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5/4/2011

Introduction to Networking
Module One

Networks
A Gentle Introduction

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Mainframes

Terminals

Mainframes performed all


processing and storage
Terminal were dumb

Stand-Alone Environment
Cannot share or receive resources from any
other device

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The Sneakernet
Manually move files between hosts

Simple Computer Network


Install a Network Adapter in each computer
Connect Network Media
Run the same network protocols in both PCs

Network
Adapter
XMIT

XMIT

RCV

RCV

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What is a Network?

Network are used to share resources


Two or more connected devices
Share hardware, data, and applications
I will share
my printer!

I will share
my files!!

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Uses for a Computer Networks


Sharing Printers
Sharing Files (Data)
Sharing Applications

Communicate Text, Voice, Video

Benefits of Networks
Share resources
Files
Data
Printers

Exchange information
Email
Instant messaging

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BUILDING A SIMPLE NETWORK

Bob and Sallys SOHO


Money is tight

Sharing Resources

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Building network in three steps


Add a Network Adapter to the
PCs, if there is not one already
Plug in the network media to
the adapters
Configure the LAN settings

Connecting a Device to the Network


Adding NIC (Network
Interface Card) to PC

Connect to Media

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Configure PC network settings

GROWING YOUR NETWORK

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Early networks used coaxial cables

Terminator

Terminator

Coaxial Cable Terminator

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Adding more devices

Each device on the network has an


Address
00001b09417d

02608c133456
00c02494f74d
00a0249cf76c

0020af151d8b

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OVERCOMING CABLE LIMITS

Attenuation reduce Signal Strength


Signal

Signal
Strength

Maximum Segment Length

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Repeater extends network reach


Signal
Strength

Maximum Segment Length

A Repeater

Port 2

Port 1

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Scaling the Network with Repeaters


1
5

1
4

2
3

2
4

3
1

Repeaters evolved into Hubs


Signal received on one
interface is repeated
out all other interfaces

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Coaxial Cable (Thinnet) Hub

3Com LinkBuilder thinnet Hub

UTP has replaced Coaxial Cable in the


Network

Co-axial

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

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Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Hub

Problems with Hub Networks


Only one device can transmit at a time
Problems scaling-up
Single broadcast domain

No privacy or security

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Review

Define what is a network


Benefits of networks
Requirements for a small network
Affects of attenuation
Use of Repeaters and Hubs
Problems with scaling networks with
Repeaters and Hubs

Networking Fundamentals

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What are the components of a


network?

Network
End
Devices

Network
Devices

Network
Media

Protocols

Services

Network Protocols are rules that allow


successful communication between
devices

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Network Services installed on servers


provide shared resources to clients

Types of Network Services

Web Service
Email Service
Name Service
File Services
Many, many more

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What are network Hosts and Nodes?


Host
A device on the network that has an IP address.

Node
A device on the network, not necessarily with an
IP address.

A Host is always Node,


but a Node is not always a Host

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Servers provide services to other


clients on the network

Rack mounted server in Data Center

Common Devices found on the


Network
Clients and Servers

Routers

Switches and Bridges

Wireless Access Points


Repeaters and Hubs

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SPAN OF THE NETWORK

Local Area Network

Spans a limited geographic area


One or a small group of buildings

A LAN main attributes:


Topology: bus, star, and ring
Medium: copper, fiber, and wireless
Protocols: Ethernet, Token Ring

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Wide Area Networks

Connect LANs separated by long distances


Use Routers and Point-to-Point links

Metropolitan Area Network


Branch 1

Headquarters

Gotham City
Warehouse

Branch 2
Data centre

Connects sites within the same city or town


Larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN

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Campus Area Network (CAN)


UNIVERSIT Y

Connects buildings in a university or business


campus

An Internetwork is a Network of
Computer Networks
Intranet
A private network, with resources accessible only to internal
members of the organization running the network

Extranet
A secured private network, with resources made available to
a select group of authenticated outside users

Internet
The global public inter-network that connects networks
using the TCP/IP protocol

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CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET

Domain Name System (DNS)

Root DNS
Servers

.org

.linux.org

Countries
(.tt ; .us ; .uk
; )

.edu

.un.org

.mit

.uwi

.net

.com

.example.com

www.example.com

Server1.example.com

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Internet ISP Hierarchy


Network Access Points

NAPs

Tier 1 ISPs

National &
International

Tier 2 ISPs

Regional

Tier 3 ISPs

Local

End
Users

Local

End
Users

End
Users

End
Users

Network Components
Span of Networks
Types of Internetworks
Domain Name System (DNS)
Internet ISP Hierarchy

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Characteristics of Networks

What are the Characteristics of a


Network?
Speed
Topology

Cost

Security

Reliability

Scalability

Availability

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Speed is Good

Speed is a measure
of how fast data is
transmitted over
the network

Data Rate would


be the more
precise term

Cost

Includes the cost


of components,
installation, and
maintenance of
the network

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Security is important and constantly


changing

Secure your Network and Data

Availability
The #!@*
Network is
down AGAIN!!!

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Scalability allows for future growth of


your company

Failure Rate

Reliability indicates the


dependability the network
Components

Time

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Topology
Physical

Topology
Logical

Network design trade-offs

Speed; Security;
Scalability;
Availability;
Reliability; Topology

Cost

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HOW IS DATA SENT ON THE


NETWORK?

Data is NOT sent as a continuous


stream of bits

1010010100010001011110101001011101
1010
010100010001011110101001011101101010111101
101010111101

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Data is placed into blocks with a


Source and Destination Address added
onto each

DATA

Source Address

Destination
Address

0100100111010010100101111100101011101
010
0100111010010100101111100101011101

Cycles/Second = Hertz
That
Hertz!!!

One Cycle per Second


(Cycle/Second)

One Cycle

One Hertz (Hz)

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The more cycles per second (Hertz) the


higher the frequency
Lower
Frequency

Higher
Frequency

One Second

Bandwidth is the maximum amount of


data that goes through the media, per
second
Low Bandwidth
01010100100110101011

High Bandwidth

101011010101001010101001
010001000101111010101010
011111011000010111100111
010101000010010100010001
010111100100110101111101

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Effect of User Applications on the


Network
B
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h

Batch

Interactive

Real Time

Batch bandwidth import, but not critical


Interactive bandwidth is more import, but not critical
Real Time bandwidth is critical, delays have serious effects

Network characteristics
Speed; Cost; Security; Availability; Scalability;
Reliability; Topology

Data Flow
Bandwidth
Effects of user applications

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Interpreting Network Diagrams

End Devices

PCs

Servers

IP
Telephones

Printers

Home
Office

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Network Devices

Routers

Switches

Bridges

Hubs

Firewall

Wireless Devices

Mobile
Access
Phone

Wireless
Router

Wireless
Access
Point

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Network Media
LAN

WAN

Serial

Circuit-Switched

Wireless

The Cloud Symbol is used to hide


Network Details
Cloud

Only connection
points are shown

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Example Network Diagram


Server01

Minicomputer

Switch2
Internet Service
Provider

Router1
Switch1
Firewall
IP
Telephones

Wireless
Access Point
PCs

Laptops

Common network diagram symbols


Interpreting network diagrams

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