reduce drums level to
min. seeable value. Close blowdown valves and wait for 5min and then feed hot
deoxidized water to each pressure-stage coal economizers till drums level at highest
value. After 5min, repeat the operations;
Warning:

During emergency shutdown, FDW for coal economizers must be deoxidized

water at or over 100;


3.3 Keep on above steps till pressure at 0.07Mpa; then open air relief valves to prevent boiler
vacuumizing. At this moment, superheaters and coal economizers pipes can take water
draining. The draining pipes must be expedite and cleaned at once if jammed;
3.4 After that, boiler can take air cooling: open all draining and air relief valves to accelerate
cooling speed; open the inspection door nearest by GT for cooling through fans;
3.5 If it is needed to take maintenance on the top of boiler, take individual force ventilation
against boiler top parts to increase cooling: compressed air blowing boiler top parts;
3.6 After emergency shutdown, the boiler restarts as cold startup;

4. Disposal after shutdown


4.1 Read other regulations related to short-time shutdown, antifreeze requirements and
maintenance & checks;
4.2 Drain and discharge all pipes which may accumulate water to prevent being eroded and
frozen;

5. Stop Disposal
During stop, no matter before or after operations, the proper boiler shutdown maintenance
must be taken to prevent corrosive and freezing damage. Because during running, the
pressure elements inners contact water, corresponding to flue gas side, the stop disposal at
boiler working substance side should be paid attention to specially (take periodical checks
on boiler flue gas side to ensure stop disposal requirements satisfied). The disposal
procedures and methods (wet or dry) at boiler working substance side should be confirmed
according to local detail conditions and while compiling, read the following instructions.

Chapter 12 HRSG maintenance after boiler shutdown

1. Maintenance purpose
1.1 If the intervals of unit startup is longer (over a week), the valid measures must be taken to
prevent thermal equipments damaged by rust, rotating machines stuck and so on to
make the unit under normal cold backup state;
Notice: RH will be changed with environmental temp., so it should be surveyed or concluded
according to survey charts at min. temp.

2. Scope and measures


2.1 Maintenance
2.1.1 Scope
1) Boiler drum, heating surface and other contacting pipes;
2) FDW system
Measures:
<1> Partial wet/ Nitrogen blanketing protection;
<2> Dry Nitrogen blanketing protection
<3> Completely wet protection (available after hydraulic set);
2.2 Safety Key points
Nitrogen is very dangerous; human maybe die if into fulfilled nitrogen drum; When drum
need clean, open all manholes and before into drum the drum should be blew by air for 2
days; When check in drums, the one should accompanied by some others, so if some
problems, the alarm can be reported at any time; Pay attention that Nitrogen can be
spread, so the operators in plant should take relative safety measures;
If there is no proper maintenance during boiler shutdown, it will be eroded heavily. If there
is a ferric oxide layer, the metal surface wont be rusted easily; The boiler corrosion is
oxygen corrosion whose type is the anomalistic oxidized streak located on metal surface;
During boiler shutdown, if the maintenance not proper, the electrochemical reaction will be
acting:
- Oxidation: Fe>Fe2+ +2e-

(1)

- Reduction: 2H+ +2e- >H2


O2+4e- +2H2O>4 OH-

(2)
(3)

When ferrum contacts water, the reaction (1) will be acting. When metal (anode) absorb
negative electron, Fe2+ will be water-soluble and after the metal polar has polarity, the
reaction will be stopped;
On surface of metal (cathode), reaction (2) and (3) will be acting; The balance of the
reactions will be decided by OH- concentration (water pH value) in the water.
Moreover, reaction (3) can be decided by oxygen content; The electron from anode
(reaction 1) has tendency to into metal cathode: reaction (1) balance will be broken
and the ion will be water-soluble continuously to be Fe 2+;

2.
2.1 General principles
According to above theories, only when water and oxygen exist at the same time, the
corrosion will happen. The two below measures can remove one of the two factors:
- Nitrogen blanketing wet maintenance
- Nitrogen blanketing dry maintenance

Which maintenance measure will be adopted is decided by purpose and boiler shutdown
time;
If it is shut down for short time, such as weekend shutdown, because certain pressure
kept, no maintenance is needed;
When temp. below zero, in order to anti-freeze, dry protection must be adopted. From
other view points, dry protection has a special disadvantage, viz. refeed water into boiler
before boiler startup. So the water demand is huge and it will take long time to recover
original boiler load. This measure will be adopted for long time shutdown;
Partial wet protection has obvious advantage: no drain water in boiler, so it is easy to
recover the original load;
The general principle of shutdown maintenance is to prevent boiler water causing metal
oxidizing. If partial wet protection adopted, according to boiler water quality, when over
certain period, take water draining and then adopt dry protection;
For scheduled shutdown, the proper maintenance should be chosen according to
shutdown time before shutdown and then confirm the preparation: chemical dosing for
boiler water, Nitrogen supply and so on;
Important Notice: No matter wet or dry protection adopted, hot flue gas is not allowed into
HRSG.

3. Wet protection
Two Types:
Complete wet protection and partial wet Nitrogen blanketing protection
3.1 Complete wet protection
3.1.1 Standard:
Only used after hydraulic set;
3.1.2 Time limit
It is properly used when shutdown time within 6 weeks and pH value over 10.5, so it is
better to take DM water and dosing ammonia as (150ppm, to rise pH value) hydraulic set
water;

If the succedent boiler commissioning takes place after 6 weeks, water drain must be
taken and then adopt dry Nitrogen blanketing protection;
3.2 partial wet Nitrogen blanketing protection
3.2.1 Standard:
It is properly used after shutdown or maintenance (examines and repairs) and the climate
conditions permitted (if air temp. low, dry protection adopted)
3.2.2 Time limit
In order to prevent static water stayed in boiler for long time, the protection time limit is 2
weeks normally according to boiler water chemical characteristics;
Main parameters are the pH value and oxygen content in FDW and boiler drum water.
The protection limit is as the following table:
pH value

Oxygen content

limit

<20ppb

2 weeks

>20ppb

Dry Nitrogen blanketing


protection

9<pH<10

If the shutdown time over above limit, water drain must be taken and dry Nitrogen
blanketing protection should be adopted.

4. Nitrogen blanketing
During Nitrogen blanketing, the furnace pressure should be 10-50 mbar more than
atmosphere pressure;
Whether Nitrogen blanketing will be adopted can be decided before boiler shutdown, so
Nitrogen blanketing will be started boiler hot state;
If Nitrogen blanketing started under cold state (unintended shutdown), special Nitrogen
blanketing in instruction book should be undertaken;
4.1 Nitrogen blanketing operation under boiler hot state
4.1.1 Before boiler unloading

At 2h before boiler unloading, dose NH 3 to ensure boiler water pH value over 10, so the
being shutdown boiler water quality will be good. Pay attention that if condenser
materials have aldary, pH value should be controlled at 9.2, so the partial wet nitrogen
blanketing maintenance time just is 2 weeks. Moreover, if aluminum contained in any
part of condenser or steam and water circulation, the chemicals should be decided by
chemical personnel research because of special requirements;
The secondary operation at 2h before boiler unloading is open continuous blowdown
valves of drums to remove the slat and alkali dissolved in boiler water furthest before
boiler maintenance;
Continuous blowdown valves of HP drum: 11HAA10 AA408
Continuous blowdown valves of LP drum: 11HAA30 AA408
4.1.2 Boiler shutdown
Reduce GT load and isolate HRSG and turbine through steam bypass station;
4.1.3 Boiler cooling down
Through steam bypass, control HP and LP drum pressure drop gradient (max.:
-2bar/min, make the inner pressure of shutdown boiler drum down to 10bar (psig);
4.1.4 Isolation of boiler
In boiler control room, operators transfer boiler to shutdown maintenance to prevent
water draining and air relief during pressure down. During boiler shutdown, water
draining and air relief valves should be closed and the drums should be isolated from
phosphate dosing system;
During shutdown, the following water drain and air relief valves should be kept on close
position:
Inlet water drain valve of HPS 2: 11HAH11AA402
HP steam water drain valve: 11LBA70AA402
LP steam water drain valve: 11LBA80AA402
Main steam isolating valves must be closed:
HP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA70AA001

LP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA80AA001


FDW isolating valves must be closed:
HP FDW pump outlet isolating valves: 11LAB11AA003, 11LAB12AA003, 11LAB13AA003
LP FDW pump outlet isolating valves: 11LAB31AA003, 11LAB32AA003, 11LAB33AA003
Drums continuous blowdown valves must be closed:
HP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA10 AA408
LP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA30 AA408
4.1.5 Nitrogen blanketing
The nitrogen blanketed can be supplied by fixed or mobile devices which should be
connected with nitrogen blanketing pipes and at the nitrogen supply side, pressure
reducing valves should be equipped;
If the safety can be ensured, the soft pipes which can support 10-50 mbar nitrogen
pressure can be used to connect nitrogen valves with boiler proper nitrogen blanketing
points. When boiler pressure within 2-5bar (psig), the nitrogen pipes should be fixed and
nitrogen blanketing isolating valves should be opened to prevent air in when boiler
pressure and temp. down;
Open HP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH10 AA452
Open LP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH30 AA452
Open deaerator nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA90 AA452
Open preheater nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA70 AA452
Open HPE nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LAB20 AA002
With steam condensed and furnace pressure down, nitrogen will be sucked into
equipments;
The most important point of succeeding nitrogen blanketing is ensuring the boiler sealed
completely. If seal not good, nitrogen will be lost due to leakage;
Moreover, nitrogen content should be 1% lower than oxygen content (as volume ratio);
In order to get the above requirements, keep drum nitrogen pressure over atmosphere a

little bit (10-50mbar);


4.1.6 Operation during boiler shutdown
During HRSG shutdown maintenance, check the water quality and nitrogen periodically;
As far as boiler under warm state, steam in superheaters and steam pipes will be kept on
condensed; due to the volatility of ammonia, condensing water pH value is lower than
drum water pH value, so the anti-corrosion ability against superheaters is weak;
Open the following superheaters drain valves for a few minutes to drain out the
condensing water and then close the valves:
HPS 2 inlet drain valve: 11HAH11 AA402
HP main steam drain valve: 11LBA70 AA402
LP main steam drain valve: 11LBA80 AA402
4.1.7 Transferred to dry nitrogen blanketing protection
If the shutdown time of HRSG exceeds above max. period (2 weeks according to
chemical characteristics of boiler water), the boiler is required to discharge water
completely and to be kept under dry nitrogen blanketing state. At this time, we suggest
closing all manual isolating valves for instruments, water drain and steam exhaust pipes
to ensure boiler air tightness;
4.1.8 Water quality requirements
This partial wet maintenance mode is adequate for short-time shutdown and the
sampling and analysis should be taken every week;
The water quality requirements during boiler shutdown:
4.1.8.1 pH value over 10 or within 9 and 10 and oxygen content lower than 20ppb;
4.1.8.2 CL-<2ppm
4.1.8.3 SO41ppm
4.1.8.4 NaOH<0.5ppm
It should be avoided to deviate from above target heavily or long time to ensure good
protection for boiler;

4.2 Partial wet nitrogen blanketing protection under cold state


When this protection used under cold state, the following steps should be taken to ensure
boiler air exhausted out:
4.2.1 Feed DM water (pH value over 10) into drum to high high level;
4.2.2 Blanket Nitrogen into superheaters and air exhausted from main steam drain pipes:
blanket nitrogen intermittently till oxygen content below 1%. Enough nitrogen pressure is
required during the operations;
4.3 Steps of dry nitrogen blanketing under cold state
4.3.1 Used standard: it is used in long-time shutdown situation, which can not only be used
directly after boiler shutdown, also can be used after partial wet protection or boiler
maintenance;
If environmental temp. below zero and boiler parts are easy to be frozen to affect safety,
dry protection can be used;
4.3.2 Dry protection is not limited by shutdown time;
4.4 Operations sequence:
4.4.2

Before shutdown:

At 2h before boiler unloading, open drum continuous blowdown valves fully to discharge
water-soluble slat and alkali. Before boiler shutdown, dose phosphate all the time into
drums;
HP drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA10 AA408
LP drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA30 AA408
4.4.2 Boiler shutdown
Reduce GT load and isolate HRSG and turbine through steam bypass station;
4.4.3 Boiler cooling down
Through steam bypass, control HP and LP drum pressure drop gradient (max.:
-2bar/min, make the inner pressure of shutdown boiler drum down to 10bar (psig);
4.4.4 Isolation of boiler

In boiler control room, operators transfer boiler to shutdown maintenance to prevent


water draining and air relief during pressure down. During boiler shutdown, water
draining and air relief valves should be closed and the drums should be isolated from
phosphate dosing system;
During shutdown, the following water drain and air relief valves should be kept on close
position:
Inlet water drain valve of HPS 2: 11HAH11 AA402
HP steam water drain valve: 11LBA70 AA402
LP steam water drain valve: 11LBA80 AA402
Main steam isolating valves must be closed:
HP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA70 AA001
LP main steam isolating valve: 11LBA80 AA001
FDW isolating valves must be closed:
HP FDW pump outlet isolating valves: 11LAB11AA003, 11LAB12AA003, 11LAB13AA003
LP

FDW

pump

outlet

isolating

valves:

11LAB31AA003,

11LAB32AA003,

11LAB33AA003
Drums continuous blowdown valves must be closed:
HP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA10 AA408
LP Drums continuous blowdown valve: 11HAA30 AA408
4.4.5 Nitrogen blanketing
The nitrogen blanketed can be supplied by fixed or mobile devices which should be
connected with nitrogen blanketing pipes and at the nitrogen supply side, pressure
reducing valves should be equipped;
If the safety can be ensured, the soft pipes which can support 10-50 mbar nitrogen
pressure can be used to connect nitrogen valves with boiler proper nitrogen blanketing
points. When boiler pressure within 2-5bar (psig), the nitrogen pipes should be fixed and
nitrogen blanketing isolating valves should be opened to prevent air in when boiler
pressure and temp. down;

Open HP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH10 AA452


Open LP drum nitrogen blanketing valve: 11HAH30 AA452
Open deaerator nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA90 AA452
Open preheater nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LCA70 AA452
Open HPE nitrogen blanketing valve: 11LAB20 AA002
With steam condensed and furnace pressure down, nitrogen will be sucked into
equipments;
The most important point of succeeding nitrogen blanketing is ensuring the boiler sealed
completely. If seal not good, nitrogen will be lost due to leakage;
Moreover, nitrogen content should be 1% lower than oxygen content (as volume ratio);
In order to get the above requirements, keep drum nitrogen pressure over atmosphere a
little bit (10-50mbar);
4.4.6. Boiler water drain
When boiler pressure a little low (psig <2bar), drain boil water out. In order to ensure
draining smooth, open all regulating valves and drain valves of heat exchangers. Then
the boiler water will be drained out and replaced by nitrogen. What keep certain nitrogen
pressure in drums can prevent air in.
HP FDW regulating valves: 11HAC10 AA101, 11HAC10 AA102, 11HAC10 AA103
LP FDW regulating valves: 11LAB40 AA101, 11LAB40 AA102, 11LAB40 AA103
3-way regulating valve: 11LCA70 AA101
4.4.7 Operation during boiler shutdown
During HRSG shutdown maintenance, check the water quality and nitrogen periodically;
As far as boiler under warm state, steam in superheaters and steam pipes will be kept
on condensed; due to the volatility of ammonia, condensing water pH value is lower
than drum water pH value, so the anti-corrosion ability against superheaters is weak;
Open the following superheaters drain valves for a few minutes to drain out the
condensing water and then close the valves:
HPS 2 inlet drain valve: 11HAH11 AA402

HP main steam drain valve: 11LBA70 AA402


HP main steam drain valve: 11LBA80 AA402
4.4.8 Steps of dry nitrogen blanketing under cold state
When take dry nitrogen blanketing protection under cold state, the following methods
should be taken to ensure no residual air in boiler parts:
4.4.9 Feed DM water (pH value over 10) into drum to high high level;
4.4.10 Blanket Nitrogen into coal economizers and superheaters, then air or water discharged
from main steam drain valves: blanket nitrogen intermittently till oxygen content below 1%.
Enough nitrogen pressure is required during the operations;
4.4.11 Keep nitrogen pressure and take coal economizers and drums water draining.

Chapter 13 HRSG Daily Maintenance

During boiler running, the operators should take checks at the same time; moreover, in
order to ensure unit safe and normal running and extend the unit life, the boiler shutdown
checks are necessary. Usually, the shutdown checks will be carried out when GT takes
annual shutdown checks;

1. Schedule and check list


Before boiler shutdown, maintainers should list a schedule containing the being
maintained parts, such as valves seal packing rings, gaskets and spares which need
maintenance, as well as the local inspection body schedule. Before shutdown, the
operators should check whether there is leakage at flue gas side and steam side and look
up the maintenance record in operators log books;
The detailed check lists should be compiled according to check and maintenance
instruction books of fitting parts provided by manufacturers and manuals by Wuxi Boiler
Factory.

2. Min. requirements
As the minimum requirements, the checks should include the following contents:
2.1 Confirm boiler has been isolated from external steam and water resources;
2.2 Open all inspection doors of flue ducts to ensure safety maintenance in boiler;
2.3 FDW into boiler and boost pressure to check whether boiler leaks; after leakage test, held
pressure to drain water. Each header should take draining individually to ensure all
draining pipes not jammed; when all pipes draining finished, clean those jammed pipes
(back flush with compressed air or exchange pipes);
Once pressure leakage checked out, before next running, they must be repaired and the
leakage causes should be analyzed. the analysis should include the following items at
least:
2.3.1 Boiler operation including abnormity and deviation of operating points;
2.3.2Chemical treatment including abnormity and deviation of operating points;
2.3.3 GT operation including abnormity and deviation of operating points;
2.3.4 Auxiliaries operation including abnormity and deviation of operating points;

2.3.5 Shutdown maintenance


2.3.6 Prior pipes maintenance adjacent to leakage points;
2.4 All blowdown pipes draining checked and the boiler can take draining;
2.5 Check boiler inner pipes whether they have dust stratification, corrosion or fins or pipes
damaged. In flue ducts, check whether there are damaged or broken off inner lining,
cards, traverse baffles or heat preservation and so on. Check whether the bottom, top
and side flue gas dampers loosened or broke off;
2.6 In drums, check whether all inner parts have surface corrosion, scaling or mechanical
damaged; ensure the integer of steam separating devices and check the closure gaskets
at the ends of FDW pipes, blowdown pipes and dosing header pipes;
2.7 The safety valves must be maintained and checked as relative regulations once two
years. After checks and maintenance, take trial trip under certain pressure to ensure the
normal acting;
2.8 All instruments, transmitters, thermocouple and other equipments should be tested and
calibrated. Check whether the impulse pipes jammed and valves leak;
2.9 Check valves and actuators; check whether valves operation flexible; check stroke limit
switches, interlocks and gland; check I/P positioners, calibrate zero point and scope,
clean and erect the regulating devices of air filters;
2.10 Check electric contact and other electric resistance level meters; take out polar for
leaning and replace gaskets; remove the level meters glass to clean the inner surface
and replace the gaskets; check whether all pipes expedite and whether valves leak;
2.11 eck whether control panels and junction boxes have mechanical damage, whether leads
overheated and whether the places where bolts fix leads have loose and corrosion;
moreover, some special operations should be operated as maintenance instruction book
provided by fitting manufacturers;
2.12 Check whether manual valves flexible and leak; according to power plant decisions:
(a)Break off the blowdown valves and other valves, which are used to control flow, to
check whether the valves seats eroded;
(b)Break off steam check valves to check whether the valves cores eroded and act freely;

2.13 Check boiler all outside surface, pipes, electric and pneumatic lines and operation
panels;
2.14 Repair and maintain as relative check and maintenance instruction measures regulated
or commended by suppliers;
2.15 Replace inspection doors seal gaskets and close the inspection doors;
2.16 After boiler final check finished, keep boiler on spare state;

3. 3. Process
3.1 Usage of casing and inspection doors and gaskets seal;
3.1.1 Remove the doors to ensure they are safe;
3.1.2 Clean both sides of old inspection doors gaskets with wire brushed;
3.1.3 Fix treated plate on boiler casing with RTV or other materials;
3.1.4 The gaskets thickness is 3mm at least and width 50mm at least. The gaskets should be
stuck on the surface flat without folding but the materials which contain Teflon and semi
liquid layer can not be used;
3.1.5 Flat doors and fix bolts manually; tighten bolts till gaskets sealed completely (wrench
torque is 55-80N-M); no pneumatic wrench used on bolts whose diameter over 12.5mm;
3.2 Feed grease
If the anhydrous dissolved grease should be fed into drums supports for lubricating by
nozzle tip once 3 or 4 months; the boiler columns sliding panels can be fed by the same
method;
3.3 Usage of drums manholes and gaskets seal
There are two elliptical manholes covers sizes: 300400and 50450;
3.3.1

Open manholes and clean the covers and the gaskets on covers thoroughly; check

whether there is any steel pit or flute on all manholes covers and the gaskets seal
surfaces; if the pit diameter on manhole gaskets surfaces over 4.75mm or nick deepness
over 0.25mm, it should be repaired with welding or polishing instructed by ASME NB
engineers. If manholes covers damaged, replace them with new ones. The surfaces of
wound gaskets should be processed to 125RMS;

Check whether new manholes covers have bugs; the steel pit or the flute over 0.25mm
deep are founded on new ones;
3.3.2 While erecting manholes, the gaskets which meet table 3.1 and
3.4 requirements should be mounted; according to Chapter I requirements in ASME Criterion,
the bearing surface width of gaskets on manholes should be 17.5mm at least and the
thickness can not be over 6.35mm;
If the manholes covers are not articulated, the covers must be put into drums before
gaskets mounted and then connect manholes covers, gaskets and isolation links with
bolts, finally screw down the bolts. Before installation, the plate can not be bent, twisted
or deformed, otherwise the gaskets will be damaged and hardly to keep structure integer;
take gaskets alignment and lift covers to proper height to regulate gaskets position.
When covers and gaskets are in center, screw down the four diagonal bolts once a circle
till all bolts at 55N-M;
Notice: when nuts over 12.7mm, the heavy impulse driving wrench can not be used;
when screwing down nuts, it should be once a nut and once a circle as diagonal nuts till
the nuts screwed down; it is forbidden to screw the two adjacent nuts one after the other;
3.5 Now, we can boost boiler pressure. If gaskets leak, screw down nuts one by one once a
circle (as above process) till leaks stopped. With boiler heating, the inner pressure will
work on manholes covers and compress gaskets. If they are mounted correctly, the seal
established, but due to heat/boosting, the nuts should be screwed down more tightly. If
there is still leakage when the torque at 170N-M, repeat above process and mark the
leakage points. However, the slow water leakage is permitted in cold boiler. When unit at
preselected pressure, screw nuts at 170N-M;
Notice: When unit under pressure condition, the nuts can be screwed down beginning
from side if there are some protective measures;

Table 3.1 300mm400mm gaskets


Pressur
e

Manholes Type

Hardware

Gaskets Type

Mechanical
processing flat

Bolts boars,
nuts and
articulation
with bolts

FLEXITALLIC or coordinate, MC
type 13/16 (width) x.0250/.0175
(thickness) wound gaskets with
GRAFOIL whose materials are
304SS

Mechanical
processing flat

Wrought
manholes
covers, nuts,
bolts and
articulations

Graphite gaskets with stainless


steel wires are not allowed any
corrosion and at one site,
sensitive pressure elements
mounted 1 (width) x1/8
(thickness)

HLENAPE

Wrought
manholes
covers, nuts,
bolts and
articulations

Graphite gaskets with stainless


steel wires are not allowed any
corrosion and at one site,
sensitive pressure elements
mounted 1 (width) x1/8
(thickness)

NLENAPE

Wrought
manholes
covers, nuts,
bolts and
articulations

THERMALSURETACKYCLOTH#62501
(width) x 3/16 (nominal
thickness)

barg

>80

70-80

7-70

<7

Table 3.2 350mm450mm gaskets


Pressur
e

Manholes
Type

Hardware

Gaskets Type

Bolts boars,
nuts and
articulation
with bolts

FLEXITALLIC or coordinate, MC
type 13/16 (width) x.0250/.0175
(thickness) wound gaskets with
GRAFOIL whose materials are

barg
>80

Mechanical
processing flat

304SS

20-80

7-20

Mechanical
processing flat

Wrought
manholes
covers, nuts,
bolts and
articulations

Graphite gaskets with stainless


steel wires are not allowed any
corrosion and at one site,
sensitive pressure elements
mounted 1 (width) x1/8
(thickness)

Mechanical
processing
SLENAPE

Wrought
manholes
covers, nuts,
bolts and
articulations

Graphite gaskets with stainless


steel wires are not allowed any
corrosion and at one site,
sensitive pressure elements
mounted 1 (width) x1/8
(thickness)

Mechanical
processing
SLENAPE

Wrought
manholes
covers, nuts,
bolts and
articulations

THERMALSURETACKYCLOTH#62501
(width) x 3/16 (nominal
thickness)

<7

3.6 Flange gaskets of pipes


The gaskets on any pressure stage should be FlexitallicstyleCG type (or equal to) spiral
wound gaskets whose material is 304SS compressed fibres or coordinate;
3.7 The seal of survey points and sampling on casing
The bolt interfaces (thermocouple plugs on flange, thermometers on flange, gland
supplementary, observe holes, flue gas sampling pipes and so on) on casing should be
sealed with a flat board and also a gasket which can bear design temperature;
The gaskets should be placed on flat board flatly without any superposition or materials
replicating;
3.8Seal packing
All pipes connecting which is through casing should be sealed with gland to ensure the
seal connection;
3.8.1 Gland materials are woven ceramic fibre and the design temp. of
temp. at gland mounting place, 600 at least;

gland is the flue gas

3.8.2 All seal connecting should be sealed with gland over 3 circles at least, normally 4
circles, but there is no upper limit;
3.8.3 Others
The packing in glass level meters should be carried out according to fitting manufacturers
instruction book;
Notice: The gaskets and glands which contain asbestos can not be used.

Chapter 14 HRSG maintenance process

1. General Introduction
In this chapter, we will talk about the general maintenance process of HRSG and the
maintenance instructions of all equipments but no detailed equipments operations;
During equipments maintenance, the maintained equipments should be recorded to
confirm the overhaul or forecast potential faults and damage, which can make fittings and
parts management easier and more foresighted, so the record forms should be prepared
for each equipment;

2. Safety rules
When any equipments or auxiliaries of HRSG need maintenance, check forcibly whether
there is residual pressure inside, as well as upper and down stream of equipments to
ensure equipments on cold state and isolated from upstream or downstream equipments.
In order to avoid human injured, the rules should be carried out forcibly;

3 Maintenance
For safe and reliable operation, the equipments should be at their best, so the equipments
need periodical checks and maintenance. The present maintenance process includes the
following items:
3.1 Shift checks
The maintenance engineers should take visual determination on the whole boiler and
auxiliaries to check whether the equipments running normally and then decide whether
they need maintenance or repair;
Survey points: whether there is water/steam and flue gas leaking and whether pumps and
motors noise normal;
3.2 Monthly maintenance
According to general maintenance plans, some equipments need monthly maintenance,
including resetting lub oil, oil feeding and surveying devices, as well as the checks and data
records; all equipments checks are more detailed than shift checks;
3.3 Periodical maintenance
Some parts need checks and/or maintenance every 6 month, every year or others. Details
on maintenance plans;

3.4 Annual major inspection


Generally, annual checks, maintenance and unit shutdown are taken while MSC unit
stopped, which include boiler inner, pressure parts inner and flue gas ducts inner checks;
3.5 Statutory checks
According to national regulations, some checks and tests need official personnel in site
which must be taken with annual major inspection or overhaul;
3.6 Overhaul
HRSG is suggested to take an overhaul every 3 years. As required, take removing or
replacing to check parts running conditions;

3.7 Detail introduction of maintenance and clean


It is very important to divide daily maintenance and overhaul. The overhaul will be taken
after 16000 working hours or 3 years at least. At this time, HRSG must be on cold state
and drained for complete equipments maintenance;
Pay attention to a very important question in HRSG maintenance: water quality. Details
about water quality on special instruction;
Notice: this part just refers to out company equipments whereas other companies equipments
refer to their maintenance manuals;

4. Preventative maintenance of heat exchangers and pipes


4.1 Take the following operations while HRSG on cold state and not drained:
4.1.1 Before into inlet flue duct, enough time should be provided for casing cooling down;
Open manholes to increase casing ventilation performance;
4.1.2 When some one into boiler first time, another one should wait outside in order to
send out alarm when some problems taken place;
4.1.3 Ensure GT wont be started;
4.1.4 In order to restart boiler, before close inspection doors, confirm no staying in
boiler;
In order to check whether pipes leak, feed water into HRSG completely (including
superheaters). The heat exchangers should held pressure for 2h at least and then boost

pressure with FDW pumps. Pay attention that the pressure can not be over running
pressure and then personnel can go into boiler to check whether pipes leak;
4.2 Operations while boiler on cold state and unloading
Into each layer casing, check whether there is corrosion caused by condensed acid in flue
gas. The phenomena are at coldest part of boiler, exactly in front of chimney;
Check fin pipes damage;

5. Preventative maintenance of drums


The operation should be operated on cold and unloading state;
Notice: when boiler checks required, open all drums manholes and release drums
air (at both sides) carefully for 2 days before checks. When inspectors are in drums,
some personnel should accompany outside for sending alarm if some problems
happen. Pay attention nitrogen is harmful to environment and it is fatal if human into
fulfilled nitrogen drums;
5.1 Enter into drums to check their inner. The drums inner should be (black) covered by
ferroferric oxide; once they are red which means that the water quality not qualified;
5.2 Enter into drums to check whether there are cracks around pipes connecting (suggest
checking after 10 years);
5.3 Check whether demisters still erected firmly (spot welding);
5.4 Check whether demisters clean; if there is dust, remove them for cleaning (water wash or
brush clean) and then erect them back on drums;
5.5 Before close inspection doors for restarting boiler, ensure there is no one and external
equipments in drums;
While closing inspection doors, use new gaskets;

6. Preventative maintenance of intermittent and continuous


blowdown
The operation should be operated on cold and unloading state;
Attention: if blowdown flash tanks request for checks, their manholes must be open
to release air for a few days before inspectors into tanks. While inspectors are into

tanks, some personnel should accompany outside for sending alarm if some
problems happen.
6.1 Enter into blowdown flash tanks to check inner surface;
6.2 Enter into blowdown flash tanks to check whether there are cracks around pipes
connecting (suggest checking after 10 years);
6.3 Before close inspection doors for restarting boiler, ensure there is no one external
equipments in tanks;
While closing inspection doors, use new gaskets;

7. Preventative maintenance of safety valves, valves, ball valves,


check valves and regulating valves
7.1 Routine maintenance
7.1.1 Check leakage
7.1.2 During HRSG running, listen to safety valves leakage sound;
7.1.3 Check whether the valves package dry;
7.1.4 Lubricate valves rods periodically
7.1.5 Check oil level and lubricate actuators
7.1.6 All valves should be opened and closed fully very often (once a year at least); if they are
electric valves, check limit switches and torque switches;
7.2 Overhaul maintenance
The regulating valves, working valves under flash evaporating conditions and HP
differential valves (over 30bar) must be taken off to check. If the valves seats flushed, they
should be replaced; if the valves clacks flushed but the seal still complete and good, take
check in next maintenance;

8. Preventative maintenance of instruments and meters


8.1. Routine maintenance
Except visual determination, the instruments themselves need no special maintenance
(except regulations by equipments manufacturers). Pay more attention to that whether the

equipments vibrate;
Any problems about instruments (i.e.: indications between local instruments and
transmitters differ), operate as the following sequence:
8.1.1 Check intelligent transmitters parameters
8.1.2 Check the auxiliaries of transmitters: pressure leads, isolating valves and so on. Zero
position fault is often caused by incorrect erection, different height balancers, dirty
valves or dirty parts of survey elements;
8.1.3 Check transmitters. If necessary, regulate zero and adjustment scope (details on
manufacturers manuals). After zero regulated (based on transmitters erection), we
advise recording the transmitters zero value (close inlet and outlet valves, open balance
valves and at the same time feed water into balance pipes to condensing tanks height);
Above data will be used in future instruments recalibration, which is independent of
transmitters, just depend on water level in balance pipes;
8.2 Overhaul
8.2.1 Through opening drain valves, flush pressure pipes between equipments and
transmitters on cold and micropressure state (avoid steam and survey elements
contacting, otherwise the survey elements will be damaged)
8.2.2 In order to check fringe damage, the orifice boards must be removed. If the damage
over 0.4% of the diameter, they must be replaced; if they are in good, they can not be
removed in next maintenance;
8.2.3 Open drain valves to flush level meters. The drain valves must be closed at once after
opened. If open clod state level meters when HRSG on hot state, the glass of level
meters will be damaged by overstress;
8.3 Refeed water into pressure pipes
In order to refeed water into pressure pipes, take operations as following sequence:
8.3.1

Check whether inlet isolating valves of transmitters closed;

8.3.2

Flush pressure pipes between equipments and header pipes;

8.3.3

Open balance valves on header pipes;

8.3.4

Open header pipes isolating valves;

8.3.5

Open positive pressure side inlet valves slowly to make water through balance valves

enter into survey devices at positive and negative pressure side;


8.3.6

Open air relief valves of transmitters to exhaust air;

8.3.7

Close transmitters air relief and blowdown valves;

8.3.8

Close balance valves and negative side inlet valves;


Notice: Of transmitters which connected to steam pipes, the steam is not allowed to
touch the survey devices. The condensing water columns should be held always,
otherwise they should be provided through small manual pumps;

9. Preventative maintenance of casing and flue ducts


9.1 Overhaul
9.1.1 Operate while HRSG on cold state and not drained
Before enter into casing or flue ducts, there should be enough time provided to cool
down metals. Through opening all manholes, the cooling speed will be increased. While
inspectors are into boiler, some personnel should accompany outside for sending alarm
if some problems happen. Ensure GT can not be started at this moment and before
close inspection doors for restarting boiler, ensure there is no one in boiler;
9.1.2 Operate while HRSG on cold and unloading state
9.1.2.1 Check whether chimney fixed and whether there are fixed screws loosened;
9.1.2.2 Check whether the vibration-proof diaphragm fixed;
9.1.2.3 Check whether suspenders on each layer pipes and heat exchangers loosened
according to striking sounds with hammers; it is very important to upper heat
exchangers and if necessary, readjustment can be done;
9.1.2.4 Check whether the casing eroded; survey the casing thickness in inlet and
outlet flue ducts with ultrasonic instrument at the same point. The corrosive ratio is
calculated through comparing several years casing thickness;
9.1.2.5 Remove the heat preservation of outlet flue ducts and then check whether there are
cracks at casing welding lines. This special method will be done once 10 years;

9.1.2.6 When close manholes, use new gaskets and before close inspection doors for
restarting boiler, ensure there is no one and external equipments in boiler;

10. Preventative maintenance of frames and supports


10.1 Daily maintenance
During HRSG normal running, periodically check the pipes suspenders between hot and
cold state position; if not, reset the suspenders on cold state (20 in drums);
Check suspenders manually (with hammer);
10.2 Overhaul
Clean sliding supporting blocks and suspenders with compressed air;
Check whether the screws on steel structure loosened;
Check whether the pipes and suspenders on each layer loosened according to strike
sound with hammer; it is very important to upper heat exchangers and if necessary,
readjustment can be done;

11. Water treatment checks


The following parameters and frequency should be recorded:

Parameter

FDW

Boiler water

Appearance

1/shift

1/shift

PH

Periodical

1/shift

Rigidity

1/shift

1/shift

Oxygen

Periodical

1/shift

reducing agent

1/shift

Chloride

1/shift

1/shift

Phosphate or chemical
additives

1/shift

Silicon

Periodical

Periodical

Total salt content

Periodical

Periodical

Oil and lubricating agents

Periodical

Periodical

Organic matters

Periodical

Periodical

12. Schedule of HRSG maintenance and checks


Contents

Time
Shift Day Week Month

General running data


Look back boiler and
auxiliaries
running
records
Heat exchangers

Half a
Year
year

#
#
#

Take hydraulic set with


running pressure

Visual determination: fin


pipes,
tube
plates,
vibration-proof
diaphragm and so on

Creep supervision

Hydraulic set with test


pressure
NDE
endoscope

detection,
checks

Others Remarks

3 years
3 years

records
Superheaters
metallurgy detection

3 years

Pipes walls survey

3 years

drums

Inner checks and clean

NDE detection
Water chemical character
Continuous supervision
of main parameters

3 years
#

Chemical analysis

Record FDW loss

HP FDW 1
Vibration record

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

Vibration record

5000h
#

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

Vibration record
Lubricate bearing

Lubricate bearing

HP FDW 3

Lubricate bearing

HP FDW 2

5000h
#
#

#
#
#

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

5000h

LP FDW1

Vibration record

Lubricate bearing

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

5000h

LP FDW2

Vibration record

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

5000h

LP FDW3

Vibration record

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

5000h
of

Vibration record

Check electric heaters

Check bearings
pump

Lubricate bearing

Recirculation
PREH 2

Lubricate bearing

pump

Lubricate bearing

Recirculation
PREH 1

5000h
of

Vibration record

Lubricate bearing

#
#

Check electric heaters

Check bearings

5000h

Open/close valves

Check leakage: lining,


flange,
gaskets,
tightness

Reseal packing boxes

Lubricate valves handle

Running
stroke

valves,

full

Check tightness

Regulating valves
Check leakage: lining,
flange,
gaskets,
tightness

Reseal packing boxes

Lubricate valves handle

Full
stroke
running
valves, check position
correct

Check regulating valves


carefully, then take
disassemble

Actuator

Lubricating

Check position switches


and torque switches

running
Check fire-resistance

Full
stroke
actuator

running

Re-lubricate
(open/close valves)

6-8
years

Re-lubricate
(open/close valves)

2-3
years

Continuous
valves

blowdown

Check whether there is


leakage: lining, flange,
gaskets and tightness

Open valves
while pressure

shortly

Lubricate valve handle


Full
stroke
valves

running

Seal packing box


Safety valve

#
#

Check whether there is


leakage: lining, flange,
gaskets and tightness

Check valve
(sound)

leakage

Check whether draining


water clean

Trip test while reduce


setting pressure

2 years

Dissemble valve and


take a complete check

3 years

Filters

Clean all filter sieve


Intermittent
continuous
flash tanks

and
blowdown

Check inside whether


there is corrosion

#
#

Pipes suspending bracket

Check the bracket load


Flue duct and casing

3 years
#

Check sliding supports,


flue duct and box girder

Check fix points

Check whether there is


crack (NDE)

Chimney

Check bolts

Check welding lines

Climate dampers

Check whether there is


limit switches running
correct

Full
stroke
dampers

running

Check lub oil bearing


and linkage

Check packing box

Muffles
Visual determination

#
#

Heat preservation

Visual determination

Transmitters

Check survey accuracy

Drain pressure pipes


and refeed water

Recalibrate

Steel structure

Visual determination

Bolts connection: lack


in,
damaged
and
unfixed bolts

Bolts
connection:
sliding phenomena

attachment strap:
sliding phenomena

no

Painting: no overstress
phenomena

Box girder: no crack

Main welding: no crack

Box
girder:
support good

Appearance:
bending

inner
no