Gate Signals & Systems book is very useful for student who want to prepare for GATE. This book is part of GATE correspondence course study material by
THE GATE ACADEMY.
http://thegateacademy.com/

© All Rights Reserved

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Gate Signals & Systems book is very useful for student who want to prepare for GATE. This book is part of GATE correspondence course study material by
THE GATE ACADEMY.
http://thegateacademy.com/

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 12

for

EC / EE / IN

By

www.thegateacademy.com

Syllabus

Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier

series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, Z-transform.

Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality,

stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure,

frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

(Signals & Systems)

Year

ECE

EE

IN

2010

10.00

11.00

9.00

2011

12.00

7.00

9.00

2012

9.00

10.00

8.00

2013

11.00

7.00

6.00

Over All

Percentage

10.50%

8.75%

8.00

th

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Contents

CONTENTS

#1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

Chapters

Page No.

Introduction

Classification of Signals

Systems

Solved Examples

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Answer Keys

Explanations

1-31

Introduction

Properties of Convolution

Properties/Characterization of LTI System

Solved Examples

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Answer Keys

Explanations

32 -53

Introduction

Fourier Series (FS) for Continuous Time Periodic Signals

Properties of Fourier Representation

Differentiation and Integration

Solved Examples

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Answer Keys

Explanations

54-77

Z-Transform

Introduction

Properties of ROC

Properties of Z Transform

Characterization of LTI System from H(Z) and ROC

Solved Examples

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Answer Keys

Explanations

78-98

1-2

2-9

10- 11

12-17

18-21

21-24

25

25-31

32

33

33 35

36 -41

42-46

46-48

49

49-53

th

54-55

55-57

57-59

59-60

61-65

66-69

69-70

71

71-77

78

79

79-81

81-82

83-86

87-90

90-92

93

93 -98

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Page I

Contents

#5.

#6.

Laplace Transform

Introduction

Properties of Laplace Transform

Laplace Transform of Standard Functions

Solved Examples

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Answer Keys

Explanations

99 - 120

99

99-101

101-102

102-105

106 - 109

110-113

114

114-120

Diversified Topics

Frequency Response of a LTI System

Standard LTI Systems

Magnitude Transfer Function

Sampling

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

FIR Filters

Solved Examples

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Answer Keys

Explanations

121 - 148

121-122

122-123

123-124

124-125

125

126

126-132

133-136

137-140

140-143

144

144-148

Module Test

Test Questions

Answer Keys

Explanations

149-161

Reference Book

162

149 - 156

157

157-161

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Page II

Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Signals & Systems

Introduction

Signal is defined as a function that conveys useful information about the state or behaviour of a

physical phenomenon. Signal is typically the variation with respect to an independent quantity

like time as shown in figure below. Time is assumed as independent variable for remaining part

of the discussion, unless mentioned.

(1) Speech signal plot of amplitude with respect to time [x(t)]

(2) Image plot of intensity with respect to spatial co-ordinates [I(x, y)]

(3) Video plot of intensity with respect to spatial co-ordinates and time [V(x, y, t)]

X(t)

System

System is defined as an entity which extracts useful information from the signal or processes the

signal as per a specific function.

Eg:- speech signal filtering

Classification of Signals

Depending on property under consideration, signals can be classified in the following ways.

Continuous-time vs Discrete-time Signals

Continuous-time signal is defined as a signal which is defined for all instants of time. Discrete

time signal is a signal which is defined at specific instants of time only and is obtained by

sampling a continuous time signal. Hence, discrete-time signal is not defined for non-integer

instants and is often identified as sequence of numbers, denoted as x [n] where n is integer.

x[n] = x(t)|

n = 0, 1, 2, 3. . . .

Digital signal is defined as a signal which is defined at specific instants of time and also

dependent variables can take only specific values. Digital signal is obtained from discrete-time

signal by quantization.

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Page 1

Chapter 1

Continuous-time signal

Sampling

x[n]

X(t)

x(T)

x(2T)

0

t

In the figure shown above, x[n] is the discrete time signal obtained by uniform sampling of x(t)

with a sampling period T.

Classification of Signals

Conjugate Symmetric vs Skew Symmetric Signals.

A continuous time signal x(t) is conjugate symmetric if x(t) = x*(-t);t.Also, x(t) is conjugate

skew symmetric if x(t) = -x* (-t); t

Any arbitrary signal x(t) can be considered to constitute 2 parts as below,

x(t) = x t + x t

Where x t = conjugate symmetric part of signal =

If signal x(t) is real, x(t) constitutes even and odd parts.

x(t) = x t

x t

Where x t =

and x t =

and

x t =

and x t =

t

For real signals, conjugate symmetry property implies even function property and conjugate

skew symmetry property implies odd function property. Above properties can also be applied

for discrete time signals and are summarized in the following table.

Table 1.1 Symmetry Properties Based on Nature of Signal

S.NO

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Nature of signal

Complex, continuous-time

Complex, continuous-time

Real, continuous time

Real, continuous time

Complex, discrete time

Complex, discrete-time

Real, discrete-time

Real, discrete-time

Property

Conjugate symmetry

Conjugate skew symmetry

Even function

Odd function

Conjugate symmetry

Conjugate skew symmetry

Even function

Odd function

th

th

Condition

x(t) = x

t

x(t) = x

t

x(t) = x(-t)

x(t) = -x(-t)

x[n] = x

n

x[n] = x

n

x[n] = x[ n]

x[n] = x[ n]

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Page 2

Chapter 1

S.No

Nature of signal

Decomposition

x

x

x

x

Properties

t =x

t

t = x

t

t =x

t

t = x

t

1.

x(t) = x t

x t

2.

x(t) = x t

x t

3.

Complex, discrete-time

x[n] = x n

x n

x n =x

x n = x

4.

Real, discrete-time

x[n] = x n

x n

x n =x

n

x n = x

n

In the figure shown below, x (t), x2[n] are even signals and y (t), y [n] are odd signals.

y (t)

x (t)

A

-T

T

-A

y [n]

x n]

2

1

+

A

1

3 -2

2

-1

-1

If x t and x (t) are complex conjugate symmetric signals and x (t) and x (t) are complex

conjugate skew symmetric signals, then

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

x

x

x

x

t

x t is conjugate symmetric

t

x t is conjugate skew symmetric

t . x t is conjugate symmetric

t x t is conjugate symmetric

Above applies for complex discrete-time signals also and can be equivalently derived for real

signals, based on even-odd function properties.

Periodic vs Non-periodic Signals

A continuous time signal is periodic if there exists T such that

x(t+T) = x(t),

t ;T

R {0}

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Page 3

Chapter 1

The smallest positive value of T that satisfies above condition is called fundamental period of

x(t). Also, angular frequency of continuous-time signals is defined as, = 2/T and is measured

in rad/sec.A discrete-time signal is periodic if there exists N such that

=

The smallest positive N that satisfies above condition is called fundamental period of x[n]. Here

N is always positive integer and angular frequency is defined as = 2/N and is measured in

radians/samples. If x t and x t are periodic signals with periods T and T respectively,

then x(t) = x t + x t is periodic iff (if and only if)

is least common multiple (LCM) of T and T .If x n is periodic with fundamental period N and

x n is periodic with fundamental period M than x[n] = x n + x n is always periodic with

fundamental period equal to the least common multiple (LCM) of M and N.

Figure below shows a signal, x(t) of period T

x(t)

-2T

-T

2

T

Fig.1.4 Example of a periodic signal

The formulas for calculation of energy, E and power, P of a continuous/discrete-time signal are

given in table below,

Table 1.3 Formulas for calculation of energy and power

S. NO

/

= im

T

Continuous-time,

non-periodic

= x t

2.

Continuous-time,

periodic signal with

period T

3.

Discrete-time, nonperiodic

im |x n |

= im

4.

Discrete-time,

periodic signal with

period N

im |x n |

1.

dt

x t

dt

x t

dt P =

/

/

x t

dt

1

2N 1

1

2N 1

|x n |

|x n |

A signal is called power signal if f 0< P < . So

Note: (1) Energy signal has zero average power.

(2) Power signal has infinite energy.

(3) Usually periodic signals and random signals are power signals.

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Page 4

Chapter 1

(4) Usually deterministic and non periodic signals are energy signals.

Real vs Complex Signals

A signal x(t) is real signal if its value are only real numbers and the signal x(t) is complex signal

if its value are complex numbers.

Deterministic Vs Random Signals

A signal is said to be deterministic signal whose values can be predicted in advance

Eg : A

A signa is said to be random signa whose va ues are cant be predicted in advance

Eg : Noise

Basic Operations on Signals

Depending on nature of operation, different basic operations can be applied on dependent and

independent variables of a signal. The table below summaries basic operations that can be

performed on dependent variable of a signal.

S. No

1

2

3

4

5

Operation

Continuous-time signal Discrete time signal

Amplitude scaling

y(t) = c.x(t)

y[n]= c.x[n]

Addition

y(t) = x t

x t

y[n] =x n

x n

Multiplication

y(t) = x t x t

y[n] =x n . x n

Differentiation

y[n]= x[n] x[n-1]

y(t) =

x t

Integration

y(t) =

y[n] =

x t dt

xn

Time Scaling

For continuous time signals, y(t) = x(at). If a > 1, y(t) is obtained by compressing signal x(t)

a ong time axis by a and vice versa.

Eg:

x(t)

-1

x( )

x(2t)

0.5

0.5 t

-2

t

2

For discrete time signal, y[n] =x([Kn]) where [ ] is some operation leading to integer result. If K

> 1, y[n] is compressed version of x[n] and vice versa.y[n] is defined only for integer values of n.

Therefore, compressing a discrete-time signal may result in data loss and expansion leads to

some instants where values of y[n] are zero

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Page 5

Chapter 1

Eg:

X[n]

1 2

5 6

7 8

10

Y[n] = x[2n]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time Shifting

For continuous time signal,y(t) = x(t T0). If T0> 0, y(t) is delayed version of x(t). If T0< 0, y(t)

is advanced version of x(t)

Eg:

X(t T0)

X(t)

X(t + T0)

T0

T0

For discrete time signal, y[n] = x[n-m];

where m is an integer. If m > 0, signal x[n] gets shifted to right by m (delayed by m samples).If

m < 0, signal x[n] gets shifted to left by m (advanced by m samples).

Reflection or Transposing of Time Variable

For continuous time signal x(t), reflection is expressed as y(t) = x(-t). For discrete-time signals,

y[n] = x[ n] is the reflection of x[n].

Eg:-(1)

x(t)

y(t) = x(-t)

-1

-1

(2) x[n] = {.. x[-2], x[-1], x[0], x[1], x[2] .. }

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