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# 5/24/2011

IP Subnetting

How to Subnet

5/24/2011

## In this lesson we will cover:

Given a scenario, evaluate the proper use of
Network+ 2009 1.4

## What we will cover

How to Subnet Quickly and Easily
CIDR and Supernetting

5/24/2011

One solution to the IP address shortage
Formalized in 1985 (RFC 950)
Subnet Mask breaks a single class A, B or C
network in to smaller pieces

## Class C Network 192.168.20.0/24

192.168. 20.0
255.255.255.0

OR 192.168.20.0/24

192 .
168 . 20
.
0
1100000.10101000.00010100.00000000
1111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
Default Class C

Count
256

00000000 = 0
.
.
111111111 = 255

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Bits Borrowed
1

Bit Weight
128

64

32

16

Decimal Value

128

192

224

240

248

252

254

255

Benefits of Subnetworks
Smaller networks are
easier to manage.

## Overall traffic is reduced.

You can more easily
apply network security
policies.

5/24/2011

What is subnetting?
Network

Network

172

16

Network

Network

Host

Host

Subnet

Host

## Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the host bits, in

order to divide the network into smaller subnets

Network

Network

172

16

Network

Network

Host

Host

Subnet

Host

## You lose two host IP Addresses for each subnet

One for the subnet IP address and one for the subnet broadcast

5/24/2011

of fruit

64

64

64

64
256 fruit
00000000 = 0
.
.
111111111 = 255

64 x 4 = 256
256

## However, with subnetting, two address

cannot be used for host, in each
subnet
64 - 2 = 62

64 - 2 = 62

64 - 2 = 62

64 - 2 = 62
256 - 2 = 254

00000000 = 0
.
.
111111111 = 255

248

All host bits are zero
All host bits are one

5/24/2011

172.16.2.200

172.16.3.5
IP: 172.16.2.1
E0

172.16.2.2

E1
IP: 172.16.3.1

172.16.2.160

172.16.3.100

172.16.3.150

172.16. 2 . 160

172.16. 3 . 100

Network Subnet

Host

172.16.3.0
172.16.4.0

172.16.2.0

172.16.1.0
172.16.0.0

172.16. 2 . 160

The Internet

5/24/2011

we borrow bits
Bits
Borrowed

# of Subnets in
powers of 2

Subnets

0, 1

21

00, 01,10, 11

22

101, 110, 111

23

## 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011,

0100, 0101, 0110, 0111,
1000, 1001, 1010, 1011,
1100, 1101, 1110, 1111

24

16

Values

subnets
Subnets

Hosts

Dec.

128

64

32

16

127

## Start from zero, count up until all the host bits

are one That will be the end of the first
subnet

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## Borrowing one host bit will give us two

subnets
Subnets

Hosts

Dec.

128

64

32

16

127

128

255

When we count up one more the host bits reset to zero and the subnet
bit changes to one.
That is the start of the second subnet
Continue counting until the host bits are all ones.
That is the end of the second subnet

four subnets
Dec.

128

64

32

16

63

64

127

128

191

192

255

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My Company

Management

Sales

Accounts

Manufacturing

## We use the 192.168.10.0/24 Network

We want to put each department in its own
subnetwork

## Class C network 192.168.10.0/24.

Borrowing 2 bits will give 4 Subnets

11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000

1. 192.168.10.00000000 = 192.168.10.0
2. 192.168.10.01000000 = 192.168.10.64

Bit
borrowed

3. 192.168.10.10000000 = 192.168.10.128
4. 192.168.10.11000000 = 192.168.10.192

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## Finding the Decimal equivalent for

each Subnet
192.168.10.00000000
192.168.10.0
192.168.10.01000000
192.168.10.64
192.168.10.10000000
192.168.10.128
192.168.10.11000000
192.168.10.192

1
2
8

6
4

3
2

1
6

1
0

1
0

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Bit
Position

Power

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

Decimal
Value

128

64

32

16

## Bits Available for Subnetting

Class A: 11111111.00000000. 00000000. 00000000
Available for Subnetting

## Class B: 11111111.11111111. 00000000. 00000000

Available for Subnetting

## Class C: 11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 00000000

Available for Subnetting

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Subnetting Class C
Class C Network 192.168.10.0
11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000
N .
N
.
N
.
H
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
255

255

255

. 224

Host Field

Subnet Field

## Three bits borrowed from the Host field and used to

designate the Subnet
We will get 8 (23 subnets)

Subnetting Class B
Class B Network 147.10.0.0
10010011.00001010.00000000.00000000
N .
N
.
H
.
H
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
255

255

248

## 11111111 . 11111111 . 11111000 . 00000000

Subnet Field

Host Field

Five bits borrowed from the Host field and used to designate the
Subnet
We will get 32 (25 subnets)

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Subnetting Class A
Class A Network 28.0.0.0
00011100. 00000000.00000000.00000000
N .
H
.
H
.
H
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
255

255

240

## 11111111 . 11111111 . 11110000 . 00000000

Subnet Field

Host Field

Twelve bits borrowed from the Host field and used to designate
the Subnet
We will get 4096 (212 subnets)

## Previously the use of the first and last

subnets were discouraged
Called IP subnet zero
Only 2n 2 subnets will be obtained
Subnetwork # Subnetwork ID

Host Range

192.168.10.0

.0 - .30

192.168.10.31

192.168.10.32

.33 - .62

192.168.10.63

192.168.10.64

.35 - .64

192.168.10.95

192.168.10.96

.97 - .126

192.168.10.127

192.168.10.128

.129 - .158

192.168.10.159

192.168.10.160

.161 - .190

192.168.10.191

192.168.10.192

.193 - .222

192.168.10.223

192.168.10.224

.225 - .254

192.168.10.255

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## By default, now, all subnets are used

All subnets will be used
2n subnets will be obtained
Default mode

Subnetwork # Subnetwork ID

Host Range

192.168.10.0

.1 - .30

192.168.10.31

192.168.10.32

.33 - .62

192.168.10.63

192.168.10.64

.65 - .94

192.168.10.95

192.168.10.96

.97 - .126

192.168.10.127

192.168.10.128

.129 - .158

192.168.10.159

192.168.10.160

.161 - .190

192.168.10.191

192.168.10.192

.193 - .222

192.168.10.223

192.168.10.224

.225 - .254

192.168.10.255

## The Number of Subnets we get from

borrowing n host bits

## Where n is the number of Ones (1s) in the

Note: use 2n 2 if no ip subnet-zero is set not
using first and last subnet

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## How many hosts per subnet?

h

2 -2
Where h is the number of Zeros (0s) in the

## Determining the Subnet Number

Finding the Subnetwork

201.10.11.85

11001001.00001010.00001011.010 10101
Logical AND

255.255.255.224

11111111.11111111.11111111.111 00000

Subnetwork ID

201.10.11.64

11001001.00001010.00001011.010 00000

ANDing
0

AND

AND

AND

AND

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1.

2.

3.

## One for each subnet

One for each wide area network connection

## One for each TCP/IP host

One for each router interface

## Based on the above requirements, create the following:

A unique subnet ID for each physical segment
A range of host IDs for each subnet

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## Five Easy Questions

1. How many subnets does the chosen subnet
2. How many valid hosts per subnet are
available?
3. What are the valid subnets?
subnet?
5. What are the valid hosts in each subnet?

## Where n is the number of Ones (1s) in

n
Note: use 2 2 if no ip subnet-zero is
set not using first and last subnet

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## How many hosts per subnet?

2 -2
Where h is the number of Zeros

## What are the valid subnets?

256 minus interesting octet value = block size, or
increment number.
Also equal to 2h where h is the number of host
bits, in the interesting octet
Count from zero in block-size until you reach the
256 224 = 32
Valid subnets will be 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192,
224

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5/24/2011

Real easy
Based on the valid subnets obtained -- the
before the next subnet.

## What are the valid hosts?

Numbers between the subnets
First valid host number after subnet address
Last valid host number before broadcast

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5/24/2011

## FINDING THE SUBNET ADDRESS OF

192.168.173.237/29

192
00001010

168
00010100

173
10101101

237
11101101

255
11111111

248
11111000

173
10101101

232
11101000

LOGICAL AND

Subnet

255
11111111

255
11111111
RESULT

Subnet

192
00001010

168
00010100

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5/24/2011

## Another method to find subnet

1. 192.168.173.237/29

9. 192.168.173.237

2. Class? C

## 3. Default Subnet Mask?: 255.255.255.0 11. 237 / 8 = 29.625

or /24
12. Ignore decimal = 29
4. Bits borrowed?: 5
13. Multiply value by block size
29 x 8 = 232
255.255.255.248
6. Block size: 256 -248 = 8
192.168.173.232
8. Determine Interesting octet

## Determining How Many Bits to Borrow

Subnets needed: Six
Bits to borrow: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Borrowing three bits for the subnet will fit the requirements:

## Three subnet bits: 23 = 8 subnets

Five bits remain for host: 25 2 = 30 hosts per subnet
Required Subnet in dotted-decimal notation = 255.255.255.224

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5/24/2011

Network
Subnet
0

192

168

10

255

255

255

224

11111111

11111111

11111111

11100000

Octet
1

Octet
2

Octet
3

Octet
4

First
Host

Last
Host

Directed

192

168

10

30

31

11000000

10101000

00001010

00000000

00000001

00011110

00011111

192

168

10

32

33

62

63

11000000

10101000

00001010

00100000

00100001

00111110

00111111

192

168

10

64

65

94

95

11000000

10101000

00001010

01000000

01000001

01011110

01011111

192

168

10

96

97

126

127

11000000

10101000

00001010

01100000

01100001

01111110

01111111

## Determining the Subnet and Host Addresses (cont.)

Subnet

Octet
1

Octet
2

Octet
3

Network

First
Host

Last
Host

Directed

192

168

10

128

129

158

159

11000000

10101000

00001010

10000000

10000001

10011110

10011111

192

168

10

160

161

190

191

11000000

10101000

00001010

10100000

10100001

10111110

10111111

192

168

10

192

193

222

223

11000000

10101000

00001010

11000000

11000001

11011110

11011111

192

168

10

224

225

254

255

11000000

10101000

00001010

11100000

11100001

11111110

11111111

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5/24/2011

Question
What is the subnet for the host IP address
201.100.5.68/28?

Question
How many subnetworks and hosts are
available per subnet if you apply a /28 mask to
the 210.10.2.0 class C network?

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5/24/2011

## Classless Inter-domain Routing

(CIDR)

CIDR
RFC 4632 (2006) Obsoletes RFC 1519 (1993)
Slow the growth of global routing tables
Reduce the rate of consumption of IPv4
Replace the Class A/B/C Classfull) network
With Classless", hierarchical blocks of IP

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5/24/2011

Notation
n.n.n.n/32
n.n.n.x/31
n.n.n.x/30
n.n.n.x/28
n.n.n.0/24
n.n.x.0/21
n.n.0.0/16
n.x.0.0/12
n.0.0.0/8
x.0.0.0/4
0.0.0.0/0

Block
1
2
2
16
256
2048
65536
1048576
16777216
268435456
4294967296

# Blocks
4294967296
2147483648
2147483648
268435456
16777216
2097152
65536
4096
256
16
1

Host route
Legacy Class C
Legacy Class B

Legacy Class A
Default route

CIDR

0.0.0.0

/0

128.0.0.0

/1

192.0.0.0

/2

224.0.0.0

/3

240.0.0.0

/4

248.0.0.0

/5

252.0.0.0

/6

254.0.0.0

/7

255.0.0.0

/8

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CIDR

255.128.0.0

/9

255.192.0.0

/10

255.224.0.0

/11

255.240.0.0

/12

255.248.0.0

/13

255.252.0.0

/14

255.254.0.0

/15

255.255.0.0

/16

CIDR

255.255.128.0

/17

255.255.192.0

/18

255.255.224.0

/19

255.255.240.0

/20

255.255.248.0

/21

255.255.252.0

/22

255.255.254.0

/23

255.255.255.0

/24

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## Classless Internet Domain Routing

CIDR

255.255.255.128

/25

255.255.255.192

/26

255.255.255.224

/27

255.255.255.240

/28

255.255.255.248

/29

255.255.255.252

/30

255.255.255.254

/31

255.255.255.255

/32

VARIABLE-LENGTH

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5/24/2011

Variable-Length
Inter-domain Routing (CIDR)
VLSM focus on
within an
Organization

CIDR focus is
the Internet

What Is a Variable-Length
Subnet 172.16.14.0/24 is divided into smaller
subnets:
Then further subnet one of the unused /27 subnets
into multiple /30 subnets

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Calculating VLSMs

## A Working VLSM Example

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What Is Route
Summarization?
Routing protocols can summarize addresses of

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## Supernetting Summarizing Within an

Octet
192.168.16.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.000100 00.00000000
192.168.17.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.000100 01.00000000
192.168.18.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.000100 10.00000000
192.168.19.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.000100 11.00000000

## Number of Common Bits = 22

Non-Common Bits = 10

192.168.16.0 /22

## Supernetting Summarizing Within an

Octet
192.168.16.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 000.00000000
192.168.17.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 001.00000000
192.168.18.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 010.00000000
192.168.19.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 011.00000000
192.168.20.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 100.00000000
192.168.21.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 101.00000000
192.168.22.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 110.00000000
192.168.23.0/24 = 11000000.10101000.00010 111.00000000
Number of Common Bits = 21

Non-Common Bits = 11

192.168.16.0 /21

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## Summarizing Addresses in a VLSMDesigned Network

172.16.128.0 - 172.16.143.255

172.16.64.0 - 172.16.79.255

Implementation Considerations
Multiple IP addresses must have the same
highest-order bits.
Routing decisions are made based on the entire
Routing protocols must carry the prefix (subnet

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## Route Summarization Operation

Supports host-specific routes, blocks of networks,
default routes
Routers use the longest match
192.16.5.33
192.16.5.32
192.16.5.0
192.16.0.0
0.0.0.0

/32
/27
/24
/16
/0

Host
Subnet
Network
Block of Networks
Default

Summarizing Routes in a
Discontiguous Network

## RIPv1 and IGRP do not advertise subnets, and therefore

cannot support discontiguous subnets.
OSPF, EIGRP, and RIPv2 can advertise subnets, and
therefore can support discontiguous subnets.

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5/24/2011

VLSM EXAMPLE

VLSM Example
Your company has been assigned IP network 195.39.71.0 /24. Given that
headquarters (60 hosts) is connected to five branch offices (12 hosts each)
determine an appropriate IP addressing scheme.

ISP

60 users

Branch 1
12 users

Branch 2
12 users

Branch 3
12 users

Branch 4
12 users

Branch 5
12 users

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195.39.71.0 /24, subnet
according to the largest
subnet needed.

## You would need to borrow

2 bits or /26. This would
give you 4 networks with
subnet.

128

63

191
192

64

255

127

## We will start at the first

subnet (subnet 0).

128
60 hosts

with 195.39.71.0 /26.
hosts, so we will assign
them .0 - .63

## 26 bit mask or /26

(255.255.255.192)

64

192

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5/24/2011

## The 5 Branch offices

only need 12 hosts
each.

128
60 hosts

## We will use the block

.128 - .191 block (64
will apply VLSM.

## 26 bit mask or /26

(255.255.255.192)

160

Branch 1
12 hosts
/28

Branch 3
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144

176

Branch 2
12 hosts
/28

Branch 4
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

192

64

## Using a /28 mask will

give us 14 hosts at
each location. This
will take care of 4 of
the Branch offices.

## To obtain a block for

Branch 5, we will need
to subnet the .192 .255 block using a /28

128
60 hosts

## 26 bit mask or /26

(255.255.255.192)

Branch 1
12 hosts
/28

160
Branch 3
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144
Branch 2
12 hosts
/28

176
Branch 4
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

64

192

224

Branch 5
12 hosts
/28
(255.255.255.240)

208

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Now we need to
the Branch offices.
These are point-topoint connections and
only require 2

128
60 hosts
(255.255.255.192)

144

176
Branch 4
12 hosts
/28

Branch 2
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

192

64

Branch 5
12 hosts
/28

208

the subnets.

## Subnet 0 could also

be further
subnetted according
to the needs of the
network.

Branch 3
12 hosts

/28
(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

(255.255.255.240)

The remaining
networks could be
used for future
growth of either
LANs or WANs.

160

Branch 1
12 hosts
/28

232
224
WAN
WAN
1

228
WAN
2

236

WAN
4

240
248
WAN
5

244

128

60 hosts
(255.255.255.192)

Branch 1
12 hosts
/28

160
Branch 3
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144
Branch 2
12 hosts
/28

176
Branch 4
12 hosts
/28

(255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

64

192
Branch 5
12 hosts
/28
(255.255.255.240)

208

224
WAN
1

228
WAN
2

232
WAN
3

236

WAN
4

240
248
WAN
5

244

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## Applying the Addresses to the Topology

provided by ISP

195.39.71.0 /26

195.39.71.128 /28

195.39.71.144 /28

195.39.71.160 /28

195.39.71.176 /28

195.39.71.192 /28

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