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Hydrocarbons and Its Identification Tests for Classification

ADMC, PMMC, LAC, AKC, RMC, LJMD
2A-Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas

Abstract
Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds containing only elements carbon and hydrogen. These
organic compounds can be classified into as to whether they are cyclic or not, saturated or unsaturated,
and if they are aliphatic or aromatic. In this experiment, the objective is to identify the compounds’
intrinsic physical properties and chemical properties based on the structure and behaviour, moreover, to
differentiate the hydrocarbons with the use of these properties, and to analyse as to whether a
hydrocarbon is saturated, actively unsaturated, aromatic or arene. To determine its saturation, solubility
test in concentrated sulphuric acid was used and it showed that single-bonded compounds are saturated
and unsaturated are the one with double or triple bonds. For, active unsaturation where only cyclohexene
was positive Baeyer’s Test and Bromine Test was used. For the nitration, it was a test for aromaticity and
only benzene and toluene were aromatic. While for oxidation, it was at test for arene and only toluene was
positive.
I.

Introduction
Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic
compounds containing only elements carbon and
hydrogen. These organic compounds can be
classified into as to whether they are cyclic or
not, saturated or unsaturated, and if they are
aliphatic or aromatic. Certain properties of these
compounds each inherent only to a specific
compound help and determine its classification
of the compound. It is important to classify these
hydrocarbons for they can be of great
importance to human being. With these
classifications, it is important to uses and
purposes to society especially in the field of
pharmacy and medicine. We can never ignore
the importance of these hydrocarbons for they
are part of natural processes present on earth.
Examples of these hydrocarbons are natural
gases, petroleum, paints and textile which are of
importance to human beings.
In this experiment, the objective is to
identify the compounds’ intrinsic physical
properties and chemical properties based on the
structure and behaviour and moreover, to
differentiate the hydrocarbons with the use of
these properties. Also, on a more important note,
to analyse as to whether a hydrocarbon is
saturated, actively unsaturated, aromatic or
arene.

II.

Materials and Method
Hydrocarbons used in this to be
analysed in this experiment are hexane, heptane,
cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, and toluene
which will undergo certain tests for
classification.
The first step was the identification of
its physical state, color, and odor. This was done
simultaneously after the collection of sample
reagents and must be observed only at room
temperature. For this step, the physical state was
described as well as the appearance in terms of
its colour and if there are cases of turbidness.
The odor was described after investigating using
the wafting motion.
As to its solubility in concentrated
sulphuric acid, its solubility was determined
with the addition of the sample to an mL of
concentrated sulphuric acid. Also, any change in
colour and/or warming effect was noted.
For the ignition test, 3-5 drops of the
liquid sample was placed in an evaporating dish
and was lighted using a match. The flammability
of the sample was determined. In this test, the
colour of the flame as well as if there was a soot
formed.
To determine its saturation, the Baeyer’s
Test and Bromine Test was used. Baeyer’s Test
was done by placing five drops of the sample
into a dry test tube. Two drops of 2% Potassium

The formation of brown suspension was also observed. polar compounds like water. Appearance and Odor observed. A blue-green solution with possibly brown precipitate was observed for some sample compounds. seven drops of distilled water. For example. In the test for aromaticity. colourless Gasoline-like Table No.5% Br2 in CCl4 reagent in a previously prepared five-drop sample in a dry test tube. Therefore. it follows the like dissolves like rule. In the experiment. 2mL of concentrated sulphuric acid was gradually added. Bromine test was done by adding 10 drops of 0. Likewise. heptane. Miscibility is the ability to form a homogenous solution in mixing proportion. was placed in an Erlenmeyer flask. hexane. colourless Odorless Cyclohexane Liquid Clear. The mixture was then cooled to room temperature. While immersed in an evaporating dish with water. nonpolar compounds will only dissolve nonpolar compounds. 8 drops of the nitrating mixture was added and the test tube was shaken to ensure complete mixing. The sample compound will be categorized as actively unsaturated. A canary yellow layer must be observed for sample compounds that are aromatic.5% Br2 in CCl4 reagent with water was used as the negative control. In the experiment. colourless Gasoline-like Heptane Liquid Clear. nitration will be used. The test tube was shaken vigorously and the rate and extent at which the reagent was decolorized was observed. colourless Plastic balloon-like Toluene Liquid Clear. In the nitration test. Decolourization will only be immediate if and only if the decolourization happened within one minute. Physical State. water and ethanol will form a miscible solution due to hydrogen bonding of both compound and . four drops of the sample was added with one drop of 2% Potassium permanganate solution. The mixture was diluted with 20 drops of water. Results and Discussion Sample Compound Physical State Appearance Odor Hexane Liquid Clear. and cyclohexane showed miscibility and solubility. the test tube was vigorously shaken and the rate and extent of the decolourization of the reagent or the bromine colour was discharged was observed. Basic oxidation is a test for the classification of arenes. In a dry test tube. In a test tube. colourless Acetone-like Cyclohexene Liquid Clear. colourless Gasoline-like Benzene Liquid Clear. Reaction of 0. Hydrocarbons tend to be more nonpolar and therefore will only be dissolved in nonpolar compounds. a nitrating mixture was prepared. There was a need for water bath for 10 minutes for mixtures with no immediate reaction observed. The test tubes were placed in water bath for two minutes. For solubility. miscibility was also determined. and three drops 10% Sodium hydroxide solution. The reaction was exposed to sunlight if the decolourization was not observed within one minute. Homogenous solutions mean that compounds are soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid. 5 drops of the sample was placed in a dry test tube. alcohol. and carboxylic acids will only dissolve polar compounds. 1.permanganate solution was added. Just like the Baeyer’s test. 2mL of concentrated nitric acid III. The results of the reaction of water with 2% Potassium permanganate solution was used as the negative control. These properties depend on the intermolecular forces of attraction.

colorless) Saturated Cyclohexene Miscible (turbid. colorless to yellow) Unsaturated Table No. colorless) Saturated Heptane Soluble (clear. Conversely. warming effect Decolorized with sunlight. and cyclohexane just like the Sample Compound Hexane Heptane Cyclohexane Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene Ignition Test Orange flame.will undergo strong intermolecular attraction. 2. Also in the reaction of an alkane with oxygen. Sample Compound Solubility in concentrated H2SO4 Inference Hexane Soluble (clear. heptane. Inference Flammable Flammable Flammable Flammable Flammable Flammable elemental carbon. Bromine Test Decolorized with sunlight. Alkane are therefore considered as saturated hydrocarbons. no soot Orange flame. the hydrocarbons will give off carbon monoxide and Sample Compound Hexane Baeyer’s Test none Heptane none Cyclohexane none Cyclohexene Immediate decolourization none Benzene results presented in Table No. Results for Ignition Test For the ignition test. cyclohexene. Results for Solubility Test in Concentrated in H2SO4 An organic compound is said to be saturated when it only contains single covalent bonds. Also. is that it has oxygen present. yellowish) Unsaturated Toluene immiscible (clear. Examples of saturated hydrocarbons are hexane. 3. with soot. aside from the reason that is a reactive multiple carbon bonds. they to not burn efficiently. warming effect No decolourization colourization Decolorized with sunlight. no soot Orange flame. Alkanes react with oxygen and when they react with oxygen heat and light is given off. all of the compounds are flammable but there is a difference in the flame during the experiment. 2. orange) Unsaturated Benzene immiscible (clear. they react violently with fire because they have very reactive multiple carbon bonds. no soot Orange flame. benzene. and toluene are unsaturated hydrocarbons. warming effect Inference Not actively unsaturated Not actively unsaturated Not actively unsaturated Actively unsaturated Not actively unsaturated . Therefore. no soot Orange flame. violent reaction Table No. Alkenes and alkynes fall under this classification of hydrocarbons. unsaturated hydrocarbons are those compounds with double or triple covalent bonds. the products are carbon dioxide and water. For alkenes. toluene showed a violent ignition. That is the reason why there are evidences of soot. nonpolar due to the dispersion between Alkenes and alkynes are tend to be more molecules. no soot Orange flame. If oxygen is limited. colorless) Saturated Cyclohexane Soluble (clear.

The visible positive result for bromine test is the brown precipitate. 5. and cyclohexane are saturated hydrocarbons while cyclohexene.edu/Dspurloc/c 122/hyd. sulphuric acid and nitric acid are reacted with the samples. Retrieved from Indiana University Southeast Web site: http://homepages. References Indiana University Southeast. Toluene is the one that has a visible positive result and therefore is an arene. Results for Test for Aromaticity Nitration For this test. This is evident for hexane.ius. benzene and toluene are unsaturated hydrocarbons but are not actively unsaturated. 5. Sample Compound Hexane Heptane Cyclohexane Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene Basic Oxidation Inference No visible positive result Not an arene No visible positive result Not an arene No visible positive result Not an arene Brown precipitate with visible positive Oxidized but not an result arene No visible positive result Not an arene Blue-green solution arene Table No. Alkanes can be identified because it requires light for the reaction to take place.Toluene none Decolorized with sunlight. Not actively warming effect unsaturated Table No. Sample Compound Nitration Hexane No change Heptane No change Cyclohexane No change Cyclohexene Yellow solution Benzene Yellow oily layer Toluene Yellow oily layer Table No. In nitration. (2007). hexane. Simple aromatic hydrocarbon will react with warm sulphuric acid to form a Inference aliphatic aliphatic aliphatic aliphatic aromatic aromatic sulfonic acid which will then dissolve and then precipitate when the nitro group is precipitated. Alkenes and alkynes also react with bromine in CCl4 but there is no need for sunlight for it to complete its reaction. heptane. Spurlock. With this test. Potassium permanganate is a violet solution and when it reacts with unsaturated carbons it will changes color showing a brown precipitate. and cyclohexane. Therefore. heptane. 4. Notes.. Results for Baeyer’s Test and Bromine Test Alkanes can be identified using the Bromine test. Results for Test for Aromaticity Nitration Nitration is a chemical reaction in which a nitro group is added to a hydrocarbon compound replacing a hydrogen. it showed that cyclohexene is actively unsaturated. D. Yellow globules indicate that the hydrocarbon is aromatic which is true for benzene and toluene while the others are aliphatic for there are no visible positive result. a strong oxidizing agent was used which is KMnO4 and this reaction will signify that there is an oxidation reaction formed IV. Baeyer’s test will determine if a compound if they are unsaturated. Chemical Reactivity of Hdrocarbons Course when there is a blue-green solution.htm .

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