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Responsibility/

Approved

1.

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 1 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

INTRODUCTION
The responsibilities and actions to ensure optimum cold chain operations are summarised in the
PPECB HP02 document. The HP02 and HP22 documents must be read jointly with this document
(HP01) to ensure that all requirements are met.
PPECB does not claim that all the procedures and specifications in these documents are
comprehensive. The handling procedures are therefore continuously revised to suit the changing
situations and requirements. Comments to improve the procedures are therefore welcomed.

1.1.

Approved facilities
All container and specialised reefer loading must take place from a PPECB approved loading facility as
per FBO requirements.

2.

PROCEDURES FOR LOADING OF CONTAINERS

2.1

Integral refrigerated containers


Integral refrigerated containers are also known as reefer containers. These containers are fitted with
their own cooling unit as an integral part of the container.
The cooling unit is designed and built to take up as little space as possible and has therefore very
limited refrigeration capacity to cool the product and can only lower pulp temperature over an
extended period of time.
Cold air is supplied by the cooling unit via the T-bar floor and warm air from the cargo is extracted
from the top of stack and returns to the evaporator coil where the heat is removed and transferred to
the outside.

2.2

The following are very important for all containers:

The total floor surface must be covered to avoid short-circuiting of cold air.
Pallet height must not exceed the horizontal RED loading line.
Last pallets loaded must not extend beyond the vertical RED loading line at the door end or the
end of the T-bar floor.
Fan spaces and air passages must be unobstructed.

Integral containers need an external source of electricity (360-380V) to power the cooling unit and
air circulating fans. Special plugs are provided on the ships, in container handling and port terminals
and also some loading depots. Clip-on diesel powered electric generators (Gensets) are required to
supply electricity during road and rail transport.
Some integral containers can be fitted with special equipment to maintain controlled atmosphere (CA)
conditions.
2.3

Capacity
Integral containers are available in both 20 foot and 40 foot (12m) units - also known as FEUs.
The FEUs usually take 20 ISO pallets but some of the older types only take 19 pallets with the 20 th
pallet stowed breakbulk at the door end. The TEU (20 foot) take 9 pallets, with the 10 th pallet stowed
breakbulk. So called high cubed (FEU) integral containers, can take 20 pallets up to 2,35m high
including the pallet base. These containers can take the equivalent amount of cartons equal to 23
pallets.

Responsibility/
Approved

2.4

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 2 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

Loading temperature requirements


Carrying temperatures are summarized in Table 1.

2.4.1

Containers
Citrus fruit should be pre-cooled to the specified carrying temperature (Reefer Code) prior
to loading into containers. This will ensure maximum storage life and shelf life, reduce moisture
loss, and reduce the incidence of decay.

2.4.1.1

Soft citrus:

A maximum pulp temperature of 3C above the specified carrying temperature will be allowed
e.g. if carrying at 3,5C (set point, or delivery air temperature), pulp temperature may not exceed
6,5C. Soft citrus should be shipped at 3,5C. If more colour development is required the fruit
can be shipped at 10C with a maximum loading temperature of 13C.

Cartons must be stacked/palletized neatly and in such a way that no cartons will protrude past the
dimensions of the pallet base. The pallets must be strapped in at least three positions preferably
more to ensure that the pallet/cartons remains squarely upright. It is strongly advisable to use
pallet bases with a maximum of 9 slats thereby ensuring sufficient ventilation between the slats
for vertical air flow. Pallets must in no way lean to one side.

2.4.1.2

All other citrus packed in:

Open top cartons or bulk bins: Must be pre-cooled to a maximum pulp temperature of 3C
above the specified shipping temperature. A maximum pulp temperature increase (on the outside
of pallets) of 5C above the specified carrying temperature will be allowed during the handling,
loading and transport of the fruit, until re-cooling has recommenced. Maximum specified carrying
temperature shall be as indicated in Table 1.

Telescopic cartons wrapped and unwrapped fruit: must be pre-cooled to a maximum pulp
temperature of 3C above the specified carrying temperature. A maximum pulp temperature
increase (on the outside of pallets) of 5C above the specified carrying temperature will be
allowed during the handling, loading and transport of the fruit, until re-cooling has recommenced.
Maximum specified carrying temperature shall be as indicated in Table 1.

Carton ventilation holes must always be open.

Cartons must be stacked/palletized neatly and in such a way that no cartons will protrude past the
dimensions of the pallet base. The pallets must be strapped in at least three positions preferably
more to ensure that the pallet/cartons remains squarely upright. It is strongly advisable to use
pallet bases with a maximum of 9 slats thereby ensuring sufficient ventilation between the slats
for vertical air flow. Pallets must in no way lean to one side.

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 3 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

LOADING OF AMBIENT FRUIT (W BOOKINGS)IS NOT A RECOMMENDED PRACTICE


PPECB reserves the right to stop all shipments should there be any indication that the quality of
the fruit is compromised.

2.4.2.

Procedure for ambient loading of hard citrus only shipments to non-European member
country destinations:

2.4.2.1

Authorisation:
Permission must be obtained from the PPECB for all ambient consignments to which all parties agrees
to. This will be issued in the form of a dispensation under T13 conditions and under following
agreements:

By accepting a W-booking, the relevant shipping line agrees upfront to the conditions of fruit
being booked and loaded at ambient conditions for a specific shipment.

PPECB reserves the right to insist in quality outturn reports, to support future ambient shipments.

PPECB reserves the right to stop all shipments in aforementioned manner should there be any
indication that the quality of the fruit is compromised, or should any logistical or technical problem
indicate greater risks to the product.

2.4.2.2

Conditions

Un-cooled fruit to be loaded into the container as soon as possible after packing. A maximum
accepted time period from the oldest packing date on pallets until container loading will be 10
days.

It is advisable to avoid mixing different types of citrus fruit and or cartons in the same container.

Fruit pulp temperatures shall not exceed plus 22C at loading.

The use of Super Vent, open top or similar type cartons is advised.

Carton ventilation holes must always be open.

All pallet caps/tops and interlocking sheets, must allow for proper ventilation.

It is advisable to use pallet bases with a maximum of 9 slats thereby ensuring sufficient
ventilation between the slats for vertical air flow. Pallets must in no way lean to one side. Pallets
with fewer slats are acceptable on condition that their strength is equal to or better than 9 slat
pallets.

Cardboard bins and wooden crates must have ventilation openings at the base and caps at the top
to promote convective cooling.

2.4.2.3

Citrus fruit that may not be shipped ambient (i.e. warm/un-precooled)

All soft citrus cultivars


Navels
All late season citrus fruit, after October

Responsibility/
Approved

2.4.2.4

2.5

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 4 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

All citrus fruit de-greened (gassed with ethylene)


All citrus fruit to be shipped under cold treatment protocols
All fruit with a high risk of decay.

Procedure for ambient loading of hard citrus only shipments to European member
country destinations:

The fruit must reach the port facility/container terminal/cold store and be under cooling (10C or
below) within 4 days from PPECB pack house inspection, however, in terms of ambient loading,
the following will apply:
Container shipments (loaded either at the pack house or port facility) must also be under
cooling within 4 days from PPECB pack house inspection;
If the fruit is not under cooling within 4 days, the exporter to ensure that the fruit is
presented for re-inspection to DAFF DIS.

The fruit shall be stored at a temperature with a delivery air set point of 10C or below.

The fruit shall be shipped at a delivery air temperature set point of 10C or below

All Cold Storage facilities must be registered with DAFF additional to the normal PPECB annual
registration.

It is strongly recommended not to load 100% ambient fruit in decks that are not square or
rectangular in the case of conventional shipments.

Maximum periods without cooling (TTTs) for all Citrus

TTT for all pre-cooled citrus in integral containers: 16 hours


The TTT specifies the maximum cumulative time allowed from the time that the first pallet of fruit
leaves the cold room for loading into a container, until the time that the full container is again
connected to a power source. In the case of the integral container, the 16 hours TTT allows for
one (1) hour loading from the cold store into the container, fourteen (14) hours transit time to the
port and one (1) hour port handling and reconnecting to a power plug. Gensets must be used to
supply electricity to the container if the transport time to the port is more than fourteen (14)
hours.
Delays in connecting a container cooling unit to power must be avoided.
Fruit must be placed under cooling as soon as possible.
Fast re-cooling will quickly remove condensation, resulting in a reduced risk of decay.

2.6

Multiple container loading points is not recommended, but can be accommodated under the
following guidelines:

The Exporter / Agent must notify PPECB booking section of both loading points at time of placing
bookings.
Maximum two loading points per container.
Always start at the furthest point first.
Distance between points must be such that the total cumulative (TTT) of 16 hours is not
exceeded.
If it will take more than 16hours, then a generator unit must be attached.
A maximum tolerance of 3, 0C will be allowed at both loading points for pre-cooled loads

Responsibility/
Approved

2.7.

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 5 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

Part-loads must be containerized in such a manner that the second loading point will not
experience difficulty to complete the loading process.
Suggest that cargo be secured/ supported, so that it will not shift during transit to second point.

Fresh air intake/ventilation


A ventilation setting of minimum 15 cubic metres per hour for integral containers is required.

The following procedures shall apply:

2.8

The Exporter or his Agent specifies the required carrying temperature regime, code and fresh air
vent setting at time of booking shipping space (Export notification).

The container Owner/Operator must inform the container depot of the required fresh air vent
setting, as well as temperature setting.

Personnel at the loading depot must check that the fresh air vent is opened according to the
Export notification.

Personnel at the loading depot must also ensure that the temperature is set according to the
export notification.

PPECB will audit the fresh air vent settings and temperature settings at time of loading and in
the terminal.

PPECB will instruct the Master of a vessel in writing of the required carrying temperature and
fresh air ventilation.

Plastic Wrapping: (Containers/Specialised Reefers)


Care must be exercised in the use of plastic or shrink wrapping (pallet securing) materials. Use only
a loosely woven lattice type that when stretched over the cartons still allows for the
horizontal penetration of air.

3.

PROCEDURES FOR LOADING OF SPECIALISED REEFER VESSELS


Refrigerated vessels have several decks. Cold air is supplied to the bottom of the palletised fruit (high
pressure) and removed from the top of the pallets (low pressure). Cold air is therefore circulated
from the bottom vertically up through and around the pallets.
Most modern reefer vessels have high cooling capacities, attention should be paid to ensure uniform
cooling. The reason for this is that product heat must be transported from inside the pallet to the
cooling coil. The medium that removes this heat is the cold circulating air.
Any factor that may reduce air circulation around the fruit will also reduce the cooling efficiency of the
system. The nature of the telescopic citrus carton is such that the pallet becomes a big densely
packed carton with much insulating material (cardboard). It is therefore impossible to circulate cold
air around the fruit - the object to be cooled. This results in slow cooling and re-cooling and even hot
spots of excessive temperature increases (as much as 20C warmer than the actual air delivery
temperature under extreme conditions).

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 6 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

Efficient uniform pre-cooling of vessel spaces prior to loading into reefer vessels (and for that matter
into any refrigerated transport space) is an absolute prerequisite for minimum quality loss during
transport and storage. This should be the objective of every exporter wanting to guarantee quality to
the buyer.
The following procedures were developed over the years taking into account the technical
characteristics and requirements as well as certain commercial considerations:
3.1

Loading of pre-cooled fruit


Product temperature increase must be kept to an absolute minimum once the cold chain is started.
One of the important reasons is that exposure of the cold fruit to a warmer environment will result in
the formation of condensation on the cold fruit surface. This will result in the fruit (and the packaging
material) becoming moist.
Moisture is a sure way of promoting decay (rots).
Fluctuating
temperatures also stimulate senescence, leading to associated quality losses. The practice to load
citrus at a warmer temperature than the optimum carrying temperature is therefore not
recommended.

3.1.1

Packaging Conditions

3.1.2

Cartons must be stacked/palletized neatly and in such a way that no cartons will protrude past the
dimensions of the pallet base. The pallets must be strapped in at least three positions preferably
more to ensure that the pallet/cartons remains squarely upright. It is strongly advisable to use
pallet bases with a maximum of 9 slats thereby ensuring sufficient ventilation between the slats
for vertical air flow. Pallets must in no way lean to one side.
Telescopic carton holes must always be open

Maximum product loading temperature


Carrying temperatures are summarised in Table 1.
Soft citrus:
A maximum pulp temperature of 3C above the specified carrying temperature will be allowed e.g. if
carrying at 10C (set point, or delivery air temperature), pulp temperature may not exceed 13C.
Other citrus:
A maximum pulp temperature of 3C above the specified carrying temperature will be allowed e.g. if
carrying at 10C (set point, or delivery air temperature), pulp temperature at time of loading into the
shipping space may not exceed 13C.

3.1.2.1 Maximum temperature increases allowed during loading


In the centre carton:
On the outside of the pallet:

3.2

0.5C increase
5.0C increase

Loading of ambient fruit


LOADING OF AMBIENT (W-BOOKING) FRUIT IS NOT A RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
PPECB reserves the right to stop all shipments should there be any indication that the
quality of the fruit is compromised

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 7 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

Some citrus fruit however, under certain conditions, can be loaded directly (un-cooled) into reefer
decks. This include some early season grapefruit, lemons, and Valencias in order to allow
breakdown of green background colour in the skin.
3.2.1 Procedure for ambient loading of hard citrus only shipments to non-European member
country destinations:
3.2.1.1. Conditions
By accepting a W-booking, the relevant shipping line agrees upfront to the conditions of fruit being
booked and loaded under ambient temperature for a specific shipment.
PPECB reserves the right to stop all shipments in aforementioned manner should there be any
indication that the quality of the fruit is compromised, or should any logistical or technical problem
indicate greater risks to the product.

Un-cooled fruit to be loaded into the vessel spaces as soon as possible after packing. A maximum
accepted time period from the oldest packing date on pallets until vessel loading will be 10 days.
It is advisable to avoid mixing different types of citrus fruit and or cartons in the same shipping
space.

Fruit pulp temperature not to exceed plus 22C at loading.

The use of Super Vent, open top or similar type cartons is advised.

Carton ventilation holes must always be open.

All pallet caps/tops and interlocking sheets, must allow for proper ventilation.

It is advisable to use pallet bases with a maximum of 9 slats thereby ensuring sufficient
ventilation between the slats for vertical air flow. Pallets must in no way lean to one side. Pallets
with fewer slats are acceptable on condition that their strength is equal to or better than 9 slat
pallets.

Cardboard bins and wooden crates must have ventilation openings at the base and caps at the top
to promote convective cooling.

It is strongly recommended not to load 100% ambient fruit in decks that are not square or
rectangular in the case of conventional shipments.

3.2.1.2 Citrus fruit that may not be shipped ambient (i.e. warm/un-precooled)

All soft citrus cultivars


Navels
All late season citrus fruit, after October
All citrus fruit de-greened (gassed with ethylene)
All citrus fruit to be shipped under cold treatment protocols
All fruit with a high risk of decay.

3.2.1.3 Procedure for ambient loading of hard citrus only shipments to European member country
destinations:

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 8 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

The fruit must reach the port facility/cold store/vessel and be under cooling (10C or below)
within 4
days from PPECB pack house inspection, however, in terms of ambient loading, the
following will apply:
Fruit trucked/railed to the port facility can be loaded directly onto a vessel, provided that it is
within 4 days from PPECB pack house inspection;
If the fruit is not under cooling within 4 days, the exporter to ensure that the fruit is
presented for re-inspection to DAFF DIS.

The fruit shall be stored at a temperature with a delivery air set point of 10C or below.

The fruit shall be shipped at a delivery air temperature set point of 10C or below.

3.2.1.4. Citrus fruit that may not be shipped at ambient or mixed with other cargo (i.e. warmer
than the carrying temperature PLUS the specified tolerances) are listed in par 3.2.1.2.
3.2.2

Maximum percentage direct loading


Pre-cooled citrus fruit direct to vessel (i.e. fruit temperature with a tolerance up to 3C above the
carrying temperature) will only be allowed provided the fruit can be cooled in the shipping space
to the carrying temperature within six (6) days after completion of loading.

3.2.3

Shipping arrangements
The following arrangements will be applicable during the shipment of ambient fruit.

Same packaging conditions as for container shipments (Par 2.4.2.2)


Do not load ambient products into hatch no. 1.
Always start loading partly loaded decks from the evaporator/cooling end.
Plastic or similar sheeting must cover the floor in partly loaded decks in order to avoid air shortcircuiting the cargo.
Avoid mixing soft citrus in same cooling compartment with those carrying fruit at ambient
conditions.
Jumping of decks should be limited and will only be allowed under certain conditions and all floor
spaces must be covered. It is the responsibility of the Captain to ensure that partly loaded cargo
is well protected and receive proper pre-cooling. Next loading port must have partly loaded cargo
covered during the stowing of bottom decks.
Loading shall be as quick as possible. If delays do occur the decks must be closed and cooling
commenced.
Completed decks must be closed and cooling applied as soon as practically possible.
The following special shipping arrangements will be for specific vessels and instructions will be
given to the Captain, during the season for,
Specific fan speed arrangements
Ventilation setting requirements
Temperature setpoint arrangements
Probing of certain decks
Constant en-route reporting and monitoring

3.2.4

Fresh air ventilation

3.2.4.1

Pre-cooled loaded decks:


Fresh air must be introduced into the shipping spaces (decks) at such a rate to maintain the carbon
dioxide (CO2) level below 0,5% at all times, or as per specific arrangement.

3.2.4.2

Ambient loaded decks:

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 9 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

In order to assist the re-cooling of complete ambient decks, it is recommended not to have any
ventilation for the 1st 24 hours after completing a deck, thereafter to reset ventilation to maintain
carbondioxide (CO2) level below 0,5% (Refer paragraph 3.2.4 special arrangements).
3.2.4.3

Air circulation rate


Cold air must be circulated in the shipping space at a rate of at least 60 complete air changes per
hour based on the empty volume of the space, or as specific arrangement (paragraph 3.2.4).

3.3

Lower temperature set points


Should it be necessary, Exporters, with the approval of all parties can ship warmer fruit at lower
setpoints, in order to assist cooling of warm decks. This will be done through special arrangement
(paragraph 3.2.4).

3.4

Compromise temperatures in conventional decks only


Most optimum carrying temperatures for citrus are summarised in Table 1.
Under certain
conditions, however, different types of citrus fruit may be mixed in the same conventional deck.
The following general guidelines will be followed:

4.

The warmest specified temperature will apply for the fruit concerned provided the proportion of
that fruit exceeds 25% of the total load.

Compromise temperatures are also dictated by fruit quality and other conditions. These factors
will have to be considered at the time of planning the loading programme.

SPECIAL SHIPMENTS FOR INTRANSIT STERILIZATION


A number of countries require very strict pre-cooling and shipping temperature control to comply to
quarantine requirements. These cold treatment (steri) protocols are government-to-government
agreements and are therefore not open to debate. The protocols are covered in separate documents,
obtainable from the various PPECB port offices or from the PPECB website at www.ppecb.com.

5.

PROCEDURES FOR VENTILATED AND OPEN DOOR CONTAINERS SHIPMENTS

VENTILATED SHIPMENTS, I.E. SHIPPING CITRUS FRUIT IN SPACES WITHOUT ANY TEMPERATURE
CONTROL IS NOT RECOMMENDED

Sometimes it may, however, be necessary to do ventilated shipments to nearby destinations.


following requirements must be met:

The

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 10 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

5.1

Only early season oranges, lemons and grapefruit may be shipped ventilated. This procedure will be
terminated as soon as decay becomes a potential problem (more than 2% rejections) and when
rejections for fruit fly start to increase.

5.2

No ventilated shipments shall be allowed after October.

5.3

Soft citrus cultivars, repacked or de-greened citrus fruit cannot be shipped ventilated.

5.4

The voyage must be shorter than 10 days and the fruit may not be in containers for more than 14
days in total.

5.5

All ventilated shipments must be shipped directly to end destination and not via a transhipment Port
in RSA.

5.6

Ventilated decks must be:

Fitted with air circulation fans to maintain an air circulation rate of at least 90 complete air
changes per hour based on the empty volume of the shipping space.

Continuously ventilated to ensure no build up of carbon dioxide above 0, 5% or any other gas
or any odour that may result in a taint. A minimum of at least one complete fresh air change,
based on the total empty volume of the shipping space, must be applied per 12 hours.

Absolutely clean with no dust and no potential harmful chemical, liquid or any other product
(e.g. cement, paints, solvents, detergents, petroleum products, hides).

5.7

Ventilated containers must be:

Absolutely clean and in good condition.

Inspected and passed by PPECB.

ISO certified and have a valid safety certificate (SCS plate).

Stowed on deck.

Ventilated containers can be stowed under deck provided that at least 90 complete fresh air
changes is applied and that the decks are absolutely clean and odour free at all times.

5.8

Types of containers that may be used:

Fantainer or ventainer where an electrically operated fan continuously circulates ambient air
through the load. This is the best system for ventilated shipments.

Flat rack, provided effective product protection is possible to keep the product in the shade, dry
and still allow maximum fresh air circulation.

Open side container provided effective cargo protection is possible. The container must be
constructed in such a way that it still complies to ISO and other safety standards.

Open door containers are not recommended.

Ventilated containers of the type with bottom and top ventilation openings on the long sides
may be used. Air circulates by convection only and only along the sides and not through the load.

NOTES:

Ventilated containers must be stowed on deck in such a way that only fresh air is circulated
through the load. It must at all times be protected against any trace of exhaust gas, fumes, other
gases, chemicals, rain, seawater, etc.

Special care must be taken during loading of the container to ensure maximum air circulation
through the total load in the container.

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

6.

CARRYING TEMPERATURES

6.1

Carrying temperature instruction

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 11 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

PPECB prepares a written carrying temperature instruction based on the booking for shipping space by
the Exporter, loading information and Shipping Lines documentation.
The ships planner must inform the PPECB port office in writing of any changes in the requested and
agreed carrying temperature or stowage plans. He will present a proper Reefer List, or Bayplan or
Deckplan to PPECB and the Master. The PPECB then audit all information and together with
ships planner, verify all changes, before PPECB hands over the final covering coded temperature
letter to the Master.
The PPECB will, verbally and in writing, instruct the Master or the Chief Engineer of the required
temperatures to be maintained during the voyage. It must, however, be remembered that:

6.2

The Master has control over the delivery air temperature (DAT) only and has no means
to control the return air temperature (RAT) other than applying cold blasts as specified
by PPECB in the temperature letter.
The Master has the right of refusal to reset integral container DAT set points and will only
do so if it is absolutely safe for his crew to get access to the container.
The fact that the DAT was kept within the specified 0.5C tolerance does not guarantee
optimum pulp temperatures. Insufficient ventilation through the carton and the pallet,
heat build up due to product respiration, warm loading temperatures and a number of
other factors have a big influence on the RAT and pulp temperatures. These and other
factors cannot be controlled by the Master.

Temperature recording
The ship must be fitted with the prescribed number of air (and preferably also pulp) temperature
sensors connected to a temperature recorder or data logger. The temperature recording devices as
well as temperature control thermostats must be regularly calibrated and must be accurate within
0.5C.
PPECB will not accept vessels:

6.3

With faulty temperature recording devices.


Keeping hand written logs only.

Temperature logs
The Shipping Line must ensure that the temperature logs or charts for the entire voyage is returned to
the PPECB once requested. Failure to do so confirms non-compliance to the PPECB instruction and the
Shipping Line will be held responsible for any temperature related quality losses.

6.4

Reporting on temperature
PPECB will, on receipt of a written request and confirmation (notification number that an insurance
claim was instituted), compile a technical report on pre-shipment and voyage temperature conditions.

7.

IN CONCLUSION

Responsibility/
Approved

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 12 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

The abovementioned procedures for the sea shipment of citrus fruit were developed over many years.
These procedures describes the most optimum conditions presently known and will be regularly
updated.
All temperature enquiries or any deviation from the procedures, as described in this document, must
be reported to the relevant PPECB Manager in the port of intended export.
The PPECB Manager: Research and Development or General Operations Manager: Coastal and or
Senior Cold Chain Specialist can also be consulted should more information or decisions on logistical
and quality matters be required.
It must, however, always be remembered that fresh citrus fruit is alive and still biologically active and
therefore continuously loses quality. Micro organisms are always present and will, even during low
temperature storage, result in decay if optimum procedures are not applied.
It can therefore not be accepted that fresh citrus fruit that were passed for export based on a quality
inspection and thereafter being handled strictly according to the most optimum procedures, will
always arrive in a perfect condition at the final destination.
Comments and suggestions to improve this document and South African citrus fruit on the overseas
market are most welcome and will be considered in a very positive way.
TABLE 1
Optimum carrying temperatures (C) for well and poorly coloured citrus fruit as well as the maximum time
between packing and reaching optimum pulp temperature for citrus fruit to be shipped from South Africa in
conventional vessels and containers.
TYPE

Oranges Navels
Oranges other
Soft citrus all
Grapefruit
Lemons / Limes
Other citrus

OPTIMUM PULP TEMPERATURE

MAX. TIME TO REACH OPT.


PULP TEMP.

WELL COLOURED

POORLY COLOURED

Code*

Code*

3.5

C35

10.0

C10

3.5

C35

10.0

C10

3.5

C35

10.0

C10

7.0/10.0

C07/C10

10.0/16.0

C10/C16

7.0

C07

10.0

C10

7.0

C07

10.0

C10

7 days
12 days
6 days
12 days
12 days
7 days

IMPORTANT NOTES RE CARRYING TEMPERATURES


1.

PPECB does not take any responsibility for any quality or other losses or potential losses.

2.

PPECB may without prejudices consider deviations from the most optimum procedures and temperatures
dispensation set out in this document upon receipt of a written request. (PPECB ISO 9001 2000 form T13)

3.

Carrying temperature regimes and fresh air ventilation required for fresh citrus fruit to be specified in the booking
request for shipping space.

Responsibility/
Approved

4.

PPECB
Protocol
HANDLING PROCEDURE AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
REQUIREMENTS FOR SEA EXPORT OF CITRUS FRUIT

Doc No: HP01

Senior Cold Chain Specialist


General Operations Manager: Coastal
PM: Harmonization
Manager: Research & Development

Initial:
Initial:
Initial:
Initial:

Name:
Name:
Name:
Name:

R Robinson
C Julius
S Coetzee
M Ngcobo

Page 13 of
Rev: 14
13
Date: 18/03/2013

Please find all regimes and ventilation requirements in the PPECB HP22 protocol, also published and updated on the
PPECB website - www.ppecb.com