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b0 yn + b1 yn1 + + bd ynd = fn

for n d, or

b0 yn+d + b1 yn+d1 + + bd yn = gn

for n 0, where b0 , . . . , bd are given constants with b0 bd 6= 0 and hgn i = hfn+d i is a given

sequence. If this given sequence is identically zero, the LRRwcc is said to be homogeneous;

otherwise, nonhomogeneous.

P

The characteristic polynomial is P (x) = b0 xd + b1 xd1 + + bd = dj=0 bj xdj , a

polynomial of degree d. In terms of operator calculus with E being the advancing operator

(Eyn = yn+1), the LRRwcc may be written

P (E)yn = gn .

Homogeneous Case

KEY IDEA: If yn = r n , then P (E)yn = r n P (r). Thus, if r is a number for which P (r) = 0,

then yn = r n is one solution of the homogeneous LRRwcc P (E)yn = 0.

RECIPE FOR SOLVING A HOMOGENEOUS LRRwcc

1. Solve the characteristic equation, P (r) = 0.

2. If there are d distinct roots r1 , , rd , then the general solution of P (E)yn = 0 is given

by

yn = C1 r1n + + Cd rdn

where C1 , . . . , Cd are arbitrary constants. If the initial d values y0 , . . . , yd1 are given,

they determine d linear equations for the d constants. (In some cases the roots are

not real but are complex numbers. Then, if the original b0 , . . . , bd and y0 , . . . , yd1 are all

real, then the subsequent yn are actually real numbers, appearances notwithstanding. Using

deMoivres formula, (r cos + i sin )n = r n ein = r n (cos n + i sin n), it is possible, though

tedious, to rewrite the answer in all real terms.)

3. If there are fewer than d distinct roots, then the characteristic polynomial may be

written P (r) = b0 (r r1 )m1 (r rh )mh where r1 , . . . , rh are the distinct roots and

m1 , . . . , mh their respective multiplicities. Then the general solution is of the form

yn = (A1 + A2 n + + Am1 nm1 1 )r1n + + (B1 + B2 n + + Bmh nmh 1 )rhn

In other words, the contribution of rj to the solution is rjn times a polynomial in n of

degree mj 1.

Nonhomogeneous Case

This section considers only special sequences hgn i. Linear combinations of such sequences

may be handled by linearity.

RECIPE FOR SOLVING A NONHOMOGENEOUS LRRwcc

1. Given the nonhomogeneous equation P (E)yn = gn , first solve the homogeneous equation P (E)yn = 0. Let yn(h) denote the general homogeneous solution (with the arbitrary

constants not yet determined).

2. Try to find a particular solution yn of the nonhomogeneous equation as follows.

If gn = an ,

If gn = sin(cn) or cos(cn),

If gn = an sin(cn) or an cos(cn),

If gn = np ,

If gn = np an ,

try

yn = Aan .

try

yn = A sin(cn) + B cos(cn).

try yn = an (A sin(cn) + B cos(cn)).

try

yn = A0 + A1 n + + Ap np .

try yn = an (A0 + A1 n + + Ap np ).

If this works, let yn(p) = yn be the particular solution. In the cases involving an , this

wont work if a is a root of the characteristic equation. In this case, if a is a root of

multiplicity m, multiply the first trial solution yn by nm to get the actual trial solution:

yn(p) = nm yn . Substituting the form for yn(p) into the nonhomogeneous equation, youll

get an equation that will determine the constants (A and/or B or A0 , . . . , Ap ).

3. The general solution is the sum of the general homogeneous solution and the particular

nonhomogeneous solution: yn = yn(h) + yn(p) . If the initial values y0 , . . . , yd1 are given,

then they determine d equations for the d formerly arbitary constants.

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