Aerodynamics 1
AE 302
Department of Aeronautical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
University of Tripoli
March 2014
Aerodynamics
Ludwing Prandtl, 1949 defined aerodynamics as The term
aerodynamics is generally used for problems arising from flight and
other topics involving the flow of air.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English, 1969 defined
aerodynamics as the dynamics of gases, especially atmospheric
interaction with moving objects.
Fluid Dynamics is subdivided into three areas as follows:
Hydrodynamics : Flow of liquids
Gas Dynamics : Flow of gases
Aerodynamics : Flow of air
In those three areas there are many similarities and identical
phenomena between them.
Applications:
External aerodynamics: Deals with external flow over a body.
Internal Aerodynamics: Deals with flows internally within ducts.
In addition to forces, moments and aerodynamics heating
associated with a body, we are frequently interested in the
details of flow field away from the body.
Progression of airplanes over the 70 years
Douglas DC3: One of most famous aircraft of all time, is low speed
subsonic transport designed during 1930s. Without a knowledge of
low speed aerodynamics, this aircraft would have never existed.
The Being 707: Opened highspeed flight to millions of passengers
beginning in the late 1950s. Without a knowledge of high speed
subsonic aerodynamics, most of us would still be relegated to ground
transportation.
The Bell X1 became the first piloted airplane to fly faster than sound,
1947. Without a knowledge of transonic aerodynamics, neither the X1, nor any other airplane, would have ever broken sound barrier.
The Lockheed F104 was the first supersonic airplane designed to fly
at twice the speed of sound, accomplished in the 1950s.
The LockheedMartin F22 is a modern fighter aircraft designed for
sustained supersonic flight. Without a knowledge of supersonic
aerodynamics, these supersonic airplanes would not exist.
Finally, an example of an innovation new vehicle concept for high
speed subsonic flight in the blended wing body. Blended wing body
promises to carry from 400 to 800 passengers over long distance with
almost 30% percent less fuel per seat mie than a conventional jet
transport.
This course
The goal of this course is to introduce the fundamental of
aerodynamics and to give the student a much deeper insight to
technical applications.
Aerodynamics Forces and Moments
Aerodynamics Forces and Moments on the Body are only due to:
1. Pressure distribution
2. Shear Stress distribution
R : Resultant aerodynamics forces
M: Resultant aerodynamic moments
Where
R: Resultant aerodynamic force on the body.
L: Lift = Component of R perpendicular to V.
D: Drag = Component of R parallel to V.
N: Normal Forces = Component of R perpendicular to c.
A: Axial Force = Component of R parallel to c.
: Angle of attack = Angle between V and c.
How do we compute the aerodynamic forces and moments
Stress on Airfoil
N Total normal force per unit span
A Total axial force per unit span
On the upper surface
d =
d = +
On the lower surface
d =
d = +
( +ive cw from vertical line to
the direction of p and Horizontal
line to direction of )
=
=
+
+
sin +
cos +
sin +
cos
Substitute N and A into
=
+
=
To compute the lift and drag per unit span for a body with arbitrary shape
Aerodynamic Moments
Positive moment (Pitch up)
Negative moment (Pitch down)
Moment per unit span about the leading edge
d! =
+
" + +
#
d! =
+
" + +
#
Integrating from the LE to the TE we get
! =
+
+
"
#
+
" + +
#
Where , x and y are known functions of s for a given body shape. pu,
pl, u, and l are also functions of s from theory or experiment.
Hence L, D and M can be computed.
Dynamic Pressure: $% '()*+*(, Lift Coefficient: , .* /,
1
3
Drag Coefficient: ,0 .*
and
Normal
force
Coefficient:
,
.
2
/
.* /
5
7
Axial Force Coefficient: ,4 .*
,
and
Moment
Coefficient:
,
.
6
/
.* /8
Where S is reference area and l is reference length.
Example: S  planform area of the wing
 d2/4 for cylinder
l  chord c for a wing /airfoil
 diameter for a cylinder
For 2D bodies, the forces and moments are per unit span, hence
,
, .*
,
:
1
,; .*
:
and
,6 . 7<(
*
The Momentum Equation
The momentum equation is given by
=
@ ;B )+
@ .; +
@ FG H;B )I ;BJKLMN<O
)+
=>
Control Volume: abcdefghia
Surface forces on the control volume
1. Due to Pressure distribution over abhi or PQRS
Also important are:
*
Pressure Coefficient: ,T UVU
.*
and Skin Frication Coefficient: ,I .W*
The equations for the force and moment coefficient in integral for are
X = YZ [`<
;_
;_
<
ZU,8 GZU,\ ;]B[` Z^,\ ;]\ BZ^,8 ;]8 ;]
P = YZ [`<
;_
;_
<
ZU,\ ;]\ GZU,8 ;]8 ;]B[` Z^,\ BZ^,8 ;]
6, = ZY( [`<
;_
;_
;_
;_
<
<
<
ZU,\ GZU,8 ];]B[` Z^,\ \ BZ^,8 8 ];]B[` ZU,\ \ BZ^,\ _\ ;]B[` GZU,8 8 BZ^,8 _8;]
;]
;]
;]
;]
Where dx= ds cos and dy= ds sin.
2. The surface, forces on def due to the presence of the airfoil:
Shear stresses on ab and hi are neglected.
Since cd and fg are next to each other all force on one is cancelled by
forces on the other.
Flow gives rise to p and or
the resultant force R.
Equal or Opposite reaction;
Body exerts surface force
on the CV def.
Then total surface force on the control volume abcdefghia is
Surface force= PQRS b
Flow exerts p and leading
to a resultant force R
Body exerts equal and opposite
reaction R on the control Volume
Hence total surface force on the control volume is PQRS b
From the integral momentum equation we have
h
j cdK + f cdK. dK = f e b
hi
PQRS
Assume steady flow, then
b = cdK . dK PQRS e
Taking the xcomponent of the above eqn.
= f cdK . gK f e
PQRS
Where D is the aerodynamic drag per unit span, which is the xcomp. of R.
Since p is constant along abhi then
Hence
= f
e
=0
PQRS
cdK . gK
Where ds is perpendicular to CS evaluated over the closed surface of
the CV.
The section ab, hi and def are streamlines. Hence dK = 0 along these.
cd and fg are very close to each other, hence their net contribution is
zero.
The only contribution to the above integral is from ai and bh. Hence
= f cdK . gK =
+ cY gYl #
S
cdK . = 0
From the continuity equation
cl gll #
(*)
Applying this equation to CV leads to
P
cY gY # + cl gl # = 0
S
or
cY gYl # + cl gY gl # = 0
S
= cl gY gl # cl gll # = 0
R
substitute in (*)
or, = [R cl gl gY gl #
Flow is incompressible, 2D, steady, find Drag.
At the upstream end dK = m% n
At the down stream end:
For 0 # q dK = st*_ u + v w
For H # 2q dK = z* u + v{ w
For q # 0 dK = st*_ u v w
For 2H # q dK = z* u v{ w
Where v and v0 are not measured
= c gl gY gl #
only the xcomp.
(
~
}

0
;_B
F
G
G
;_B
G
;_B
[
[
[
[
(
(
( ( '
~ ( '
} ( ' G( ;_
) ' ( ' (
`
as u1=u2
_
_
_
_
= m%
m% + m%
# + m%
m% m%
#
c
G
=
(
)z*
,
;
,
='
0
(Z
)z*
(
,; =
( {.{lZ
)z*
'
(Z
)z*
(
= 0.01667
Pressure Coefficient
*
Pressure Coefficient: ,T UVU
.*
From Bernoullis equation (incompressible flow):
% +'()+*( FTB'()+ ( or % = '()
UVU*
.*
'
)
(
( G+ (
+*
' (
(*
or ,T =
( G+ (
+*
UVU*
(
FYG
.*
*
Condition on V for incompressible flows
From the continuity equation:
=) @ @
B .)+
=>
=0
Continuity Equation for incompressible Flow:
@ .)+
@
=0