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Prediction Of Geothermal Manifestations Area

Using ASTER Imagery In Northern Sukabumi, West

Java, Indonesia
Fidelis Awig Atmoko1a, Miqdad Anwarie1b

Department of Geography, University of Indonesia, Depok.

Email:, bEmail:,

Abstract- Indication of the existence of geothermal

potential in a region often indicated by the emergence of
geothermal manifestations. It can be clearly observed on
the surface of the earth, like heat, solfatara, fumaroles,
soil containing hot steam, silica sinter and hydrothermal
alterations. This study aims to predict the geothermal
manifestation area is made based on the environmental
conditions of vegetation density and temperature
Research area conducted in
Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. To predict the area,
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection
Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery used to obtain data
of surface temperature and Normalized
Vegetation Index (NDVI). ASTER imagery is used
because it has a high spatial resolution of thermal band (90
meters) with accuracy on the brightness temperature is 12oC. The method used in this study is weighted overlay
analysis of both variable temperature and NDVI. The
final results obtained value of the surface temperature is
22 - 29.5oC and the value of NDVI is (-0.1) - 0.3 shows the
geothermal manifestation area previously identified based
on land cover to distinguish artificial surface and natural
surface. In determining the area of manifestation also
interpreted based on geological and geomorphological
Keywords geothermal manifestation, ASTER, Sukabumi

geothermal energy, with manifestations such as

fumaroles detecting, solfatara, warm ground, and craters
with associations to the Land Surface Temperature
(LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and
Reflection Radiometer) sensor is located on NASA's
Terra satellite cooperation and METI. ASTER utilizing
wavelength Visible-Near Infra Red, Short Wave Infra
Red and Thermal Infra Red[4]. This study used longwave thermal infrared (TIR-Band), Infra Red, and Red
Sukabumi is an area in West Java. In this area,
especially in the north, has many manifestations in the
form of craters and geothermal hot springs. Craters are
well known in this area, namely Kawah Ratu, and
Chevron Geothermal area. Craters that have a surface
temperature hot enough around 90-100oC which may
indicate that geothermal sources in this study, we
investigated the characteristics of the appearance of
craters on the satellite image so that when it obtained the
link between spatial conditions craters on the satellite
image, which models could be used to find a new
manifestation in an innovative and cost effective way.

Energy supply in the future is an issue that is always a
concern of all nations, because after the welfare of
human beings in modern life is strongly associated with
the amount and quality of energy used. Indonesia's
energy needs largely met from oil and coal, which at
times can be discharged[1].
Geothermal is a renewable energy source that is widely
explored at this time, because it has more advantages
than other energy sources, such as releasing fewer
pollutants (such as CO2, SO2, and NO2[2]) compared to
other energy sources, making it environmentally
friendly energy. The potential of geothermal energy is
available in Indonesia reaches 40% of the potential of
the World, because it lies in the 'ring of fire zone' of
approximately 27,000 MW of new and used 1189
MW[3]. Thus it is necessary to be known geothermal
exploration potential geothermal wherever located.
Satellite imagery can be used in the prediction of

A. Study Area
The research was conducted in the area surrounding
the crater Kawah Ratu and Chevron Geothermal areas
that have a known geothermal manifestations, the
regional administration Sukabumi, focused on the
northern part which has boundary coordinates from
106o3745.596 106o4351.027 E and 6o4141.654
6o4758.429 S that shown in figure 1.

radians and processed into the general surface

temperature using the formula:

(1+2 2 )


Where T is temperature (oC), h is Planck constant, f is

wavelength frequency, c is light speed, is wavelength,
and d/d is blackbody radiation.
Figure 1. Study Area

B. Geothermal Manifestations
Surface manifestations are natural markings that
appear on the surface of the ground as early indications
of geothermal activity on the surface of the earth.
Surface manifestations which include hot spring, ground
warm, and fumaroles.
Geothermal manifestations are generally produces
heat, which can affect the surrounding region. The heat
that rises to the surface, causing the surface temperature
to rise (Land Surface Temperature). If there is a
vegetated area, the large vegetation can not survive,
because the heat affected under, so the index of
Vegetation Index) is small. The presence of heat and
vegetation cover can be detected using satellite imagery.
C. Wavelengths in Remote Sensing
Wavelengths in remote sensing (RS) can be classified
into 3 (three) types according to wavelength regions [5],
a. visible and infrared waves remote sensing;
b. thermal infrared remote sensing;
c. microwave remote sensing.
The wavelength of visible and infrared uses energy
from the sun. Because the sun can radiate
electromagnetic energy with a peak wavelength = 0.5
m, whereas the data obtained in the visible and
infrared waves RS area are highly dependent on the
reflectance of an object on earth. Therefore, the
information about the object can be obtained from
spectral reflectance. The wavelength of infrared heat
energy emitted from the source using the object of
observation itself. Because each object with a normal
temperature will emit radiation of electromagnetic
waves with a peak wavelength of about 10 m. There
are two kinds of micro wavelength: active micro wave
length and passive micro wavelength. The length of
passive microwave uses microwave radiation from the
sun and the active microwave detect the backscattering
coefficient of the object being observed.
We use thermal infrared to determine land surface
temperature, and Infrared wavelength to determine
Normalized Difference vegetation Index.

Land Surface Temperature

Land surface temperature is done by using a band
Thermal Infrared (TIR) image has been corrected with
the initial process is converted from digital values to

E. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Vegetation greenness index done for analyze the
amount of stress on vegetation. This process is done as
seen from the facts on the ground, the vegetation around
the crater generally have low levels of greenery caused
by the influence of gases that are emitted by the crater,
such as H2S. In the satellite image processing, this can
be seen by using a band ratio of infrared band and red
band (band 3 and 2 on the ASTER imagery) using the


Where NDVI is Vegetation Greeness Index, IR is

ASTER Infrared band, and Red is ASTER Red band
This research use spatial approach that associate one
object from another ones which have some unique
characteristics for identification the object. Remote
sensing data are used to provide sets of material, that are
LST, NDVI, structure, and estimated alteration zone.
Besides, lithology data provided from National
Geological Agency. Whole methodology shown in fig.
ASTER Imagery
Land cover



Possible Manifestation


Manifestation Location

Figure 2. Methodology for predict geothermal manifestation location


The following spatial criteria therefore form a conceptual
model of regional-scale geothermal prospectivity in the study
area [6]:
a) Proximity to (within 10 km of) Quaternary volcanic
b) Presence of or proximity to (within 3 km of)
Quaternary volcanic rocks;
c) Proximity to (within 5 km of) mapped faults with
NW-WNW and NE trends;
d) Proximity to (within 6 km of) hot springs.
From that model, some analysis is built to support this
research methodology. Processing result of ASTER
imagery shown by fig. 3, 4, and 5. That is land surface
temperature which have minimum value of 20 oC and
maximum value of 38oC. NDVI from fig. 4 show that the
minimum value is -0.01 and maximum value is 0.7.
Hydrothermal alteration zone from composite band 2/1
(R), 4/9 (G), and 3/2 (B) based on previous research of
Mohamad Boloki (2009) is shown by dark orange color in
fig. 5. Based on geological map in fig. 6, study area is a
volcanic region, such Endut Volcanic and Endut-Prabakti

Figure 5. Hydrothermal Alteration Zone, composite band [RGB] 2/1,

4/9, 3/2

Figure 6. Geological Map

Figure 3. Land Surface Temperature

Figure 7. Geothermal Manifestation Possibility (Red) with background

Digital Elevation Model

Figure 4. NDVI

Based on the application of the method, vegetation

index values on Fig. 4 (-0.1) - 0.3 indicates the
possibility of geothermal manifestations object that
shown in fig. 7. By knowing the location of possible
manifestations, surface temperature anomalies shows
less significance to the surrounding environment at

some point but overall predictive temperature range

showing the location of manifestation is 25-38 oC. It is
based also from hydrothermal alteration zones (Fig. 5)
are allegedly based composite band (2/1, 4/9, 3/2) [7]
and geology in the form of volcanic rock (Fig. 6). The
results indicate that the field observation for
identification of prediction points and result verification
from high resolution imagery like IKONOS in fig. 9
obtained the correct location of geothermal
manifestations, in the form of craters, with an accuracy
rate of 8 alleged right point was 7 so that the overall
method has an accuracy of 87,5%.

Figure 9. Craters distribution based on ground check and high

resolution imagery verification

Based on the physical characteristics derived from the
landcover maps, geological maps, and satellite imagery
processing results, such as land surface temperature,
NDVI, and alteration zone obtained hotspots as
geothermal manifestations in Northern Sukabumi.
However, the modeling of geothermal manifestation
using remote sensing data is another challenging task.
Further study should be carried out to improve the
accuracy of the model considering geophysical data of
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