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# Signals & Systems

for

EC / EE / IN
By

Syllabus

## Syllabus for Signals & Systems

Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier
series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, Z-transform.
Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality,
stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure,
frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

## Analysis of GATE Papers

(Signals & Systems)
Year

ECE

EE

IN

2010

10.00

11.00

9.00

2011

12.00

7.00

9.00

2012

9.00

10.00

8.00

2013

11.00

7.00

6.00

Over All
Percentage

10.50%

8.75%

8.00

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Contents

CONTENTS

#1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

Chapters

Page No.

## Introduction to Signals & Systems

Introduction
Classification of Signals
Systems
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Explanations

1-31

## Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems

Introduction
Properties of Convolution
Properties/Characterization of LTI System
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Explanations

32 -53

## Fourier Representation of Signals

Introduction
Fourier Series (FS) for Continuous Time Periodic Signals
Properties of Fourier Representation
Differentiation and Integration
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Explanations

54-77

Z-Transform
Introduction
Properties of ROC
Properties of Z Transform
Characterization of LTI System from H(Z) and ROC
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Explanations

78-98

1-2
2-9
10- 11
12-17
18-21
21-24
25
25-31
32
33
33 35
36 -41
42-46
46-48
49
49-53

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54-55
55-57
57-59
59-60
61-65
66-69
69-70
71
71-77

78
79
79-81
81-82
83-86
87-90
90-92
93
93 -98
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Page I

Contents

#5.

#6.

## Signals and Systems

Laplace Transform
Introduction
Properties of Laplace Transform
Laplace Transform of Standard Functions
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Explanations

99 - 120
99
99-101
101-102
102-105
106 - 109
110-113
114
114-120

## Frequency Response of LTI Systems and

Diversified Topics
Frequency Response of a LTI System
Standard LTI Systems
Magnitude Transfer Function
Sampling
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
FIR Filters
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Explanations

121 - 148
121-122
122-123
123-124
124-125
125
126
126-132
133-136
137-140
140-143
144
144-148

Module Test
Test Questions
Explanations

149-161

Reference Book

162

149 - 156
157
157-161

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Page II

Chapter 1

## Signals & Systems

CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Signals & Systems
Introduction
Signal is defined as a function that conveys useful information about the state or behaviour of a
physical phenomenon. Signal is typically the variation with respect to an independent quantity
like time as shown in figure below. Time is assumed as independent variable for remaining part
of the discussion, unless mentioned.
(1) Speech signal plot of amplitude with respect to time [x(t)]
(2) Image plot of intensity with respect to spatial co-ordinates [I(x, y)]
(3) Video plot of intensity with respect to spatial co-ordinates and time [V(x, y, t)]
X(t)

## Fig 1.1 Continuous time signal

System
System is defined as an entity which extracts useful information from the signal or processes the
signal as per a specific function.
Eg:- speech signal filtering
Classification of Signals
Depending on property under consideration, signals can be classified in the following ways.
Continuous-time vs Discrete-time Signals
Continuous-time signal is defined as a signal which is defined for all instants of time. Discrete
time signal is a signal which is defined at specific instants of time only and is obtained by
sampling a continuous time signal. Hence, discrete-time signal is not defined for non-integer
instants and is often identified as sequence of numbers, denoted as x [n] where n is integer.
x[n] = x(t)|

n = 0, 1, 2, 3. . . .

## x[n] = { x(0), x(T), x(2T). . . . . . }

Digital signal is defined as a signal which is defined at specific instants of time and also
dependent variables can take only specific values. Digital signal is obtained from discrete-time
signal by quantization.

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Chapter 1

Continuous-time signal

Sampling

x[n]

X(t)

x(T)
x(2T)

0
t

## Fig. 1.2.Demonstration of sampling

In the figure shown above, x[n] is the discrete time signal obtained by uniform sampling of x(t)
with a sampling period T.

Classification of Signals
Conjugate Symmetric vs Skew Symmetric Signals.
A continuous time signal x(t) is conjugate symmetric if x(t) = x*(-t);t.Also, x(t) is conjugate
skew symmetric if x(t) = -x* (-t); t
Any arbitrary signal x(t) can be considered to constitute 2 parts as below,
x(t) = x t + x t
Where x t = conjugate symmetric part of signal =

## x t = conjugate skew symmetric part of signal =

If signal x(t) is real, x(t) constitutes even and odd parts.
x(t) = x t
x t
Where x t =

and x t =

and

x t =
and x t =
t
For real signals, conjugate symmetry property implies even function property and conjugate
skew symmetry property implies odd function property. Above properties can also be applied
for discrete time signals and are summarized in the following table.
Table 1.1 Symmetry Properties Based on Nature of Signal
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Nature of signal
Complex, continuous-time
Complex, continuous-time
Real, continuous time
Real, continuous time
Complex, discrete time
Complex, discrete-time
Real, discrete-time
Real, discrete-time

Property
Conjugate symmetry
Conjugate skew symmetry
Even function
Odd function
Conjugate symmetry
Conjugate skew symmetry
Even function
Odd function
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Condition
x(t) = x
t
x(t) = x
t
x(t) = x(-t)
x(t) = -x(-t)
x[n] = x
n
x[n] = x
n
x[n] = x[ n]
x[n] = x[ n]
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Chapter 1

S.No

Nature of signal

Decomposition
x
x
x
x

Properties
t =x
t
t = x
t
t =x
t
t = x
t

1.

x(t) = x t

x t

2.

## Real, continuous time

x(t) = x t

x t

3.

Complex, discrete-time

x[n] = x n

x n

x n =x
x n = x

4.

Real, discrete-time

x[n] = x n

x n

x n =x
n
x n = x
n

In the figure shown below, x (t), x2[n] are even signals and y (t), y [n] are odd signals.
y (t)
x (t)
A

-T

T
-A
y [n]

x n]
2
1

+
A

1
3 -2
2

-1

-1

## Fig 1.3 Examples of even and odd signals

If x t and x (t) are complex conjugate symmetric signals and x (t) and x (t) are complex
conjugate skew symmetric signals, then
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

x
x
x
x

t
x t is conjugate symmetric
t
x t is conjugate skew symmetric
t . x t is conjugate symmetric
t x t is conjugate symmetric

Above applies for complex discrete-time signals also and can be equivalently derived for real
signals, based on even-odd function properties.
Periodic vs Non-periodic Signals
A continuous time signal is periodic if there exists T such that
x(t+T) = x(t),

t ;T

R {0}

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Chapter 1

## Signals & Systems

The smallest positive value of T that satisfies above condition is called fundamental period of
x(t). Also, angular frequency of continuous-time signals is defined as, = 2/T and is measured
in rad/sec.A discrete-time signal is periodic if there exists N such that
=

The smallest positive N that satisfies above condition is called fundamental period of x[n]. Here
N is always positive integer and angular frequency is defined as = 2/N and is measured in
radians/samples. If x t and x t are periodic signals with periods T and T respectively,
then x(t) = x t + x t is periodic iff (if and only if)

## is a rational number and period of x(t)

is least common multiple (LCM) of T and T .If x n is periodic with fundamental period N and
x n is periodic with fundamental period M than x[n] = x n + x n is always periodic with
fundamental period equal to the least common multiple (LCM) of M and N.
Figure below shows a signal, x(t) of period T
x(t)

-2T

-T

2
T
Fig.1.4 Example of a periodic signal

## Energy & Power Signals

The formulas for calculation of energy, E and power, P of a continuous/discrete-time signal are
given in table below,
Table 1.3 Formulas for calculation of energy and power
S. NO

## Formulas for energy & power calculation

/

= im
T

Continuous-time,
non-periodic

= x t

2.

Continuous-time,
periodic signal with
period T

3.

Discrete-time, nonperiodic

im |x n |

= im

4.

Discrete-time,
periodic signal with
period N

im |x n |

1.

dt

x t

dt

x t

dt P =

/
/

x t

dt
1
2N 1

1
2N 1

|x n |

|x n |

## A signal is called energy signal if f 0< E < . So P = 0

A signal is called power signal if f 0< P < . So
Note: (1) Energy signal has zero average power.
(2) Power signal has infinite energy.
(3) Usually periodic signals and random signals are power signals.
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Chapter 1

## Signals & Systems

(4) Usually deterministic and non periodic signals are energy signals.
Real vs Complex Signals
A signal x(t) is real signal if its value are only real numbers and the signal x(t) is complex signal
if its value are complex numbers.
Deterministic Vs Random Signals
A signal is said to be deterministic signal whose values can be predicted in advance
Eg : A
A signa is said to be random signa whose va ues are cant be predicted in advance
Eg : Noise
Basic Operations on Signals
Depending on nature of operation, different basic operations can be applied on dependent and
independent variables of a signal. The table below summaries basic operations that can be
performed on dependent variable of a signal.
S. No
1
2
3
4
5

## Table 1.4 Summary of basic operations on dependent variable of a signal

Operation
Continuous-time signal Discrete time signal
Amplitude scaling
y(t) = c.x(t)
y[n]= c.x[n]
y(t) = x t
x t
y[n] =x n
x n
Multiplication
y(t) = x t x t
y[n] =x n . x n
Differentiation
y[n]= x[n] x[n-1]
y(t) =
x t
Integration

y(t) =

y[n] =

x t dt

xn

## Similarly, following operations can be performed on independent variable of a signal.

Time Scaling
For continuous time signals, y(t) = x(at). If a > 1, y(t) is obtained by compressing signal x(t)
a ong time axis by a and vice versa.
Eg:
x(t)

-1

x( )

x(2t)

0.5

0.5 t

-2

t
2

## Fig 1.5.Demonstration of time scaling

For discrete time signal, y[n] =x([Kn]) where [ ] is some operation leading to integer result. If K
> 1, y[n] is compressed version of x[n] and vice versa.y[n] is defined only for integer values of n.
Therefore, compressing a discrete-time signal may result in data loss and expansion leads to
some instants where values of y[n] are zero

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Chapter 1

Eg:
X[n]

1 2

5 6

7 8

10

Y[n] = x[2n]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

## Fig. 1.6.Demonstration of down sampling

Time Shifting
For continuous time signal,y(t) = x(t T0). If T0> 0, y(t) is delayed version of x(t). If T0< 0, y(t)
is advanced version of x(t)
Eg:
X(t T0)

X(t)

X(t + T0)

T0

T0

## Fig. 1.7.Demonstration of delaying a signal

For discrete time signal, y[n] = x[n-m];
where m is an integer. If m > 0, signal x[n] gets shifted to right by m (delayed by m samples).If
m < 0, signal x[n] gets shifted to left by m (advanced by m samples).
Reflection or Transposing of Time Variable
For continuous time signal x(t), reflection is expressed as y(t) = x(-t). For discrete-time signals,
y[n] = x[ n] is the reflection of x[n].
Eg:-(1)
x(t)

y(t) = x(-t)

-1

-1

## Fig. 1.8.Demonstration of reflection

(2) x[n] = {.. x[-2], x[-1], x, x, x .. }

## x[-n] = {..x, x, x,x[-1],x[-2] .. }

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