Instructor:
John Reyland
http://www.aticourses.com/Spacecraft_RF_Communications.html
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Spacecraft RF Communication
Day 1:
Day 2:
Day 3:
Kalman filters
Satellite systems
Special topics
10/30/2013
Stop me
and ask!!!!
RF Signal Transmission
Doppler frequency shift and
time dilation affect RF channels
where receiver and/or
transmitter are moving relative
to each other
v(t )
(t )
vr (t ) = v(t ) co s( (t ) )
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RF Signal Transmission
Some Definitions:
c = Speed of light, 3e8 meters/second
f c = Carrier frequency (Hz)
(t ) = Angle between receivers forward velocity and
line of sight between transmitter and receiver
(t ) co s( (t ) )
vr (t ) v=
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RF Signal Transmission
Example 1:
f c = 1 GHz = 1e+9 Hz
v(t )= v=
Tt (t ) = Tt =
(1e9 )
350 10(350)
=
= 1167 Hz
= Doppler carrier frequency shift at receiver
3e8
3
1
= 1e 6 = Transmit symbol time
1e + 6
Tr (t ) =Tr =Tt +
vTt
350
=(1e 6) 1 +
=(1e 6)(1.000001167) = Receive symbol time
c
3e8
This means receive symbol time increases by 0.0001167%.  called time dilation
10/30/2013
RF Signal Transmission
d = distance between transmitter and receiver at leading edge of transmit pulse
d+vTt = distance between transmitter and receiver at trailing edge of transmit pulse
d
= Propagation time at leading edge of transmit pulse
c
d + vTt
c
d + vTt
c
Tt +
vTt
v
= Tt 1 + = Dilated time duration of pulse at the receiver
c
c
10/30/2013
RF Carrier Modulation
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
a ( n)
b( n)
1 +1
0 1
R
cos 2 l
L
p(k )
Antipodal
Mapping
Pulse
Forming
x(k )
y (l )
Modulator
x(k )
n = 0
k = 0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
2Fb Fb
Fb
2Fb
y (l )
Fc = RFb
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2L
3L
4L
5L
Fc = RFb
RF Carrier Modulation
R
cos 2 l
L
a ( n)
p(k )
R
sin 2 l
L
1 +1
0 1
bo (no )
Serial 2
Parallel
p(k )
y (l )
yI (l )
xI (l )
yQ (l )
xQ (l )
Modulator
Pulse
Forming
1
0
a ( n)
n = 0
= 0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
n = 0
= 0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
xI ( k ) k
xQ ( k ) k
y I (l )
yQ (l )
0
10/30/2013
2L
3L
4L
5L
6L
7L
8L
9L
RF Carrier Modulation
OFDM starts by converting high speed symbols indexed by n at rate 1/Ts
Into parallel blocks indexed by k at rate 1/T = M/Ts
bi ( n ) + jbq ( n )
b(4k )
s(4k )
b(4k + 1)
s(4k + 1)
b(4k + 2)
IDFT
s(4k + 2)
s(4k + 3)
b(4k + 3)
Channel 3 Symbols
Channel 2 Symbols
Channel 1 Symbols
Channel 0 Symbols
n = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
k= 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2
10/30/2013
RF Carrier Modulation
Advantage:
Bit polarity can match
alternating I,Q polarity
Disadvantages:
To detect bits, have to know
where two bit pattern
boundaries are. Even/Odd bits
cannot interchange
Important: This signal has only
one bit of modulo 2 phase
memory, i.e. current phase
transition only depends on
previous phase.
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p ( r  S1 )
p1
=
LML log
=
log
p0
p ( r  S0 )
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( rk Smk )
N0
k =1
N0
1
ln p ( r  S=
ln ( N 0 )
m)
2
N0
(r
k =1
S mk )
D ( r=
, Sm )
10/30/2013
( rk Smk )
k =1
p(S  r) =
p (r  S ) p (S )
p (r )
p ( S1  r )
=
p ( S0  r )
p ( r  S1 ) p ( S1 )
p (r )
p ( r  S1 ) p ( S1 )
=
p ( r  S0 ) p ( S0 ) p ( r  S0 ) p ( S0 )
p (r )
MAP Loglikelihood ratio = likelihood ratio based on observation + a priori information ratio
LMAP
p ( S1  r )
p ( r  S1 )
p ( S1 )
log
=
log
+ log
p
S

r
p
r

S
p
S
0)
( 0 )
(
( 0)
LMAP = LML
if p ( S1 ) = p ( S0 )
Power efficiency is extremely important: Coding gain of 6dB can double the
communications range between spacecraft and earth ([C8], page 172)
Voyager telecommunications achieved 106 BER at EbN0 = 2.53dB, 2Mbits/sec.
What system considerations are not very important?
Bandwidth efficiency, not many other users out there.
Delay, waiting time for image reconstructions is OK
10/30/2013
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p ( S1  r )
p ( r  S1 )
p ( S1 )
col
row
= log
= log
+ log
= LML + LAP = LML + LEXT
p ( S0  r )
p ( r  S0 )
p ( S0 )
10/30/2013
L=
( r0 r1 ) L ( r0=
) L ( r1 ) sig nL
( ( r0 ) ) sig nL
( ( r1 ) ) min L ( r0 ) , L ( r1 )
This addition rule is used to combine data and parity into extrinsic information
Extrinsic means extra, or indirect, information derived from the decoding process
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Over an ideal channel, delayed transmit signal will be observed at the receiver.
Ideal channel:
10/30/2013
sreceived
=
(t ) stransmit (t )
John Reyland, PhD
A decision feedback
nonlinear adaptive
equalizer:
10/30/2013
Pwatts
10
PdBm 10log
=
10
Pwatts 0.001 10
0.001
1013 =
0.1 picowatt
100dBm 1010103 =
0dBm 1milliwatt
10/30/2013
=
e j BB (t ) co s( BB (t ) ) + j sin ( BB (t ) )
Because the phase is now always positive, complex exponential terms are redundant
j (RF t + BB ( t ) )
j (RF t + BB ( t ) )
+e
j (RF t + BB ( t ) )
This forces the existence of a negative image (ignored for most analog processing):
10/30/2013
10/30/2013
Lets discuss the function of the reconstruction filter and the bandpass filter
10/30/2013
This setup is suitable for many linear modulations. Nonlinear demodulation would
replace the equalizer with a phase discriminator and also probably not have carrier
tracking.
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10/30/2013
0.2
0
0.2
Fss = 58.9824e6;
1
10
11
Resp, dB
0
10
20
30
40
3.6864
7.3728
3.6864
7.3728
Resp, linear
0.5
10/30/2013
Ib(n)
x(n)
h0
Z1
Z1
Z1
Z1
Z1
Z1
h2
h3
h4
h6
Ihb(n)
2
Qb(n)
h0
Z1
Z1
Z1
Z1
Z1
Z1
h2
h3
h4
h6
Qhb(n)
2
10/30/2013
Local
Oscillator:
I(n) + jQ(n) =
Mixer Output
x(n)
x(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
x(4)
x(5)
x(6)
x(7)
I(n)
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Q(n)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Ib(n)
x(0)
0
x(2)
0
x(4)
0
x(6)
0
Qb(n)
0
x(1)
0
x(3)
0
x(5)
0
x(7)
h0
0
x(1)
0
x(3)
0
x(5)
0
x(7)
0
0
0
x(1)
0
x(3)
0
x(5)
0
h2
0
0
0
x(1)
0
x(3)
0
x(5)
h3
0
0
0
0
x(1)
0
x(3)
0
h4
0
0
0
0
0
x(1)
0
x(3)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x(1)
0
h6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x(1)
x(8)
x(9)
1
0
0
1
x(8)
0
0
x(9)
0
x(9)
x(7)
0
0
x(7)
x(5)
0
0
x(5)
x(3)
0
0
x(3)
x(10)
x(11)
1
0
0
1
x(10)
0
0
x(11)
0
x(11)
x(9)
0
0
x(9)
x(7)
0
0
x(7)
x(5)
0
0
x(5)
x(12)
x(13)
1
0
0
1
x(12)
0
0
x(13)
0
x(13)
x(11)
0
0
x(11)
x(9)
0
0
x(9)
x(7)
0
0
x(7)
x(14)
x(15)
1
0
0
1
x(14)
0
0
x(15)
0
x(15)
x(13)
0
0
x(13)
x(11)
0
0
x(11)
x(9)
0
0
x(9)
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0
x(1)*h0
0
x(3)*h0 + x(1)*h2
x(1)*h3
x(5)*h0  x(3)*h2 + x(1)*h4
x(3)*h3
x(7)*h0 + x(5)*h2  x(3)*h4 +
x(1)*h6
x(5)*h3
x(9)*h0  x(7)*h2 + x(5)*h4 x(3)*h6
x(7)*h3
x(11)*h0 + x(9)*h2  x(7)*h4 +
x(5)*h6
x(9)*h3
x(13)*h0  x(11)*h2 + x(9)*h4 x(7)*h6
x(11)*h3
x(15)*h0 + x(13)*h2  x(11)*h4
+ x(9)*h6
10/30/2013
Kalman Filters
A Kalman filter estimates the state of an n dimensional discrete time process
governed by the linear stochastic difference equation:
x(k=
) Ax(k 1) + Bu (k 1) + w(k 1)
A = (n by n)
x(k )
=
z (k ) Hx(k ) + v(k )
H = (m by n)
p ( w) ~ N ( 0, Q )
10/30/2013
Kalman Filters
Kalman filter prediction/correction loop: Inputs current time flight dynamics,
outputs prediction of t seconds ahead position:
10/30/2013
Special Topics
NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS)
10/30/2013
NASA STRS
Generalpurpose Processing Module (GPM):
Supports radio reconfiguration, performance monitoring, ground testing and
other supervisory functions
Signal Processing Module (SPM):
Implements digital signal processing modem functions such as carrier estimation,
equalization, symbol tracking and estimation. Components include ASICs, FPGAs,
DSPs, memory, and interconnection bus.
Radio Frequency Module (RFM):
Provides radio frequency (RF) passband filter and tuning functions as well as
intermediate frequency (IF) sampling. Also includes transmit RF functions.
Components include filters, RF switches, diplexer, LNAs, power amplifiers, ADCs
and DACs.
10/30/2013