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9/27/2011

Network Management

Network Documentation

9/27/2011

At the end of this lesson we will be


able to
Identify types of configuration management
documentation

Network+2009 Objective 4.2

What we will cover


Wiring schematics
Physical and logical network diagrams
Baselines
Policies, procedures and configurations
Regulations

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Wiring Schematics detailed wiring


diagrams

Identifies how the cabling connect to various devices


What standards are used for those cables

Physical Network Diagrams shows all


the physical devices and connectivity
paths

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Logical Network Diagrams depicts how


data flows

Baselines describes standard


operating performance

The standard level of


performance of a
certain device
OR

The normal
operating capacity of
your whole network

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Policies, Procedures and Regulations

Policies are
guidelines as
to what you
expected to
do

Procedures
are the steps
needed to
fulfill the
policies

Regulations
are rules
imposed by
an outside
agency

Review
Wiring schematics
Physical and logical network diagrams
Baselines
Policies, procedures and configurations
Regulations

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Evaluating the Network

At the end of this lesson we will be


able to
Given a scenario, evaluate the network based on
configuration management documentation

Network+2009 Objective 4.3

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What we will cover


Compare wiring schematics, physical and logical
network diagrams,
baselines, policies and procedures and
configurations to network devices and
infrastructure
Update wiring schematics, physical and logical
network diagrams, configurations and job logs as
needed

Configuration Management
A set of policies,
procedures, and
documents designed to
help you maintain and
update your network in
a logical, orderly
fashion

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Keep multiple copies of Configuration


Documentation
Electronic
Copy
External
Copy

Hard
Copy

Keep your documentation Up-to-Date

Physical
Logical

Wiring

Configuration Documents

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Network Performance
Monitoring

At the end of this lesson we will be


able to
Conduct network monitoring to identify
performance and connectivity issues

Network+2009 Objective 4.4

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What we will cover


Network monitoring utilities

Packet Sniffers
Connectivity Software
Load Testing
Throughput Testers

System logs
History logs
Event logs

NETWORK MONITORING UTILITIES

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Packet Sniffers capture and analyse


packets
Packet-level analysis
View
Connections
Authentication
Response times
Content
Conflicts

Connectivity Software
Ping
Named after sonar pulses

Uses ICMP
ICMP echo request, ICMP echo replay

Tracert or Traceroute
Test path packet takes through the network

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Load Testing

How much can it handle?


Servers
Routers
Switches
Workstations
Databases
Applications

Throughput Tester test the rate of data


delivery
over a network.
Throughput is
measured in bits per
second (bps)

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Throughput Graph

SYSTEM LOGS

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History logs
most often associated with the tracking of
Internet surfing habits
Another form of history logs are a compilation
of events from other log files
Contains a detailed account of alarm events
that can track trends and locate problem areas
in the network

Event logs records events on the


system

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View available event logs

System log events

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System logs record information about


components or drivers in the system.
Look here when troubleshooting
Hardware device errors,
Time synchronization issues
Service startup problems.
Network connectivity

Syslog is a standard for logging


program messages
It allows separation of the system that
generates messages from the system that
stores them and the software that reports and
analyzes them
Allows devices to notify administrators of
problems or performance.
Syslog
Server

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Syslog messages

Review
Network monitoring utilities

Packet Sniffers
Connectivity Software
Load Testing
Throughput Testers

System logs
History logs
Event logs
Syslog

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Network Performance
Optimization

At the end of this lesson we will be


able to
Explain different methods and rationales for
network performance optimization

Network+2009 Objective 4.5

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What we will cover


Reasons for Performance Optimization:
Network Uptime
Performance Optimization Methods

REASONS FOR PERFORMANCE


OPTIMIZATION

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What is Network Latency?


Network Latency is:
The time taken for data to move between two
communication devices
LAN < 10ms
WAN 10-100s of ms

Delay of light or electrons in media


Delay inside devices

Latency Sensitivity

Real Time

Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP)


Remote Control
Process Control
Robotics

Interactive
Database Queries and
Updates
Online Games

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High Bandwidth Applications


Voice and Video Conferencing
Video Streaming
Network Backup
Network Data Storage

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)


Issues

Packet loss
Latency
Jitter
Network Address
Translation (NAT)
Low Bandwidth or
Congested Links

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Video applications
High Bandwidth required
Latency
Packet loss
Jitter
NAT

Network Uptime is a measure of


Network Reliability

Five 9s

Availability
99.999%

Total downtime (HH:MM:SS)


per Day
per Month per Year
00:00:00.9 00:00:26
00:05:16

Four 9s
Three 9s
Two 9s

99.99%
99.9%
99%

00:00:09
00:01:26
00:14:24

00:04:23
00:43:50
07:18:17

00:52:36
08:45:57
87:39:30

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Power Flaws affect the network


Surge

Momentary
increase in
voltage

Noise

Fluctuation in
voltage levels

Brownout

Momentary
voltage decrease

Blackout

Complete power
loss

Types:

UPSs (Uninterruptible Power Supplies)


Battery-operated power source
Limited duration
Prevents
Harm to device, service interruption

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Generators provide power for longer


outages
Used in highly available environments
Determine generators optimal size
Calculate organizations crucial electrical demands
Requires schedule maintenance

High availability UPSs and generator


design for network

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Network Attached Storage (NAS) on a


LAN

A Storage Area Network (SAN)

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The Grandfather-Father-Son backup


rotation scheme

Three backup types performed each month:


A. Daily incremental (Monday through Thursday)
B. Weekly full (every Friday)
C. Monthly full (last day of the month)

DISASTER RECOVERY

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Disaster Recovery - Restoring Critical


Functionality, Data
After enterprisewide outage

Consider possible
extremes

Affecting more
than single system,
limited group

Hurricane, fire, etc.


Not relatively
minor outages,
failures, security
breaches, data
corruption

Disaster Recovery Planning


Accounts for worst-case scenarios

Identifies disaster recovery team


Provides contingency plans
Restore and replace:
Computer systems
Power
Telephony systems
Paper-based files

Contains various sections


Related to computer systems

Lessens critical data loss risk

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Disaster Recovery Contingencies

Cold site

Components necessary to rebuild network exist


Not appropriately configured, updated, or connected

Warm site

Components necessary to rebuild network exist


Some appropriately configured, updated, and connected

Hot site

Components necessary to rebuild network exist


All are appropriately configured, updated, and connected
Match networks current state

PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION
METHODS

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Quality of Service (QoS) allows


different types of traffic to be handled
differently

Avoids the following issues


Delay
Dropped packets
Errors
Jitter
Out-of-order delivery

Traffic shaping, is a form of bandwidth


optimization
Works by delaying packets to guarantee
usable bandwidth for certain applications
Also know as Packet Shaping

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High Availability options

Fault tolerant LAN topology


Redundant ISP connections
Redundant devices with automatic failover
Use Hot Swappable devices
Servers clustering
Load balancing
Uses all redundant paths to move data faster

RAID

High availability

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Caching engines

Fault tolerance
Basic characteristics of fault tolerance require:
No single point of failure
No single point of repair
Fault isolation to the failing component
Fault containment to prevent propagation of the
failure

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Load Balancing spread work out to


multiple computers or network links

Summary
Reasons for Performance Optimization:
Network Uptime
Performance Optimization Methods

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