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INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

(PAS 32 AND 39)


Definition
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one
entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Common Examples of Financial Instruments


Cash
Demand and time deposits
Commercial paper, such as money market instruments and treasury bill.
Accounts, notes and loans receivable and payable
Debt and equity securities (including investment in subsidiary, associate
and joint venture)
6. Asset backed securities such as collateralized mortgage obligations,
repurchase agreements and securitized packages of receivables.
7. Derivatives, including options, rights, warrants, futures contracts, forward
contracts and swaps
8. Finance leases
9. Rights and obligations with insurance risk under insurance contracts
10. Employers rights and obligations under pension contracts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Financial Assets
A financial asset is any asset that is
a. Cash
b. A contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset from another
entity.
c. A contractual right to exchange financial instrument with another entity
under conditions that are potentially favorable. An example is an option
held by the holder to purchase shares in a specified company at less than
market price.
d. An equity instrument of another entity.
The following physical assets are not financial assets because it does not give
rise to a present right to receive cash or another financial asset:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Prepaid Expenses
Inventory
Property, Plant and Equipment
Intangible Assets

Classification of Financial Assets


For purposes of measuring financial assets subsequent to initial recognition,
financial assets under PAS 39 are classified as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Trading securities
Available for sale securities
Held to maturity securities
Loans and receivables
Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments
that are not quoted in an active market.

Financial Liabilities
A financial liability is any liability that is a contractual obligation:
a. To deliver cash or other financial asset to another entity
Trade accounts payable
Notes payable
Loans payable
Bonds payable
b. To exchange financial instruments with another entity under conditions
that are potentially unfavorable
The following are not financial liabilities because the outflow of economic
benefits associated with them is the delivery of goods and services rather than a
contractual obligation to pay cash or another financial asset.
a. Deferred revenue
b. Warranty obligations

May 2009