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Characteristics of Acids

1. Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste.

2. Acids change the color of acid-base indicators.
3. Some acids react w/ active metals to release hydrogen gas, H2. (Singlereplacement rxns)
4. Acids react w/ bases to produce salts and water. (Neutralized ionic
5. Some acids conduct electric current.
Characteristic of Bases

Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter.

Bases change the color of acid-base indicators.
Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery.
Bases react w/ acids to produce salts and water. (neutralization)
Bases conduct electric current.

Acid Nomenclature
1. Binary Acids: contains only 2 different elements hydrogen & electronegative
element. A. begins with prefix hydro B. Root of name of second element C.
Name ends in ic.
2. Oxyacid: contains Hydrogen, oxygen, and usually a nonmetal.
Some Common Acids

Sulfuric Acid (H2So4)

Nitric Acid (HNo3)
Phosphoric Acid (H3Po4)
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Acetic Acid (HC2H3O2)

(Svante) Arrhenius Acids and Bases

1. An Arrhenius acid increases the number of hydrogen ions.
2. An Arrhenius base increases the number of hydroxide ions.
3. Aqueous acids: water solutions of molecular compounds of hydrogen atoms, all
pure ones are electrolytes. Acid molecules are polar so more than one hydrogen
ion is attracted by water molecules. Anions are left behind.
Strength of Acids
1. Strong acid ionizes completely. Strong electrolyte.
a. HCLO4, HCl, HNo3

2. Strength depends on polarity of bond between hydrogen & its bonded element
and how easy it is to break the bond. Strength ^ as polarity ^ and bond energy \/
3. In other words, the extent to which the base dissociates.
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
1. B-L acid is a molecule that is a proton donor. HCl + NH3 NH4+ + Cl (H2o)
2. B-L Base is a molecule that is a proton acceptor. (NH4)
3. B-L A/B rxns, protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to another (the
Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids
1. Monoprotic: Acid can donate only one proton per molecule (HClO4, HCl, HNO3)
2. Polyprotic: can donate more than one (H2SO4, H3PO4)
a. Acids loses hydrogen one at a time
b. Becomes a weak acid (Note: H2SO4 is diprotic-donates two per molecule,
H3PO4 is triprotic)
Lewis Acids and Bases
1. Lewis acid: atom that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
2. Lewis base: molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond
3. Lewis A/B Rxn: formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electronpair donor and acceptor.
Conjugate A/B
1. Conjugate base: species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up
a proton
2. Conjugate acid: When B-L base gains a proton
3. B-L A/B are equilibrium systems
4. Strength depends on relative strengths of acids and bses involved the
stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base / the stronger the base, the
weaker the conjugate
5. Proton transfer rxns favor the production of weaker acid and weaker base.
Amphoteric Compounds
1. Any species that can react as either an acid or a base
2. OH is hydroxyl group