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Kelompok 4 (2011 E)



In human context, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people affiliated by

consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage), or co-residence/shared consumption
(see Nurture kinship).
The family can clasyfied become two group:
1) Members of the immediate family : include a spouse, parent, brother and sister, and son and
2) Members of the extended family : include grandparent, aunt, uncle, cousin, nephew and
niece, or sibling-in-law.
B.The Member of Family

Father: a male parent

Mother: a female parent

Son: a male child of the parent(s)

Daughter: a female child of the parent(s)

Brother: a male sibling

Sister: a female sibling

Grandfather: the father of a parent

Grandmother: the mother of a parent


Grandson: a child's son

Granddaughter: a child's daughter

Cousins: two people who share at least one grandparent in common, but neither the same

Uncle: father's brother, mother's brother, father's sister's husband, mother's sister's

Aunt: father's sister, mother's sister, father's brother's wife, mother's brother's wife

Nephew: brother's son, sister's son, husband's brother's son, husband's sister's son, wife's
brother's son, wife's sister's son

Niece: brother's daughter, sister's daughter, husband's brother's daughter, husband's

sister's daughter, wife's brother's daughter, wife's sister's daughter

1. Conjugal (nuclear) family
The term "nuclear family" is commonly used, especially in the United States, to refer to
conjugal families. A "conjugal" family includes only the husband, the wife, and unmarried
children who are not of age.[14] Sociologists distinguish between conjugal families (relatively
independent of the kindred of the parents and of other families in general) and nuclear families
(which maintain relatively close ties with their kindred).
2. Matrifocal family
A "matrifocal" family consists of a mother and her children. Generally, these children are
her biological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearly every society. This
kind of family is common where women have the resources to rear their children by themselves,
or where men are more mobile than women.

3. Extended family
The term "extended family" is also common, especially in United States. This term has
two distinct meanings. First, it serves as a synonym of "consanguinal family" (consanguine
means "of the same blood"). Second, in societies dominated by the conjugal family, it refers to
"kindred" (an egocentric network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group) who do
not belong to the conjugal family. These types refer to ideal or normative structures found in
particular societies. Any society will exhibit some variation in the actual composition and
conception of families.

4. Blended family
The term blended family or stepfamily describes families with mixed parents: one or both
parents remarried, bringing children of the former family into the new family.[15] Also in
sociology, particularly in the works of social psychologist Michael Lamb,[16] traditional family
refers to "a middleclass family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married
to each other and raising their biological children," and nontraditional to exceptions from this
rule. Most of the US households are now non-traditional under this definition.[17]
In terms of communication patterns in families, there are a certain set of beliefs within
the family that reflect how its members should communicate and interact. These family
communication patterns arise from two underlying sets of beliefs. One being conversation
orientation (the degree to which the importance of communication is valued) and two,
conformity orientation (the degree to which families should emphasize similarities or differences
regarding attitudes, beliefs, and values)

D.History of the family

Social Darwinists
Early scholars of family history applied Darwin's biological theory of evolution in their theory of
evolution of family systems.[20] American anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan published Ancient
Society in 1877 based on his theory of the three stages of human progress from Savagery through
Barbarism to Civilization.[21] Morgan's book was the "inspiration for Friedrich Engels' book" The
Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State published in 1884.[22]
Engels expanded Morgan's hypothesis that economical factors caused the transformation of
primitive community into a class-divided society.[23] Engels' theory of resource control, and later
that of Karl Marx, was used to explain the cause and effect of change in family structure and
function. The popularity of this theory was largely unmatched until the 1980s, when other
sociological theories, most notably structural functionalism, gained acceptance.

The nuclear family in industrial society

Family arrangements in the United States have become more diverse with no particular
household arrangement representing half of the United States population.[24]
Contemporary society generally views the family as a haven from the world, supplying absolute
fulfillment. Zinn and Eitzen discuss the image of the "family as haven [...] a place of intimacy,
love and trust where individuals may escape the competition of dehumanizing forces in modern
society".[25] During industrialization, "[t]he family as a repository of warmth and tenderness

(embodied by the mother) stands in opposition to the competitive and aggressive world of
commerce (embodied by the father). The family's task was to protect against the outside
world."[26] However, Zinn and Eitzen note, "The protective image of the family has waned in
recent years as the ideals of family fulfillment have taken shape. Today, the family is more
compensatory than protective. It supplies what is vitally needed but missing in other social
"The popular wisdom", according to Zinn and Eitzen, sees the family structures of the past as
superior to those today, and families as more stable and happier at a time when they did not have
to contend with problems such as illegitimate children and divorce. They respond to this, saying,
"there is no golden age of the family gleaming at us in the far back historical past."[28] "Desertion
by spouses, illegitimate children, and other conditions that are considered characteristics of
modern times existed in the past as well."[29]

The postmodern family

Percentage of births to unmarried women, selected countries, 1980 and 2007[30]

Others argue that whether or not one views the family as "declining" depends on one's definition
of "family". Married couples have dropped below half of all American households. This drop is
shocking from traditional forms of the family system. Only a fifth of households were following
traditional ways of having married couples raising a family together.[31] In the Western World,
marriages are no longer arranged for economic, social or political gain, and children are no
longer expected to contribute to family income. Instead, people choose mates based on love. This
increased role of love indicates a societal shift toward favoring emotional fulfilment and
relationships within a family, and this shift necessarily weakens the institution of the family.[32]
Margaret Mead considers the family as a main safeguard to continuing human progress.
Observing, "Human beings have learned, laboriously, to be human", she adds: "we hold our
present form of humanity on trust, [and] it is possible to lose it" ... "It is not without significance
that the most successful large-scale abrogations of the family have occurred not among simple

savages, living close to the subsistence edge, but among great nations and strong empires, the
resources of which were ample, the populations huge, and the power almost unlimited"[33]

Oedipal family model and fascism

The model, common in the western societies, of the family triangle, husband-wife-children
isolated from the outside, is also called the oedipal model of the family, and it is a form of
patriarchal family. Many philosophers and psychiatrists have analyzed such a model. In such a
family, they argue, the young develop in a perverse relationship, wherein they learn to love the
same person who beats and oppresses them. They believe that young children grow up and
develop loving a person who is oppressing them physically or mentally, and that these children
are not taught in a way that will raise affectionate children.[34] Such philosophers claim that the
family therefore constitutes the first cell of the fascist society, as the children will carry this
attitude of love for oppressive figures in their adult life.[35][36] They claim that fathers torment
their sons.[37][38] Deleuze and Guattari, in their analysis of the dynamics at work within a family,
"track down all varieties of fascism, from the enormous ones that surround and crush us to the
petty ones that constitute the tyrannical bitterness of our everyday lives".[35]
As it has been explained by Deleuze, Guattari and Foucault, as well as other philosophers and
psychiatrists such as Laing and Reich, the patriarchal-family conceived in the West tradition
serves the purpose of perpetuating a propertarian and authoritarian society.[39] The child grows
according to the oedipal model, which is typical of the structure of capitalist societies,[10][11] and
he becomes in turn owner of submissive children and protector of the woman.[38][40][41][42][43]
As the young undergoes physical and psychological repression from someone for whom they
develop love, they develop a loving attitude towards authority figures. They will bring such
attitude in their adult life, when they will desire social repression and will form docile subjects
for society.[39] Michel Foucault, in his systematic study of sexuality, argued that rather than being
merely repressed, the desires of the individual are efficiently mobilized and used,[35] to control
the individual, alter interpersonal relationships and control the masses. Foucault believed
organized religion, through moral prohibitions, and economic powers, through advertising, make
use of unconscious sex drives. Dominating desire, they dominate individuals.[44] According to the
analysis of Michel Foucault, in the west:
the [conjugal] family organization, precisely to the extent that it was insular and heteromorphous
with respect to the other power mechanisms, was used to support the great "maneuvers"
employed for the Malthusian control of the birthrate, for the populationist incitements, for the
medicalization of sex and the psychiatrization of its nongenital forms.
Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality vol I, chap. IV, sect. Method, rule 3, p. 99

Domestic violence
Main article: Domestic violence

Further information: Forced marriage and Child marriage

Domestic violence (DV) is violence that happens within the family. The legal and social
understanding of the concept of DV differs by culture. The definition of the term "domestic
violence" varies, depending on the context in which it is used.[45] It may be defined differently in
medical, legal, political or social contexts. The definitions have varied over time, and vary in
different parts of the world.
The Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence
states that:[46]
" domestic violence shall mean all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic
violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current
spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same
residence with the victim".
Forced and child marriages are practiced in certain regions of the world, particularly in Asia and
Africa, and these types of marriages are associated with a high rate of DV.[47][48][49][50]

Family violence
Family violence is a broader definition, often used to include child abuse, elder abuse, and other
violent acts between family members.[51]
Child abuse is defined by the WHO as:[52]
"Child maltreatment, sometimes referred to as child abuse and neglect, includes all forms
of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that
results in actual or potential harm to the childs health, development or dignity. Within
this broad definition, five subtypes can be distinguished physical abuse; sexual abuse;
neglect and negligent treatment; emotional abuse; and exploitation."
Elder abuse is, according to the WHO: "a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action,
occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or
distress to an older person".[53]
Parental abuse of children (child abuse)
Main article: Parental abuse of children
Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children.[54]
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department
for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of
commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or
threat of harm to a child.[55] Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations,

schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse:
neglect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.

Parental abuse by children

Main article: Parental abuse by children
Abuse of parents by their children is a common but under reported and under researched subject.
Parents are quite often subject to levels of childhood aggression in excess of normal childhood
aggressive outbursts, typically in the form of verbal or physical abuse. Parents feel a sense of
shame and humiliation to have that problem, so they rarely seek help and there is usually little or
no help available anyway.[56][57]
Elder abuse
Main article: Elder abuse
Elder abuse is "a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any
relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older
person."[58] This definition has been adopted by the World Health Organization from a definition
put forward by Action on Elder Abuse in the UK. Laws protecting the elderly from abuse are
similar to, and related to, laws protecting dependent adults from abuse.
The core element to the harm of elder abuse is the "expectation of trust" of the older person
toward their abuser. Thus, it includes harms by people the older person knows or with whom
they have a relationship, such as a spouse, partner or family member, a friend or neighbor, or
people that the older person relies on for services. Many forms of elder abuse are recognized as
types of domestic violence or family violence.


Mennonite siblings, Montana 1937

Natalism is the belief that human reproduction is the basis for individual existence, and therefore
promotes having large families. Many religions, e.g., Islam, Christianity and Judaism,[59]
encourage their followers to procreate and have many children, however many of them also
propound stewardship and responsibility to care for the environment and society. In recent times,
however, there has been an increasing amount of family planning and a following decrease in the
total fertility rate in many parts of the world, in part due to improvements in health care,
concerns of overpopulation, decreasing need for manual labor and increasing cost of raising a
child as workers need to be more skilled. Many countries with population decline offer
incentives for people to have large families as a means of national efforts to reverse declining

E.INDONESIAN Family life

Family is very important in Indonesia and it is very common for extended families that include
grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins to all live together in one place. Although this is true
both in the cities and in the rural areas of Indonesia, it is becoming less common in city life.
Generally speaking, most Indonesian families are close and work hard to help each other. People
have a responsibility to their families and especially to their elders. Indonesians are expected to
respect the experience of their elders and follow their advice. They are also expected to look after
their parents in old age .
Children learn from an early age how to help around the home. In rural areas they may work on
farms when they are not at school. In the cities they may try to find a job, such as selling clothes
at the market.

Mangan ora mangan sing penting kumpul

It is the most popular Javanese technical it mean that ,the most important thing for they are
togetherness ,everything will they do together ,and everything will be beautiful with together.

Rights and Responsibilities/Obligations

1. Between husband and wife
The Marriage Law adopts the principle of equality between husband and wife in the family
and in society. Each of them has equal legal rights in conducting legal actions.
Although the husband is the head of the family while the wife is responsible for the
household ("ibu rumah tangga"), equality is the basis of the relationship, with love respect and
faithfulness to each other and continuous physical as well as moral support.

While the wife has the responsibility to take care of the household to the best of her abilities,
the husband has the responsibility to protect his wife and support her to the best of his abilities.
2. Between parents and children
A legal child is a child born in wedlock (from parents who are legally married). A child born
out of wedlock shall have civil law relation only with his/her mother and the family of the
Both parents shall be responsible for the welfare and education of their children. Such
responsibility shall continue to be in force (i) until the children are married, or will be able to
support themselves and (ii) notwithstanding the parents. divorce

F.What things that should the parents do for keep their family relationship
1.Appreciate the every family opinion
Maby it look like simple things but this is can keep the peace of the family member, because
when the member of family give their opinion then they get positive respect from each other
they will feel that all family hear him.

2.Finish the conflict quickly

It mean that the conflict will not be so long ,and maby it will easier to finished.

3.Give the children support ,directive full attention

When their children get enough support and attention from their parents rhey will feel so happy
in their live.

Togetherness is one of the key for the happiness